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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan].
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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To study the molecular epidemiological characteristics of Salmonella in animal source foods in Hunan.
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Transcriptome profiling of pyrethroid resistant and susceptible mosquitoes in the malaria vector, Anopheles sinensis.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in China and other Southeast Asian countries, and it is becoming increasingly resistant to the insecticides used for agriculture, net impregnation, and indoor residual spray. Very limited genomic information on this species is available, which has hindered the development of new tools for resistance surveillance and vector control. We used the 454 GS FLX system and generated expressed sequence tag (EST) databases of various life stages of An. sinensis, and we determined the transcriptional differences between deltamethrin resistant and susceptible mosquitoes.
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[Identification and target prediction of conserved microRNAs in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, a woody plant growing in the desert, plays a vital role in vegetation maintaining and restoration in the arid region in northwest China. The plant exhibits an extremely high tolerance to abiotic stress such as drought and freezing stresses, and it has been used as an ideal model for abiotic stress tolerance research in trees. MicroRNA (miRNA) is a class of approximately 21nt endogenous non-protein-coding small RNA, which plays an important role in plant growth, development and responses to environmental stresses. By now, a large number of miRNAs have been reported in many plant species, but no studies describing A.mongolicus miRNA were published. In the present study, the types, expression levels, and putative target genes of conserved miRNAs in seedlings of A. mongolicus were analyzed using small RNA deep sequencing technology and bioinformatics methods. Nineteen conserved miRNAs, which belong to 10 miRNA families, were identified, with abundance ranging from 55 to 1920269 reads. Target prediction analysis determined the target genes of 14 conserved miRNAs. The functional classification analysis indicated that the conserved miRNAs participate in the development and environmental response by regulating the biological processes including the transcription regulation, hormone signal transduction, metabolisms and stress resistance.
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Genetic diversity and population structure of Plasmodium vivax in Central China.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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In Central China the declining incidence of Plasmodium vivax has been interrupted by epidemic expansions and imported cases. The impact of these changes on the local parasite population, and concurrent risks of future resurgence, was assessed.
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Distribution of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and the adjacent East China Sea: implication of transport, sources and trends.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Thirty-eight surface sediments and two sediment cores were collected from Yangtze River Estuary (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS) to study the distribution patterns, origins, potential transport and burden of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marginal sea. Residues of OCPs ranged from 0.190 to 5.17 ng g(-1) dry weight with a distinct "band type" pattern under the control of Yangtze River inputs and ECS circulation system. Differences in transmission media and redox conditions in situ respectively resulted in the divergent distributions of ?/?-HCH and DDD/DDE. The compositional pattern analysis implied that OCPs in the inner shelf of ECS were derived from both "weathered" and fresh sources, whereas those in the outer shelf of ECS had undergone high metabolism. Concurrent with the land-sea migration, vertical profiles of sediment cores showed increasing trends or rebound since the 1990s, characteristic of two evident "jumps" of DDE+DDD/DDT and DDT/DDE ratios. Moreover, the primary distribution pattern founded for HCHs and the considerable mass inventories calculated (6.20 metric tones for OCPs) together suggested that the contaminated sediments in the studied area to be a potential source of OCPs to the global ocean.
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Label-free cell phenotypic profiling decodes the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium channel.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Current technologies for studying ion channels are fundamentally limited because of their inability to functionally link ion channel activity to cellular pathways. Herein, we report the use of label-free cell phenotypic profiling to decode the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium ion channel (KATP) in HepG2C3A, a hepatocellular carcinoma cell line. Label-free cell phenotypic agonist profiling showed that pinacidil triggered characteristically similar dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) signals in A431, A549, HT29 and HepG2C3A, but not in HepG2 cells. Reverse transcriptase PCR, RNAi knockdown, and KATP blocker profiling showed that the pinacidil DMR is due to the activation of SUR2/Kir6.2 KATP channels in HepG2C3A cells. Kinase inhibition and RNAi knockdown showed that the pinacidil activated KATP channels trigger signaling through Rho kinase and Janus kinase-3, and cause actin remodeling. The results are the first demonstration of a label-free methodology to characterize the composition and signaling of an endogenous ATP-sensitive potassium ion channel.
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The glutathione peroxidase gene family in Thellungiella salsuginea: genome-wide identification, classification, and gene and protein expression analysis under stress conditions.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Glutathione peroxidases (GPX) catalyze the reduction of H2O2 or organic hydroperoxides to water or corresponding alcohols using reduced glutathione, which plays an essential role in ROS (reactive oxygen species) homeostasis and stress signaling. Thellungiella salsuginea (Eutrema salsugineum), a relative of Arabidopsis thaliana, displays an extremely high level of tolerance to salt, drought, cold and oxidative stresses. The enzymatic antioxidant systems may contribute to the stress tolerance of T. salsuginea. In the present study, we aimed at understanding the roles of the antioxidant enzymes in T. salsuginea by focusing on the GPX family. We identified the eight GPX genes in T. salsuginea, and the structure of the N-terminal domains indicated their putative chloroplastic, mitochondrial and cytoplasmic location. The exon-intron organization of these genes exhibited a conserved pattern among plant GPX genes. Multiple environmental stresses and hormone response related cis-acting elements were predicted in the promoters of TsGPX genes. The gene and protein expression profiles of TsGPXs in response to high level of salinity and osmotic stresses, in leaves and roots of T. salsuginea were investigated using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting analysis. Our result showed that different members of the GPX gene family were coordinately regulated under specific environmental stress conditions, and supported the important roles of TsGPXs in salt and drought stress response in T. salsuginea.
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Malaria in overseas labourers returning to China: an analysis of imported malaria in Jiangsu Province, 2001-2011.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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While great success in malaria control has been achieved in China, imported malaria has become a major challenge in the context of malaria elimination. This retrospective study describes the epidemiological profile of imported malaria and identifies the at-risk population during the period of 2001-2011 in Jiangsu Province.
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Genome sequence of Anopheles sinensis provides insight into genetics basis of mosquito competence for malaria parasites.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Anopheles sinensis is an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, which is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria throughout Asia, and particularly in China, Korea, and Japan.
