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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evidence of Aerosols as a Media for Rapid Daytime HONO Production over China.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Current knowledge of daytime HONO sources remains incomplete. A large missing daytime HONO source has been found in many places around the world, including polluted regions in China. Conventional understanding and recent studies attributed this missing source mainly to ground surface processes or gas-phase chemistry, while assuming aerosols to be an insignificant media for HONO production. We analyze in situ observations of HONO and its precursors at an urban site in Beijing, China, and report an apparent dependence of the missing HONO source strength on aerosol surface area and solar ultraviolet radiation. Based on extensive correlation analysis and process-modeling, we propose that the rapid daytime HONO production in Beijing can be explained by enhanced hydrolytic disproportionation of NO2 on aqueous aerosol surfaces due to catalysis by dicarboxylic acid anions. The combination of high abundance of NO2, aromatic hydrocarbons, and aerosols over broad regions in China likely leads to elevated HONO levels, rapid OH production, and enhanced oxidizing capacity on a regional basis. Our findings call for attention to aerosols as a media for daytime heterogeneous HONO production in polluted regions like Beijing. This study also highlights the complex and uncertain heterogeneous chemistry in China, which merits future efforts of reconciling regional modeling and laboratory experiments, in order to understand and mitigate the regional particulate and O3 pollutions over China.
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An Exploratory Study of Conflict and Its Management in Systems of Care for Children with Mental, Emotional, or Behavioral Problems and Their Families.
J Behav Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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Since 1993, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration has invested more than $1 billion establishing systems of care (SOC) in over 173 local communities to provide services to children with mental, emotional, and behavioral problems and their families. The SOC model requires that effective partnerships be developed between parents and professionals and also among different service sectors and agencies. To date, there has been no systematic examination of these interagency partnerships associated with the presence of conflict and its management. This paper reports the findings from a survey of the members of the governing boards of currently funded and graduated SOC sites related to interorganizational conflict. The results indicated that conflict was common in SOC regardless of the stage of the system's development. The most common types of conflict included incompatible goals, interpersonal relationships, and overlapping authority. When conflict occurred, a number of management efforts were used including analyzing the conflict and developing a strategy to deal with it and dealing with the conflict behind the scenes. Suggestions are provided for identifying and managing conflict.
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Detecting, Visualizing, and Measuring Gold Nanoparticle Chirality Using Helical Pitch Measurements in Nematic Liquid Crystal Phases.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Chirality at the nanoscale, or more precisely, the chirality or chiroptical effects of chiral ligand-capped metal nanoparticles (NPs) is an intriguing and rapidly evolving field in nanomaterial research with promising applications in catalysis, metamaterials, and chiral sensing. The aim of this work was to seek out a system that not only allows the detection and understanding of NP chirality but also permits visualization of the extent of chirality transfer to a surrounding medium. The nematic liquid crystal phase is an ideal candidate, displaying characteristic defect texture changes upon doping with chiral additives. To test this, we synthesized chiral cholesterol-capped gold NPs and prepared well-dispersed mixtures in two nematic liquid crystal hosts. Induced circular dichroism spectropolarimetry and polarized light optical microscopy revealed that all three gold NPs induce chiral nematic phases, and that those synthesized in the presence of a chiral bias (disulfide) are more powerful chiral inducers than those where the NP was formed in the absence of a chiral bias (prepared by conjugation of a chiral silane to pre-formed NPs). Helical pitch data here visually show a clear dependence on the NP size and the number of chiral ligands bound to the NP surface, thereby supporting earlier experimental and theoretical data that smaller metal NPs made in the presence of a chiral bias are stronger chiral inducers.
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Silica Nanowires: Growth, Integration, and Sensing Applications.
Mikrochim Acta
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This review (with 129 refs.) gives an overview on how the integration of silica nanowires (NWs) into micro-scale devices has resulted, in recent years, in simple yet robust nano-instrumentation with improved performance in targeted application areas such as sensing. This has been achieved by the use of appropriate techniques such as di-electrophoresis and direct vapor-liquid-growth phenomena, to restrict the growth of NWs to site-specific locations. This also has eliminated the need for post-growth processing and enables nanostructures to be placed on pre-patterned substrates. Various kinds of NWs have been investigated to determine how their physical and chemical properties can be tuned for integration into sensing structures. NWs integrated onto interdigitated micro-electrodes have been applied to the determination of gases and biomarkers. The technique of directly growing NWs eliminates the need for their physical transfer and thus preserves their structure and performance, and further reduces the costs of fabrication. The biocompatibility of NWs also has been studied with respect to possible biological applications. This review addresses the challenges in growth and integration of NWs to understand related mechanism on biological contact or gas exposure and sensing performance for personalized health and environmental monitoring.
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Prevention of Measles Infection by intranasal delivery of fusion inhibitory peptides.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Measles virus (MV) infection is undergoing resurgence and remains one of the leading causes of death among young children worldwide despite the availability of an effective measles vaccine. MV infects its target cells by coordinated action of the MV H and the fusion (F) envelope glycoprotein; upon receptor engagement by H, the pre-fusion F undergoes a structural transition, extending and inserting into the target cell membrane and then re-folding into a post-fusion structure that fuses the viral and cell membranes. By interfering with this structural transition of F, peptides derived from the heptad-repeat (HR) regions of F can potently inhibit MV infection at the entry stage. We show here that specific features of H's interaction with its receptors modulate the susceptibility of MV F to peptide fusion inhibitors. A higher concentration of inhibitory peptides is required to inhibit F-mediated fusion when H is engaged to its nectin-4 receptor than when H is engaged to its CD150 receptor. Peptide inhibition of F may be subverted by continued engagement of receptor by H, a finding that highlights the ongoing role of H-receptor interaction after F has been activated, and helps guide the design of more potent inhibitory peptides. Intranasal administration of these peptides results in peptide accumulation in the airway epithelium with minimal systemic levels of peptide, and efficiently prevents MV infection in vivo in animal models. The results suggest an antiviral strategy for prophylaxis in vulnerable and/or immune compromised hosts.
