JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Optimal treatment of adult Ph negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the difference of safety and efficacy between the traditional and the pediatric inspired acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) chemotherapy regimen, and to further observe whether patients in different age group will benefit from the two regimens.
Related JoVE Video
Mechanical properties of cranial bones and sutures in 1-2-year-old infants.
Med. Sci. Monit.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanical properties of 1-2-year-old pediatric cranial bones and sutures and their influential factors were studied to better understand how the pediatric calvarium reacts to loading.
Related JoVE Video
[Rapid screening and confirmation of antidepressants in blood using automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A high-throughput method was developed for screening antidepressants in blood by automated solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography with high resolution quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ASPE-LC-Q-TOF/MS). The samples were cleaned up by an HLB solid phase extraction cartridge and analyzed by LC-Q-TOF/MS under electrospray ionization (ESI) mode with scanning range of m/z 50-1 000 Da. The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent Eclipse Plus C18 column (50 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) with gradient elution using methanol and 5 mmol/L ammonium formate aqueous solution (containing 0.2% formic acid) as mobile phases. Rapid screening and confirmation can be achieved using MS matching scores, deviation of retention time, measured mass, isotopic abundance matching scores, isotope space matching scores and MS/MS matching scores. The quantitative analysis was carried out by correlating the extracting peak area with accurate mass. Good linearities were observed in the range of 1 - 500 microg/L with the correlation coefficients from 0.997 6 to 0.999 7. The limits of detection were 0.01-0.5 microg/L. The spiked recoveries were 79.6%-96.4% with the relative standard deviations of 4.1% - 6.4%. The result screening database was built using Agilent MassHunter PCDL Manager software and then used for the analysis of spiked samples. MS matching scores, isotopic abundance matching scores, isotope space matching scores (all > 95 points) and MS/MS matching scores (> 70 points) were applied to identify the analytes. The results showed that all the spiked antidepressants could be correctly identified with low deviation of retention time (< 0.1 min) and mass (< 1 mDa). The developed method was further applied for the analysis of poisoning cases, and amitriptyline, carbamazepine, doxepin were detected. In brief, the method is rapid, sensitive, simple, reliable, and suitable for the screening and confirmation of antidepressants in forensic and clinical analytical toxicology.
Related JoVE Video
Compound heterozygous PLEC mutations in a patient of consanguineous parentage with epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy and diffuse alopecia.
Int. J. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermolysis bullosa simplex with muscular dystrophy (EBS-MD; OMIM 226670) is an autosomal recessive form of EBS, characterized by skin blistering at birth and delayed onset of muscle dystrophy. Mutations in PLEC, the gene encoding plectin, have been identified to be causal for EBS-MD. We report a case of EBS-MD with diffuse alopecia. Genetic study revealed the patient carrying compound heterozygous mutations in PLEC despite the consanguineous parentage.
Related JoVE Video
[Analysis of genomic copy number variations in two unrelated neonates with 8p deletion and duplication associated with congenital heart disease].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To screen for genomic copy number variations (CNVs) in two unrelated neonates with multiple congenital abnormalities using Affymetrix SNP chip and try to find the critical region associated with congenital heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
[Treatment outcome of childhood standard-risk and median-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia with CCLG-2008 protocol].
Zhonghua Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the significance of the adjustment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) risk group by monitoring minimal residual disease(MRD).
Related JoVE Video
Exome sequencing reveals mutation in GJA1 as a cause of keratoderma-hypotrichosis-leukonychia totalis syndrome.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Keratoderma-hypotrichosis-leukonychia totalis syndrome (KHLS) is an extremely rare, autosomal-dominant disorder characterized by severe skin hyperkeratosis, congenital alopecia and leukonychia totalis. The genetic defect underlying KHLS remained undetermined. By performing whole-exome sequencing in a family with KHLS, we identified a heterozygous mutation (c.23G>T [p.Gly8Val]) in GJA1, which cosegregated with the phenotype in the family. In an additional affected individual, we also found the identical de novo mutation which was absent in his unaffected family members. GJA1 encodes a gap junction protein connexin 43 (Cx43) which is ubiquitously expressed in various organs, including the epidermis and hair follicles. In vitro studies on HEK293 cells expressing Cx43(Gly8Val) found that the protein formed gap junction plaques between adjacent transfected cells, as observed in the wild-type. Dye-transfer experiments by microinjection of Lucifer yellow displayed functional gap junction of the Cx43(Gly8Val) mutant. Using patch clamp and Ca(2+) imaging methods, we observed that the Cx43(Gly8Val) hemichannel had significantly more openings than Cx43(WT), facilitating Ca(2+) influx at resting potential. Such gain-of-function effect might result in cytoplasmic Ca(2+) overload, accelerated apoptosis of keratinocytes and subsequent skin hyperkeratosis. Taken together, our results demonstrated that, with probably enhanced hemichannel activities, a mutation in GJA1 is linked to KHLS without extracutaneous involvement.