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Recombinant scorpine produced using SUMO fusion partner in Escherichia coli has the activities against clinically isolated bacteria and inhibits the Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+-NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future.
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A label-free optical biosensor with microfluidics identifies an intracellular signalling wave mediated through the ?(2)-adrenergic receptor.
Integr Biol (Camb)
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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The canonical model of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signalling states that it is solely initiated at the cell surface. In recent years, a handful of evidence has started emerging from high-resolution molecular assays that the internalized receptors can mediate the third wave of signalling, besides G protein- and ?-arrestin-mediated signalling both initiating at the cell surface. However, little is known about the functional consequences of distinct waves of GPCR signalling, in particular, at the whole cell system level. We here report the development of label-free biosensor antagonist reverse assays and their use to differentiate the signalling waves of an endogenous ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2-AR) in A431 cells. Results showed that the persistent agonist treatment activated the ?2-ARs, leading to a long-term sustained dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) signal, a whole cell phenotypic response. Under the persistent treatment scheme in microplates, a panel of known ?-blockers all dose-dependently and completely reversed the DMR signal of epinephrine at a relatively low dose (10 nM), except for sotalol which partially reversed the DMR. Under the perfusion conditions with microfluidics, the subsequent perfusion with sotalol only reversed the DMR induced by epinephrine or isoproterenol at 10 nM, but not at 10 ?M. Furthermore, the degree of the DMR reversion by sotalol was found to be in an opposite relation with the duration of the initial agonist treatment. Together, these results suggest that the hydrophilic antagonist sotalol is constrained outside the cells throughout the assays, and the early signalling wave initiated at the cell surface dominates the DMR induced by epinephrine or isoproterenol at relatively low doses, while a secondary and late signalling wave is initiated once the receptors are internalized and contributes partially to the long-term sustainability of the DMR of epinephrine or isoproterenol at high doses.
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Spatiotemporal patterns and essential role of MSK1 expression after rat spinal cord injury.
Neurochem. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Mitogen and stress activated protein kinase (MSK1) protein was initially identified as a particularly interesting protein of mitogen activated protein kinase. It was reported to enhance Bads phosphorylation to protect cell death, suggesting that MSK1 represents a new type of anti-cell death gene. Moreover, recent study has shown that MSK1 is involved in negative feedback pathways that are crucial to prevent uncontrolled inflammation. However, its function and expression in the central nervous system lesion are not been understood very well. In this study, we performed an acute spinal cord injury (SCI) model in adult rats and studied the dynamic changes of MSK1 expression in spinal cord. Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSK1 was present in normal spinal cord. It gradually decreased, reached a peak at 3 days after SCI, and then increased during the following days. Immunofluorescence double labeling revealed that MSK1 was co-expressed with NeuN and GFAP, respectively. Interesting, after injury, MSK1 expression was decreased predominantly in astrocytes, which highly expressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen, a marker for proliferating cells. In conclusion, this is the first description of MSK1 expression in spinal cord. Our data suggested that MSK1 might play important roles in CNS pathophysiology after SCI.
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Label-free cell phenotypic assessment of the biased agonism and efficacy of agonists at the endogenous muscarinic M3 receptors.
J Pharmacol Toxicol Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Efficacy describes the property of a ligand that enables the receptor to change its behavior towards the host cell, while biased agonism defines the ability of a ligand to differentially activate some of the vectorial pathways over others mediated through the receptor. However, little is known about the molecular basis defining the efficacy of ligands at G protein-coupled receptors. Here we characterize the biased agonism and cell phenotypic efficacy of seven agonists at the endogenous muscarinic M3 receptors in six different cell lines including HT-29, PC-3, HeLa, SF268, CCRF-CEM and HCT-15 cells.
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Blood stage of Plasmodium vivax in central China is still susceptible to chloroquine plus primaquine combination therapy.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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In central China, Plasmodium vivax accounts for all of the native reported cases of malaria. Chloroquine (CQ) plus primaquine (PQ) have been used for more than 60 years as the frontline drugs, but the risk of treatment failure remains unknown. To measure the effectiveness and safety of CQ-PQ among vivax malaria patients, a total of 39 subjects with monoinfection vivax malaria was enrolled in a study from 2008 to 2009. There were no recrudescence or danger signs observed within the 28-day follow-up period, showing that blood stage of P. vivax isolates from central China is still susceptible to CQ plus PQ combination therapy. However, the antirelapse efficacy of PQ is difficult to assess because of the high rate of loss to follow-up after 28 days; also, parasites persisted in a single case at 3 days post-antimalarial drug treatment, indicating that continuous annual monitoring is needed in central China.
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Pressure-induced structural phase transition and equation of state of LiTaO3.
J Phys Condens Matter
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2013
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Using in situ high-pressure x-ray diffraction and ab initio techniques, a high-pressure structure of LiTaO3 has been determined to be an orthorhombic phase with the space group Pnma. At ambient temperature, the transition pressure from the R3c phase (the ordinary phase at ambient pressure and temperature) to the Pnma phase is about 33.0 GPa and the phase transition is reversible. This phase transition can be reproduced qualitatively by ab initio calculations, but with a lower transition pressure of 19.9 GPa. The equation of state of LiTaO3 is also reported.
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The Three Catecholics Benserazide, Catechol and Pyrogallol are GPR35 Agonists.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Nearly 1% of all clinically used drugs are catecholics, a family of catechol-containing compounds. Using label-free dynamic mass redistribution and Tango ?-arrestin translocation assays, we show that several catecholics, including benserazide, catechol, 3-methoxycatechol, pyrogallol, (+)-taxifolin and fenoldopam, display agonistic activity against GPR35.
