Methotrexate (MTX) is used in low doses to treat a variety of diseases. Although the mechanism responsible for its therapeutic action is unknown, MTX membrane transport proteins (influx and/or efflux) can be major determinants of pharmacokinetics, adverse drug reactions and clinical response profiles. With progess in pharmacogenomics, the improvement of the prediction of patients' therapeutic outcome treated with low doses of MTX will offer a powerful tool for the translation of transporter SNPs into clinical practice and will be essential to sustain a breakthrough in the field of personalized medicine. Therefore, this paper provides an update on the current data on SNPs in genes encoding low-dose MTX membrane transport proteins and their relevance as possible biomarkers of MTX therapeutic outcome.
Rheumatic diseases (RD) self-management interventions are designed to improve health-related quality of life, health care utilization, and perceived self-efficacy. Despite these demonstrated good results, there are several issues that hinder or render less appealing these interventions. One economically and socially viable solution is exploiting the potential of Smartphone technology. This potential comes from Smartphones pervasive presence in actual society, combined with the advantages of being personal, intuitive, and computationally powerful, with capability to support applications and assist its user throughout different activities of daily living and environments persistently. With their global acceptance increasing quickly, there is a great opportunity for mobile health in using Smartphone applications for RD self-management. Besides the potential of such applications, research on the development and evaluation of such applications is in the early stages. Therefore, it is important to foresee its future applicability in order to meet the needs of the twenty-first century.
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is 1 of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT), mainly within the first 100 days after transplantation. We aimed to characterize CMV infection in a cohort of 305 patients with different malignancies undergoing aHSCT at the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto between January 2008 and December 2012. In total, 184 patients (60.3%) developed CMV infection, mainly viral reactivations rather than primary infections (96.2% versus 3.8%, respectively). The majority of patients (166 of 184) developed CMV infection ?100 days after transplantation, with median time to infection of 29 days (range, 0 to 1285) and median duration of infection of 10 days (range, 2 to 372). Multivariate analysis revealed that CMV infection was more than 10-fold increased in donor (D)-/recipient (R)+ and D+/R+ (odds ratio [OR], 10.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.35 to 25.4; P < .001) and in patients with mismatched or unrelated donors (OR, 2.54; 95% CI, 1.34 to 4.80; P = .004). Cox regression model showed that the risk of death was significantly increased in patients >38 years old (OR, 1.89; 95% CI, 1.14 to 3.12; P = .0137), who underwent transplantation with peripheral blood (OR, 3.02; 95% CI, 1.33 to 6.86; P = .008), with mismatched or unrelated donor (OR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.48 to 3.13; P < .001), and who developed CMV infection (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07 to 2.90; P = .025). Moreover, patients who developed CMV infection had a significantly reduced median post-transplantation survival (16 versus 36 months; P = .002).
Methotrexate (MTX) is used for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment showing a wide toxicity profile. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes encoding for MTX transporters with the occurrence of MTX-related toxicity (overall and gastrointestinal). A total of 233 Portuguese RA patients were genotyped for 23 SNPs. Haplotype analyses were performed and a toxicogenetic risk index (TRI) was created for SNPs that revealed to be statistically significant. Regarding MTX overall toxicity, an increased risk was associated to SLC19A1 rs7499 G carriers (p = 0.017), SLC46A1 rs2239907 GG (p = 0.030) and, SLCO1B1 rs4149056 T carriers (p = 0.040) and TT (p = 0.019). TRI revealed that patients with Index 3 were 18-fold more likely to present an adverse drug reaction when compared to those with Index 1 (p = 0.001). For MTX gastrointestinal toxicity, results demonstrated an increased risk associated with SLC19A1 rs7499 G carriers (p = 0.012) and GG (p = 0.045), SLC19A1 rs1051266 G carriers (p = 0.034), SLC19A1 rs2838956 A carriers (p = 0.049) and, SLCO1B1 rs4149056 T carriers (p = 0.042) and TT (p = 0.025). Haplotype analyses showed association between GGAG haplotype for SLC19A1 rs7499, rs1051266, rs2838956 and rs3788200 with MTX gastrointestinal toxicity (p = 0.029). TRI revealed that patients with Index 4 were 9-fold more likely to present a gastrointestinal disorder when compared to those with Index 1 (p = 0.020). This study demonstrated that SLC19A1, SLC46A1 and SLCO1B1 genotypes may help to identify patients with increased risk of MTX-related overall toxicity and that SLC19A1 and SLCO1B1 genotypes, and SLC19A1 haplotypes may help to identify patients with increased risk of MTX-related gastrointestinal toxicity.
