JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Real-time continuous-wave terahertz line scanner based on a compact 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We demonstrate real-time continuous-wave terahertz (THz) line-scanned imaging based on a 1 × 240 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with a scan velocity of 25 cm/s, a scan line length of 12 cm, and a pixel size of 0.5 × 0.5 mm2. Foreign substances, such as a paper clip with a spatial resolution of approximately 1 mm that is hidden under a cracker, are clearly detected by this THz line-scanning system. The system consists of the SBD array detector, a 200-GHz gyrotron source, a conveyor system, and several optical components such as a high-density polyethylene cylindrical lens, metal cylindrical mirror, and THz wire-grid polarizer. Using the THz polarizer, the signal-to-noise ratio of the SBD array detector improves because the quality of the source beam is enhanced.
Related JoVE Video
The H19/let-7 double-negative feedback loop contributes to glucose metabolism in muscle cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The H19 lncRNA has been implicated in development and growth control and is associated with human genetic disorders and cancer. Acting as a molecular sponge, H19 inhibits microRNA (miRNA) let-7. Here we report that H19 is significantly decreased in muscle of human subjects with type-2 diabetes and insulin resistant rodents. This decrease leads to increased bioavailability of let-7, causing diminished expression of let-7 targets, which is recapitulated in vitro where H19 depletion results in impaired insulin signaling and decreased glucose uptake. Furthermore, acute hyperinsulinemia downregulates H19, a phenomenon that occurs through PI3K/AKT-dependent phosphorylation of the miRNA processing factor KSRP, which promotes biogenesis of let-7 and its mediated H19 destabilization. Our results reveal a previously undescribed double-negative feedback loop between sponge lncRNA and target miRNA that contributes to glucose regulation in muscle cells.
Related JoVE Video
Nodular Fasciitis of the Orbit.
Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A 13-month-old boy was presented with new onset proptosis of the right eye. CT scan and MRI showed an enhancing mass in the right superior orbit with local bone remodeling and erosion. A craniotomy was performed for biopsy and sub-total resection. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed the lesion to be nodular fasciitis. Nodular fasciitis lesions are classically found in the anterior ocular adnexa, especially in pediatric patients. This is the first reported case of nodular fasciitis arising in the posterior orbit of a child younger than 16.
Related JoVE Video
Predictors of therapy failure in a series of 741 adult pyogenic liver abscesses.
J Hepatobiliary Pancreat Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Adult pyogenic liver abscess (PLA) is a major hepato-biliary infection. We aim to identify risk factors associated with therapy failure.
Related JoVE Video
Venlafaxine, paroxetine and milnacipran for major depressive disorder: a pragmatic 24-week study.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Major depressive disorder (MDD), one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the world, is a serious, recurrent and chronic mental disorder, which is associated with significant psychosocial disability and economic burden. Until recently, short-term effectiveness of antidepressants has been measured in terms of patients' response to the medications in significantly reduced depressive symptoms. Remission, a long-term elimination of symptoms and the restoration of normal functioning, has become the primary outcome of therapy. In the current study, the efficacy of three frequently prescribed antidepressants, venlafaxine (75-225 mg/day), paroxetine (20 mg/day) and milnacipran (100 mg/day), used in treating 249 MDD patients with Hamilton Rating Scale of Depression (HRSD??) scores higher than 16 was compared. Each patient was evaluated at week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 in a 24-week open-label study. Eighty-two patients took venlafaxine, 97 took paroxetine and 70 patients took milnacipran. No significant differences were found between the three groups in the response condition (HRSD?? scores decreased more than 50%) after 24 weeks of follow-up. For remission, the paroxetine was the least efficacious medication than either the milnacipran (HRSD?? ? 7) or the venlafaxine (HRSD?? ? 5) by the last observation carried forward (LOCF) analysis. Our results suggest that the absence of depressive symptoms alone may not be an indicator for MDD remission, but the duration of absent depressive symptoms may be a better indicator.
Related JoVE Video
Early life ethanol exposure causes long-lasting disturbances in rat mesenchymal stem cells via epigenetic modifications.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) is a birth defect due to maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Because mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are the main somatic stem cells in adults and may contribute to tissue homeostasis and repair in adulthood, we investigated whether early life ethanol exposure affects MSCs and contributes to the propensity for disease onset in later life. Using a rodent model of FAS, we found that ethanol exposure (5.25g/kg/day) from postnatal days 4 to 9 in rat pups (mimic of human third trimester) caused long-term anomalies in bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed animals were prone to neural induction but resistant to osteogenic and adipogenic inductions compared to their age-matched controls. The altered differentiation may contribute to the severe trabecular bone loss seen in ethanol-exposed animals at 3months of age as well as overt growth retardation. Expression of alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, aP2, and PPAR? were substantially inhibited, but BDNF was up-regulated in MSCs isolated from ethanol-exposed 3month-old animals. Several signaling pathways were distorted in ethanol-exposed MSCs via altered trimethylation at histone 3 lysine 27. These results demonstrate that early life ethanol exposure can have long-term impacts in rat MSCs by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms.
Related JoVE Video
Perception of premenstrual syndrome and attitude of evaluations of work performance among incoming university female students.
Biomed J
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common condition, and for 5% of women, the influence is so severe as to interfere with their mental health, interpersonal relationships, or studies. Severe PMS may result in decreased occupational productivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of perception of PMS on evaluation of work performance. Methods: A total of 1971 incoming female university students were recruited in September 2009. A simulated clinical scenario was used, with a test battery including measurement of psychological symptoms and the Chinese Premenstrual Symptom Questionnaire. Results: When evaluating employee performance in the simulated scenario, 1565 (79.4%) students neglected the impact of PMS, while 136 (6.9%) students considered it. Multivariate logistic regression showed that perception of daily function impairment due to PMS and frequency of measuring body weight were significantly associated with consideration of the influence of PMS on evaluation of work performance. Conclusion: It is important to increase the awareness of functional impairments related to severe PMS.
Related JoVE Video
The real-world application of single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Int J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives: Most previous studies that have investigated single incision laparoscopic cholecystectomy (SILC) are case series with limited sample sizes. We have reviewed the outcome of 500 consecutive cases of SILC performed by a single surgeon at our center. Materials and Methods: From April 2009 to October 2012, a single surgeon performed 1250 laparoscopic cholecystectomies for various gallbladder (GB) diseases. SILC was chosen as the surgical modality unless there was evidence of acute cholecystitis or GB empyema, the patient had a prior history of upper abdominal surgery, endoscopic sphincterotomy, or had comorbidities with an ASA score of III or higher. The clinicopathologic features and perioperative data of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The mean age and BMI of included patients were 42.7 years and 23.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The mean operating time was 52 min. Patients stayed in the hospital for an average of 1.3 days postoperatively. In 55 patients, an additional 2 mm trocar was inserted for retraction of the GB. One patient was converted to an open cholecystectomy because of Mirizzi syndrome. There were no observed complications including incisional hernias in this patient population. Conclusions: SILC is a safe, effective procedure for cholecystectomy that may be considered the main surgical strategy in select patients.