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Susceptibility of Anopheles sinensis to Plasmodium vivax in malarial outbreak areas of central China.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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BACKGROUND: Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles anthropophagus, Anopheles minimus and Anopheles dirus are the major vectors of malaria transmission in China. Anopheles sinensis is considered a secondary vector due to its relatively low malaria-transmission ability. However, in 2005, an outbreak of over 40,000 Plasmodium vivax malaria cases was reported in areas where Anopheles sinensis was the only major vector. Therefore, it is necessary to reassess the malaria transmission ability of this vector species in China. METHODS: Laboratory colonies of An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus, and first-generation progeny (F1) of An. sinensis that had been collected in central China, were infected by direct membrane feeding assay with mono-vivax gametocyte-containing blood collected from vivax-infected patients. The mosquitoes were kept for 7 to 14 days post-blood feeding to allow parasites to develop into oocysts and sporozoites. Infectivity was measured by dissecting midguts and salivary glands. The presence of oocysts and sporozoites was determined by microscopy at 7 and 14 days post-blood feeding, and the numbers of gametocytes and asexual parasites, as well as mosquito parasite infections, were determined. RESULTS: The positive oocyst and sporozoite feed rates of the 142 pairs of lab-colony An. sinensis and An. anthropophagus were not significantly different, and the same results were found with the 10 pairs of laboratory and F1 An. sinensis. An. sinensis had more oocysts/midgut at 7 days post-feeding than An. anthropophagus, but the gametocytemia, asexual parasitemia, and ratio of macrogametocytes to microgametocytes, did not correlate with either oocyst or sporozoite infection. However, in the oocyst-positive mosquitoes, there was a correlation between gametocytemia and the average oocyst number/midgut. CONCLUSIONS: The susceptibility of An. sinensis (both laboratory and F1) to P. vivax-infected blood is similar to Anopheles anthropophagus, when evaluated by membrane feeding assay under laboratory conditions. In recent years, in central China, the vivax malaria transmission ability of An. sinensis has probably been underestimated. Further studies of this species in other regions are needed. An. sinensis could also be a good candidate vector for evaluating candidate malaria transmission-blocking vaccines (TBV).
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Enhanced lithium storage performances of hierarchical hollow MoS? nanoparticles assembled from nanosheets.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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MoS(2), because of its layered structure and high theoretical capacity, has been regarded as a potential candidate for electrode materials in lithium secondary batteries. But it suffers from the poor cycling stability and low rate capability. Here, hierarchical hollow nanoparticles of MoS(2) nanosheets with an increased interlayer distance are synthesized by a simple solvothermal reaction at a low temperature. The formation of hierarchical hollow nanoparticles is based on the intermediate, K(2)NaMoO(3)F(3), as a self-sacrificed template. These hollow nanoparticles exhibit a reversible capacity of 902 mA h g(-1) at 100 mA g(-1) after 80 cycles, much higher than the solid counterpart. At a current density of 1000 mA g(-1), the reversible capacity of the hierarchical hollow nanoparticles could be still maintained at 780 mAh g(-1). The enhanced lithium storage performances of the hierarchical hollow nanoparticles in reversible capacities, cycling stability and rate performances can be attributed to their hierarchical surface, hollow structure feature and increased layer distance of S-Mo-S. Hierarchical hollow nanoparticles as an ensemble of these features, could be applied to other electrode materials for the superior electrochemical performance.
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Status of metal accumulation in farmland soils across China: from distribution to risk assessment.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Increasing metal pollution has drawn broad public attention in China due to severe environmental quality deterioration. However, so far, there has been no study to survey metal accumulation in Chinese farmland soil at the national scale. In this study, we determined 11 metals in farmland soils across the Mainland China. Our results indicated the concentrations of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu (10.1-184.2, 0.082-1.31, 20.2-321.9, 8.2-515.9 mg/kg, respectively) were elevated above their reference values. Moreover, these metals followed a similar geochemical distribution pattern. The accumulation of Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu in soils may be associated with human activities for soil fertility. Cadmium had the highest pollution index (PI) of 5.28, and the average hazard quotients (HQs) for all the metals were below 1. Hence, except for Cd, the metals in Chinese arable soils are comparatively safe. Results from this study may provide valuable information for agricultural soil management in China.
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases related health resources allocation in hunan province of china.
Iran. J. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Information about Chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD)-related health resources allocation in China is very limited. The aim of the study was to explore the distribution of COPD-related health resources allocation among different levels public hospitals (PHs) in Hunan Province of central south China.
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Discovery of 2-(4-methylfuran-2(5H)-ylidene)malononitrile and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as G protein-coupled receptor 35 (GPR35) agonists.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2011
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Screening with dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays in a native cell line HT-29 led to identification of two novel series of chemical compounds, 2-(4-methylfuran-2(5H)-ylidene)malononitrile and thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives, as GPR35 agonists. Of these, 2-(3-cyano-5-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-4,5-dimethylfuran-2(5H)-ylidene)malononitrile (YE120) and 6-bromo-3-methylthieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid (YE210) were found to be the two most potent GPR35 agonists with an EC(50) of 32.5 ± 1.7 nM and 63.7 ± 4.1 nM, respectively. Both agonists exhibited better potency than that of zaprinast, a known GPR35 agonist. DMR antagonist assays, knockdown of GPR35 with interference RNA, receptor internalization assays, and Tango ?-arrestin translocation assays confirmed that the agonist activity of these ligands is specific to GPR35. The present study provides novel chemical series as a starting point for further investigations of GPR35 biology and pharmacology.
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[Effects of aconite root on energy metabolism and expression of related genes in rats].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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To study the influence of aconite root, a Chinese medicinal herb with hot property, on energy metabolism and gene expression spectrum, and to analyze the possible mechanism of it effect.
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Simultaneous determination of cimicifugoside H-2, cimicifugoside H-1, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, cimigenol xyloside and 25-O-acetylcimigenoside in beagle dog plasma by LC-MS/MS.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2011
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A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of five constituents (cimicifugoside H-2, cimicifugoside H-1, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, cimigenol xyloside and 25-O-acetylcimigenoside) of Cimicifuga foetida L. in beagle dog plasma. The quantitation was performed on a LC-MS/MS with negative electrospray ionization in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. A gradient mobile phase composed of methanol and water was used at a flow rate of 0.4 ml/min. All the analytes and internal standard (20 (S)-ginsenoside Rg3) were isolated from plasma samples by a liquid-liquid extraction method. The average extraction recoveries were 73-74% for cimicifugoside H-2, 89-94% for cimicifugoside H-1, 73-80% for 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, 89-91% for cimigenol xyloside, 87-96% for 25-O-acetylcimigenoside, respectively. The method showed good linearity and no endogenous material interfered with all the five compounds and I.S. peaks. The lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) of all analytes was 0.5 ng/ml. The intra- and inter-day precision of analysis was less than 15% for each analyte at concentrations of 2.0, 50, 500 ng/ml, and the accuracy ranged from 85.8% to 107%. This method was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic properties of cimicifugoside H-2, cimicifugoside H-1, 23-epi-26-deoxyactein, cimigenol xyloside and 25-O-acetylcimigenoside after oral administration.
