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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sleep disordered breathing and polysomnography in Australia: trends in provision from 2005 to 2012 and the impact of home-based diagnosis.
J Clin Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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To describe the growth of publicly funded polysomnography (PSG) in Australia since 2004 and to compare this with earlier growth.
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Increased CD8 T-cell granzyme B in COPD is suppressed by treatment with low-dose azithromycin.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2014
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Corticosteroid resistance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major challenge. We have reported increased bronchial epithelial cell apoptosis and increased airway CD8 T-cell numbers in COPD. Apoptosis can be induced via the serine protease, granzyme B. However, glucocorticosteroids fail to adequately suppress granzyme B production by CD8 T cells. We previously showed that low-dose azithromycin reduced airways inflammation in COPD subjects and we hypothesized that it would also reduce granzyme B production by CD8 T cells.
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Targeting peripheral blood pro-inflammatory cytotoxic lymphocytes by inhibiting CD137 expression: novel potential treatment for COPD.
BMC Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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We have shown that chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and the cytotoxic mediator, granzyme B by peripheral blood steroid resistant CD28nullCD137 + CD8+ T cells and granzyme B by NKT-like and NK cells. We hypothesized that we could target these pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic lymphocytes by inhibiting co-stimulation through CD137.
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Zinc and Zinc Transporters in Macrophages and Their Roles in Efferocytosis in COPD.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our previous studies have shown that nutritional zinc restriction exacerbates airway inflammation accompanied by an increase in caspase-3 activation and an accumulation of apoptotic epithelial cells in the bronchioles of the mice. Normally, apoptotic cells are rapidly cleared by macrophage efferocytosis, limiting any secondary necrosis and inflammation. We therefore hypothesized that zinc deficiency is not only pro-apoptotic but also impairs macrophage efferocytosis. Impaired efferocytic clearance of apoptotic epithelial cells by alveolar macrophages occurs in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cigarette-smoking and other lung inflammatory diseases. We now show that zinc is a factor in impaired macrophage efferocytosis in COPD. Concentrations of zinc were significantly reduced in the supernatant of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with COPD who were current smokers, compared to healthy controls, smokers or COPD patients not actively smoking. Lavage zinc was positively correlated with AM efferocytosis and there was decreased efferocytosis in macrophages depleted of Zn in vitro by treatment with the membrane-permeable zinc chelator TPEN. Organ and cell Zn homeostasis are mediated by two families of membrane ZIP and ZnT proteins. Macrophages of mice null for ZIP1 had significantly lower intracellular zinc and efferocytosis capability, suggesting ZIP1 may play an important role. We investigated further using the human THP-1 derived macrophage cell line, with and without zinc chelation by TPEN to mimic zinc deficiency. There was no change in ZIP1 mRNA levels by TPEN but a significant 3-fold increase in expression of another influx transporter ZIP2, consistent with a role for ZIP2 in maintaining macrophage Zn levels. Both ZIP1 and ZIP2 proteins were localized to the plasma membrane and cytoplasm in normal human lung alveolar macrophages. We propose that zinc homeostasis in macrophages involves the coordinated action of ZIP1 and ZIP2 transporters responding differently to zinc deficiency signals and that these play important roles in macrophage efferocytosis.
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The drug efflux pump Pgp1 in pro-inflammatory lymphocytes is a target for novel treatment strategies in COPD.
Respir. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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BACKGROUND: Pro-inflammatory/cytotoxic T cells (IFNgamma, TNFalpha, granzyme B+) are increased in the peripheral circulation in COPD. NKT-like and NK cells are effector lymphocytes that we have also shown to be major sources of pro-inflammatory cytokines and granzymes. P-glycoprotein 1 (Pgp1) is a transmembrane efflux pump well characterised in drug resistant cancer cells. We hypothesized that Pgp1 would be increased in peripheral blood T, NKT-like and NK cells in patients with COPD, and that this would be accompanied by increased expression of IFNgamma, TNFalpha and granzyme B. We further hypothesized that treatment with cyclosporine A, a Pgp1 inhibitor, would render cells more sensitive to treatment with corticosteroids. METHODS: Pgp1, granzyme B, IFNgamma and TNFalpha expression were measured in peripheral blood T, NK and NKT-like cells from COPD patients and control subjects (+/- cyclosporine A and prednisolone) following in vitro stimulation and results correlated with uptake of efflux dye Calcein-AM using flow cytometry. RESULTS: There was increased Pgp1 expression by peripheral blood T, NKT-like and NK cells co-expressing IFNgamma, TNFalpha and granzyme B in COPD patients compared with controls (eg %IFNgamma/Pgp1 T, NKT-like, NK for COPD (Control): 25(6), 54(27), 39(23)). There was an inverse correlation between Pgp1 expression and Calcein-AM uptake. Treatment with 2.5 ng/ml cylosporin A and10-6 M prednisolone resulted in synergistic inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Pgp1 + cells (p < 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment strategies that target Pgp1 in T, NKT-like and NK cells may reduce systemic inflammatory mediators in COPD and improve patient morbidity.