Related JoVE Video
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5) mediates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic neuron apoptosis.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Overexposure to methamphetamine (METH), a psychoactive drug, induces a variety of adverse effects to the nervous system, including apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein 5 (IGFBP5), a member of insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system, is a pro-apoptotic factor that plays important roles in neuronal apoptosis. To test the hypothesis that IGFBP5 can mediate METH-induced neuronal apoptosis, we examined IGFBP5 mRNA and protein expression changes in PC12 cells exposed to METH (3.0mM) for 24h and in the striatum of rats following 15mg/kg×8 intraperitoneal injections of METH at 12h interval. We also checked the effect on neuronal apoptosis after silencing IGFBP5 expression with TUNEL staining and flow cytometry; Western blot was used for detecting the expression of apoptotic markers active-caspase3 and PARP. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying IGFBP5-mediated neuronal apoptosis, we determined the release of cytochrome c (cyto c), an apoptogenic factor, from the mitochondria after METH treatment with or without IGFBP5 knockdown. Our results showed that IGFBP5 expression was increased significantly after METH exposure in PC12 cells and in the METH-treated rats' striatum. Further, METH-exposed PC12 cells exhibited higher apoptosis-positive cell number and activity of caspase3 and PARP compared with control cells, while these changes can be blocked by silencing IGFBP5 expression. In addition, a significant increase of cyto c release from mitochondria after METH exposure was observed and it was inhibited after silencing IGFBP5 expression in PC12 cells. These results indicate that IGFBP5 plays key roles in METH-induced neuronal apoptosis and may be a potential gene target for therapeutics in METH-caused neurotoxicity.
Related JoVE Video
[Chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis: eight cases report and literature review].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify the characteristics of chronic natural killer cell lymphocytosis (CNKL).
Related JoVE Video
[Sequence analyses of HIRA gene 3'UTR region and related microRNA].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the HIRA gene sequences of 3'UTR region and elucidate the role of 3'UTR region of HIRA gene in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
Related JoVE Video
The effect of enzyme digestion time on the detection of diatom species.
Pak J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study is aimed at detecting diatom in lung, liver and kidney tissues using PCR - DHPLC technology after different periods of enzyme digestion to assess the effect of enzyme digestion on the detection of diatom species. Twenty Randomly selected experimental rabbits were drowned at the same place. Their liver, kidney, and lung tissues were removed for sampling. After the extraction of DNA from the samples, amplification was conducted with specific primers of the SSU gene of diatom. Then, an analysis was performed with agarose gel electrophoresis and DHPLC. Within 2 h-8 h, the amount of the diatom species found in the lung gradually increased over time and was statistically significant <. After 8 h, with enzyme digestion, the amount of the diatom species found in lung showed no significant increase (>). However, as for the liver and kidney, within 2h-6h, the amount of the diatom species gradually increased over time and was statistically significant <. After 6h, the fig. did not present significant growth (>). The amount of the diatom species found in the organs after different periods of digestion time had significant differences, which provides a reference for the detection of diatoms and also, has a good application prospect in the forensic identification of drowning.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Promoter methylation and expression of the VANGL2 gene in the myocardium of pediatric patients with Tetralogy of Fallot.
Birth Defects Res. Part A Clin. Mol. Teratol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background: Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) is the most common form of cyanotic congenital heart disease and is a major cause of significant morbidity and mortality. VANGL2 is a critical gene in the planar cell polarity pathway that plays an important role in the development of the heart. This study investigates the methylation status of the promoter region of VANGL2 and the expression pattern of VANGL2 in cardiac tissue. Methods: The promoter region of VANGL2 was sequenced in 200 ToF patients and 400 control subjects. Methylation levels were measured in four regions of the VANGL2 promoter (B1-1: -282 bp ? -117 bp, B1-2: -117 bp ? 41 bp, B2: 8 bp ? 157 bp, B3: 132 bp ? 401 bp) by bisulfite sequencing PCR in the right ventricular outflow tract of the myocardium. Quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to detect the mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. Results: No mutations were found in the promoter region, but two SNPs (rs11582932 T>G, rs11265385 T>G) were found in ToF patients and controls with similar frequencies (p?>?0.05). The overall methylation status of the VANGL2 promoter was significantly higher in ToF patients than in controls (p?=?0.0234). Specifically, the methylation levels of regions B1-1 and B3 were significantly higher in ToF patients (p?=?0.0042, p?=?0.0418). Both the VANGL2 mRNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ToF patients than in controls (p?
Related JoVE Video
[The immunophenotypic characteristics of 260 patients with CD5 + B cell lymphoproliferative disorders].
Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the immunophenotypic characteristics of CD5? B cell lymphoproliferative disorders (B-LPD) of Chinese patients.