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Enantiomeric resolution of five chiral pesticides on a Chiralpak IB-H column by SFC.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2011
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The enantiomeric separations of five chiral pesticides, diclofopmethyl, 1; benalaxy, 2; acetofenate, 3; myclobutanil, 4; and difenoconazole, 5, were conducted on a Chiralpak IB-H column by a packed-column supercritical fluid chromatography (p-SFC). All compounds, except difenoconazole and myclobutanil, were well resolved within 10 min. As the mobile phase polarity decreased through changing the percentage and the type of alcohol modifiers in the supercritical carbon dioxide (CO(2)), the retention time, the separation factors, and the resolution increased. However, based on the retention time and the resolution, the optimized separations were obtained with the mobile phase containing 10% 2-propanol for diclofop-methyl 1; benalaxy, 2; myclobutanil, 4; difenoconazole, 5; and containing 3% 2-propanol for acetofenate, 3. The optimized separation temperature was at 35°C under the supercritical fluid condition. The ?-? interactions and the hydrogen bonding interactions between Chiralpak IB-H CSP and the analytes might be the main chiral discriminations on enantioseparation of these five pesticides.
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Tyrphostin analogs are GPR35 agonists.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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GPR35 is an orphan G protein-coupled receptor that is not well-characterized. Here we employ dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays to discover new GPR35 agonists. DMR assays identified tyrphostin analogs as GPR35 agonists, which were confirmed with receptor internalization, Tango ?-arrestin translocation, and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation assays. These agonists provide pharmacological tools to study the biology and function of GPR35.
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Molecular test for vivax malaria with loop-mediated isothermal amplification method in central China.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Vivax malaria has the highest incidence in central China. High-throughput and cost-effective testing methods are essential for vivax malaria diagnosis in this area. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is an established nucleic acid amplification method, which provides a promising platform for the molecular detection of malaria parasites in development countries. This study was performed to compare the LAMP method, the nested PCR-based method, and microscopic examinations in diagnosing vivax malaria. LAMP detected vivax malaria parasites in 160 of 164 microscopically positive samples (sensitivity, 97.6%), whereas nested PCR detected Plasmodium vivax in 162 of 164 samples (sensitivity, 98.8%). No false-positive results were obtained by LAMP or nested PCR among fever-positive and healthy samples. The sensitivities and specificities of the two molecular tests were consistently high. In addition, the reproducibility of the LAMP assays using water bath, which reduced the cost substantially. LAMP method is an accurate, rapid, simple, and cost-effective method that may be useful for diagnosis in field diagnoses instead of nested PCR. This method is feasible to diagnose vivax malaria parasite in endemic areas of central China.
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GPCRs regulate the assembly of a multienzyme complex for purine biosynthesis.
Nat. Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2011
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G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) transmit exogenous signals to the nucleus, promoting a myriad of biological responses via multiple signaling pathways in both healthy and cancerous cells. However, little is known about the response of cytosolic metabolic pathways to GPCR-mediated signaling. Here we applied fluorescent live-cell imaging and label-free dynamic mass redistribution assays to study whether purine metabolism is associated with GPCR signaling. Through a library screen of GPCR ligands in conjunction with live-cell imaging of a metabolic multienzyme complex for de novo purine biosynthesis, the purinosome, we demonstrated that the activation of endogenous G?(i)-coupled receptors correlates with purinosome assembly and disassembly in native HeLa cells. Given the implications of GPCRs in mitogenic signaling and of the purinosome in controlling metabolic flux via de novo purine biosynthesis, we hypothesize that regulation of purinosome assembly and disassembly may be one of the downstream events of mitogenic GPCR signaling in human cancer cells.
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A combination of electrokinetics and Pd/Fe PRB for the remediation of pentachlorophenol-contaminated soil.
J. Contam. Hydrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2011
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Electrokinetic (EK) remediation of pentachlorophenol (PCP)-contaminated soil is difficult because PCP dissociates at different pH values along soil column and shows different transport behaviors near anode and cathode. In the present study, a permeable reactive barrier (PRB) filled with reactive Pd/Fe particles was installed between anode and cathode to reach the dechlorination of PCP during its EK movement. When PRB was installed at the position of 0.3 (normalized distance from anode), PCP in the section from anode to PRB could transport through PRB, while PCP in the section from cathode to PRB was accumulated near PRB. PCP was hardly dechlorinated by PRB wherein high pH was reached. When PRB was installed at the position of 0.5 and the pH in the PRB was decreased by periodical injection of HAc, 49% of PCP was removed, and 22.9% was recovered as phenol which was mostly collected in catholyte. The mechanism of PCP removal was proposed as the EK movement of PCP into the PRB compartment, the complete dechlorination of PCP to phenol by Pd/Fe in the PRB compartment, and the subsequent removal of phenol by electroosmosis. This study proved that the combination of electrokinetics and Pd/Fe PRB was effective for the remediation of PCP-contaminated soil.
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Polychlorinated biphenyls in surface sediments of Yueqing Bay, Xiangshan Bay, and Sanmen Bay in East China Sea.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2011
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The spatial distribution and source of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in 30 surface sediments of Yueqing Bay, Xiangshan Bay, and Sanmen Bay in Eastern China were analysed. Total concentrations of PCBs ranged from 9.33 to 19.60 ng g(-1) dry weight for all the sampling stations. The observed PCB levels were lower than those in areas of high urbanisation or contamination in the bay. Low-chlorinated PCBs, dominated by tri-PCB, were identified as the prevalent contaminate of surface sediments, and the top three PCB congeners were lighter chlorinated congeners (PCB 8, PCB 18 and PCB 28). These results were in agreement with the fact that tri-PCB compounds are the dominant contaminants in China. The result of the principal component analysis revealed that all samples were similar in composition to Aroclor 1242, suggesting they might originate from electrical capacitors and transformers. The levels of PCBs were significantly correlated with the total organic carbon in the sediments.