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Wnt5 and drl/ryk gradients pattern the Drosophila olfactory dendritic map.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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During development, dendrites migrate to their correct locations in response to environmental cues. The mechanisms of dendritic guidance are poorly understood. Recent work has shown that the Drosophila olfactory map is initially formed by the spatial segregation of the projection neuron (PN) dendrites in the developing antennal lobe (AL). We report here that between 16 and 30 h after puparium formation, the PN dendrites undergo dramatic rotational reordering to achieve their final glomerular positions. During this period, a novel set of AL-extrinsic neurons express high levels of the Wnt5 protein and are tightly associated with the dorsolateral edge of the AL. Wnt5 forms a dorsolateral-high to ventromedial-low pattern in the antennal lobe neuropil. Loss of Wnt5 prevents the ventral targeting of the dendrites, whereas Wnt5 overexpression disrupts dendritic patterning. We find that Drl/Ryk, a known Wnt5 receptor, is expressed in a dorsolateral-to-ventromedial (DL > VM) gradient by the PN dendrites. Loss of Drl in the PNs results in the aberrant ventromedial targeting of the dendrites, a defect that is suppressed by reduction in Wnt5 gene dosage. Conversely, overexpression of Drl in the PNs results in the dorsolateral targeting of their dendrites, an effect that requires Drl's cytoplasmic domain. We propose that Wnt5 acts as a repulsive guidance cue for the PN dendrites, whereas Drl signaling in the dendrites inhibits Wnt5 signaling. In this way, the precise expression patterns of Wnt5 and Drl orient the PN dendrites allowing them to target their final glomerular positions.
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Immunogenicity study of Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end of the tumor antigen.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2014
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Globo H-based therapeutic cancer vaccines have been tested in clinical trials for the treatment of late stage breast, ovarian and prostate cancers. In this study, we explored Globo H analogue antigens with an attempt to enhance the antigenic properties in vaccine design. The Globo H analogues with modification at the reducing or non-reducing end were synthesized using chemoenzymatic methods, and these modified Globo H antigens were then conjugated with the carrier protein diphtheria toxoid cross-reactive material (CRM) 197 (DT), and combined with a glycolipid C34 as an adjuvant designed to induce a class switch to form the vaccine candidates. After Balb/c mice injection, the immune response was studied by a glycan array and the results showed that modification at the C-6 position of reducing end glucose of Globo H with the fluoro, azido or phenyl group elicited IgG antibody response to specifically recognize Globo H (GH) and the GH-related epitopes, stage-specific embryonic antigen 3 (SSEA3) (also called Gb5) and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4 (SSEA4). However, only the modification of Globo H with the azido group at the C-6 position of the non-reducing end fucose could elicit a strong IgG immune response. Moreover, the antibodies induced by these vaccines were shown to recognize GH expressing tumor cells (MCF-7) and mediate the complement-dependent cell cytotoxicity against tumor cells. Our data suggest a new potential approach to cancer vaccine development.
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Comparative efficacy and safety of various treatment procedures for lower pole renal calculi: a systematic review and network meta-analysis.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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To compare the effectiveness of various treatments used for lower pole renal calculi METHODS: We searched PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, the Cochrane Collaboration's Database of Systematic Reviews, the Cochrane Collaboration Central Register of Controlled Clinical Trials as well as ClinicalTrials.gov for reports up to April 1, 2014. Search was supplemented with abstract reports from various urology conferences. All randomised, blinded clinical studies including patients treated for lower pole renal calculi <20mm were included for review. Two authors independently reviewed 5,194 articles identified and selected 13 trials for analysis. Network meta-analysis was performed to generate comparative statistics while quality was assessed with Jadad composite scale and risk of bias RESULTS: All treatment modalities examined: percutaneous nephrolithtripsy (PNL), ureterenoscopy (URS) and shockwave lithotripsy with adjuvant therapy such as inversion, hydration and forced diuresis (SWL & Adj) were more effective than shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) therapy alone, with risk ratio (95% confidence intervals) of being stone free: PNL 2.19 (1.62-2.96); URS 1.23 (1.03-1.48); and SWL & Adj 1.30 (1.03-1.63). However, patients treated with other treatment modalities also have a higher risk of adverse events compared with SWL therapy, but there was no evidence of a convincing difference between the various techniques and adverse events.
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Iminosugar C-glycoside analogues of ?-D-GlcNAc-1-phosphate: synthesis and bacterial transglycosylase inhibition.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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We herein describe the first synthesis of iminosugar C-glycosides of ?-D-GlcNAc-1-phosphate in 10 steps starting from unprotected D-GlcNAc. A diastereoselective intramolecular iodoamination-cyclization as the key step was employed to construct the central piperidine ring of the iminosugar and the C-glycosidic structure of ?-D-GlcNAc. Finally, the iminosugar phosphonate and its elongated phosphate analogue were accessed. These phosphorus-containing iminosugars were coupled efficiently with lipophilic monophosphates to give lipid-linked pyrophosphate derivatives, which are lipid II mimetics endowed with potent inhibitory properties toward bacterial transglycosylases (TGase).
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Comparing HbA1c, fasting and 2-h plasma glucose for screening for abnormal glucose regulation in patients undergoing coronary angiography.
Clin. Chem. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Abstract Background: We aimed to investigate the prevalence of undiagnosed abnormal glucose regulation (AGR, including diabetes and prediabetes) in patients undergoing coronary angiography (CAG) by using both glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) to screen, and to compare the performance of fasting plasma glucose (FPG), 2-h plasma glucose (2hPG), and HbA1c for screening for AGR. Methods: Eligible patients were adults without known diabetes who were admitted for CAG. Patients' glucose regulation status was defined by conducting HbA1c and OGTT 2-4 weeks after hospital discharge. The performance of FPG, 2hPG, and HbA1c for detecting AGR was evaluated using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Results: A total of 689 subjects were included. According to OGTT, the prevalence rates of diabetes and prediabetes were 19.9% and 41.7%, respectively. The corresponding values were 28.0% and 60.4%, respectively, when HbA1c was adopted as a diagnostic criterion in addition to OGTT. For detecting diabetes, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was higher for HbA1c than for FPG (0.87 vs. 0.80, p=0.005), but was not significantly different from that for 2hPG (0.87 vs. 0.88, p=0.58). For detecting AGR, the AUC was higher for HbA1c than for either FPG (0.94 vs. 0.74, p<0.001) or 2hPG (0.94 vs. 0.83, p<0.001). Conclusions: Using HbA1c and OGTT to screen, we reported an extremely high prevalence of previously undiagnosed AGR (28.0% diabetes and 60.4% prediabetes) in patients admitted for CAG. HbA1c may be adopted as an alternative to OGTT for screening for AGR in patients undergoing CAG.
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Sequence-constructive SELEX: a new strategy for screening DNA aptamer binding to Globo H.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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We proposed to use a novel stepwise sequence-constructive SELEX method to develop DNA aptamers that can recognize Globo H which is a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. A combinatorial synthetic library that consisted of DNA molecules with randomized regions of 15-bases was used as the starting library for the first SELEX procedure. The input DNA library for the second round of SELEX consisted of the extension of the 5' and 3'-ends with 7-bases that were randomized from four selected aptamers. The third round of SELEX was performed following the same procedures as described for the second round of SELEX. The experimental results indicate that the binding affinity of DNA aptamers to Globo H was enhanced when using the sequence-constructive SELEX approach. The selectivity of the DNA aptamers for related disaccharides, mannose derivatives, and Globo H analogs demonstrated the ability of the DNA aptamers to discriminate the presence of various glycans with different structures.