Related JoVE Video
Is density of neighbourhood restaurants associated with BMI in rural Chinese adults? A longitudinal study from the China Health and Nutrition Survey.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The neighbourhood availability of restaurants has been linked to the weight status. However, little is known regarding the relation between access to restaurant and obesity among the Chinese population. This study aims to explore the relationship between neighbourhood restaurant density and body mass index (BMI) in rural China.
Related JoVE Video
Characterization of two homogalacturonan pectins with immunomodulatory activity from green tea.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two natural homogalacturonan (HG) pectins (MW ca. 20 kDa) were isolated from green tea based on their immunomodulatory activity. The crude tea polysaccharides (TPS1 and TPS2) were obtained from green tea leaves by hot water extraction and followed by 40% and 70% ethanol precipitation, respectively. Two homogenous water soluble polysaccharides (TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b) were obtained from TPS1 after purification with gel permeation, which gave a higher phagocytic effect than TPS2. A combination of composition, methylation and configuration analyses, as well as NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy revealed that TPS1-2a and TPS1-2b were homogalacturonan (HG) pectins consisting of a backbone of 1,4-linked ?-D-galacturonic acid (GalA) residues with 28.4% and 26.1% of carboxyl groups as methyl ester, respectively. The immunological assay results demonstrated that TPS1-2, which consisted mainly of HG pectins, showed phagocytosis-enhancing activity in HL-60 cells.
Related JoVE Video
Protective effect of alpha-synuclein knockdown on methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in dopaminergic neurons.
Neural Regen Res
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The over-expression of ?-synuclein is a major factor in the death of dopaminergic neurons in a methamphetamine-induced model of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, ?-synuclein knockdown rats were created by injecting ?-synuclein-shRNA lentivirus stereotaxically into the right striatum of experimental rats. At 2 weeks post-injection, the rats were injected intraperitoneally with methamphetamine to establish the model of Parkinson's disease. Expression of ?-synuclein mRNA and protein in the right striatum of the injected rats was significantly downregulated. Food intake and body weight were greater in ?-synuclein knockdown rats, and water intake and stereotyped behavior score were lower than in model rats. Striatal dopamine and tyrosine hydroxylase levels were significantly elevated in ?-synuclein knockdown rats. Moreover, superoxide dismutase activity was greater in ?-synuclein knockdown rat striatum, but the levels of reactive oxygen species, malondialdehyde, nitric oxide synthase and nitrogen monoxide were lower compared with model rats. We also found that ?-synuclein knockdown inhibited methamphetamine-induced neuronal apoptosis. These results suggest that ?-synuclein has the capacity to reverse methamphetamine-induced apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the rat striatum by inhibiting oxidative stress and improving dopaminergic system function.
Related JoVE Video
De novo GLI3 mutation in esophageal atresia: reproducing the phenotypic spectrum of Gli3 defects in murine models.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Esophageal atresia is a common and life-threatening birth defect with a poorly understood etiology. In this study, we analyzed the sequence variants of coding regions for a set of esophageal atresia-related genes including MYCN, SOX2, CHD7, GLI3, FGFR2 and PTEN for mutations using PCR-based target enrichment and next-generation sequencing in 27 patients with esophageal atresia. Genomic copy number variation analysis was performed using Affymetrix SNP 6.0. We found a de novo heterozygous mutation in the N-terminal region of the GLI3 gene (c.332T>C, p.M111T) in a patient with esophageal atresia and hemivertebrae. The N-terminal region (amino acids 1-397) of GLI3 contains the repressor domain, which interacts with SKI family proteins. Using the co-immunoprecipitation assay, we found that interaction of GLI3 with the SKI family protein SKIL was significantly compromised by the p.M111T mutation of GLI3. Thus far, all the identified mutations mapped within the repressor domain of GLI3 were nonsense and frame-shift mutations. In this study, a missense mutation was initially detected in this region. Our finding is the first to link this GLI3 gene mutation with esophageal atresia in humans, which was previously suggested in an animal model.
Related JoVE Video
microRNA expression profiling of heart tissue during fetal development.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
microRNAs (miRNAs) are important both in early cardiogenesis and in the process of heart maturation. The aim of this study was to determine the stage-specific expression of miRNAs in human fetal heart in order to identify valuable targets for further study of heart defects. Affymetrix microarrays were used to obtain miRNA expression profiles from human fetal heart tissue at 5, 7, 9 and 23 weeks of gestation. To identify differentially expressed miRNAs at each time-point, linear regression analysis by the R limma algorithm was employed. Hierarchical clustering analysis was conducted with Cluster 3.0 software. Gene Ontology analysis was carried out for miRNAs from different clusters. Commonalities in miRNA families and genomic localization were identified, and the differential expression of selected miRNAs from different clusters was verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). A total of 703 miRNAs were expressed in human fetal heart. Of these, 288 differentially expressed miRNAs represented 5 clusters with different expression trends. Several clustered miRNAs also shared classification within miRNA families or proximal genomic localization. qPCR confirmed the expression patterns of selected miRNAs. miRNAs within the 5 clusters were predicted to target genes vital for heart development and to be involved in cellular signaling pathways that affect heart structure formation and heart-associated cellular events. In conclusion, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first miRNA expression profiling study of human fetal heart tissue. The stage-specific expression of specific miRNAs suggests potential roles at distinct time-points during fetal heart development.