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A novel method for the genome-wide high resolution analysis of DNA damage.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2010
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DNA damage occurs via endogenous and exogenous genotoxic agents and compromises a genomes integrity. Knowing where damage occurs within a genome is crucial to understanding the repair mechanisms which protect this integrity. This paper describes a new development based on microarray technology which uses ultraviolet light induced DNA damage as a paradigm to determine the position and frequency of DNA damage and its subsequent repair throughout the entire yeast genome.
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Reduction of nitrobenzene in groundwater by iron nanoparticles immobilized in PEG/nylon membrane.
J. Contam. Hydrol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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The highly reactive iron nanoparticles (NPs) immobilized in nylon membrane were synthesized and characterized, and the reduction of nitrobenzene (NB) in groundwater by the NPs was investigated. Environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) images showed that the NPs distributed homogeneously on the membrane surface without agglomeration. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses revealed that the NPs immobilized in membrane were mainly composed of Fe-oxides rather than zero-valent iron. Thermogravimetric (TG) analysis suggested that the weight percentage of the immobilized NPs and the oxygen introduced to the reacted sample after 80min reaction were about 18.5% and 13%, respectively. Moreover, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis further demonstrated the changes on the membrane surface after thermal grafting, NPs immobilizing and reacting for 80min. Using the reactive NPs immobilized in nylon membrane, NB in groundwater was rapidly and quantitatively decreased by 68.9% just in the first 20min, the Fe(2+) associated with the iron NPs immobilized in PEG/nylon66 membrane was mainly responsible for this reduction. The reaction appeared to follow pseudo-first-order kinetics and the rate constants increased upon decreasing the pH value. The samples we prepared exhibited good corrosion resistance for humic acid (HA) but had a short-term performance for NB degradation. More so, the groundwater chemistry had a negative influence on the reactivity of membrane immobilized NPs.
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Molecular ecology of pyrethroid knockdown resistance in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2010
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Pyrethroid insecticides have been extensively used in China and worldwide for public health pest control. Accurate resistance monitoring is essential to guide the rational use of insecticides and resistance management. Here we examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel gene, which confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in Culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes in China. The sequence analysis of the para-sodium channel gene identified L1014F and L1014S mutations. We developed and validated allele-specific PCR and the real-time TaqMan methods for resistance diagnosis. The real-time TaqMan method is more superior to the allele-specific PCR method as evidenced by higher amplification rate and better sensitivity and specificity. Significant positive correlation between kdr allele frequency and bioassay-based resistance phenotype demonstrates that the frequency of L1014F and L1014S mutations in the kdr gene can be used as a molecular marker for deltamethrin resistance monitoring in natural Cx. pipiens pallens populations in the East China region. The laboratory selection experiment found that L1014F mutation frequency, but not L1014S mutation, responded to deltamethrin selection, suggesting that the L1014F mutation is the key mutation conferring resistance to deltamethrin. High L1014F mutation frequency detected in six populations of Cx. pipens pallens suggests high prevalence of pyrethroid resistance in Eastern China, calling for further surveys to map the resistance in China and for investigating alternative mosquito control strategies.
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Residues and enantiomeric profiling of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from Yueqing Bay and Sanmen Bay, East China Sea.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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The spatial distributions and chiral signals of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from Yueqing Bay and Sanmen Bay, East China Sea were investigated. The total OCPs concentrations ranged from 2.11 to 18.15 ng g(-1) dry weight for all the sampling stations. HCHs and DDTs were dominant, although trans-chlorodane/cis-chlorodane were also observed in some sites. The predominant beta-HCH and the alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH ratios indicated that the residues of HCHs in these places mainly originated from the historical usage of technical HCH. However, the ratios of (DDE+DDD)/DDT reflected a cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered DDTs. Based on ERL/ERM guidelines, p,p-DDT and SigmaDDT posed a small risk to the bottom-dwelling consumers, while p,p-DDD, p,p-DDE and Sigmachlorodane were not found at concentrations expected to adversely affect sediment biota. Enantiomeric analysis showed that the degradation of chiral OCPs was enantioselective, resulting in enrichment of (-)-enantiomers for alpha-HCH, o,p-DDT and o,p-DDD in all samples. These results implied that the sediment quality guidelines of chiral OCPs should be reassessed using concentrations of their individual enantiomers.
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Pilot-scale electrokinetic movement of HCB and Zn in real contaminated sediments enhanced with hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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This study deals with the efficiency of a pilot-scale electrokinetic (EK) treatment on real aged sediments contaminated with hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and Zn. A total of 0.5m(3) of sediments were treated under a constant voltage in a polyvinyl chloride reactor. The changes of sediment pH, electrical conductivity (EC), organic content (OC), the transport of contaminants in sediments and the consumption of electric energy were evaluated. After 100 d processing, sediment pH slightly increased compared with the initial values, particularly in the bottom layer close to cathodic section, while sediment EC in most sections significantly decreased. Sediment OC in all sections increased, which implied that hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HPCD) was successfully penetrated across sediments by electroosmosis. Significant movement of contaminants was observed across sediments with negligible removals. Both HCB and Zn generally moved from sections near anode and accumulated near cathode. Upon the completion of treatment, the electric energy consumption was calculated as 563 kWhm(-3). This pilot-scale EK test indicates that it is difficult to achieve great removal of hydrophobic organic compounds (HOCs), or HOCs and heavy metal mixed contaminants, by EK treatment in large scale with the use of HPCD.