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Gamma-Glutamyl Transpeptidase Level As A Screening Marker Among Diverse Etiologies of Infantile Intrahepatic Cholestasis.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Low gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) level is an important marker for progressive familiar intrahepatic cholestasis (PFIC), yet the cutoff level and clinical application is not well defined. This study aimed to evaluate the role of GGT as a screening marker among diverse etiologies of infantile cholestasis.
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Automated segmentation and quantification of white matter hyperintensities in acute ischemic stroke patients with cerebral infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) of presumed vascular origin are common in ageing population, especially in patients with acute cerebral infarction and the volume has been reported to be associated with mental impairment and the risk of hemorrhage from antithrombotic agents. WMHs delineation can be computerized to minimize human bias. However, the presence of cerebral infarcts greatly degrades the accuracy of WMHs detection and thus limits the application of computerized delineation to patients with acute cerebral infarction. We propose a computer-assisted segmentation method to depict WMHs in the presence of cerebral infarcts in combined T1-weighted, fluid attenuation inversion recovery, and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The proposed method detects WMHs by empirical threshold and atlas information, with subtraction of white matter voxels affected by acute infarction. The method was derived using MRI from 25 hemispheres with WMHs only and 13 hemispheres with both WMHs and cerebral infarcts. Similarity index (SI) and correlation were utilized to assess the agreement between the new automated method and a gold standard visually guided semi-automated method done by an expert rater. The proposed WMHs segmentation approach produced average SI, sensitivity and specificity of 83.142±11.742, 84.154±16.086 and 99.988±0.029% with WMHs only and of 68.826±14.036, 74.381±18.473 and 99.956±0.054% with both WMHs and cerebral infarcts in the derivation cohort. The performance of the proposed method with an external validation cohort was also highly consistent with that of the experienced rater.
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Factors affecting the natural decay of hepatitis B surface antigen in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection during long-term follow-up.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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To investigate the factors predicting spontaneous clearance of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in a long-term, prospectively followed cohort from childhood into adult life.
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Arsenic modulates posttranslational S-nitrosylation and translational proteome in keratinocytes.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2014
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Arsenic is a class I human carcinogen (such as inducing skin cancer) by its prominent chemical interaction with protein thio (-SH) group. Therefore, arsenic may compromise protein S-nitrosylation by competing the -SH binding activity. In the present study, we aimed to understand the influence of arsenic on protein S-nitrosylation and the following proteomic changes. By using primary human skin keratinocyte, we found that arsenic treatment decreased the level of protein S-nitrosylation. This was coincident to the decent expressions of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). By using LC-MS/MS, around twenty S-nitrosoproteins were detected in the biotin-switched eluent. With the interest that arsenic not only regulates posttranslational S-nitrosylation but also separately affects protein's translation expression, we performed two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and found that 8 proteins were significantly decreased during arsenic treatment. Whether these decreased proteins are the consequence of protein S-nitrosylation will be further investigated. Taken together, these results provide a finding that arsenic can deplete the binding activity of NO and therefore reduce protein S-nitrosylation.
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Different doses of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator for acute stroke in Chinese patients.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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The relationship between the dose of recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (r-tPA) and its safety/efficacy for ischemic stroke has not been well evaluated in the East Asian population. We assessed the safety/efficacy of different doses of r-tPA for acute ischemic stroke in Chinese patients.
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The efficacy and safety of cilostazol in ischemic stroke patients with peripheral arterial disease (SPAD): protocol of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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It is not uncommon for patients with ischemic stroke to have peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Patients with polyvascular diseases carry greater burden of atherosclerosis and higher risks of developing vascular events and death. More effective regimens, such as dual antiplatelet agents, may be more effective for controlling progression of atherosclerosis in secondary prevention.
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Serum total bilirubin concentrations are inversely associated with total white blood cell counts in an adult population.
Ann. Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Several studies have shown that serum bilirubin has a protective effect against cardiovascular disease and that inflammation plays an important role in its pathogenesis. This cross-sectional study investigated whether there was an association between blood total white blood cell count, a simple indicator of inflammation, and serum total bilirubin concentration in a cohort of an adult population in Taiwan.
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TGF-?1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation induces chondrogenesis in expanded human articular chondrocytes and marrow-derived stromal cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Replacement of degenerated cartilage with cell-based cartilage products may offer a long-term solution to halt arthritis' degenerative progression. Chondrocytes are frequently employed in cell-based FDA-approved cartilage products, yet human marrow-derived stromal cells (hMSCs) show significant translational potential, reducing donor site morbidity and maintaining their undifferentiated phenotype with expansion. This study sought to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor ?1 (TGF-?1), growth/differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5), and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) during post-expansion chondrogenesis in human articular chondrocytes (hACs) and to compare chondrogenesis in passaged hACs with that of passaged hMSCs. Through serial expansion, chondrocytes dedifferentiated, decreasing expression of chondrogenic genes while increasing expression of fibroblastic genes. However, following expansion, 10 ng/mL TGF-?1, 100 ng/mL GDF-5, or 100 ng/mL BMP-2 supplementation during three-dimensional aggregate culture each upregulated one or more markers of chondrogenic gene expression in both hACs and hMSCs. Additionally, in both cell types, the combination of TGF-?1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 induced the greatest upregulation of chondrogenic genes, i.e., Col2A1, Col2A1/Col1A1 ratio, SOX9, and ACAN, and synthesis of cartilage-specific matrix, i.e., glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and ratio of collagen II/I. Finally, TGF-?1, GDF-5, and BMP-2 stimulation yielded mechanically robust cartilage rich in collagen II and GAGs in both cell types, following 4 wks maturation. The present study illustrates notable success in employing the self-assembling method to generate robust, scaffold-free neocartilage constructs using expanded human ACs and MSCs. Stem Cells 2014.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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Efficacy of electromagnetic therapy for urinary incontinence: A systematic review.
Neurourol. Urodyn.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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To review whether patients with urinary incontinence (UI) treated with magnetic stimulation (MS) have a higher continence rate compared to sham.
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Using volume index and lateral hepatic angle to differentiate biliary atresia from TPN-associated cholestasis.
J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Differential diagnosis between biliary atresia (BA) and total parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis (TPN-AC) and early treatment for cholestatic infants are challenges for evaluating neonatal or infantile cholestasis. The aim of our retrospective study was to apply noninvasive indices of magnetic resonance images to differentiate BA from TPN-AC.
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Insomnia subtypes and the subsequent risks of stroke: report from a nationally representative cohort.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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The studies assessing the impact of insomnia on stroke are still lacking. We aim to investigate insomnia in relation to subsequent stroke during the 4-year follow-up.