Related JoVE Video
Polyclonal serum IgM level identifies a subgroup of multiple myeloma patients with low-risk clinicobiological features and superior survival.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Normal plasma cells (PCs) are either undetectable or outnumbered by the myelomatous PC compartment in bone marrow of multiple myeloma (MM). However, residual normal PCs have been detected in a minority of symptomatic MM patients with superior survival. The number of normal PCs is also an important factor to identify monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS)-like MM. We speculate that the polyclonal serum IgM level in non-IgM myelomas may reflect the number of residual normal PCs. Here we investigated the prognostic relevance of polyclonal serum IgM level in a series of 485 newly diagnosed symptomatic MM (NDMM) patients. Our results showed that symptomatic MM patients with polyclonal IgM more than 0.5g/L displayed a favorable baseline clinical feature, together with a significantly lower frequency of high-risk cytogenetic abnormalities. This group of patients had a significantly prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) regardless of thalidomide or bortezomib therapy. Furthermore, the superior outcome was independent of the depth of response. Our findings suggest that polyclonal IgM level is capable of identifying a group of symptomatic MM patients with distinct clinicobiological characteristics and favorable survival, similar with MGUS-like MM.
Related JoVE Video
N-Cadherin and Tie2 positive CD34?CD38?CD123? leukemic stem cell populations can develop acute myeloid leukemia more effectively in NOD/SCID mice.
Leuk. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Emerging studies suggest that the population of malignant cells found in human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) arises from a rare population of leukemic stem cells (LSCs). A lot of investigators have reported the identification of cell surface markers, such as CD123. Here, we report the identification of N-cadherin and Tie2 as LSCs markers. Inoculation of CD34(+)CD38(-)CD123(+)N-cadherin(+) and CD34(+)CD38(-)CD123(+) Tie2(+) population can induce leukemia in NOD/SCID mice. The leukemic blast cells from the primary leukemic mice could also induce leukemia in the secondary transplantation. These findings suggested that N-cadherin and Tie2 were the important markers that can assist in leukemia development.
Related JoVE Video
Elevated methylation of the RXRA promoter region may be responsible for its downregulated expression in the myocardium of patients with TOF.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
As an important component of retinoid acid signaling pathway, the retinoid X receptor ? (RXRA) is considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of Fallot (TOF).
Related JoVE Video
Association of promoter methylation statuses of congenital heart defect candidate genes with Tetralogy of Fallot.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although a lower methylation level of whole genome has been demonstrated in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) patients, little is known regarding changes in specific gene DNA methylation profiles and the possible associations with TOF. In current study, the promoter methylation statuses of congenital heart defect (CHD) candidate genes were measured in order to further understand epigenetic mechanisms that may play a role in the development of TOF.
Related JoVE Video
Lentiviral-mediated expression of SATB2 promotes osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow stromal cells in vitro and in vivo.
Eur. J. Oral Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2 ) acts as a potent transcription factor to promote osteoblast differentiation and bone regeneration. In this study, we first used lentiviral-mediated gene transfer of Satb2 into mouse bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and investigated the capacity of SATB2 overexpression to promote osteogenic differentiation in vitro and in vivo. We found that LV-Satb2 -transduced BMSCs produced SATB2 protein and underwent rapid and marked osteogenic differentiation, as demonstrated by increased expression of osteoblastic genes, including runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), transcription factor Sp7 (Sp7), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), and bone sialoprotein (Bsp), and increased alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin Red S staining. To analyze the induction of bone formation in vivo, LV-Satb2-transduced BMSCs were implanted into the hindlimbs of syngeneic mice, with ?-tricalcium phosphate as the scaffolding material. Four weeks after implantation, transduction with LV-Satb2 had greatly enhanced the formation of new bone. These data demonstrated the capacity of lentiviral-mediated SATB2 to promote the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in vitro and to enhance bone formation through a tissue-engineering technique that may be useful in bone-regenerative medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Paternal ethanol exposure and behavioral abnormities in offspring: associated alterations in imprinted gene methylation.