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Mechanisms of composition change and toxic potentiation of chloramidophos emulsifiable concentrate during storage.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
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Storage instability is one of the serious problems that greatly restrict pesticide use. Routine checks on the composition and toxicity of 30% emulsifiable concentrates (EC) of chloramidophos (CP) during storage indicated that 78.6% of the active ingredient had decreased, whereas the anti-acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the formulation was potentiated by 3.5 times. To understand the mechanism for these changes, detailed knowledge of the products present and their effects on anti-AChE potential deserves attention. It was likely that the basis for these changes was methanol, the cosolvent of CP EC, because when the purified CP was stored in methanol at 50 degrees C for 2 weeks, CP drop and toxic potentiation similar to those observed in CP EC also appeared. The major products of the CP-methanol reaction mixture were isolated and identified by HPLC and GC-MS, respectively, and their inhibitory potentials against AChE and effectiveness as potentiators were assessed. Following redetermination of the main product (O,S-dimethyl-[(2,2,2)-trichloro-1-methoxyethyl]phosphoramidothioate (MCP)) and high anti-AChE material (methamidophos), which were preconfirmed in the reaction mixture in CP EC, it was successfully demonstrated that the majority of CP in the formulation had been transformed to a new stable compound, MCP. Meanwhile, formation of another product, methamidophos, resulted in toxic potentiation.
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Prevalence of drug resistance-associated gene mutations in plasmodium vivax in Central China.
Korean J. Parasitol.
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Resistance of Plasmodium spp. to anti-malarial drugs is the primary obstacle in the fight against malaria, and molecular markers for the drug resistance have been applied as an adjunct in the surveillance of the resistance. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of mutations in pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, pvdhfr, and pvdhps genes in temperate-zone P. vivax parasites from central China. A total of 26 isolates were selected, including 8 which were previously shown to have a lower susceptibility to chloroquine in vitro. For pvmdr1, pvcrt-o, and pvdhps genes, no resistance-conferring mutations were discovered. However, a highly prevalent (69.2%), single-point mutation (S117N) was found in pvdhfr gene. In addition, tandem repeat polymorphisms existed in pvdhfr and pvdhps genes, which warranted further studies in relation to the parasite resistance to antifolate drugs. The study further suggests that P. vivax populations in central China may still be relatively susceptible to chloroquine and sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine.
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Probing biochemical mechanisms of action of muscarinic M3 receptor antagonists with label-free whole cell assays.
Anal. Chem.
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Binding kinetics of drugs is increasingly recognized to be important for their in vivo efficacy and safety profiles. However, little is known about the effect of drug binding kinetics on receptor signaling in native cells. Here we used label-free whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays under persistent and duration-controlled stimulation conditions to investigate the influence of the binding kinetics of four antagonists on the signaling of endogenous muscarinic M3 receptor in native HT-29 cells. Results showed that DMR assays under different conditions differentiated the biochemical mechanisms of action of distinct M3 antagonists. When co-stimulated with acetylcholine, tiotropium, a relatively slow binding antagonist, was found to selectively block the late signaling of the receptor, suggesting that acetylcholine attains its binding equilibrium faster than tiotropium does, thereby still being able to initiate its rapid response until the antagonist draws up and fully blocks the signaling. Furthermore, DMR assays under microfluidics allowed estimation of the residence times of these antagonists acting at the receptor in native cells, which were found to be the determining factor for the blockage efficiency of M3 receptor signaling under duration-controlled conditions. This study demonstrates that DMR assays can be used to elucidate the functional consequence of kinetics-driven antagonist occupancy in native cells.
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Residues of organochlorine pesticides in water and suspended particulate matter from Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol
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Residual levels, distribution and possible sources of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in nine water column and suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples collected from Xiangshan Bay, East China Sea were investigated. Total OCPs concentrations in water column and SPM ranges from 2.88 to 34.72 ng/L and 2.47 to 29.94 ng/L, respectively, which exceed the US Environmental Protection Agency regulatory limits. Moreover, low ratio of ?-HCH/?-HCH and high ratios ?- and ?-HCH suggested the cocktail input pattern of fresh and weathered HCHs. Meanwhile, low ratio of (DDE + DDD)/DDT and high ratios p,p- and o,p-DDT reflected a "dicofol type DDT pollution" pattern.
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Cucurbitacin E inhibits breast tumor metastasis by suppressing cell migration and invasion.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
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Tumor metastasis is the main cause of cancer-related deaths of patients. Breast cancer is highly malignant with considerable metastatic potential, which urges the necessity for developing novel potential drug candidate to prevent tumor metastasis. Here, we report our finding with Cucurbitacin E (CuE, ?-elaterin), a tetracyclic triterpenes compound isolated from Cucurbitaceae. The potency of CuE on breast cancer metastasis inhibition was assessed in vivo and in vitro. In our animal experiments, intraperitoneal administrations of CuE significantly inhibited breast tumor metastasis to the lung without affecting apoptosis or proliferation of inoculated 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Treatment of metastatic breast tumor cells with CuE markedly blocked tumor cell migration and invasion in vitro. Subsequent studies showed that CuE impaired Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization and suppressed Src/FAK/Rac1/MMP involved pathway. Overall, our data demonstrate that CuE blocks breast cancer metastasis by suppressing tumor cell migration and invasion. We provide first evidence of a novel role for CuE as a potential candidate for treating breast cancer metastasis.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C enhances cervical cancer migration and invasion via activation of focal adhesion kinase.
Gynecol. Endocrinol.
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Vascular endothelial growth factor C (VEGF-C) is correlated positively with clinical cervical cancer metastasis and survival. Previously we showed that VEGF-C directly activated actin-binding protein moesin, leading to the formation of membrane protrusions. However, whether VEGF-C alters cervical cancer cell adhesion to the extra-cellular matrix is currently unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of VEGF-C on the formation of focal adhesion complexes, which provide anchoring sites for cell attachment to the extracellular matrix. On cultured cervical carcinoma cell line SiHa cells, VEGF-C enhanced focal adhesion kinase (FAK) phosphorylation. As a result, VEGF-C led to increased formation of focal adhesion complexes and enhanced migration and invasion, which was reversed by siRNA abrogating FAK. VEGF-C resulted in increased interaction of its receptor Flt-4 with non-receptor tyrosine kinase c-Src, leading to c-Src phosphorylation. The specific inhibitor of c-Src kinase, PP2, or the transfection with specific c-Src siRNA largely impaired VEGF-C-enhanced FAK phosphorylation, suggesting that Flt-4/c-Src cascade plays a central role in these processes. These results implied that VEGF-C promotes cervical cancer metastasis by activation of FAK protein through Flt-4/c-Src pathway.