Methotrexate (MTX), the most used drug in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment, showing variability in clinical response, is often associated with genetic polymorphisms. This study aimed to elucidate the role of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T and aminoimidazole carboxamide adenosine ribonucleotide transformylase (ATIC) T675C polymorphisms and clinicopathological variables in clinical response to MTX in Portuguese RA patients.
MicroRNAs are non-coding RNAs with important functions in several biological processes, such as, regulation of cell cycle, immune response, inflammation, and apoptosis. In fact, deregulation and abnormal expression of these molecules is associated with human pathologies including cancer and several have already emerged as potential prognostic biomarkers in different neoplasias. miR-34a is directly regulated by p53 and acts as tumor suppressor while miR-125b plays a significant role in immune response and apoptosis. In cervical carcinogenesis, HPV proteins seem to interact with both miR-34a and miR-125b changing its expression and promoting persistent infection and cervical cancer development. In this review we describe the potential role of miR-125b and miR-34a in cervical carcinogenesis, including interaction with HPV and mechanism of deregulation. Additionally, their clinical applications in cervical cancer as prognostic/predictive biomarkers are also briefly discussed.
Therapeutic outcome of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients treated with methotrexate (MTX) can be modulated by thymidylate synthase (TS) levels, which may be altered by genetic polymorphisms in TS gene (TYMS). This study aims to elucidate the influence of TYMS polymorphisms in MTX therapeutic outcome (regarding both clinical response and toxicity) in Portuguese RA patients.
The pro-carcinogenic effects of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in colonic mucosa are not only regulated by the rates between Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) biosynthesis and 15-Hydroxyprostaglandin Dehydrogenase (15-PGDH)-dependent degradation but also the steady-state levels of PGE2 in extracellular microenvironment, maintained by key specific prostaglandin transporters, the Multidrug Resistance Protein (MRP4) (efflux carrier) and Prostaglandin Transporter (PGT) (influx carrier). To understand the contribution of genetic variability in genes coding for COX-2/15-PGDH/MRP4/PGT proteins in CRC development, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study involving 246 CRC patients and 480 cancer-free controls. A total of 51 tagSNPs were characterized using the Sequenom platform through multiplexed amplification followed by mass-spectrometric product separation or allelic discrimination using real-time PCR. Seven tagSNPs were implicated in CRC development: the rs689466 in COX-2 gene, the rs1346271 and rs1426945 in 15-PGDH, the rs6439448 and rs7616492 in PGT and rs1751051 and rs1751031 in MRP4 coding genes. Upon a stratified analysis a measurable gene-environment interaction was noticed between rs689466 and smoking habits, with individuals ever-smokers carriers of rs689466 GG homozygous genotype having a nearly 6-fold increased susceptibility for CRC onset (95%CI: 1.49-22.42, P?=?0.011). Furthermore, the multifactor dimensionality reduction (MDR) analysis identified an overall four-factor best gene-gene interactive model, including the rs1426945, rs6439448, rs1751051 and rs1751031 polymorphisms. This model had the highest cross-validation consistency (10/10, P<0.0001) and an accuracy of 0.6957 and was further associated with a 5-fold increased risk for CRC development (95%CI: 3.89-7.02, P<0.0001). In conclusion, specific low penetrance genes in the pro-carcinogenic PGE2 pathway appear to modulate the genetic susceptibility for CRC development. A clearer understanding on CRC etiology through the identification of biomarkers of colorectal carcinogenesis might allow a better definition of risk models that are more likely to benefit from targeted preventive strategies to reduce CRC burden.