Related JoVE Video
Mitochondrial GTP insensitivity contributes to hypoglycemia in hyperinsulinemia hyperammonemia by inhibiting glucagon release.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP)-insensitive mutations in glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH(H454Y)) result in fasting and amino acid-induced hypoglycemia in hyperinsulinemia hyperammonemia (HI/HA). Surprisingly, hypoglycemia may occur in this disorder despite appropriately suppressed insulin. To better understand the islet-specific contribution, transgenic mice expressing the human activating mutation in ?-cells (H454Y mice) were characterized in vivo. As in the humans with HI/HA, H454Y mice had fasting hypoglycemia, but plasma insulin concentrations were similar to the controls. Paradoxically, both glucose- and glutamine-stimulated insulin secretion were severely impaired in H454Y mice. Instead, lack of a glucagon response during hypoglycemic clamps identified impaired counterregulation. Moreover, both insulin and glucagon secretion were impaired in perifused islets. Acute pharmacologic inhibition of GDH restored both insulin and glucagon secretion and normalized glucose tolerance in vivo. These studies support the presence of an mtGTP-dependent signal generated via ?-cell GDH that inhibits ?-cells. As such, in children with activating GDH mutations of HI/HA, this insulin-independent glucagon suppression may contribute importantly to symptomatic hypoglycemia. The identification of a human mutation causing congenital hypoglucagonemic hypoglycemia highlights a central role of the mtGTP-GDH-glucagon axis in glucose homeostasis.
Related JoVE Video
Positive association between neuroticism and working memory in healthy female volunteers.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Objectives. Neuroticism is an important personality trait that is often associated with mental disorders. It has been reported that lower levels of neuroticism are associated with better cognitive function later in life; however, the concurrent association is unclear. Methods. A total of 184 healthy participants, 84 males and 100 females, completed the Wechsler Memory Scale - Revised version and the 24-item neuroticism subscale of the Maudsley personality inventory. Results. The neuroticism score was found to be positively associated with verbal memory, general memory, and delayed recall, particularly among healthy females, independent of the effect of age. Conclusion. The mechanisms of this association remain to be elucidated. Clinicians should pay additional attention to this phenomenon.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding the Associations Between Modifying Factors, Individual Health Beliefs, and Hemodialysis Patients' Adherence to a Low-Phosphorus Diet.
J Ren Nutr
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hyperphosphatemia in end-stage renal disease is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Because phosphorus is not effectively dialyzed, dietary adherence remains a significant problem. Previous studies have examined the health belief model, but none have looked at stages of change and dietary adherence in patients undergoing hemodialysis (HD).
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of CPR quality and rescuer fatigue between standard 30:2 CPR and chest compression-only CPR: a randomized crossover manikin trial.
Scand J Trauma Resusc Emerg Med
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
ObjectiveWe aimed to compare rescuer fatigue and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) quality between standard 30:2 CPR (ST-CPR) and chest compression only CPR (CO-CPR) performed for 8 minutes on a realistic manikin by following the 2010 CPR guidelines.MethodsAll 36 volunteers (laypersons; 18 men and 18 women) were randomized to ST-CPR or CO-CPR at first, and then each CPR technique was performed for 8 minutes with a 3-hour rest interval. We measured the mean blood pressure (MBP) of the volunteers before and after performing each CPR technique, and continuously monitored the heart rate (HR) of the volunteers during each CPR technique using the MRx monitor. CPR quality measures included the depth of chest compression (CC) and the number of adequate CCs per minute.ResultsThe adequate CC rate significantly differed between the 2 groups after 2 minutes, with it being higher in the ST-CPR group than in the CO-CPR group. Additionally, the adequate CC rate significantly differed between the 2 groups during 8 minutes for male volunteers (p =0.012). The number of adequate CCs was higher in the ST-CPR group than in the CO-CPR group after 3 minutes (p =0.001). The change in MBP before and after performing CPR did not differ between the 2 groups. However, the change in HR during 8 minutes of CPR was higher in the CO-CPR group than in the ST-CPR group (p =0.007).ConclusionsThe rate and number of adequate CCs were significantly lower with the CO-CPR than with the ST-CPR after 2 and 6 minutes, respectively, and performer fatigue was higher with the CO-CPR than with the ST-CPR during 8 minutes of CPR.
Related JoVE Video
Quantification of cerebral circulation and shunt volume in a tentorial dural arteriovenous fistula using two-dimensional phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.
Acta Radiol Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Venous hypertension is closely related to poor outcome of a dural arteriovenous fistula (DAVF). However, no direct measurements have been made of the shunt flow and impaired venous drainage that are suggestive of venous hypertension. We present a case of a 35-year-old man who presented with cerebral hemorrhage and underwent coil embolization for tentorial DAVF. Two-dimensional (2D) phase-contrast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate temporal changes in the flow volumes of the shunt and venous drainage between before and after embolization. The results demonstrated the feasibility of using 2D phase-contrast MRI to measure the shunt volume of a DAVF, which might be useful for assessing the improvement in cerebral circulation after embolization treatment.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Salvia sclarea on chronic immobilization stress induced endothelial dysfunction in rats.
BMC Complement Altern Med
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although Salvia sclarea (clary sage) is widely used in aromatherapy and has antioxidant and antimicrobial properties, its mechanisms of action remain poorly understood. We therefore assessed whether clary sage is effective in treating endothelial dysfunction induced by chronic immobilization stress in rats.
Related JoVE Video
Oxytocin receptor gene rs53576 polymorphism modulates oxytocin-dopamine interaction and neuroticism traits--a SPECT study.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brain oxytocin and dopamine systems interact to modulate social cognitive behavior. Whether the interactions are modulated by oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene variations remains unclear. Considering the dopamine transporter (DAT) availability as an endophenotype and the degree of dopamine-mediated neuroticism as a phenotype of the OXTR genotypes, the current molecular imaging study used [(99m)Tc]TRODAT-1 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) to measure the striatal DAT availability and the 57-item Maudsley Personality Inventory to measure neuroticism personality traits in healthy individuals to investigate (A) the correlation between the rs53576 (G/A) of OXTR and the striatal DAT availability, (B) the correlation between the peripheral oxytocin level and striatal DAT availability among different OXTR rs53576 (G/A) genotypes, and (C) whether neuroticism traits could be modified by oxytocin in certain OXTR rs53576 genotypes. The results showed that the striatal DAT availability in the AG+GG group was significantly lower than that in the AA group (2.08±0.47 vs. 1.90±0.32, p=0.04). Only individuals with one or two copies of the G allele of rs53576 showed a negative correlation between DAT availability and oxytocin level (r=-0.41, p=0.002). Furthermore, the oxytocin×DAT interaction was significantly correlated with the MPI neuroticism score in the AA group. Further analyses showed that the DAT availability was correlated with the neuroticism score only in the AA group with a low oxytocin level (r=0.74, p=0.002). The results indicated that the OXTR rs53576 is connected with the striatal DAT availability in vivo and modulates the interactions between the oxytocinergic and dopaminergic systems. Carriers with a specific rs53576 OXTR genotype may present a greater biological sensitivity as well as stress reactivity in terms of environmental adaptation.
Related JoVE Video
Bleomycin-induced flagellate erythema: A case report and review of the literature.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bleomycin has been used most commonly in the treatment of Hodgkin's lymphoma, certain germ cell tumors (GCT) and for the sclerosis of recurrent pleural effusions. Bleomycin toxicity predominantly affects the skin and lungs. Skin toxicity includes Raynaud's phenomenon, hyperkeratosis, nail-bed changes and palmoplantar desquamation. Flagellate erythema is an unusual rash occurring specifically during bleomycin use. In the present study, we report a case of bleomycin-induced flagellate erythema in a patient with GCT. A 42-year-old male was diagnosed with stage IIIB testicular cancer and treated with bleomycin, etoposide and cisplatin chemotherapy. After 10 days from the initiation of treatment, the patient subsequently developed a generalized pruritus and erythematous linear rash that was most prominent on the trunk, and upper and lower extremities. The patient was commenced on a short course of low-dose oral prednisolone, 20 mg daily, and antihistamine. Consequently, bleomycin was withheld from the patient's treatment regimen. The present study describes the case, along with a review of the associated literature.