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Effect of prescription refill on quality of care among patients with type 2 diabetes: an exploratory study.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Prescription refill might be effective in saving health expenditures, but whether a refilled prescription that reduces physician consultation affects quality of diabetes care is unknown. This study sought to examine the effect of prescription refill on the outcome quality of diabetes care.
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Effect of menarche onset on the clinical course in females with chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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To investigate the impact of menarche on the natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in women.
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Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project classification improves prediction of post-thrombolysis symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage.
BMC Neurol
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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The Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification is a simple stroke classification system with value in predicting clinical outcomes. We investigated whether and how the addition of OCSP classification to the Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke (SITS) symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) risk score improved the predictive performance.
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N?-carboxymethyllysine-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress promotes endothelial cell injury through Nox4/MKP-3 interaction.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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N(?)-carboxymethyllysine (CML) is an important driver of diabetic vascular complications and endothelial cell dysfunction. However, how CML dictates specific cellular responses and the roles of protein tyrosine phosphatases and ERK phosphorylation remain unclear. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum (ER) localization of MAPK phosphatase-3 (MKP-3) is critical in regulating ERK inactivation and promoting NADPH oxidase-4 (Nox4) activation in CML-induced endothelial cell injury. We demonstrated that serum CML levels were significantly increased in type 2 diabetes patients and diabetic animals. CML induced ER stress and apoptosis, reduced ERK activation, and increased MKP-3 protein activity in HUVECs and SVECs. MKP-3 siRNA transfection, but not that of MKP-1 or MKP-2, abolished the effects of CML on HUVECs. Nox4-mediated activation of MKP-3 regulated the switch to ERK dephosphorylation. CML also increased the integration of MKP-3 with ERK, which was blocked by silencing MKP-3. Exposure of antioxidants abolished CML-increased MKP-3 activity and protein expression. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining of both MKP-3 and CML was increased, but phospho-ERK staining was decreased in the aortic endothelium of streptozotocin-induced and high-fat diet-induced diabetic mice. Our results indicate that an MKP-3 pathway might regulate ERK dephosphorylation through Nox4 during CML-triggered endothelial cell dysfunction/injury, suggesting that therapeutic strategies targeting the Nox4/MKP-3 interaction or MKP-3 activation may have clinical implications for diabetic vascular complications.
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Curative use of forequarter amputation for recurrent breast cancer over an axillary area: a case report and literature review.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Axillary recurrence of breast cancer that involves the brachial neurovascular bundle is uncommon. However, for many patients with such recurrence, forequarter amputation can play a palliative role in relieving excruciating pain and paralysis of the upper limb. Further, for those patients who do not have distant metastasis or other local-regional recurrence, forequarter amputation provides a chance for a cure. Only a few case reports of curative amputations for recurrent breast cancer are present in the literature. Here, we report a case of forequarter amputation for curative treatment of axillary recurrent breast cancer, together with a literature review. To date, we have followed the patient for three years after amputation, during which there has been no evidence of recurrence or metastasis. Although radical resection is feasible, it can be accompanied by surgical wound complications and psychosocial stress. Therefore, an organized multidisciplinary approach is needed to ensure the success of radical resection.
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Enzymatic synthesis of lipid II and analogues.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted active research in the development of antibiotics with new modes of action. Among all essential bacterial proteins, transglycosylase polymerizes lipid?II into peptidoglycan and is one of the most favorable targets because of its vital role in peptidoglycan synthesis. Described in this study is a practical enzymatic method for the synthesis of lipid?II, coupled with cofactor regeneration, to give the product in a 50-70% yield. This development depends on two key steps: the overexpression of MraY for the synthesis of lipid?I and the use of undecaprenol kinase for the preparation of polyprenol phosphates. This method was further applied to the synthesis of lipid?II analogues. It was found that MraY and undecaprenol kinase can accept a wide range of lipids containing various lengths and configurations. The activity of lipid?II analogues for bacterial transglycolase was also evaluated.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, but not body weight, correlated with a reduction in depression scale scores in men with metabolic syndrome: a prospective weight-reduction study.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Obesity, a critical component of metabolic syndrome (MetS), is associated with depression. Deficiency of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in the mechanism of depression. We hypothesized that weight reduction would improve depressive symptoms via increasing BDNF levels in obese men.
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Activation of hepatic inflammatory pathways by catecholamines is associated with hepatic insulin resistance in male ischemic stroke rats.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Patients who experience acute ischemic stroke may develop hyperglycemia, even in the absence of diabetes. In the current study we determined the effects of acute stroke on hepatic insulin signaling, TNF-? expression, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, the activities of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), inhibitor ?B kinase ? (IKK-?), and nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathways. Rats with cerebral ischemia developed higher blood glucose, and insulin levels, and insulin resistance index, as well as hepatic gluconeogenic enzyme expression compared with the sham-treated group. The hepatic TNF-? mRNA and protein levels were elevated in stroke rats in association with increased ER stress, phosphorylation of JNK1/2 and IKK-? proteins, I?B/NF-?B signaling, and phosphorylation of insulin receptor-1 (IRS-1) at serine residue. The basal and insulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation of IRS-1 and AKT proteins was reduced. In addition, acute stroke increased circulating catecholamines in association with hepatic adrenergic signaling activation. After administration of a nonselective ?-adrenergic receptor blocker (propranolol) before induction of cerebral ischemic injury, hepatic adrenergic transduction, TNF-? expression, ER stress, and the activation of the JNK1/2, IKK-?, and NF-?B pathways, and serine phosphorylation of IRS-1 were all attenuated. In contrast, the phosphorylated IRS-1 at tyrosine site and AKT levels were partially restored with improved poststroke hyperglycemia and insulin resistance index. These results suggest that acute ischemic stroke can activate proinflammatory pathways in the liver by the catecholamines and is associated with the development of hepatic insulin resistance.
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Regenerating Mandibular Bone Using rhBMP-2: Part 1-Immediate Reconstruction of Segmental Mandibulectomies.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To describe a surgical technique using a regenerative approach and internal fixation for immediate reconstruction of critical size bone defects after segmental mandibulectomy in dogs.
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Regenerating Mandibular Bone Using rhBMP-2: Part 2-Treatment of Chronic, Defect Non-Union Fractures.
Vet Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To describe a surgical technique using a regenerative approach and internal fixation for reconstruction of critical size bone defect non-union mandibular fractures.
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Is renal dysfunction associated with adverse stroke outcome after thrombolytic therapy?
Cerebrovasc. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Renal dysfunction is a prevalent comorbidity in acute stroke patients requiring thrombolytic therapy. Reports studying the relationship between renal dysfunction and risk of postthrombolytic symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) are contradictory. We aimed to compare the safety and effectiveness of thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke patients with and without renal dysfunction.