Aim: The aim of our study was to characterize the association of clinicopathological variables and the SLC19A1/RFC-1 G80A polymorphism in methotrexate (MTX)-related toxicity in Portuguese patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Patients & methods: The study included 233 consecutively recruited patients with rheumatoid arthritis under MTX treatment. The SLC19A1 G80A polymorphism was evaluated by PCR-RFLP. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that SLC19A1 80G carriers had increased risk of gastrointestinal toxicity (odds ratio [OR]: 2.61, p = 0.019) and that regular folic acid supplementation was associated with both overall and gastrointestinal toxicity protection (OR: 0.15, p < 0.001 and OR: 0.19, p < 0.001, respectively). Multivariate analysis confirmed the association of SLC19A1 80G and regular folic acid supplementation to gastrointestinal toxicity (OR: 5.53 and 0.13, respectively). Moreover, a multivariate Cox regression model demonstrated a higher risk of earlier gastrointestinal toxicity in SLC19A1 80G carriers (hazard ratio: 3.63, p = 0.002). Conclusion: SLC19A1 G80A genotyping may be a useful tool for clinicians to identify patients at higher risk for developing gastrointestinal toxicity related to MTX treatment. Original submitted 16 October 2013; Revised submitted 4 December 2013.
TS is critical for providing the requisite nucleotide precursors in order to maintain DNA synthesis and repair. Furthermore, it is an important target for several drugs such as 5-fluorouracil and methotrexate. However, several mechanisms of resistance to TS inhibitors have been explained as linked to TYMS overexpression. Some authors have described the relationship between genetic polymorphisms on TYMS, in particular rs34743033, rs2853542 and rs34489327, with the development of several diseases and with the clinical response to drug therapy and/or survival. Nevertheless, the obtained results described in the literature are controversial, which has lead to a search strategy to understand the impact of these polymorphisms on molecular epidemiology and pharmacogenetics. With the progress of these scientific areas, early identification of individuals at risk of disease along with improvement in the prediction of patients outcome will offer a powerful tool for the translation of TYMS polymorphisms into clinical practice and individualization of treatments.
Tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-?) is a strong pro-inflammatory cytokine with important functions on immune response to viral infections. A single nucleotide polymorphism on the -308 position of the promoter region of TNFA gene characterised by a G > A transition has been associated with different TNF-? levels and therefore with differential susceptibility for the development several diseases. A cross-sectional case-control study was performed with 509 women with cancer from the northern region of Portugal, including 205 healthy women and 337 women with different cervical lesions including invasive cervical. The -308G > A polymorphism genotyping was performed with TaqMan® SNP Genotyping Assay and studied for its association with cervical cancer development. This study showed increased frequency of the -308A allele in women with any cervical lesions. Statistical analysis revealed that -308A carriers are associated with an almost 2-fold increased risk for invasive cervical cancer development (p?=?0.005; odds ratio (OR)?=?1.87). Similar results were found when comparing the risk of progression between preinvasive lesions and invasive cervical cancer development (p?=?0.002; OR?=?2.41). Our results reveal that -308 TNFA AA individuals are at increased risk of invasive cervical cancer development and more important, that the risk is significantly increased for the progression from premalignant lesion to invasive cancer. Considering previous data and this study, this polymorphism confirms to be a significant marker in our population.
Since early 60s that Cytomegalovirus was studied for its possible role in cervical cancer development. Despite several decades of studies and the description of CMV DNA in cervical samples, it is still doubtful what is the prevalence of Cytomegalovirus in cervix and if CMV can act as a co-factor in cervical carcinogenesis.
Infection by high-risk types of human papillomavirus (HPV) is considered necessary but not sufficient for the development of cervical cancer. Previous studies suggested that cytomegalovirus (CMV) and Epstein-barr virus (EBV) could be co-factors of HPV-associated carcinogenesis. The aim of this study was to characterize the prevalence of CMV and EBV and evaluate its association with the development cervical lesions in Portugal. The prevalence of CMV and EBV infections was determined by real-time PCR in 89 cervical samples from women with different histological lesions, who attended the Portuguese Institute of Oncology of Porto. This study revealed an overall prevalence of 4.5% for CMV and 10.1% for EBV. Age-stratified analysis revealed that CMV infection was present in individuals <30 and >60 years old, while EBV infection was present in all age groups. CMV was detected in 9.5% of low-grade lesions and in 22.2% of in situ/invasive carcinomas, while EBV infection was found in all different types of lesions. In addition, data revealed that CMV infection was associated with an increased risk of in situ/invasive carcinoma development (OR=1.28; P=0.035). The study reveals a low prevalence for both viruses; nevertheless, these results are important for knowledge on the shedding of EBV and CMV in cervical samples.