Related JoVE Video
Oscillatory shear stress mediates directional re-organization of actin cytoskeleton and alters differentiation propensity of mesenchymal stem cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Shear stress stimuli differentially regulate cellular functions based on the pattern, magnitude as well as duration of the flow. Shear stress can modify intracellular kinase activities and cytoskeleton reorganization to result in changes of cell behavior. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are mechano-sensitive cells, but little is known about the effects of oscillatory shear stress (OS). In this study, we demonstrate that OS of 0.5±4 dynes/cm(2) induces directional re-organization of F-actin to mediate the fate choice of MSCs through the regulation of ?-catenin. We also found that intercellular junction molecules are the predominant mechanosensors of OS in MSCs to deliver the signals that result in directional rearrangement of F-actin, as well as the increase of phosphorylated ?-catenin (p?-catenin) after 30 minutes of OS stimulation. Depolymerization of F-actin and increase in p?-catenin also lead to the up-regulation of Wnt inhibitory factors sclerostin and dickkopf-1. Inhibition of ?-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway is accompanied by the up-regulation of sex determining region Y-box2 and NANOG to control self-renewal. In conclusion, the re-organization of actin cytoskeleton and increase in ?-catenin phosphorylation triggered by OS regulates the expression of pluripotency genes via the ?-catenin/Wnt signaling pathway to differentially direct fate choices of MSCs at different time points. Results from this study have provided new information regarding how MSCs respond to mechanical cues from their microenvironment in a time-dependent fashion, and such biophysical stimuli could be administered to guide the fate and differentiation of stem cells in addition to conventional biochemical approaches. Stem Cells 2014.
Related JoVE Video
The development of a self-reported scale for measuring functionality in patients with schizophrenia-Self-reported version of the graphic Personal and Social Performance (SRG-PSP) scale.
Schizophr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The Personal and Social Performance (PSP) scale is used for the assessment of patient function by mental health professionals. This study aimed to evaluate the internal reliability and validity of a self-reported graphic version of the PSP (SRG-PSP) scale and its correlations with psychiatric symptoms, daily life ability and quality of life.
Related JoVE Video
Therapeutic effects of add-on low-dose dextromethorphan plus valproic acid in bipolar disorder.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Changes in inflammatory cytokines and dysfunction of the neurotrophic system are thought to be involved in the pathology of bipolar disorder (BP). We investigated whether inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were changed in BP. We also investigated whether treating BP with valproic acid (VPA) plus low-dose (30 or 60mg/day) dextromethorphan (DM) is more effective than treating it with VPA only, and whether DM affects plasma cytokines and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. In a 12-week, randomized, double-blind study, patients were randomly assigned to the VPA+DM30, VPA+DM60, or VPA+Placebo groups. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate symptom severity, and ELISA to analyze plasma cytokine and BDNF levels. We recruited 309 patients with BP and 123 healthy controls. Before treatment, patients with BP had significantly higher plasma cytokine and lower plasma BDNF levels than did healthy controls. After treatment, HDRS and YMRS scores in each group showed significant improvement. Plasma cytokine levels tended to decline in all groups. Changes in plasma BDNF levels were significantly greater in the VPA+DM60 group than in the VPA+Placebo group. Conclusion: patients with BP have a certain degree of systemic inflammation and BDNF dysfunction. Treatment with VPA plus DM (60mg/day) provided patients with BP significantly more neurotrophic benefit than did VPA treatment alone.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Inhalation of Essential Oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara on Menopausal Symptoms, Stress, and Estrogen in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhalation of the essential oil of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara (neroli oil) on menopausal symptoms, stress, and estrogen in postmenopausal women. Sixty-three healthy postmenopausal women were randomized to inhale 0.1% or 0.5% neroli oil or almond oil (control) for 5 minutes twice daily for 5 days. Menopause-related symptoms, as determined by the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL); sexual desire visual analog scale (VAS); serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations, blood pressure, pulse, and stress VAS, were measured before and after inhalation. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significant improvements in the physical domain score of the MENQOL and in sexual desire. Systolic blood pressure was significantly lower in the group inhaling 0.5% neroli oil than in the control group. Compared with the control group, the two neroli oil groups showed significantly lower diastolic blood pressure and tended to improve pulse rate and serum cortisol and estrogen concentrations. These findings indicate that inhalation of neroli oil helps relieve menopausal symptoms, increase sexual desire, and reduce blood pressure in postmenopausal women. Neroli oil may have potential as an effective intervention to reduce stress and improve the endocrine system.
Related JoVE Video
Sleep complaints and memory in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
J. Formos. Med. Assoc.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few studies have been conducted examining the genuine sleep condition and memory in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder. Thus we evaluated sleep complaints and memory functions in psychotropic drug-free euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Highly durable anodes of microbial fuel cells using a reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube-coated scaffold.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Melamine sponges coated with reduced graphene oxide/carbon nanotube (rGO-CNT sponges) through a dip-coating method were fabricated that provide a large electrical conductive surface for Escherichiacoli growth and electron transfer in microbial fuel cell. Four rGO-CNT sponges with different thicknesses and arrangements were tested as an anode in this study. The thinnest one (with a thickness of 1.5mm) exhibited the best performance, providing a maximum current density of 335 A m(-3) and a remarkably durable life time of 20 days at 37 °C. Analyses of bacterial colonisation on the rGO-CNT sponges using FE-SEM and the bacterial metabolic activity using the ?-galactosidase assay indicates that the rGO-CNT sponges provide excellent biocompatibility for E. coli proliferation and could help to maintain high bacterial metabolic activity, presumably due to the high mass transfer rate of the porous scaffold. In this regard, the rGO-CNT sponges showed higher durability and performed better electrochemical properties than traditional carbon-based and metal-based anodes.
Related JoVE Video
The effects of add-on low-dose memantine on cytokine levels in bipolar II depression: a 12-week double-blind, randomized controlled trial.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Memantine, a noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect, and an association between bipolar disorder and proinflammatory cytokine levels have been reported. Whether adding-on memantine would reduce cytokine levels and is more effective than valproic acid (VPA) alone in bipolar II disorder was investigated. A randomized, double-blind, controlled, 12-week study was conducted. Patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + memantine (5 mg/d) (n = 106) or VPA + placebo (n = 108). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Symptom severity, plasma tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?), interleukin 6 (IL-6), IL-8, and IL-1 levels were examined during weeks 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to examine the therapeutic effect. Tumor necrosis factor ? levels were significantly lower in the VPA + memantine group than in the VPA + placebo group (P = 0.013). Posttreatment HDRS and YMRS scores decreased significantly in both groups, but not significant, nor was the other between-group cytokine level difference pretreatment and posttreatment. The HDRS score changes were significantly associated with IL-6 (P = 0.012) and IL-1 (P = 0.005) level changes and changes in YMRS score changes with TNF-? (P = 0.005) level changes. Treating bipolar II depression with VPA + memantine may improve the plasma TNF-? level. However, adding-on memantine may not improve clinical symptoms or cytokine levels other than TNF-?. Clinical symptoms may be correlated with certain cytokines.