Neuropharmacology
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Research confirms that maternal ethanol (EtOH) exposure can induce physical and mental disorders in offspring, yet the effect of paternal ethanol exposure on offspring is unclear. Methylation alterations in imprinted genes may be related to the well-documented teratogenic effects of ethanol. Here, we report that ethanol (0, 1.1, 3.3 g/kg) was administered intragastrically to male mice and a behavioral study was performed on their F1 generation. Data show that F1 mice with fathers exposed to the highest dose of ethanol had delayed cognitive performance and increased anxiety and depression. A specific circling behavior was observed in the offspring of the paternally ethanol-exposed group. The degree of methylation and mRNA expression of H19, Peg3, Ndn and Snrpn were assessed in paternal sperm and in the cerebral cortices of each offspring. It did affect methylation in paternal sperm (H19 and Peg3) and in the offspring's cerebral cortices (CpG7 and CpG11 in Peg3 and Snrpn), but the level of mRNA expression has not changed. In the circling mice, the highest ethanol exposure increase in methylation (CpG 1, 2, 7 and 11) and decreases in mRNA of Peg3.Thus, chronic paternal ethanol exposure can affect the methylation of imprinted genes in sire sperm that may be passed on to offspring, giving rise to mental deficits.
Related JoVE Video
The effect of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms in the folic acid pathway genes on homocysteine metabolism.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the joint effects of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes in the folic acid pathway on homocysteine (Hcy) metabolism.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Serum from Pregnant Women Carrying a Fetus with Conotruncal Heart Defect Using Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) Labeling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify differentially expressed proteins from serum of pregnant women carrying a conotruncal heart defects (CTD) fetus, using proteomic analysis.
Related JoVE Video
Understanding the patterns and trends of sodium intake, potassium intake, and sodium to potassium ratio and their effect on hypertension in China.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent studies have shown inconsistent effects of sodium reduction, potassium intake, and the ratio of sodium to potassium (Na/K ratio) on hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. Major gaps exist in knowledge regarding these issues in China.
Related JoVE Video
Homogalacturonans from preinfused green tea: structural characterization and anticomplementary activity of their sulfated derivatives.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Two homogeneous water-soluble polysaccharides (TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C) were obtained from preinfused green tea. Their average molecular weights were estimated to be 41 kDa and 28 kDa, respectively. A combination of composition, methylation, and configuration analysis, as well as NMR spectroscopy, indicated that both TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were poly-(1-4)-?-d-galactopyranosyluronic acid in which 30.5 ± 0.3% and 28.3 ± 0.5%, respectively, of uronic acid existed as methyl ester. Two sulfated derivatives (Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C) from TPSR4-2B and TPSR4-2C were prepared after sulfation with a 2:1 chlorosulfonic acid-pyridine ratio. The anticomplementary assay showed that Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C demonstrated a stronger inhibitory effect on the complement activation through the classic pathway, compared to that of heparin. Preliminary mechanism studies by using complement component depleted-sera indicated that both Sul-R4-2B and Sul-R4-2C selectively interact with C1q, C1r, C1s, C2, C5, and C9 but not with C3 and C4. The relationship between DS and the anticomplementary activity of sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans showed that low sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans also exhibited potent anticomplementary effect, which might greatly reduce the side effects related to heparin and oversulfated chondroitin sulfate, such as anticoagulant activity and allergic-type reaction. These results suggested that sulfated derivatives of homogalacturonans might be promising drug candidates for therapeutic complement inhibition.
Related JoVE Video
Morphologic Characteristics of Blastic Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cell Neoplasm: A Case Report.
Ultrastruct Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Blastic plasmacytoid dendritic cell neoplasm (BPDCN) is a rare aggressive lymphoma derived from plasmacytoid dendritic cells or precursor dendritic cells. Despite some 240 reported cases, its morphology and especially ultrastructure has not been satisfactorily studied. A case is reported of a 13 year old boy, who, despite chemotherapy, died within a 12-month period. The electron microscopy findings - microvillous processes, nuclei with slight irregularities, a moderate amount of heterochromatin, and rough endoplasmic reticulum in the form of long, narrow profiles, often in parallel arrangements - taken together, serve to distinguish BPDCN from other neoplastic cells, such as monocytes, plasma cells and the cells of chronic lymphocyte leukemia.
Related JoVE Video
DNA methylation status of NKX2-5, GATA4 and HAND1 in patients with tetralogy of fallot.
BMC Med Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
NKX2-5, GATA4 and HAND1 are essential for heart development, however, little is known regarding their epigenetic regulation in the pathogenesis of tetralogy of fallot (TOF).
Related JoVE Video
Depression, anxiety, and prevalent diabetes in the Chinese population: Findings from the China Kadoorie Biobank of 0.5million people.
J Psychosom Res
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite previous investigation, uncertainty remains about the nature of the associations of major depression (MD) with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in adult Chinese, and the relevance of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) for T2DM.