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Automatic detection and quantification of acute cerebral infarct by fuzzy clustering and histographic characterization on diffusion weighted MR imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Determination of the volumes of acute cerebral infarct in the magnetic resonance imaging harbors prognostic values. However, semiautomatic method of segmentation is time-consuming and with high interrater variability. Using diffusion weighted imaging and apparent diffusion coefficient map from patients with acute infarction in 10 days, we aimed to develop a fully automatic algorithm to measure infarct volume. It includes an unsupervised classification with fuzzy C-means clustering determination of the histographic distribution, defining self-adjusted intensity thresholds. The proposed method attained high agreement with the semiautomatic method, with similarity index 89.9 ± 6.5%, in detecting cerebral infarct lesions from 22 acute stroke patients. We demonstrated the accuracy of the proposed computer-assisted prompt segmentation method, which appeared promising to replace the laborious, time-consuming, and operator-dependent semiautomatic segmentation.
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Revised iScore to predict outcomes after acute ischemic stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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The iScore is a validated tool to predict mortality and functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke. It incorporates stroke subtype according to the Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment (TOAST) classification as one of its factors. However, the TOAST stroke subtype may not be easily determined without extensive investigations. We aimed to test if the stroke subtype can be substituted by the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project (OCSP) classification. We applied the iScore and the revised iScore, in which the TOAST subtype was replaced by the OCSP classification, to patients admitted to a single hospital for acute ischemic stroke. Outcome measures included poor functional status (modified Rankin scale score, 3-6) at discharge and 3 months. The performance between the iScore and the revised iScore was assessed by determining the discrimination and calibration of the scores. We studied 3196 patients at the acute stage, and among them 2349 patients were available for the 3-month assessment. The discrimination of the revised iScore was comparable with the iScore for poor outcome at discharge (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, .767 versus .775; P=.06) and at 3-month (.801 versus .810; P=.06). The correlation between the observed and the expected outcomes was high for both the iScore (Pearson correlation coefficient, .993 at discharge and .995 at 3 months; both P<.0001) and the revised iScore (.985 and .993, respectively; both P<.0001). The revised iScore reliably predicts clinical outcomes at discharge and 3 months for patients with acute ischemic stroke.
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Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis reveals recurrent genomic alterations associated with histopathologic features in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent studies indicate that genomic alterations (GAs) are associated with many human malignancies. Genome-wide analysis of GAs involved in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and association with histopathologic features are limited. To help characterize this relatively rare neoplasm, we collected 32 frozen tissue samples of ICC to study GAs and molecular karyotypes by using single-nucleotide polymorphism array. Recurrent GAs occurring in at least 40% of the patients were further correlated with histopathologic features. Gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p13 were significantly associated with larger tumor size more than 5 cm in diameter; and loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 with tumor multiplicity. Moreover, losses of 1p36.32-p35.3, 3p26.3-p22.2, 4q13.1-q21.23, 4q31.3-q34.3 and 4q34.3-35.2 were inclined to be associated with high histological grade. As to tumor vascular invasion, gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 and losses of 3p22.1-p12.3 and 4q13.2-q35.2 were significantly associated with tumor vascular invasion. Some regions were concurrently associated with multiple histopathologic characteristics, including loss of 4q13.2-q35.2 associated with larger tumor size, high histological grade and vascular invasion; losses of 1p36.33-p35.3 and 3p26.3-p22.2 with larger tumor size and high histological grade; and gain of 1q21.3-q23.1 with larger tumor size and vascular invasion. Our study indicates that complex chromosomal instability is characteristic of ICC. Detecting crucial GAs will enable risk stratification and development of personalized therapies.
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Infantile hepatitis B in immunized children: risk for fulminant hepatitis and long-term outcomes.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Infantile hepatitis B after neonatal immunoprophylaxis is a rare yet distinct disease. This study aimed to analyze the long-term outcomes and risk factors in immunized infants with hepatitis B.
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Impacts of endoscopic gastroesophageal flap valve grading on pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Gastroesophageal flap valve (GEFV) endoscopic grading is reported to be associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults; however its role in pediatric groups remains unknown. This study aimed to investigate the significance of GEFV grading and the associations to multichannel intraluminal impedance and pH monitoring (MII-pH) in children with GERD.
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TMPRSS6 rs855791 polymorphism influences the susceptibility to iron deficiency anemia in women at reproductive age.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Genome-wide-association studies have identified the TMPRSS6 polymorphism rs855791 has the strongest association with red blood cell indices or iron parameters in general population. Whether this genetic variant influences the susceptibility of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in women with menstruation has not been well studied.
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Weight-based policy of hepatitis B vaccination in very low birth weight infants in Taiwan: a retrospective cross-sectional study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The current recommendation of giving the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine to very low birth weight (VLBW) infants at 30 days of chronologic age usually is not practical, because most VLBW infants are not medically stable at that age. We use an alternative body-weight-based protocol, and evaluate its efficacy in an endemic area under a universal immunization program.
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Prognostic features of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in an ER(+) breast cancer model system.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aberrantly expressed signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) predicts poor prognosis, primarily in estrogen receptor positive (ER(+)) breast cancers. Activated STAT3 is overexpressed in luminal A subtype cells. The mechanisms contributing to the prognosis and/or subtype relevant features of STAT3 in ER(+) breast cancers are through multiple interacting regulatory pathways, including STAT3-MYC, STAT3-ER?, and STAT3-MYC-ER? interactions, as well as the direct action of activated STAT3. These data predict malignant events, treatment responses and a novel enhancer of tamoxifen resistance. The inferred crosstalk between ER? and STAT3 in regulating their shared target gene-METAP2 is partially validated in the luminal B breast cancer cell line-MCF7. Taken together, we identify a poor prognosis relevant gene set within the STAT3 network and a robust one in a subset of patients. VEGFA, ABL1, LYN, IGF2R and STAT3 are suggested therapeutic targets for further study based upon the degree of differential expression in our model.
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Lipoamide channel-binding sulfonamides selectively inhibit mycobacterial lipoamide dehydrogenase.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Tuberculosis remains a global health emergency that calls for treatment regimens directed at new targets. Here we explored lipoamide dehydrogenase (Lpd), a metabolic and detoxifying enzyme in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) whose deletion drastically impairs Mtbs ability to establish infection in the mouse. Upon screening more than 1.6 million compounds, we identified N-methylpyridine 3-sulfonamides as potent and species-selective inhibitors of Mtb Lpd affording >1000-fold selectivity versus the human homologue. The sulfonamides demonstrated low nanomolar affinity and bound at the lipoamide channel in an Lpd-inhibitor cocrystal. Their selectivity could be attributed, at least partially, to hydrogen bonding of the sulfonamide amide oxygen with the species variant Arg93 in the lipoamide channel. Although potent and selective, the sulfonamides did not enter mycobacteria, as determined by their inability to accumulate in Mtb to effective levels or to produce changes in intracellular metabolites. This work demonstrates that high potency and selectivity can be achieved at the lipoamide-binding site of Mtb Lpd, a site different from the NAD(+)/NADH pocket targeted by previously reported species-selective triazaspirodimethoxybenzoyl inhibitors.