Related JoVE Video
Functional mapping of the auditory tract in rodent tinnitus model using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
Neuroimage
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animal models of salicylate-induced tinnitus have demonstrated that salicylate modulates neuronal activity in several brain structures leading to neuronal hyperactivity in auditory and non-auditory brain areas. In addition, these animal tinnitus models indicate that tinnitus can be a perceptual consequence of altered spontaneous neural activity along the auditory pathway. Peripheral and/or central effects of salicylate can account for neuronal activity changes in salicylate-induced tinnitus. Because of this ambiguity, an in vivo imaging study would be able to address the peripheral and/or central involvement of salicylate-induced tinnitus. Therefore, in the present study, we developed a novel manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) method to map the in vivo functional auditory tract in a salicylate-induced tinnitus animal model by administrating manganese through the round window. We found that acute salicylate-induced tinnitus resulted in higher manganese uptake in the cochlea and in the central auditory structures. Furthermore, serial MRI scans demonstrated that the manganese signal increased in an anterograde fashion from the cochlea to the cochlear nucleus. Therefore, our in vivo MEMRI data suggest that acute salicylate-induced tinnitus is associated with higher spontaneous neural activity both in peripheral and central auditory pathways.
Related JoVE Video
Androgen deprivation-induced NCoA2 promotes metastatic and castration-resistant prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A major clinical hurdle for the management of advanced prostate cancer (PCa) in patients is the resistance of tumors to androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) and their subsequent development into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). While recent studies have identified potential pathways involved in CRPC development, the drivers of CRPC remain largely undefined. Here we determined that nuclear receptor coactivator 2 (NCoA2, also known as SRC-2), which is frequently amplified or overexpressed in patients with metastatic PCa, mediates development of CRPC. In a murine model, overexpression of NCoA2 in the prostate epithelium resulted in neoplasia and, in combination with Pten deletion, promoted the development of metastasis-prone cancer. Moreover, depletion of NCoA2 in PTEN-deficient mice prevented the development of CRPC. In human androgen-sensitive prostate cancer cells, androgen signaling suppressed NCoA2 expression, and NCoA2 overexpression in murine prostate tumors resulted in hyperactivation of PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling, promoting tumor malignance. Analysis of PCa patient samples revealed a strong correlation among NCoA2-mediated signaling, disease progression, and PCa recurrence. Taken together, our findings indicate that androgen deprivation induces NCoA2, which in turn mediates activation of PI3K signaling and promotes PCa metastasis and CRPC development. Moreover, these results suggest that the inhibition of NCoA2 has potential for PCa therapy.
Related JoVE Video
The potential mechanism of the detrimental effect of defibrillation prior to cardiopulmonary resuscitation in prolonged cardiac arrest model.
Lab Anim Res
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Defibrillation is no longer universally recommended as initial intervention for the reversal of ventricular fibrillation (VF) after a prolonged and untreated cardiac arrest. We sought to examine this issue in an animal model where a prolonged untreated VF was induced. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mechanism of the detrimental effect of defibrillation prior to cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in prolonged cardiac arrest model. VF was electrically induced in 32 domestic male swine weighing 40±3 kg and remained untreated for 15 minutes. The animals were then randomly allocated to either the initial defibrillation group or the chest compression group. Mean aortic pressure, right atrial pressure and coronary perfusion pressure (CPP) were continuously measured during the performance. The dimensions of the left ventricle (LV) were assessed by echocardiographic methods. The CPP induced by CPR after defibrillation was significantly lower in the initial defibrillation group than in the chest compression group; 1 minute after defibrillation (9±3 mmHg vs. 14.8±7 mmHg (P<0.05)), and after 5 minutes 16±5 mmHg vs. 21.7±1 mmHg (P<0.05). The LV volumes were reduced from 18±2 mmHg to 14±1 mmHg after defibrillation (P<0.05). In brief, this study showed that the conducting defibrillation prior to chest compression may cause a contracture of the LV, resulting in lowering CPP, thus dropping the efficiency of chest compression in a prolonged cardiac arrest model.
Related JoVE Video
Down-regulation of LPA receptor 5 contributes to aberrant LPA signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
J. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly metastatic disease that is consistently associated with the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the contribution of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. Here we demonstrate two distinct functional roles for LPA in NPC. First, we show that LPA enhances the migration of NPC cells and secondly that it can inhibit the activity of EBV-specific cytotoxic T cells. Focussing on the first of these phenotypes, we show that one of the LPA receptors, LPA receptor 5 (LPAR5), is down-regulated in primary NPC tissues and that this down-regulation promotes the LPA-induced migration of NPC cell lines. Furthermore, we found that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded LMP2A gene was sufficient to down-regulate LPAR5 in NPC cell lines. Our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of LPA in NPC and identify LPA signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.
Related JoVE Video
Differential expression of microRNAs and their target genes in non-small-cell lung cancer.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are single?stranded RNA species that constitute a class of non?coding RNAs, and are emerging as key regulators of gene expression. Since each miRNA is capable of regulating multiple genes, miRNAs are attractive markers for studies of coordinated gene expression. In this study, we investigated miRNA expression profiling using a massively parallel sequencing technique to compare non?small?cell lung cancer (NSCLC) tissue and normal lung tissue. Lung cancer tissue and normal lung tissue were obtained from nine NSCLC patients. RNA isolated from these samples was processed using RNA sequencing (RNA Seq) and the HiSeq 2000 system. Differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs were analyzed using a t?test. We selected target pairs that showed a negative correlation among significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and their putative target mRNAs using miRBase Targets. The differences in the expression levels of 222 miRNAs and 1,597 genes were statistically significant, as indicated by an absolute fold change ?1.5 and P<0.05. miR?577, miR?301b, miR?944, miR?891a and miR?615?3p were generally upregulated, and miR?338?3p was generally downregulated. miRNA?mRNA target pair analysis revealed that 49 miRNAs had 696 target mRNAs. There were significantly differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs between lung cancer and normal tissue. Further investigation of miRNAs and their target genes is warranted to better understand NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Metformin suppresses gluconeogenesis by inhibiting mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metformin is considered to be one of the most effective therapeutics for treating type 2 diabetes because it specifically reduces hepatic gluconeogenesis without increasing insulin secretion, inducing weight gain or posing a risk of hypoglycaemia. For over half a century, this agent has been prescribed to patients with type 2 diabetes worldwide, yet the underlying mechanism by which metformin inhibits hepatic gluconeogenesis remains unknown. Here we show that metformin non-competitively inhibits the redox shuttle enzyme mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase, resulting in an altered hepatocellular redox state, reduced conversion of lactate and glycerol to glucose, and decreased hepatic gluconeogenesis. Acute and chronic low-dose metformin treatment effectively reduced endogenous glucose production, while increasing cytosolic redox and decreasing mitochondrial redox states. Antisense oligonucleotide knockdown of hepatic mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase in rats resulted in a phenotype akin to chronic metformin treatment, and abrogated metformin-mediated increases in cytosolic redox state, decreases in plasma glucose concentrations, and inhibition of endogenous glucose production. These findings were replicated in whole-body mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase knockout mice. These results have significant implications for understanding the mechanism of metformin's blood glucose lowering effects and provide a new therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.
Related JoVE Video
Association between auditory P300, psychopathology, and memory function in drug-naïve schizophrenia.
Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to explore memory deficits and psychopathology and their relationships with P300 in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Wechsler Memory Scale-Revised were administered. Auditory event-related potentials elicited by an oddball paradigm were obtained. After controlling for age, sex, the results showed a statistically significant negative correlation between the total PANSS score and P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = -0.66, p < 0.05). Moreover, visual memory was significantly positively correlated with P300 amplitude at the parietal position (r = 0.67, p < 0.05). After controlling for the duration of illness, the above correlations remained statistically significant. The correlation between P300 and the severity of psychopathology was reconfirmed in drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia. A possible contribution of memory decompensation in P300 among drug-naïve patients with schizophrenia may be considered, and the compensatory or Default Model Network might be a possible explanation of this association.
Related JoVE Video
Muscle-specific activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV increases whole-body insulin action in mice.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aerobic exercise increases muscle glucose and improves insulin action through numerous pathways, including activation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases (CAMKs) and peroxisome proliferator ? coactivator 1? (PGC-1?). While overexpression of PGC-1? increases muscle mitochondrial content and oxidative type I fibres, it does not improve insulin action. Activation of CAMK4 also increases the content of type I muscle fibres, PGC-1? level and mitochondrial content. However, it remains unknown whether CAMK4 activation improves insulin action on glucose metabolism in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Altered white matter integrity in primary restless legs syndrome patients: diffusion tensor imaging study.
Neurol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A prior diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of restless legs syndrome (RLS) subjects found alterations in brain white matter (WM). The aim of this study was to explore the possible mechanism of altered integrity of brain WM in RLS patients.
Related JoVE Video
Complete thoracoscopic enucleation of giant leiomyoma of the esophagus: a case report and review of the literature.
J Cardiothorac Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal leiomyoma is one of the most common types of benign esophagus tumors. Giant leiomyoma of the esophagus is traditionally treated by open thoracotomy, which has large incision. We report a case of complete thoracoscopic enucleation of giant leiomyoma in a chinese patient.
Related JoVE Video
In-depth metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models in obesity and diabetes.
Mamm. Genome
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The world-wide prevalence of obesity and diabetes has increased sharply during the last two decades. Accordingly, the metabolic phenotyping of genetically engineered mouse models is critical for evaluating the functional roles of target genes in obesity and diabetes, and for developing new therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss the practical meaning of metabolic phenotyping, the strategy of choosing appropriate tests, and considerations when designing and performing metabolic phenotyping in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Sex-specific associations between plasma oxytocin levels and schizotypal personality features in healthy individuals.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxytocin (OT) has been shown to play a crucial role in the biology of social interaction. Sex differences associated with this neuropeptide system have been reported. OT may serves as an indicator of interpersonal stress, especially in women. The aim of this study was to investigate the sex-specific associations between plasma OT levels and schizotypal personality features, especially in interpersonal dimension, in healthy individuals.
Related JoVE Video
The BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in Han Chinese patients with bipolar disorder and schizophrenia.
Prog. Neuropsychopharmacol. Biol. Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) is widely distributed in the peripheral and central nervous systems. BDNF and its gene polymorphism may be important in synaptic plasticity and neuron survival, and may become a key target in the physiopathology of several mental illnesses. To elucidate the role of BDNF, we compared the plasma BDNF levels and the BDNF Val66Met gene variants effect in several mental disorders.
Related JoVE Video
Oncogenic effects of WNT5A in Epstein-Barr virus?associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Int. J. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The molecular events that drive the progression of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) are still to be elucidated. Here, we report for the first time the pathogenic significance of an NPC-associated gene, wingless-type MMTV integration site family, member 5A (WNT5A) and the contribution of EBV to its expression. WNT5A is a representative Wnt protein that activates non-canonical Wnt signalling. With regard to its role in carcinogenesis, there is conflicting evidence as to whether WNT5A has a tumour-promoting or tumour-suppressive role. We show that WNT5A is upregulated in primary NPC tissue samples. We also demonstrate that WNT5A expression was dramatically increased in NPC cell lines expressing the EBV-encoded LMP2A gene, suggesting that this EBV-encoded latent gene is responsible for upregulating WNT5A in NPC. In addition, in vitro WNT5A overexpression promotes the proliferation, migration and invasion of NPC cells. Our results not only reveal pro-tumorigenic effects of WNT5A in NPC but also suggest that WNT5A could be an important therapeutic target in patients with EBV-associated disease.
Related JoVE Video
Connectivity features for identifying cognitive impairment in presymptomatic carotid stenosis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Severe asymptomatic stenosis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) leads to increased incidence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) likely through silent embolic infarcts and/or chronic hypoperfusion, but the brain dysfunction is poorly understood and difficult to diagnose. Thirty cognitively intact subjects with asymptomatic, severe (? 70%), unilateral stenosis of the ICA were compared with 30 healthy controls, matched for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors and education level, on a battery of neuropsychiatric tests, voxel-based morphometry of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging and brain-wise, seed-based analysis of resting-state functional MRI. Multivariate regression models and multivariate pattern classification (support vector machines) were computed to assess the relationship between connectivity measures and neurocognitive performance. The patients had worse dizziness scores and poorer verbal memory, executive function and complex visuo-spatial performance than controls. Twelve out of the 30 patients (40%) were considered to have MCI. Nonetheless, the leukoaraiosis Sheltens scores, hippocampal and brain volumes were not different between groups. Their whole-brain mean fractional anisotropy (FA) was significantly reduced and regional functional connectivity (Fc) was significantly impaired in the dorsal attention network (DAN), frontoparietal network, sensorimotor network and default mode network. In particular, the Fc strength at the insula of the DAN and the mean FA were linearly related with attention performance and dizziness severity, respectively. The multivariate pattern classification gave over 90% predictive accuracy of individuals with MCI or severe dizziness. Cognitive decline in stroke-free individuals with severe carotid stenosis may arise from nonselective widespread disconnections of long-range, predominantly interhemispheric non-hippocampal pathways. Connectivity measures may serve as both predictors for cases at risk and therapeutic targets for mitigating vascular cognitive impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and feasibility of gemcitabine and carboplatin as first-line chemotherapy in elderly patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although platinum-based chemotherapy is a standard first-line treatment in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), further research for the safety and efficacy of combination chemotherapy in elderly patients has been required. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of gemcitabine and carboplatin as first-line treatment in elderly patients with advanced NSCLC and to evaluate the prognostic factors.
Related JoVE Video
Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Among Chinese Women: A 10-Year Nationwide Multicenter Cross-Sectional Study.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: The characteristics of established risk factors for breast cancer may vary among countries. A better understanding of local characteristics of risk factors may help in devising effective prevention strategies for breast cancer.Methods: Information on exposures to risk factors was collected from the medical charts of 4211 women with breast cancer diagnosed during 1999-2008. The distributions of these exposures among regions, and by menopausal status and birth period, were compared with the ?(2) test. Crude associations between the selected factors and breast cancer were estimated using the cases in the present study and a representative control population, which was selected from qualified published studies.Results: As compared with cases from less developed regions, those from more developed regions were significantly more likely to be nulliparous, had fewer childbirths (P < 0.05), and were less likely to have breastfed (P = 0.08). As compared with premenopausal cases, postmenopausal cases were more likely to be overweight and to have breastfed and had more childbirths (P < 0.05). The number of live births and rate of breastfeeding decreased in relation to birth period (P for trends <0.001). Overweight, late menopause, and family history of breast cancer were significantly associated with breast cancer among Chinese women.Conclusions: Breast cancer incidence was associated with nulliparity and history of breastfeeding. Population attributable risks should be assessed, especially for more developed areas and young women. The effects of body mass index, age at menopause, and family history of breast cancer should be given priority during assessment of breast cancer risk among Chinese women.