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare malignancy in Western countries that is widely associated with the infection by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Several studies have showed that a common allele (allele 2) of the 86-bp variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) polymorphism within intron 2 of the interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) gene is associated with several disorders, including viral-associated cancers.
Gastric cancer is preceded by a carcinogenesis pathway that includes gastritis caused by Helicobacter pylori infection, chronic atrophic gastritis that may progress to intestinal metaplasia (IM), dysplasia, and ultimately gastric carcinoma of the more common intestinal subtype. The identification of glycosylation changes in circulating serum proteins in patients with precursor lesions of gastric cancer is of high interest and represents a source of putative new biomarkers for early diagnosis and intervention. This study applies a glycoproteomic approach to identify altered glycoproteins expressing the simple mucin-type carbohydrate antigens T and STn in the serum of patients with gastritis, IM (complete and incomplete subtypes), and control healthy individuals. The immunohistochemistry analysis of the gastric mucosa of these patients showed expression of T and STn antigens in gastric lesions, with STn being expressed only in IM. The serum glycoproteomic analysis using 2D-gel electrophoresis, Western blot, and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry led to the identification of circulating proteins carrying these altered glycans. One of the glycoproteins identified was plasminogen, a protein that has been reported to play a role in H. pylori chronic infection of the gastric mucosa and is involved in extracellular matrix modeling and degradation. Plasminogen was further characterized and showed to carry STn antigens in patients with gastritis and IM. These results provide evidence of serum proteins displaying abnormal O-glycosylation in patients with precursor lesions of gastric carcinoma and include a panel of putative targets for the non-invasive clinical diagnosis of individuals with gastritis and IM.
The hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF1a) is a key regulator of tumour cell response to hypoxia, orchestrating mechanisms known to be involved in cancer aggressiveness and metastatic behaviour. In this study we sought to evaluate the association of a functional genetic polymorphism in HIF1A with overall and metastatic prostate cancer (PCa) risk and with response to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). The HIF1A +1772 C>T (rs11549465) polymorphism was genotyped, using DNA isolated from peripheral blood, in 1490 male subjects (754 with prostate cancer and 736 controls cancer-free) through Real-Time PCR. A nested group of cancer patients who were eligible for androgen deprivation therapy was followed up. Univariate and multivariate models were used to analyse the response to hormonal treatment and the risk for developing distant metastasis. Age-adjusted odds ratios were calculated to evaluate prostate cancer risk. Our results showed that patients under ADT carrying the HIF1A +1772 T-allele have increased risk for developing distant metastasis (OR, 2.0; 95%CI, 1.1-3.9) and an independent 6-fold increased risk for resistance to ADT after multivariate analysis (OR, 6.0; 95%CI, 2.2-16.8). This polymorphism was not associated with increased risk for being diagnosed with prostate cancer (OR, 0.9; 95%CI, 0.7-1.2). The HIF1A +1772 genetic polymorphism predicts a more aggressive prostate cancer behaviour, supporting the involvement of HIF1a in prostate cancer biological progression and ADT resistance. Molecular profiles using hypoxia markers may help predict clinically relevant prostate cancer and response to ADT.
It is well established the role of human papillomavirus (HPV) in cervical cancer (CC) etiology. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) infection seems to synergize with HPV in CC multistage process. The aim of this study was to assess the correlation of HPV and CT infection in young student women.