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The Impact of Hepatitis B Virus Precore/Core Gene Carboxyl Terminal Mutations on Viral Biosynthesis and the Host Immune Response.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Background.?We aimed to elucidate the impact of hepatitis B virus (HBV) precore/core gene mutations on spontaneous hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) seroconversion, HBV biosynthesis, and the human immune responses in chronic HBV-infected patients.Methods.?We analyzed the HBV precore/core gene sequences by cloning method in 33 chronic HBV-infected patients during the inflammatory phase before spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion. The impact of the most prevalent mutant on HBeAg biosynthesis was assessed by Western blotting and native agarose gel analysis in Huh7 cells, and the human immune responses were assessed by in vitro stimulation of CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes of chronic HBV-infected subjects.Results.?The P135Q and G1896A were the most prevalent mutants before HBeAg seroconversion, acting as markers of HBeAg seroconversion (hazard ratios = 2.75 and 4.50; P = .01 and <.001, respectively). The P135Q mutants displayed decreased HBeAg secretion and HBV capsid molecular weight, while showing increased 22 kD HBeAg proprotein accumulation in Huh7 cells. The P135Q mutant peptide induced less interferon-? expression in CD3(+)CD8(+) T lymphocytes in HBeAg-negative subjects compared to the wild-type peptide (P = .03).Conclusions.?The HBV P135Q mutant emergence during the inflammatory phase was associated with HBeAg seroconversion. It was associated with altered HBV capsid assembly, HBeAg biosynthesis, and reduced human immune responses following HBeAg seroconversion.
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New continuous fluorometric assay for bacterial transglycosylase using Förster resonance energy transfer.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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The emergence of antibiotic resistance has prompted scientists to search for new antibiotics. Transglycosylase (TGase) is an attractive target for new antibiotic discovery due to its location on the outer membrane of bacteria and its essential role in peptidoglycan synthesis. Though there have been a few molecules identified as TGase inhibitors in the past thirty years, none of them have been developed into antibiotics for humans. The slow pace of development is perhaps due to the lack of continuous, quantitative, and high-throughput assay available for the enzyme. Herein, we report a new continuous fluorescent assay based on Förster resonance energy transfer, using lipid II analogues with a dimethylamino-azobenzenesulfonyl quencher in the lipid chain and a coumarin fluorophore in the peptide chain. During the process of transglycosylation, the quencher-appended polyprenol is released and the fluorescence of coumarin can be detected. Using this system, the substrate specificity and affinity of lipid II analogues bearing various numbers and configurations of isoprene units were investigated. Moreover, the inhibition constants of moenomycin and two previously identified small molecules were also determined. In addition, a high-throughput screening using the new assay was conducted to identify potent TGase inhibitors from a 120,000 compound library. This new continuous fluorescent assay not only provides an efficient and convenient way to study TGase activities, but also enables the high-throughput screening of potential TGase inhibitors for antibiotic discovery.
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The surface carbohydrates of the Echinococcus granulosus larva interact selectively with the rodent Kupffer cell receptor.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2013
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The larvae of the cestodes belonging to the genus Echinococcus dwell primarily in mammalian liver. They are protected by the laminated layer (LL), an acellular mucin-based structure. The glycans decorating these mucins constitute the overwhelming majority of molecules exposed by these larvae to their hosts. However, their decoding by host innate immunity has not been studied. Out of 36 mammalian innate receptors with carbohydrate-binding domains, expressed as Fc fusions, only the mouse Kupffer cell receptor (KCR; CLEC4F) bound significantly to the Echinococcus granulosus LL mucins. The receptor also bound the Echinococcus multilocularis LL. Out of several synthetic glycans representing Echinococcus LL structures, the KCR bound strongly in particular to those ending in Gal?1-4Gal?1-3 or Gal?1-4Gal?1-4GlcNAc, both characteristic LL carbohydrate motifs. LL carbohydrates may be optimized to interact with the KCR, expressed only in liver macrophages, cells known to contribute to the tolerogenic antigen presentation that is characteristic of this organ.
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Mannose-binding lectin gene polymorphisms and mycobacterial lymphadenitis in young patients.
Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J.
PUBLISHED: 09-07-2013
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Tuberculosis (TB) has recently re-emerged as a major public health threat worldwide. There is strong evidence that host genetic factors influence individual susceptibility to TB and that, once infected, young children and immunocompromised patients are at increased risk for mycobacterial disease and progression to extrapulmonary lymphadenitis.
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EBV-encoded small RNA1 and nonresolving inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by perpetuated inflammation in multiple joints. To date, there is no cure for RA, and the causal factor for non-resolving inflammation in RA remains unclear. In this study, we initially observed expression of Epstein-Barr virus-encoded small RNA1 (EBER1) in the synovial tissue of all five patients who showed nonresolving RA inflammation. By contrast, EBER1 was detected in the synovial tissue of only one out of seven patients with advanced osteoarthritis (OA; p < 0.01, Fishers exact test). To confirm this finding, we conducted a second study on synovial tissue samples taken from 23 patients with nonresolving RA inflammation and 13 patients with OA. All synovial samples from patients with nonresolving inflammation of RA showed positive expression of EBER1 (23/23, 100%), whereas none of the synovial samples from patients with OA showed expression of EBER1 (0/13, 0%; p < 0.001, by Fishers exact test). In vitro, transfection of RA synovial fibroblasts with EBER1 induced the production of interleukin-6. Taken together, these data strongly suggest that nonresolving RA inflammation is strongly related to the presence of EBER1, which might be, at least partially, responsible for synovial fibroblast interleukin-6 production.
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Clinical diagnosis of pandemic A(H1N1) 2009 influenza in children with negative rapid influenza diagnostic test by lymphopenia and lower C-reactive protein levels.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2013
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The sensitivity of rapid influenza diagnostic test (RIDT) of children with influenza-like illness (ILI) remains low.
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Does Simultaneous Inversion During Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy Improve Stone Clearance: A Long-term, Prospective, Single-blind, Randomized Controlled Study.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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To determine the efficacy of a combination of simultaneous shock wave lithotripsy (SWL), hydration with controlled inversion therapy compared with SWL with hydration alone in patients with lower pole calyx stones.
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Acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination outperforms acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes.
Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2013
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To compare the efficacy and safety of acarbose plus metformin fixed-dose combination (FDC) versus acarbose monotherapy for type 2 diabetes (T2D).
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Predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis: Stroke territory as a potential pitfall.
J. Neurol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Stroke vascular territories may influence response to thrombolysis, although supporting data are limited. The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the current available prediction scores might inaccurately estimate the risk of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous thrombolysis in patients with posterior circulation stroke.
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Comparison of risk-scoring systems in predicting symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage after intravenous thrombolysis.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Various risk score models have been developed to predict symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) after intravenous thrombolysis for acute ischemic stroke. In this study, we aimed to determine the prediction performance of these risk scores in a Taiwanese population
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The Effectiveness and Mechanism of Toona sinensis Extract Inhibit Attachment of Pandemic Influenza A (H1N1) Virus.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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TSL-1 is a fraction of the aqueous extract from the tender leaf of Toona sinensis Roem, a nutritious vegetable. The pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus is a recently described, rapidly contagious respiratory pathogen which can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and poses a major public health threat. In this study, we found that TSL-1 inhibited viral yields on MDCK plaque formation by pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus on infected A549 cells with high selectivity index. Meanwhile, TSL-1 also suppressed viral genome loads in infected A549 cells, quantified by qRT-PCR. This study further demonstrated that TSL-1 inhibited pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus activity through preventing attachment of A549 cells but not penetration. TSL-1 inhibited viral attachment through significant downregulation of adhesion molecules and chemokines (VCAM-1, ICAM-1, E-selectin, IL-8, and fractalkine) compared to Amantadine. Our results suggest that TSL-1 may be used as an alternative treatment and prophylaxis against pandemic influenza A (H1N1) virus.
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Trans-ethnic fine mapping identifies a novel independent locus at the 3 end of CDKAL1 and novel variants of several susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified ?60 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. A majority of these loci have been discovered and tested only in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of trans-ethnic effects of these loci in an East Asian population.
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Low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with atherosclerotic stroke: a prospective cohort study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of baseline high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) on initial stroke severity and clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke.
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Alteration of the fibrocartilaginous nature of scaffoldless constructs formed from leporine meniscus cells and chondrocytes through manipulation of culture and processing conditions.
Cells Tissues Organs (Print)
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Articular cartilage and the menisci of the knee joint lack intrinsic repair capacity; thus, injuries to these tissues result in eventual osteoarthrotic changes to the joint. Tissue engineering offers the potential to replace damaged cartilage and mitigate long-term debilitating changes to the joint. In an attempt to enhance the ability of adult articular chondrocytes (ACs) and meniscus cells (MCs) to produce robust scaffoldless neocartilage, the effects of passage number, cryopreservation, and redifferentiation prior to construct formation were studied. By increasing passage number, smaller donor biopsies could be used to generate sufficient cells for tissue engineering and, in this study, no detrimental effects were observed when employing passage-4 versus passage-3 cells. Cryopreservation of cells would enable the generation of a cell bank thus reducing lead time and enhancing consistency of cell-based therapies. Interestingly, cryopreservation was shown to enhance the biomechanical properties of the resultant self-assembled constructs. With regard to redifferentiation prior to construct formation, aggregate redifferentiation was shown to enhance the biochemical and biomechanical properties of self-assembled constructs. By increasing passaging number, cryopreserving cells, and applying aggregate redifferentiation prior to neotissue formation, the utility of ACs and MCs in tissue engineering can be enhanced.
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Mother-to-infant transmission of hepatitis B virus infection: significance of maternal viral load and strategies for intervention.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Immunoprophylaxis reduces but does not completely eradicate hepatitis B virus (HBV) transmission. This prospective study aims at assessing the rate and risk factors of maternally transmitted HBV infection.
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The effect of removing plugs and adding arch support to foam based insoles on plantar pressures in people with diabetic peripheral neuropathy.
J Foot Ankle Res
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Removable plug insoles appear to be beneficial for patients with diabetic neuropathic feet to offload local plantar pressure. However, quantitative evidence of pressure reduction by means of plug removal is limited. The value of additional insole accessories, such as arch additions, has not been tested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of removing plugs from foam based insoles, and subsequently adding extra arch support, on plantar pressures.
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Heat-shock protein dysregulation is associated with functional and pathological TDP-43 aggregation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Conformational disorders are involved in various neurodegenerative diseases. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are the major contributors to neurodegenerative disease; however, ROS that affect the structural changes in misfolded disease proteins have yet to be well characterized. Here we demonstrate that the intrinsic propensity of TDP-43 to aggregate drives the assembly of TDP-43-positive stress granules and soluble toxic TDP-43 oligomers in response to a ROS insult via a disulfide crosslinking-independent mechanism. Notably, ROS-induced TDP-43 protein assembly correlates with the dynamics of certain TDP-43-associated chaperones. The heat-shock protein (HSP)-90 inhibitor 17-AAG prevents ROS-induced TDP-43 aggregation, alters the type of TDP-43 multimers and reduces the severity of pathological TDP-43 inclusions. In summary, our study suggests that a common mechanism could be involved in the pathogenesis of conformational diseases that result from HSP dysregulation.
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Role of serum dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate level on the clearance of chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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BACKGROUND: The natural course of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and relevant host factors remain unclear. This study aims to investigate the impact of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) on the clearance of chronic HBV infection. METHODS: Two hundred and one hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic HBV-infected children (101 females) were recruited. Serum DHEAS levels were determined in all subjects at 15 years of age. Serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels, DHEAS levels, HBV seromarkers, genotypes, and viral loads were included for analysis. RESULTS: Subjects with serum DHEAS levels >3.6 ?mol/L at midpuberty had earlier HBeAg seroconversion (median age, 14.7 vs. 18.2 years; HR, 1.9; P = 0.03), and the impact persisted even after adjusting for gender, HBV genotype, peak ALT levels, and viral load. Subjects with DHEAS levels >3.6 ?mol/L at 15 years of age had more HBV viral titers decrement from 15 to 20 years of age (mean ± SD, 3.5 ± 2.5 vs. 1.2 ± 2.2 log10 copies/mL; P = 0.05) and shorter duration for HBeAg seroconversion than others (mean ± SD, 5.6 ± 4.4 vs. 9.2 ± 4.9 years; P = 0.02). Higher serum DHEAS levels at 15 years of age are also associated with greater hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) titer decrement from 15 to 20 years of age (correlation coefficient = 0.45, P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS: Higher serum DHEAS levels at midpuberty predicts more HBV viral load and HBsAg titer decrement from midpuberty to young adulthood. Higher serum DHEAS levels at midpuberty also correlate with younger age of spontaneous HBeAg seroconversion in chronic genotype B and C HBV-infected patients.