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Lectins offer new perspectives in the development of macrophage-targeted therapies for COPD/emphysema.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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We have previously shown that the defective ability of alveolar macrophages (AM) to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease/emphysema (COPD) could be therapeutically improved using the C-type lectin, mannose binding lectin (MBL), although the exact mechanisms underlying this effect are unknown. An S-type lectin, galectin-3, is also known to regulate macrophage phenotype and function, via interaction with its receptor CD98. We hypothesized that defective expression of galectin/CD98 would be associated with defective efferocytosis in COPD and that mechanisms would include effects on cytoskeletal remodeling and macrophage phenotype and glutathione (GSH) availability. Galectin-3 was measured by ELISA in BAL from controls, smokers and current/ex-smokers with COPD. CD98 was measured on AM using flow cytometry. We assessed the effects of galectin-3 on efferocytosis, CD98, GSH, actin polymerisation, rac activation, and the involvement of PI3K (using ?-actin probing and wortmannin inhibition) in vitro using human AM and/or MH-S macrophage cell line. Significant decreases in BAL galectin-3 and AM CD98 were observed in BAL from both current- and ex-smoker COPD subjects vs controls. Galectin 3 increased efferocytosis via an increase in active GTP bound Rac1. This was confirmed with ?-actin probing and the role of PI3K was confirmed using wortmannin inhibition. The increased efferocytosis was associated with increases in available glutathione and expression of CD98. We provide evidence for a role of airway lectins in the failed efferocytosis in COPD, supporting their further investigation as potential macrophage-targeted therapies.
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Defective lung macrophage function in lung cancer ± chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema)-mediated by cancer cell production of PGE2?
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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In chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD/emphysema) we have shown a reduced ability of lung and alveolar (AM) macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic cells (defective efferocytosis), associated with evidence of secondary cellular necrosis and a resultant inflammatory response in the airway. It is unknown whether this defect is present in cancer (no COPD) and if so, whether this results from soluble mediators produced by cancer cells. We investigated efferocytosis in AM (26 controls, 15 healthy smokers, 37 COPD, 20 COPD+ non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and 8 patients with NSCLC without COPD) and tumor and tumor-free lung tissue macrophages (21 NSCLC with/13 without COPD). To investigate the effects of soluble mediators produced by lung cancer cells we then treated AM or U937 macrophages with cancer cell line supernatant and assessed their efferocytosis ability. We qualitatively identified Arachidonic Acid (AA) metabolites in cancer cells by LC-ESI-MSMS, and assessed the effects of COX inhibition (using indomethacin) on efferocytosis. Decreased efferocytosis was noted in all cancer/COPD groups in all compartments. Conditioned media from cancer cell cultures decreased the efferocytosis ability of both AM and U937 macrophages with the most pronounced effects occurring with supernatant from SCLC (an aggressive lung cancer type). AA metabolites identified in cancer cells included PGE2. The inhibitory effect of PGE2 on efferocytosis, and the involvement of the COX-2 pathway were shown. Efferocytosis is decreased in COPD/emphysema and lung cancer; the latter at least partially a result of inhibition by soluble mediators produced by cancer cells that include PGE2.
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Expression profile of the sphingosine kinase signalling system in the lung of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2011
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Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Despite its importance, treatment methods are limited and restricted to symptomatic care, highlighting the urgent need for new treatment options. Tissue damage in COPD is thought to result from an inability of the normal repair processes with accumulation of apoptotic material and impaired clearance of this material by macrophages in the airways. Lung inflammation involves the bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P).