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Distribution, historical trends and inventories of polychlorinated biphenyls in sediments from Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea.
Environ. Pollut.
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A large portion of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from e-waste released into the coastal areas may be the potential source of PCBs to the global oceans. The paper presents data of PCBs concentrations in fifty surface sediment samples and a dated sediment core in Yangtze River Delta (YRE) and adjacent East China Sea (ECS). The total PCBs levels varied from 5.08 to 19.64 ng/g dry weight, with the highest concentrations situate within the river-sea boundary zone which is so-called "marginal filter". Concurrent with the operation of e-waste recycling over the last two decades, PCB fluxes started to rise again after 1980s and reached a maximum in this century. The full data set was used to estimate the burden of PCBs in YRE and adjacent ECS. A total sediment burdens were 192.8 tons, with the spatial density of 364 ng/cm(2) which accounts for 1.9% of all the PCBs in China.
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Transmitted antiretroviral drug resistance and thumb subdomain polymorphisms among newly HIV type 1 diagnosed patients infected with CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC virus in Guangdong Province, China.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
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The aim of this study was to elucidate the prevalence of transmitted drug-resistant (TDR) mutations and reverse transcriptase (RT) thumb subdomain polymorphisms in CRF01_AE and CRF07_BC virus among newly diagnosed, therapy-naive HIV-1 patients in Guangdong Province, China. One hundred and sixty-four samples were collected in the Guangzhou Eighth Peoples Hospital. The entire protease gene and 300 codons of the entry part of the reverse transcriptase were amplified and sequenced. Furthermore, genotypic drug resistance, polymorphisms, and their phylogeny were analyzed. According to eligibility criteria, seven samples were excluded, and 119 of 157 (75.8%) samples (84 CRF01_AE and 35 CRF07_BC) were amplified and sequenced successfully. The prevalence of TDR identified in the present study was 6.7% [8/119, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8-11.6%]. Three major resistance mutations, K103N, M184V, and Y188L, each of which caused more than one drug resistance, appeared in only two patients; the prevalence [1.7 % (2/119)] was relatively low. Until now, this is the first observation of the five newly identified accessory mutations, V35T, K43E, V60I, K122E, and E203D, and seven thumb subdomain polymorphisms, A272P, K277R, K281R, T286A, E291D, V292I, and I293V, in the RT gene in China. These findings provide useful information for guidance on the antiretroviral therapy (ART) policy in China where therapeutic options are still limited.
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Thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives as GPR35 agonists.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
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The optimization of a series of thieno[3,2-b]thiophene-2-carboxylic acid derivatives for agonist activity against the GPR35 is reported. Compounds were optimized to achieve ?-arrestin-biased agonism for developing probe molecules that may be useful for elucidating the biology and physiology of GPR35. Compound 13 was identified to the most potent GPR35 agonist, and compounds 30 and 36 exhibited the highest efficacy to cause ?-arrestin translocation.
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Cloning and characterization of prophenoloxidase A3 (proPOA3) from Culex pipiens pallens.
Comp. Biochem. Physiol. B, Biochem. Mol. Biol.
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The prophenoloxidase subunit A3 (proPOA3) gene was cloned from Culex pipiens pallens, which had an open reading frame of 2061 bp encoding a putative 686 amino acid protein. The deduced amino acid sequence shares 98% with proPOA3 from Culex quinquefasciatus. ProPOA3 is expressed at all developmental stages of C. pipiens pallens. Significant negative correlation was observed between proPOA3 expression and deltamethrin resistance in resistant C. pipiens pallens. Furthermore, proPOA3 expression levels were significantly lower in deltamethrin-resistant mosquitoes than in susceptible mosquitoes collected at four locations in Eastern China. However, we did not find any substantial change in proPOA3 expression in field-collected resistant Anopheles mosquitoes. Moreover, overexpressing proPOA3 in C6/36 cells led to more sensitivity to deltamethrin treatment. In laboratory and field-collected resistant C. pipiens pallens, a valine to isoleucine mutation (769G>A) and two synonymous mutations (1116G>C and 1116G>A) were identified in proPOA3. In addition, the mutation frequency of 769G>A and 1116G>C increased gradually, which corresponded with raised deltamethrin resistance levels. Taken together, our study provides the first evidence that proPOA3 may play a role in the regulation of deltamethrin-resistance in C. pipiens pallens.
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The expression and significance of the enhancer of zeste homolog 2 in lung adenocarcinoma.
Oncol. Rep.
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Lung adenocarcinoma, with increased incidence in the world, exhibits poor prognosis and is usually resistant to conventional chemotherapy due to drug resistance. The enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2), a histone methyltransferase, plays a key role in tumorigenesis and cancer development through chromatin remodeling in various types of cancer. However, its potential role in lung adenocarcinoma has not been well defined. In this study, the expression of EZH2 was examined in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and cell lines. Most interestingly, EZH2 overexpression was detected in tumor tissue and significantly correlated with histological differentiation, pathological tumor-node-metastasis stage and smoking history, but not with gender or age. Furthermore, EZH2 overexpression was also detected in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells rather than cisplatin-sensitive cells. Short hairpin RNA targeted against EZH2 inhibited cell proliferation and migration, and led to G(2)/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in both cisplatin-resistant and cisplatin-sensitive cell lines. Moreover, EZH2 knockdown enhanced cisplatin sensitivity of cisplatin-resistant cells and reduced the expression levels of multidrug resistance-related protein 1. Our study suggests that EZH2 contributes to the progression of lung adenocarcinoma, and the deletion of EZH2 inhibits cancer and resensitizes cells to cisplatin in lung adenocarcinoma.
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Fast-track surgery improves postoperative clinical recovery and immunity after elective surgery for colorectal carcinoma: randomized controlled clinical trial.
World J Surg
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Few clinical studies or randomized clinical trial results have reported the impact of fast-track surgery on human immunity. This study aimed to investigate the clinical and immune impact of fast-track surgery in colorectal cancer patients undergoing elective open surgery.
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Multiple tyrosine metabolites are GPR35 agonists.