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is the leading cause of chronic liver injury in developed countries. Oligofructose (OFS) is a prebiotic with proven benefits for health. The aim of the study is to evaluate the effect of 10% OFS on hepatic morphology and lipid metabolism in Wistar Kyoto rats submitted to normal diet (ND) or high-fat diet (FD). Animals were treated for 7 weeks. Lipid profile and serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity were measured and liver histology evaluated at the end of the study. Ten percent OFS reduced triglyceride (TAG) levels when added to any of the diet regimens; 10% OFS decreased plasmatic urea in ND and plasmatic and urinary urea levels in FD; ND + 10% OFS treated rats showed lower ALP activity than controls. FD increased ALP activity, an effect not reversed by OFS. Animals submitted to FD have microscopic hepatic changes: marked steatosis with disarranged centrilobular zone structure; enlarged sinusoids; enlarged mitochondria and an increase in number and volume of adiposomes. Supplementation with 10% OFS in FD reversed those effects. In conclusion, 10% OFS supplementation prevented deleterious effects of FD such as alterations on lipid profile (TAG elevation) and hepatic morphologic changes. OFS decreased ALP activity in animals subjected to ND, which may have contributed to the differences on lipid metabolism.
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease, whose pathological and clinical patterns have changed in the last decades. In most western countries, decreases in incidence and mortality and a proximal migration have been reported. The clinical and pathological trends in an European country with high prevalence of gastric cancer were reviewed, based on the patients treated at a University Hospital.
The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) persists for long periods in latent state inside B-lymphocytes after primary infections, and reactivation usually occurs associated to immunosuppression conditions of the host. Recently, the detection of EBV DNA in circulation has been suggested as a predictor marker for the development of EBV related malignancies.
This study aimed to characterize the HPV infection status in adolescents and young university women in Portugal. The distribution of HPV genotypes was evaluated by PCR DNA genotyping after self-sampling collection from 435 women of exfoliated cervical cells using a commercial kit. We observed an overall frequency of HPV infection of 11.5%. Furthermore, HPV DNA prevalence was 16.6% in those young women that self-declared as sexually active. The more frequently detected HPV types were 31, 16, 53, and 61. Statistical analysis identified median age (OR = 3.56; P = 0.001), the number of lifetime sexual partners (OR = 4.50; P < 0.001), and years of sexual activity (OR = 2.36; P = 0.008) as risk factors for HPV acquisition. Hence, our study revealed that oncogenic HPV infection is common in young asymptomatic women Portuguese women, with a history of 2-5 sexual partners and over 2 year of sexual activity. Moreover, these results demonstrate that HPV detection performed in self-collected samples may be important to appraise better preventive strategies and to monitorize the influence of vaccination programmes within different populations.
Several reports have suggested the importance of p73 polymorphisms in tumor behavior. We investigated the role of a p73 gene polymorphism in the susceptibility to cervical lesions in a southwestern European population. Peripheral blood samples were obtained from Radiotherapy and Gynaecology Departments of Portuguese Institute of Oncology (Porto, Portugal), from 1998 to 2002. We analyzed the p73 cytosine thymine polymorphism in peripheral blood DNA of 176 healthy donors, 38 high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL), and 141 patients with primary untreated invasive cervical cancers (ICC), by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Our results demonstrate a twofold increased susceptibility to the development of HSIL in women carrying the p73 AT allele (OR=2.39; p=0.022). Further, this association seems to be more evident in women with high parity (OR=12.53; p=0.007). This is in agreement with the possible role of p73 in cervical carcinogenesis, namely, in human papillomavirus-infected transition zone subjected to the action of estrogens and in conjunction with disruption of differentiation program of this squamous epithelium that occurs in HSIL phase before the next step to invasiveness and squamous cervical cancer.
The interaction between HPV E6 and p53 protein is known as the most important event in HPV-associated carcinogenesis. Some in vitro studies suggested that p53 genetic variants are targeted for ubiquitin-proteasome degradation induced by E6 with different abilities. A common p53 variant at position 72 (R72P) has leaded to the development of several studies regarding its role on cervical cancer development. However, only few reports have shown an association between the Arginine (R) variant at position 52 of p53 and increased susceptibility to HPV E6 mediated degradation and thus to increased cancer susceptibility. We revised the literature in order to obtain plausible data to discuss about these evidences for cervical cancer susceptibility. The more recent studies, including meta-analysis reviews, point out that there is no association of this p53 variant and cervical cancer development. This variant seems to be differently segregated in different ethnic/geographical locations; therefore, there might be a possible role of this genetic variant associated with a certain genetic background, which can explain why some studies reveal increased risk of cervical cancer development associated with Arginine p53 variant.
The tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) is a strong proinflammatory cytokine produced by the activated macrophages in the immune response to viral infections. A common polymorphism on the promoter region of TNFA gene (-308G?>A) has been associated with different susceptibilities to the development of several diseases including viral-associated neoplasias. Data suggest that the A allele has been associated with higher levels of TNF-? and, therefore, leads to increased risk of cancer development. We have performed a case-control study considering the role of the?-308G?>A polymorphism in 750 individuals from the northern region of Portugal, including 123 patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and 627 healthy individuals. Our study revealed an increased frequency of the?-308A TNFA allele in patients with NPC. The statistical analysis for recessive model revealed that?-308AA genotype is associated with increased risk for the development of NPC (odds ratio?=?2.46; 95% confidence interval, 0.98-6.17; p?=?0.047); moreover, this effect was stronger in undifferentiated types, which are virtually 100% caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (odds ratio?=?2.75; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-6.90; p?=?0.025). These results reveal that in our population?-308 TNFA AA genotype can represent a risk marker for NPC development and contributes for the definition of genetic susceptibility profiles for individuals at risk of development of a viral infection and associated neoplasia.
Recent studies refer that amplification/overexpression of the principal negative regulator of p53 (Mdm2) is frequently found in several malignancies. Several studies have associated a polymorphism (SNP309 T/G) in the promoter region of MDM2 with higher levels of this protein, which will favor p53-pathway abolishment, cell-cycle escape, and development of cancer. We aimed to study if MDM2 SNP309 T/G polymorphism contributes to the development of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We have developed a case-control study with 124 patients with NPC and 509 healthy individuals from the north of Portugal to determine the genetic distribution of the MDM2 SNP309 polymorphism in DNA extracted from peripheral blood samples. Statistical analysis was performed to compare categorical variables adjusted for age and gender by multivariate logistic regression. Genotype-specific distributions according to age of onset were tested by Kaplan-Meier method and analyzed by Cox-regression proportional hazard model adjusted for gender. This study revealed that MDM2 SNP309 GG homozygous represent an increased risk adjusted for age and gender to develop NPC (OR?=?2.15), with particular effect in undifferentiated types (OR?=?2.46) and early clinical stages (OR?=?3.32). We also found that median age of onset of NPC was significantly different (55.2 vs. 61.6) with increased effect in undifferentiated types (55.2 vs. 61.9) and early clinical stages (55.3 vs. 65.3). Our study suggests that MDM2 SNP309 can be considered a risk marker for the development of NPC mainly in early ages probably as an initiation marker for potential cancer development.
Human Papillomavirus infection is considered as the main etiological factor of cervical cancer (ICC), although, the role of host genetic factors in ICC susceptibility has been increasing. Immunological response is crucial for the prevention of viral associated diseases. Interleukin 1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) is considered to be an important regulator of host immunity and several studies have shown a potential role of a 86 bp VNTR polymorphism within intron 2 of the IL-1RN gene in host immune response variability. We investigated the role of this polymorphism in cervical cancer development in Portugal with a case-control study developed with peripheral blood samples from 196 healthy women and 340 women with cervical lesions from the Northern Region of Portugal. We observed that IL-1RN Allele 2 homozygosis was significantly higher in cases than in controls. In fact, IL-1RN A2*A2 homozygous revealed to be associated with an increased risk of HSIL + ICC (OR = 1.90; 95 % IC 1.13-3.21; p = 0.015). Furthermore, we also observed that median age of onset of HSIL + ICC was significantly different (46.0 vs 52.0) in IL-1RN A2*A2 homozygous comparing to non-A2*A2 (p = 0.028). Our results indicated that IL-1RN A2 allele is associated with an increased susceptibility to cervical cancer development, probably by increasing predisposition to shorter immune responses.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.