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Cigarette smoke-induced changes to alveolar macrophage phenotype and function are improved by treatment with procysteine.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2010
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Defective efferocytosis may perpetuate inflammation in smokers with or without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Macrophages may phenotypically polarize to classically activated M1 (proinflammatory; regulation of antigen presentation) or alternatively activated M2 (poor antigen presentation; improved efferocytosis) markers. In bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)-derived macrophages from control subjects and smoker/ex-smoker COPD subjects, we investigated M1 markers (antigen-presenting major histocompatibility complex [MHC] Classes I and II), complement receptors (CRs), the high-affinity Fc receptor involved with immunoglobulin binding for phagocytosis (Fc-gamma receptor, Fc?R1), M2 markers (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-grabbing nonintegrin [DC-SIGN] and arginase), and macrophage function (efferocytosis and proinflammatory cytokine production in response to LPS). The availability of glutathione (GSH) in BAL was assessed, because GSH is essential for both M1 function and efferocytosis. We used a murine model to investigate macrophage phenotype/function further in response to cigarette smoke. In lung tissue (disaggregated) and BAL, we investigated CRs, the available GSH, arginase, and efferocytosis. We further investigated the therapeutic effects of an oral administration of a GSH precursor, cysteine l-2-oxothiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (procysteine). Significantly decreased efferocytosis, available GSH, and M1 antigen-presenting molecules were evident in both COPD groups, with increased DC-SIGN and production of proinflammatory cytokines. Increased CR-3 was evident in the current-smoker COPD group. In smoke-exposed mice, we found decreased efferocytosis (BAL and tissue) and available GSH, and increased arginase, CR-3, and CR-4. Treatment with procysteine significantly increased GSH, efferocytosis (BAL: control group, 26.2%; smoke-exposed group, 17.66%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 27.8%; tissue: control group, 35.9%; smoke-exposed group, 21.6%; procysteine + smoke-exposed group, 34.5%), and decreased CR-4 in lung tissue. Macrophages in COPD are of a mixed phenotype and function. The increased efferocytosis and availability of GSH in response to procysteine indicates that this treatment may be useful as adjunct therapy for improving macrophage function in COPD and in susceptible smokers.
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Therapeutic role for mannose-binding lectin in cigarette smoke-induced lung inflammation? Evidence from a murine model.
Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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Defective efferocytosis in the airway may perpetuate inflammation in smokers with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) improves efferocytosis in vitro; however, the effects of in vivo administration are unknown. MBL circulates in complex with MBL-associated serine proteases (MASPs), and efferocytosis involves activation of cytoskeletal-remodeling molecules, including Rac1/2/3. We hypothesized that MBL would improve efferocytosis in vivo, and that possible mechanisms for this effect would include up-regulation of Rac1/2/3 or MASPs. We used a smoking mouse model to investigate the effects of MBL on efferocytosis. MBL (20 microg/20 g mouse) was administered via nebulizer to smoke-exposed mice. In lung tissue (disaggregated) and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), we investigated leukocyte counts, apoptosis, and the ability of alveolar and tissue macrophages to phagocytose apoptotic murine epithelial cells. In human studies, flow cytometry, ELISA, and RT-PCR were used to investigate the effects of MBL on efferocytosis, Rac1/2/3, and MASPs. Smoke-exposed mice showed significantly reduced efferocytosis in BAL and tissue. Efferocytosis was significantly improved by MBL (BAL: control, 26.2%; smoke-exposed, 17.66%; MBL + smoke-exposed, 27.8%; tissue: control, 35.9%; smoke-exposed, 21.6%; MBL + smoke-exposed, 34.5%). Leukocyte/macrophage counts were normalized in smoke-exposed mice treated with MBL. In human studies, MBL was reduced in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in smokers, and was significantly correlated with reduced efferocytosis ex vivo. MASPs were not detected in BAL, and were not produced by alveolar or tissue macrophages. MBL significantly increased macrophage expression of Rac1/2/3. We provide evidence for Rac1/2/3 involvement in the MBL-mediated improvement in efferocytosis, and a rationale for investigating MBL as a supplement to existing therapies in smoking-related lung inflammation.
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Increased proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and reduced granzyme B in lung cancer: mechanism for immune evasion?
Lung Cancer
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Cytotoxic CD8(+) T-cells mount immune responses to cancer via cytotoxic pathways including granzyme B. Cancer cells are also known to develop immune evasion mechanisms. We hypothesised that lung cancer cells would over-express the granzyme B-inhibitor, proteinase inhibitor-9 (PI-9) and down-regulate granzyme B expression by neighbouring CD8(+) T-cells. We investigated PI-9 expression in lung cancer cell lines, and primary lung cancer cells obtained at curative lung resection from cancer patients with/without chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Granzyme B and PI-9 expression was also determined in CD8(+) T-cells from the cancer and non-cancer areas of resected lung tissue and from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). We then evaluated the effects of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines on granzyme B expression and the cytotoxic activity of CD8(+) T-cells. PI-9 was highly expressed in lung cancer cell lines. Increased PI-9 expression was also observed in primary cancer cells vs. epithelial cells from non-cancer tissue or bronchial brushing-derived normal primary large airway epithelial cells. Expression significantly correlated with cancer stage. Significantly reduced granzyme B was noted in CD8(+) T-cells from cancer vs. non-cancer tissue. Granzyme B production by CD8(+) T-cells was reduced in the presence of conditioned media from lung cancer cell lines. Our data suggest that lung cancer cells utilise their increased PI-9 expression to protect from granzyme B-mediated cytotoxicity as an immune evasion mechanism, a function that increases with lung cancer stage.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.