Related JoVE Video
Toxicity assessments of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in isolated mitochondria, rat hepatocytes, and zebrafish show good concordance across chemical classes.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To reduce costly late-stage compound attrition, there has been an increased focus on assessing compounds in in vitro assays that predict attributes of human safety liabilities, before preclinical in vivo studies are done. Relevant questions when choosing a panel of assays for predicting toxicity are (a) whether there is general concordance in the data among the assays, and (b) whether, in a retrospective analysis, the rank order of toxicity of compounds in the assays correlates with the known safety profile of the drugs in humans. The aim of our study was to answer these questions using nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) as a test set since NSAIDs are generally associated with gastrointestinal injury, hepatotoxicity, and/or cardiovascular risk, with mitochondrial impairment and endoplasmic reticulum stress being possible contributing factors. Eleven NSAIDs, flufenamic acid, tolfenamic acid, mefenamic acid, diclofenac, meloxicam, sudoxicam, piroxicam, diflunisal, acetylsalicylic acid, nimesulide, and sulindac (and its two metabolites, sulindac sulfide and sulindac sulfone), were tested for their effects on (a) the respiration of rat liver mitochondria, (b) a panel of mechanistic endpoints in rat hepatocytes, and (c) the viability and organ morphology of zebrafish. We show good concordance for distinguishing among/between NSAID chemical classes in the observations among the three approaches. Furthermore, the assays were complementary and able to correctly identify "toxic" and "non-toxic" drugs in accordance with their human safety profile, with emphasis on hepatic and gastrointestinal safety. We recommend implementing our multi-assay approach in the drug discovery process to reduce compound attrition.
Related JoVE Video
RNA interference targeting ?-synuclein attenuates methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The protein ?-synuclein (?-syn) is abundant in neurons and has been claimed to play critical roles in the pathophysiology of Parkinsons disease. Overexpression of ?-syn has been shown to be toxicity in methamphetamine (METH)-induced model in vivo and in vitro which has Parkinsons-like pathology. However, the exact mechanisms underlying toxicity of ?-syn mediated METH-induced neuron remain unknown. In the present study, human dopaminergic-like neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used as METH-induced model in vitro. Cell viability was found to be dramatically increased after silencing ?-syn expression followed by METH treatment compared with a-syn wild-type cells and the morphological damage to cells after METH treatment was abated through knockdown of ?-syn expression in this model. The expression levels of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), dopamine transporter (DAT) and vesicular monoamine transporter 2(VMAT-2) were significantly decreased and the activity/levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitrogen (NO) were notably increased after METH treatment. However, the changes of these expression levels were reversed in cells transfected with ?-syn-shRNA. These results suggested that TH, DAT, VMAT-2, ROS and NOS maybe involved in ?-syn mediated METH-induced neuronal toxicity.
Related JoVE Video
Novel mutations of SLC26A4 in Chinese patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study demonstrated high prevalence of GJB2, SLC26A4, and mtDNA A1555G mutations in Chinese patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss and discovered eight novel mutations in SLC26A4. Most of these novel mutations were predicted pathogenic variants.
Related JoVE Video
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2: a novel gene involved in zebrafish central nervous system development.
Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (Tfpi-2) is an important serine protease inhibitor in the extracellular matrix (ECM), but its precise physiological significance remains unknown. This work is part of a series of studies intended to investigate functional roles of Tfpi-2 and explore the underlying molecular mechanisms. First, we cloned and identified zebrafish Tfpi-2 (zTfpi-2) as an evolutionarily conserved protein essential for zebrafish development. We also demonstrated that ztfpi-2 is mainly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) of zebrafish, and embryonic depletion of ztfpi-2 caused severe CNS defects. In addition, changes of neural markers, including pax2a, egr2b, huC, ngn1, gfap and olig2, confirmed the presence of developmental abnormalities in the relevant regions of ztfpi-2 morphants. Using microarray analysis, we found that members of the Notch pathway, especially her4 and mib, which mediate lateral inhibition in CNS development, were also downregulated. Intriguingly, both her4 and mib were able to partially rescue the ztfpi-2 morphant phenotype. Furthermore, Morpholino knockdown of ztfpi-2 resulted in upregulation of neuronal markers while downregulation of glial markers, providing evidence that the Notch pathway is probably involved in ztfpi-2-mediated CNS development.
Related JoVE Video
[Status and trend of fat and cholesterol intake among Chinese middle and old aged residents in 9 provinces from 1991 to 2009].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the status and trend of fat and cholesterol intake among Chinese middle and old aged residents in 9 provinces from 1991 to 2009, and provide the basic reference material for the revision of Chinese DRIs.