Related JoVE Video
Gender-specific association of the SLC6A4 and DRD2 gene variants in bipolar disorder.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Findings on the association between the risk for developing bipolar disorder and the functions of the serotonin transporter-linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR) and dopamine D2 receptor gene (DRD2) variants are contradictory. One explanation for this is that a gender difference may exist for genetic contributions. We compared the gender-related main effects and the gene-to-gene interaction between serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) and DRD2 in adult male and female patients with bipolar I (BP-I) and bipolar II (BP-II) disorder. Patients with BP-I (n = 400) and BP-II (n = 493), and healthy controls (n = 442) were recruited from Taiwans Han Chinese population. The genotypes of the 5-HTTLPR and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. Logistic regression analysis showed a significant gender-specific association of the DRD2 A1/A1 and the 5-HTTLPR S/S, S/L G , and L G /LG (S+) (p = 0.01) genotypes in men with BP-I (p = 0.002 and 0.01, respectively) and BP-II (p = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively), but not in women. A significant interaction for the DRD2 A1/A1 and 5-HTTLPR S+ polymorphisms was also found only in men with BP-I and BP-II (p = 0.003 and 0.001, respectively). We provide preliminary evidence for a gender-specific effect of the SLC6A4 and DRD2 gene variants for the risk of BP-I and of BP-II. We also found gender-specific interaction between 5-HTTLPR and DRD2 Taq-IA polymorphisms in patients with bipolar disorder.
Related JoVE Video
Noninvasive assessment of hepatic fibrosis using gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced 3T MRI.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gadoxetate-disodium is a liver-specific MR contrast agent absorbed by hepatocytes via organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 and is excreted into the biliary system by multidrug resistance-associated protein 2. It has been suggested that relative parenchymal enhancement on hepatocyte phase image is associated with hepatic function. However, it is not clear whether gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MRI can be used as a noninvasive fibrosis marker. Thus, the purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of gadoxetate-disodium-enhanced MRI in predicting the hepatic fibrosis stage.
Related JoVE Video
Genotype variant associated with add-on memantine in bipolar II disorder.
Int. J. Neuropsychopharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Memantine is a non-competitive N-methyl-d-asparate (NMDA) receptor antagonist with a mood-stabilizing effect. We investigated whether using valproic acid (VPA) plus add-on memantine to treat bipolar II disorder (BP-II) is more effective than using VPA alone (VPA + Pbo). We also evaluated, in BP-II patients, the association between the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism with treatment response to VPA + add-on memantine and to VPA + Pbo. In this randomized, double-blind, controlled 12 wk study, BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to a group: VPA + Memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 115) or VPA + Pbo (n = 117). The Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) and Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) were used to evaluate clinical response during week 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12. The genotypes of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphisms were determined using polymerase chain reactions plus restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. To adjust within-subject dependence over repeated assessments, multiple linear regression with generalized estimating equation methods was used to analyze the effects of the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism on the clinical performance of memantine. Both groups showed significantly decreased YMRS and HDRS scores after 12 wk of treatment; the differences between groups were non-significant. When stratified by the BDNF Val66Met genotypes, significantly greater decreases in HDRS scores were found in the VPA + memantine group in patients with the Val Met genotype (p = 0.004). We conclude that the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism influenced responses to add-on memantine by decreasing depressive symptoms in patients with BP-II.
Related JoVE Video
Anterior mediastinal fat in Behçets disease: qualitative and quantitative CT analysis.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The fat-rich anterior mediastinum could be a sensitive window for monitoring minute changes in vascularity induced by systemic vasculitis. To evaluate this hypothesis, an analysis of anterior mediastinal fat in patients with Behçets disease and a control group was conducted. This study included 43 patients diagnosed with Behçets disease within the last 11 years who underwent CT scan; 55 patients were selected as a control population. Mediastinal fat was classified according to CT morphology. Comparison of serum inflammatory markers was performed for evaluation of disease activity according to morphologic types, and average Hounsfield unit of the anterior mediastinum was measured. Significantly higher mean CT attenuation was observed in the Behçets disease group, compared with the control group (-48.5 ± 33.5 vs. -67.7 ± 18.7, respectively, P < 0.05). Mediastinal fat types were classified as follows: pure fatty tissue (2 vs. 31 % [Behçets disease vs. control group]), diffuse soft tissue infiltration (16 vs. 29 %), tubular structures (21 vs. 4 %), mixed infiltration with tubular structures (42 vs. 15 %), and evident thymic tissue (19 vs. 22 %). The value for mean mediastinal attenuation was significantly higher in the group with a high level of C-reactive protein than in the normal level group. The mean CT attenuation of anterior mediastinal fat is significantly higher in the Behçets disease group, compared with the normal group. Although pathologic confirmation is needed, the cause is postulated to be either inflammatory neovascularization or minimal thymic hyperplasia induced by Behçets disease.
Related JoVE Video
Serotonin transporter availability in the midbrain and perceived social support in healthy volunteers.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Serotonin modulates human behavior and emotion. Recent evidence implies that a higher level of serotonergic activity could be associated with a higher level of perceived social support. This study aimed to examine the correlation between serotonin transporter (SERT) availability and perceived social support scores in healthy volunteers.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of 1,8-cineole on hypertension induced by chronic exposure to nicotine in rats.
J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The monoterpenic oxide 1,8-cineole is a major component of many essential oils. We investigated its effects on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and oxidative stress in rats chronically exposed to nicotine.
Related JoVE Video
Associations among hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis function, novelty seeking, and retention in methadone maintenance therapy for heroin dependency.
J Addict Med
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The efficacy of methadone maintenance therapy for heroin dependence is compromised by the low retention rate. Hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function, which is associated with stress response, and novelty seeking (NS), a personality trait associated with low dopaminergic activity, may play roles in retention.
Related JoVE Video
Ser1333 phosphorylation indicates ROCKI activation.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two isoforms of Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK), ROCKI and ROCKII, play a pivotal role in regulation of cytoskeleton and are involved in multiple cellular processes in mammalian cells. Knockout mice experiments have indicated that the functions of ROCKI and II are probably non-redundant in physiology. However, it is difficult to differentiate the activation status of ROCKI and ROCKII in biological samples. Previously, we have identified phosphorylation site of ROCKII at Ser1366 residue sensitive to ROCK inhibition. We further investigated the activity-dependent phosphorylation site in ROCKI to establish the reagents that can be used to detect their individual activation.