Sci Rep
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Both kynurenic acid and 2-acyl lysophosphatidic acid have been postulated to be the endogenous agonists of GPR35. However, controversy remains whether alternative endogenous agonists exist. The molecular targets accounted for many nongenomic actions of thyroid hormones are mostly unknown. Here we report the agonist activity of multiple tyrosine metabolites at the GPR35. Tyrosine metabolism intermediates that contain carboxylic acid and/or catechol functional groups were first selected. Whole cell dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays enabled by label-free optical biosensor were then used to characterize their agonist activity in native HT-29. Molecular assays including ?-arrestin translocation, ERK phosphorylation and receptor internalization confirmed that GPR35 functions as a receptor for 5,6-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid, 3,3,5-triiodothyronine, 3,3,5-triiodothyronine, gentisate, rosmarinate, and 3-nitrotyrosine. These results suggest that multiple tyrosine metabolites are alternative endogenous ligands of GPR35, and GPR35 may represent a druggable target for treating certain diseases associated with abnormality of tyrosine metabolism.
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Label-free phenotypic profiling identified D-luciferin as a GPR35 agonist.
PLoS ONE
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Fluorescent and luminescent probes are essential to both in vitro molecular assays and in vivo imaging techniques, and have been extensively used to measure biological function. However, little is known about the biological activity, thus potential interferences with the assay results, of these probe molecules. Here we show that D-luciferin, one of the most widely used bioluminescence substrates, is a partial agonist for G protein-coupled receptor-35 (GPR35). Label-free phenotypic profiling using dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays showed that D-luciferin led to a DMR signal in native HT-29 cells, whose characteristics are similar to those induced by known GPR35 agonists including zaprinast and pamoic acid. DMR assays further showed that D-luciferin is a partial agonist competitive to several known GPR35 agonists and antagonists. D-luciferin was found to cause the phosphorylation of ERK that was suppressed by known GPR35 antagonists, and also result in ?-arrestin translocation signal but with low efficacy. These results not only suggest that D-luciferin is a partial agonist of GPR35, but also will evoke careful interpretation of biological data obtained using molecular and in vivo imaging assays when these probe molecules are used.
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Anti-inflammatory gallic Acid and wedelolactone are G protein-coupled receptor-35 agonists.
Pharmacology
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G protein-coupled receptor-35 (GPR35) has been shown to be a target of the asthma drugs cromolyn disodium and nedocromil sodium. Gallic acid and caffeic acids are reported to modulate allergic reactions via unknown mode(s) of action. Here we attempt to elucidate whether both phenolic acids share a common mode of action with the two asthma drugs. Label-free dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) assays showed that both phenolic acids triggered robust DMR signals in HT-29 cells, whose characteristics were similar to that of cromolyn disodium. Both phenolic acids resulted in detectable ?-arrestin translocation signals in an engineered U2OS cell line stably expressing a C-terminal-modified GPR35, but with lower efficacy than cromolyn disodium. Antiallergic wedelolactone was found to be a potent ?-arrestin-biased GPR35 agonist. These results suggest that certain anti-inflammatory phytochemicals including gallic acid and wedelolactone may modulate inflammatory allergic action via their agonism at GPR35. GPR35 may represent a target for the treatment of allergic disorders including asthma.
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Electrogeneration of H(2) for Pd-catalytic hydrodechlorination of 2,4-dichlorophenol in groundwater.
Chemosphere
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A novel electrolytic groundwater remediation process, which used the H(2) continuously generated at cathode to achieve in situ catalytic hydrodechlorination, was developed for the treatment of 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) in groundwater. Catalytic hydrodechlorination using Pd supported on bamboo charcoal and external H(2) showed that 2,4-DCP was completely dechlorinated to phenol within 30 min at pH ? 5.5. In a divided electrolytic system, the catalytic hydrodechlorination of 2,4-DCP in cathodic compartment by H(2) generated at the cathode under 20 and 50 mA reached 100% at 120 and 60 min, respectively. Two column experiments with influent pHs of 5.5 (unconditioned) and 2 were conducted to evaluate the feasibility of this process. The 2,4-DCP removal efficiencies were about 63% and nearly 100% at influent pHs of 5.5 and 2, respectively. Phenol was solely produced by 2,4-DCP hydrodechlorination, and was subsequently degraded at the anode. A low pH could enhance the hydrodechlorination, but was not necessarily required. This study provides the preliminary results of a novel effective electrolytic process for the remediation of groundwater contaminated by chlorinated aromatics.
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Genome-wide analysis of the maternal-to-zygotic transition in Drosophila primordial germ cells.
Genome Biol.
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During the maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT) vast changes in the embryonic transcriptome are produced by a combination of two processes: elimination of maternally provided mRNAs and synthesis of new transcripts from the zygotic genome. Previous genome-wide analyses of the MZT have been restricted to whole embryos. Here we report the first such analysis for primordial germ cells (PGCs), the progenitors of the germ-line stem cells.
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Glioma Risks Associate with Genetic Polymorphisms of XRCC1 Gene in Chinese Population.
J. Cell. Biochem.
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Glioma is the most common type of primary brain tumors in adults. Previous evidence indicates that the X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 gene (XRCC1) is a important candidate gene which influencing the pathogenesis of gliomas. This study aims to assess the potential associations between glioma risks and genetic polymorphisms of XRCC1 gene. A total of 1286 Chinese Han ethnic subjects consisting of 638 glioma patients and 648 controls were recruited in this case-control study. The genotyping of XRCC1 genetic polymorphisms (c.482C?>?T, c.1161G?>?A and c.1804C?>?A) were conducted using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-PCR (CRS-PCR) and DNA sequencing methods. Our date indicated that the allelic and genotypic frequencies of these genetic polymorphisms in glioma patients were significantly different from those of controls. We detected that the alleles/genotypes were statistically associated with the increased risks of glioma (for c.482C?>?T, TT versus(vs.) CC: OR?=?2.24, 95% CI 1.48-3.39 P??A, AA vs. GG: OR?=?1.62, 95% CI 1.11-2.35, P?=?0.012; A vs. G: OR?=?1.19, 95% CI 1.01-1.41, P?=?0.040; for c.1804C?>?A, AA vs. CC: OR?=?2.12, 95% CI 1.45-3.11, P?
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