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In-hospital mortality risk estimation in patients with acute nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding undergoing hemodialysis: a retrospective cohort study.
Ren Fail
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a major cause of clinical bleeding among patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). This study aimed to investigate the association between mortality and UGIB in patients with uremia.
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Enhancing post-expansion chondrogenic potential of costochondral cells in self-assembled neocartilage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The insufficient healing capacity of articular cartilage necessitates mechanically functional biologic tissue replacements. Using cells to form biomimetic cartilage implants is met with the challenges of cell scarcity and donor site morbidity, requiring expanded cells that possess the ability to generate robust neocartilage. To address this, this study assesses the effects of expansion medium supplementation (bFGF, TFP, FBS) and self-assembled construct seeding density (2, 3, 4 million cells/5 mm dia. construct) on the ability of costochondral cells to generate biochemically and biomechanically robust neocartilage. Results show TFP (1 ng/mL TGF-?1, 5 ng/mL bFGF, 10 ng/mL PDGF) supplementation of serum-free chondrogenic expansion medium enhances the post-expansion chondrogenic potential of costochondral cells, evidenced by increased glycosaminoglycan content, decreased type I/II collagen ratio, and enhanced compressive properties. Low density (2 million cells/construct) enhances matrix synthesis and tensile and compressive mechanical properties. Combined, TFP and Low density interact to further enhance construct properties. That is, with TFP, Low density increases type II collagen content by over 100%, tensile stiffness by over 300%, and compressive moduli by over 140%, compared with High density. In conclusion, the interaction of TFP and Low density seeding enhances construct material properties, allowing for a mechanically functional, biomimetic cartilage to be formed using clinically relevant costochondral cells.
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Long-term follow-up of children with postnatal immunoprophylaxis failure who were infected with hepatitis B virus surface antigen gene mutant.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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The long-term evolution and outcomes of infection with a hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) gene mutant (hereafter, "HBsAg-mutant HBV") among immunized children remain unclear.
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The therapeutic potential and mechanisms of action of quercetin in relation to lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in vitro and in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Sepsis caused by Gram-negative bacterial infection is characterized by extensive inflammatory cytokine production, which leads to multiple organ failure and a high lethality rate. Therefore, compounds that are able to alleviate profound inflammatory responses may have therapeutic potential in relation to sepsis. Quercetin, one of the flavonoids found widely in the human diet, has been reported to have many health benefits, but the mechanisms underlying its biological effects remain obscure. In the present study, our aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which quercetin inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production and to evaluate the capacity of quercetin to attenuate the mortality rate in a mice model of lethal sepsis. Our results show that quercetin significantly attenuates LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-1? (IL-1?) in RAW264.7 macrophages. The LPS-stimulated phosphorylations of the inhibitors of ?B kinase (IKKs), Akt, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) are also inhibited by quercetin. Quercetin causes a significant reduction in the phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of ?B? (I?B?) and in the nuclear level of nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B), the latter being associated with decreased NF-?B binding activity. Most importantly, acute administration of quercetin reduces the lethality rate and circulating levels of TNF-? and IL-1? in C57BL/6J mice with endotoxemia induced by LPS, whereas chronic dietary supplementation with quercetin shows no inhibitory effect on serum TNF-? and IL-1? levels. These findings provide clues that quercetin may be a promising agent for the prevention of systemic inflammatory diseases such as sepsis.
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A Glycolipid Adjuvant, 7DW8-5, Enhances CD8+ T Cell Responses Induced by an Adenovirus-Vectored Malaria Vaccine in Non-Human Primates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A key strategy to a successful vaccine against malaria is to identify and develop new adjuvants that can enhance T-cell responses and improve protective immunity. Upon co-administration with a rodent malaria vaccine in mice, 7DW8-5, a recently identified novel analog of ?-galactosylceramide (?-GalCer), enhances the level of malaria-specific protective immune responses more strongly than the parent compound. In this study, we sought to determine whether 7DW8-5 could provide a similar potent adjuvant effect on a candidate human malaria vaccine in the more relevant non-human primate (NHP) model, prior to committing to clinical development. The candidate human malaria vaccine, AdPfCA (NMRC-M3V-Ad-PfCA), consists of two non-replicating recombinant adenoviral (Ad) vectors, one expressing the circumsporozoite protein (CSP) and another expressing the apical membrane antigen-1 (AMA1) of Plasmodium falciparum. In several phase 1 clinical trials, AdPfCA was well tolerated and demonstrated immunogenicity for both humoral and cell-mediated responses. In the study described herein, 25 rhesus macaques received prime and boost intramuscular (IM) immunizations of AdPfCA alone or with an ascending dose of 7DW8-5. Our results indicate that 7DW8-5 is safe and well-tolerated and provides a significant enhancement (up to 9-fold) in malaria-specific CD8+ T-cell responses after both priming and boosting phases, supporting further clinical development.
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Fracture in asian women with breast cancer occurs at younger age.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Western breast cancer survivors have an increased risk of osteoporosis and bone fracture. Breast cancer occurs 10 to 20 years earlier in Asian women than in Western women. We investigated if younger Asian women with breast cancer also have increased risk of fracture.
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Time trend of multiple myeloma and associated secondary primary malignancies in Asian patients: a Taiwan population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Studies involving second malignancies in patients with multiple myeloma are limited for the Asian population. Using data from population-based insurance claims, we assessed the risk of developing secondary malignancies after multiple myeloma, in particular hematologic malignancies. A retrospective cohort study was conducted in 3970 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma from the registry of catastrophic illnesses between 1997 and 2009. A total of 15880 subjects without multiple myeloma were randomly selected as comparisons from the insured population, frequency-matched based on gender, age, and the date of diagnosis. The incidence of secondary malignancies was ascertained through cross-referencing with the National Cancer Registry System. The Cox proportional hazards model was used for analyses. The incidence of multiple myeloma in the insured population increased annually. The overall incidence of secondary malignancy was lower in the multiple myeloma cohort than in the comparison cohort (93.6 vs. 104.5 per 10,000 person-years, IRR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.78-1.04). The incidence of hematologic malignancies was 11-fold greater for multiple myeloma patients (47.2 vs. 4.09 per 10,000 person-years) with an adjusted HR of 13.0 (95% CI = 7.79-21.6) compared with the comparison cohort. The relative risk of secondary malignancy was also strong for myeloid leukemia (21.2 vs. 1.36 per 10,000 person-years). Gender- and age-specific analysis for secondary hematologic malignancies showed that males and patients with multiple myeloma <60 years of age had a higher risk of secondary malignancy than females and patients with multiple myeloma >60 years of age. In conclusion, patients with multiple myeloma, especially younger patients, are at a high risk of hematologic malignancies.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.