Related JoVE Video
Reversal of hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance by a liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupler.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) affects one in three Americans and is a major predisposing condition for the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We examined whether a functionally liver-targeted derivative of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), DNP-methyl ether (DNPME), could safely decrease hypertriglyceridemia, NAFLD, and insulin resistance without systemic toxicities. Treatment with DNPME reversed hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and whole-body insulin resistance in high-fat-fed rats and decreased hyperglycemia in a rat model of T2D with a wide therapeutic index. The reversal of liver and muscle insulin resistance was associated with reductions in tissue diacylglycerol content and reductions in protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?) and PKC? activity in liver and muscle, respectively. These results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of DNP on hypertriglyceridemia, fatty liver, and insulin resistance can be dissociated from systemic toxicities and suggest the potential utility of liver-targeted mitochondrial uncoupling agents for the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia, NAFLD, metabolic syndrome, and T2D.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced fasting glucose turnover in mice with disrupted action of TUG protein in skeletal muscle.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insulin stimulates glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in part by causing endoproteolytic cleavage of TUG (tether containing a ubiquitin regulatory X (UBX) domain for glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4)). Cleavage liberates intracellularly sequestered GLUT4 glucose transporters for translocation to the cell surface. To test the role of this regulation in muscle, we used mice with muscle-specific transgenic expression of a truncated TUG fragment, UBX-Cter. This fragment causes GLUT4 translocation in unstimulated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. We predicted that transgenic mice would have GLUT4 translocation in muscle during fasting. UBX-Cter expression caused depletion of PIST (PDZ domain protein interacting specifically with TC10), which transmits an insulin signal to TUG. Whereas insulin stimulated TUG proteolysis in control muscles, proteolysis was constitutive in transgenic muscles. Fasting transgenic mice had decreased plasma glucose and insulin concentrations compared with controls. Whole-body glucose turnover was increased during fasting but not during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. In muscles with the greatest UBX-Cter expression, 2-deoxyglucose uptake during fasting was similar to that in control muscles during hyperinsulinemic clamp studies. Fasting transgenic mice had increased muscle glycogen, and GLUT4 targeting to T-tubule fractions was increased 5.7-fold. Whole-body oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide production (VCO2), and energy expenditure were increased by 12-13%. After 3 weeks on a high fat diet, the decreased fasting plasma glucose in transgenic mice compared with controls was more marked, and increased glucose turnover was not observed; the transgenic mice continued to have an increased metabolic rate. We conclude that insulin stimulates TUG proteolysis to translocate GLUT4 in muscle, that this pathway impacts systemic glucose homeostasis and energy metabolism, and that the effects of activating this pathway are maintained during high fat diet-induced insulin resistance in mice.
Related JoVE Video
Probing the association between dexamethasone-induced cortisol suppression and serotonin transporter availability among drug-free patients with major depressive disorder--a small-sample SPECT study with [¹²³I]ADAM.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association between hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis function and the serotonergic system could be involved in the mechanism of depression. However, neuroimaging evidence is scarce. The aim of the present study was to probe the association between dexamethasone suppression test response and serotonin transporter (SERT) availability in drug-free patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Seventeen MDD patients (five males and twelve females) were recruited. SPECT with [(123)I] ADAM was used to measure the midbrain SERT availability, and HPA axis function was measured by the dexamethasone suppression test (DST). The association was significant when considering all participants (?=0.69, p=0.002). This association may have clinical implications for the treatment of MDD.
Related JoVE Video
Combined information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements with functional magnetic resonance imaging differentiates fast late-onset motor recovery from progressive recovery in hemiplegic stroke patients: a pilot study.
J Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the value of combining information from resting-state functional connectivity and passive movements, measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), in acute stroke patients with severe motor impairment.
Related JoVE Video
Hydrogen peroxide inhibits transforming growth factor-?1-induced cell cycle arrest by promoting Smad3 linker phosphorylation through activation of Akt-ERK1/2-linked signaling pathway.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) functions as a second messenger in growth factor receptor-mediated intracellular signaling cascade and is tumorigenic by virtue of its ability to promote cell proliferation; however, the mechanisms underlying the growth stimulatory action of H2O2 are less understood. Here we report an important mechanism for antagonistic effects of H2O2 on growth inhibitory response to transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1). In Mv1Lu and HepG2 cells, pretreatment of H2O2 (0.05-0.2 mM) completely blocked TGF-?1-mediated induction of p15(INK4B) expression and increase of its promoter activity. Interestingly, H2O2 selectively suppressed the transcriptional activation potential of Smad3, not Smad2, in the absence of effects on TGF-?1-induced phosphorylation of the COOH-tail SSXS motif of Smad3 and its nuclear translocation. Mechanism studies showed that H2O2 increases the phosphorylation of Smad3 at the middle linker region in a concentration- and time-dependent manner and this effect is mediated by activation of extracellular signal-activated kinase 1/2 through Akt. Furthermore, expression of a mutant Smad3 in which linker phosphorylation sites were ablated significantly abrogated the inhibitory effects of H2O2 on TGF-?1-induced increase of p15(INK4B)-Luc reporter activity and blockade of cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. These findings for the first time define H2O2 as a signaling molecule that modulate Smad3 linker phosphorylation and its transcriptional activity, thus providing a potential mechanism whereby H2O2 antagonizes the cytostatic function of TGF-?1.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic variants of the BDNF and DRD3 genes in bipolar disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The high comorbidity rate between bipolar disorder (BP) and anxiety disorder (AD) has been studied in depth. This comorbidity is not as high in Han Chinese in Taiwan. Therefore, we explored the genetic effects BP comorbid with AD.
Related JoVE Video
Interaction between novelty seeking and the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 gene in heroin-dependent patients.
J Clin Psychopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heroin dependence is a multifactor disorder. We investigated the association of genetic factors and heroin-dependent temperaments to determine whether a temperament-gene interaction is involved in the pathogenesis of heroin dependence.
Related JoVE Video
A homozygous NOTCH3 mutation p.R544C and a heterozygous TREX1 variant p.C99MfsX3 in a family with hereditary small vessel disease of the brain.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mutations in the TREX1 and NOTCH3 genes cause retinal vasculopathy with cerebral leukodystrophy (RVCL) and cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL), respectively. Both are hereditary small vessel diseases of the brain (HSVDB).
Related JoVE Video
Add-on memantine to valproate treatment increased HDL-C in bipolar II disorder.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Memantine is a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist. As an augmenting agent, it has an antidepressant-like and mood-stabilizing effect. Memantine also reduces binge eating episodes and weight. We investigated whether memantine added on to valproate (VPA) is more effective than VPA alone for treating BP-II depression and improving the patients metabolic profile. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled study. BP-II patients undergoing regular VPA treatments were randomly assigned to one of two groups: VPA plus either add-on [1] memantine (5 mg/day) (n = 62) or [2] placebo (n = 73) for 12 weeks. The Young Mania Rating Scale (YMRS) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) were used to evaluate clinical response. Height, weight, fasting serum glucose, fasting total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides were followed regularly. Multiple linear regressions with generalized estimating equation methods were used to analyze the effects of memantine on clinical performance. There were no significant differences in pre- and post-treatment YMRS and HDRS scores between the VPA + memantine and VPA + placebo groups. Although there were no significant differences in the pre- and post-treatment values of most metabolic indices between the two groups, there was a significant increase of HDL-C (p = 0.009) in the VPA + memantine group compared with the VPA + placebo group. This increase remained significant even after controlling for body mass index (BMI) (p = 0.020). We conclude that add-on memantine plus VPA treatment of BP-II depression increases the blood level of HDL-C even in the absence of change in affective symptoms.
Related JoVE Video
Propagation-based phase-contrast X-ray microtomography of a cerebral protection device retrieved after carotid artery stenting.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phase-contrast synchrotron X-ray microtomography (pcSyncX) based on the highly coherent X-ray beam has previously been used to visualize the microstructures of biologic specimens, but it has never been used to evaluate embolic debris adherent on a cerebral protection device (CPD). The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility of pcSyncX for evaluating embolic debris during carotid artery stenting (CAS). Five patients (four males, age range 67-77 years) with severe carotid artery stenosis underwent CAS. The retrieved CPD was exposed to synchrotron radiation and 1000 pcSyncX projection images were obtained by rotating the CPD through 180°. An X-ray shadow of a CPD was converted into a visual image by the scintillator. After microtomographic reconstruction, the three-dimensionally reconstructed images were further segmented into the embolic debris and CPD. The total volume of emboli was calculated by summing the volume at each scanning level. The number of membrane pores covered by emboli as seen from the outer surface was counted and the percentage of covered area was calculated. Embolic debris was clearly demonstrated not only on the inner surface and within pores but also on the outer surface of the CPD. The mean total volume of embolic debris was 0.538 × 10(-6)?mm(3) (range 0.225-0.965 × 10(-6)?mm(3)). Most (61.5%) of the debris was located at the apical one-third of the CPD and 20.8% of the pore area was covered by debris.
Related JoVE Video
The change of insulin levels after six weeks antidepressant use in drug-naïve major depressive patients.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A reciprocal relationship between diabetes risk and depression has been reported. There are few studies investigating glucose-insulin homeostasis before and after short-term antidepressant treatment in drug-naïve major depressive disorder (MDD) patients.
Related JoVE Video
Interstitial Pneumonitis after Treatment with Pemetrexed for Non-small Cell Lung Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pemetrexed is approved as a first-line treatment for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with cisplatin and as a single agent for second-line treatment or for patients who show no disease progression after four cycles of platinum-based doublet induction chemotherapy as maintenance therapy. Pemetrexed has a modest toxicity profile and has not traditionally been regarded as a cause of interstitial pneumonitis. Here, we report on a rare case of pemetrexed-induced pneumonitis in a patient with NSCLC.
Related JoVE Video
Posterior conjunctival plication to correct secondary ptosis after eyelid retraction repair in Graves disease.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To describe the results of posterior conjunctival plication for the treatment of secondary eyelid ptosis after eyelid retraction repair in Graves disease.
Related JoVE Video
Gender difference in antidepressant-related sexual dysfunction in Taiwan.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sexual dysfunction accompanied by depression may be altered by antidepressants. The effects of antidepressants on sexual dysfunction among males and females remain to be investigated.
Related JoVE Video
Increased power spectral density in resting-state pain-related brain networks in fibromyalgia.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fibromyalgia (FM), characterized by chronic widespread pain, is known to be associated with heightened responses to painful stimuli and atypical resting-state functional connectivity among pain-related regions of the brain. Previous studies of FM using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) have focused on intrinsic functional connectivity, which maps the spatial distribution of temporal correlations among spontaneous low-frequency fluctuation in functional MRI (fMRI) resting-state data. In the current study, using rs-fMRI data in the frequency domain, we investigated the possible alteration of power spectral density (PSD) of low-frequency fluctuation in brain regions associated with central pain processing in patients with FM. rsfMRI data were obtained from 19 patients with FM and 20 age-matched healthy female control subjects. For each subject, the PSDs for each brain region identified from functional connectivity maps were computed for the frequency band of 0.01 to 0.25 Hz. For each group, the average PSD was determined for each brain region and a 2-sample t test was performed to determine the difference in power between the 2 groups. According to the results, patients with FM exhibited significantly increased frequency power in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1), supplementary motor area (SMA), dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and amygdala. In patients with FM, the increase in PSD did not show an association with depression or anxiety. Therefore, our findings of atypical increased frequency power during the resting state in pain-related brain regions may implicate the enhanced resting-state baseline neural activity in several brain regions associated with pain processing in FM.
Related JoVE Video
Social relationship and health among students with low social desirability.
Asia Pac Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This survey aimed to probe the associations between altruism, social support and subjective health among incoming students with low level of social desirability.
Related JoVE Video
Use of fracture size and soft tissue herniation on computed tomography to predict diplopia in isolated orbital floor fractures.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the role of fracture size and soft tissue herniation as measured by computed tomography in predicting the development of persistent diplopia in patients with isolated orbital floor fractures.
Related JoVE Video
Haemodynamic alterations in cerebral blood vessels after carotid artery revascularisation: quantitative analysis using 2D phase-contrast MRI.
Eur Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of revascularisation, whether revascularisation improves total cerebral blood flow volume (FVTCBF), and how cerebral veins would respond to altered FVTCBF.
Related JoVE Video
Decreased brain volumes in manganese-exposed welders.
Neurotoxicology
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A great deal of research has been devoted to identifying subclinical functional brain abnormalities in manganese (Mn)-exposed welders. However, no previous study has investigated morphological brain abnormalities, such as changes in brain volume, in welders. This study evaluates morphological changes in brain volume among welders, and investigates the relationship between structural brain abnormalities and subclinical dysfunction in this population.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular mechanism by which estradiol protects female ovariectomized mice from high-fat diet-induced hepatic and muscle insulin resistance.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Estrogen replacement therapy reduces the incidence of type 2 diabetes in postmenopausal women; however, the mechanism is unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of estrogen replacement therapy in an experimental model of menopause. At 8 weeks of age, female mice were ovariectomized (OVX) or sham (SHAM) operated, and OVX mice were treated with vehicle (OVX) or estradiol (E2) (OVX+E2). After 4 weeks of high-fat diet feeding, OVX mice had increased body weight and fat mass compared with SHAM and OVX+E2 mice. OVX mice displayed reduced whole-body energy expenditure, as well as impaired glucose tolerance and whole-body insulin resistance. Differences in whole-body insulin sensitivity in OVX compared with SHAM mice were accounted for by impaired muscle insulin sensitivity, whereas both hepatic and muscle insulin sensitivity were impaired in OVX compared with OVX+E2 mice. Muscle diacylglycerol (DAG), content in OVX mice was increased relative to SHAM and OVX+E2 mice. In contrast, E2 treatment prevented the increase in hepatic DAG content observed in both SHAM and OVX mice. Increases in tissue DAG content were associated with increased protein kinase C? activation in liver of SHAM and OVX mice compared with OVX+E2 and protein kinase C? activation in skeletal muscle of OVX mice compared with SHAM and OVX+E2. Taken together, these data demonstrate that E2 plays a pivotal role in the regulation of whole-body energy homeostasis, increasing O(2) consumption and energy expenditure in OVX mice, and in turn preventing diet-induced ectopic lipid (DAG) deposition and hepatic and muscle insulin resistance.
Related JoVE Video
Do patients with fibromyalgia show abnormal neural responses to the observation of pain in others?
Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic widespread pain is a hallmark of fibromyalgia (FM). Previous neuroimaging studies have reported that the pain neuro-matrix in patients with FM showed augmented activation in response to actual pain. However, the effect of observing pain in others among patients with FM remains poorly understood. Both healthy female control subjects (n=24) and female patients with FM (n=23) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while observing a series of color pictures depicting others hands and feet being injured, and a matched set of control pictures that did not show any painful events. Compared with healthy subjects, patients with FM showed a smaller neural response to pain-related versus neutral stimuli in several neural regions, including the thalamus, anterior cingulate cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, pre- and post-central gyrus, and supplementary motor area. In contrast to augmented pain processing in response to actual experimental pain, patients with FM did not show an enhanced pain response but generally showed lesser activation in cortical regions known to play a role in processing of pain. These hemodynamic alterations observed in patients with FM suggest that patients with chronic pain may empathize less with others in pain, possibly in order to lessen arousal and aversive self-oriented emotions.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.