Related JoVE Video
Inhibition of ROCK2 expression protects against methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity in PC12 cells.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Methamphetamine is a type of psychoactive drug. It is well known that neurotoxicity caused by Methamphetamine(METH) can damage the nervous system and lead to apoptosis and cell loss of dopaminergic neurons. ROCK2 is a prominent target for gene therapy because its inhibition has proved to have a protective effect in various cell lines and pathophysiological conditions. Although several of the negative effects of METH on the dopaminergic system have been studied, the protective molecular mechanisms and the effective treatment of METH-induced apoptosis remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that ROCK2 is involved in METH-induced apoptosis. We tested our hypothesis using RT-PCR and western blotting to analyze whether silencing of ROCK2 with small interfering RNA (siROCK2) could reduce damage and apoptosis in PC12 cells after METH exposure. Increases in viability and cytomorphological changes were detected by MTT assay and bright field microscopy after pretreatment of METH-treated PC12 cells with 100 nM siROCK2. Apoptosis decreased significantly after ROCK2 silencing, as shown by Annexin V and TUNEL staining. The results show that ROCK2 is a possible gene target for therapeutics in METH-induced neurotoxicity in vitro, providing a foundation for future in vivo research.
Related JoVE Video
[Haplotype frequency and mutation of 17 Y-STR loci in Han population in Guangdong Province].
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the polymorphisms of 17 Y-STR loci in Han population in Guangdong Province and explore its application in forensic medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Up-regulation of protein tyrosine nitration in methamphetamine-induced neurotoxicity through DDAH/ADMA/NOS pathway.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Protein tyrosine nitration is an important post-translational modification mediated by nitric oxide (NO) associated oxidative stress, occurring in a variety of neurodegenerative diseases. In our previous study, an elevated level of dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1) protein was observed in different brain regions of acute methamphetamine (METH) treated rats, indicating the possibility of an enhanced expression of protein nitration that is mediated by excess NO through the DDAH1/ADMA (Asymmetric Dimethylated l-arginine)/NOS (Nitric Oxide Synthase) pathway. In the present study, proteomic methods, including stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture (SILAC) and two dimensional electrophoresis, were used to determine the relationship between protein nitration and METH induced neurotoxicity in acute METH treated rats and PC12 cells. We found that acute METH administration evokes a positive activation of DDAH1/ADMA/NOS pathway and results in an over-production of NO in different brain regions of rat and PC12 cells, whereas the whole signaling could be repressed by DDAH1 inhibitor N(?)-(2-methoxyethyl)-arginine (l-257). In addition, enhanced expressions of 3 nitroproteins were identified in rat striatum and increased levels of 27 nitroproteins were observed in PC12 cells. These nitrated proteins are key factors for Cdk5 activation, cytoskeletal structure, ribosomes function, etc. l-257 also displayed significant protective effects against METH-induced protein nitration, apoptosis and cell death. The overall results illustrate that protein nitration plays a significant role in the acute METH induced neurotoxicity via the activation of DDAH1/ADMA/NOS pathway.
Related JoVE Video
Association between mRNA levels of DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B, MBD2 and LINE-1 methylation status in infants with tetralogy of Fallot.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA methylation is catalyzed and maintained by DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs: DNMT1, DNMT3A and DNMT3B) and methyl-CpG-binding domain protein 2 (MBD2). However, little is known about the biological and clinical significance of the expression changes of DNMTs and MBD2 and their association with the methylation levels of long interspersed nuclear element-1 (LINE-1) in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TOF). In this study, quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) was applied to analyze the mRNA levels of DNMTs and MBD2. The methylation status of LINE-1 was measured using the sequenom MassARRAY platform. The mRNA levels of the DNMTs and MBD2 showed a statistically significant decrease in the patients with TOF (P<0.001). The results also showed that patients with TOF had significantly lower global DNA methylation levels with a median of 61.50% [interquartile range (IQR), 59.78-63.77] compared with 63.54% (IQR, 62.49?64.88) among the controls (P=0.0099). In the controls, only DNMT1 showed a significant positive correlation with the DNMT3A mRNA levels (r=0.718, P=0.002). Of note, the DNMT1, DNMT3A, DNMT3B and MBD2 mRNA levels positively correlated with each other; this was statistically significant (P<0.05). A significant positive correlation with the global DNA methylation status was observed only for MBD2 (r=-0.579, P=0.005) in patients with TOF. In conclusion, lower LINE-1 methylation levels significantly correlate with aberrant MBD2 mRNA levels. The lower expression of DNMT1 and DNMT3B may play an important role in the pathogenesis of TOF.
Related JoVE Video
Low expression of TFPI-2 associated with poor survival outcome in patients with breast cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the prognostic value of TFPI-2 expression in breast cancer patients through examining the correlation between TFPI-2 expression and breast cancer clinicopathologic features.
Related JoVE Video
The genotype and expression of the TGF?2 gene in children with congenital conotruncal defects.
Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animal studies have shown that knockout of the transforming growth factor beta-2 (TGF?2) gene results in diverse cardiovascular malformations and that its unregulated expression is involved in the pathogenesis of heart defects. However, little information is available on the genetic and expression alternations of the TGF?2 gene in children with congenital heart disease. This study investigated the genotype and expression of the TGF?2 gene in children with congenital conotruncal defects (CTDs). The whole coding region of the TGF?2 gene was sequenced in 400 children with CTD. The mRNA and protein expression of the TGF?2 gene was further analyzed in the myocardial tissues of 37 children with CTD and 5 age-matched healthy children using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. No pathogenic mutations in the coding region of the TGF?2 gene were shown by DNA sequencing except for a silent mutation (c.597T > C) in exon 4 of one patient. The TGF?2 expression at either the mRNA or the protein level in the myocardial tissues did not differ significantly between the children with CTD and the children without heart defects. The results indicate that germline mutation of the TGF?2 gene is not a common cause of CTD in humans and that the TGF?2 expression level may be less critical in humans than in animals for the pathogenesis of CTD.
Related JoVE Video
Characteristic face: a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese velocardiofacial syndrome patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS) is a disease in human with an expansive phenotypic spectrum and diverse genetic mechanisms mainly associated with copy number variations (CNVs) on 22q11.2 or other chromosomes. However, the correlations between CNVs and phenotypes remain ambiguous. This study aims to analyze the types and sizes of CNVs in VCFS patients, to define whether correlations exist between CNVs and clinical manifestations in Chinese VCFS patients. In total, 55 clinically suspected Chinese VCFS patients and 100 normal controls were detected by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA). The data from MLPA and all the detailed clinical features of the objects were documented and analyzed. A total of 44 patients (80.0%) were diagnosed with CNVs on 22q11.2. Among them, 43 (78.2%) presented with 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, of whom 40 (93.0%) had typical 3-Mb deletion, and 3 (7.0%) exhibited proximal 1.5-Mb deletion; no patient was found with atypical deletion on 22q11.2. One patient (1.8%) presented with a 3-Mb duplication mapping to the typical 3-Mb region on 22q11.2, while none of the chromosomal abnormalities in the MLPA kit were found in the other 11 patients and 100 normal controls. All the 43 patients with 22q11.2 deletions displayed characteristic face and palatal anomalies; 37 of them (86.0%) had cognitive or behavioral disorders, and 23 (53.5%) suffered from immune deficiencies; 10 patients (23.3%) manifested congenital heart diseases. Interestingly, all patients with the characteristic face had 22q11.2 heterozygous deletions, but no difference in phenotypic spectrum was observed between 3-Mb and 1.5-Mb deletions. Our data suggest that the characteristic face can be used as a key indicator for direct diagnosis of 22q11.2 deletions in Chinese VCFS patients.
Related JoVE Video
MicroRNA expression profiling and target genes study in congenital microtia.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Microtia is a complicated congenital anomaly with a genetic and environmental predisposition, and the molecular events underlying this disease are not fully understood. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of 20-22 nucleotide non-coding RNAs that function to control post-transcriptional gene expression. We want to find the miRNA expression profiling of microtia by using Affymetrix GeneChip(®) miRNA 2.0 Arrays.
Related JoVE Video
Compound heterozygous mutations of SLC26A4 in 4 Chinese families with enlarged vestibular aqueduct.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enlarged vestibular aqueduct is the most common inner ear malformation in individuals with sensorineural hearing loss. Mutations in SLC26A4 can cause non-syndromic EVA. To date, more than 170 SLC26A4 mutations have been described. The aim of the present study was to detect and report genetic causes of four unrelated Chinese families with hearing loss.
Related JoVE Video
High-dose cyclophosphamide compared with antithymocyte globulin for treatment of acquired severe aplastic anemia.
Exp. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A modified regimen of high-dose cyclophosphamide (CTX) plus cyclosporine (CsA) was adopted for patients with severe or very severe aplastic anemia, and the effectiveness was compared with a regimen of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) plus CsA. A total of 121 patients enrolled in this study received either CTX plus CsA (CTX group, 48 cases) or ATG plus CsA (ATG group, 73 cases). The early death rate was 4.2% in the CTX group and 8.2% in the ATG group, showing no significant difference (p = 0.312). The total response rate in the CTX and ATG groups was 54.2% and 57.5% at 3 months, 64.6% and 72.6% at 6 months, and 72.9% and 78.1% at 12 months, respectively (p > 0.05). The overall 5-year survival rate was 81.2% and 80.7%, and the event-free survival rate was 68.2% and 67.3% in the CTX and ATG groups, respectively (p > 0.05). The total medical cost of the CTX group was 54.8% less than that of ATG regimen (p = 0.000). In summary, treatment of severe or very severe aplastic anemia with CTX plus CsA has effectiveness that is comparable to a conventional regimen and less costly.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 expression on biological behavior of BeWo and JEG-3 cell lines.
Clin. Appl. Thromb. Hemost.
PUBLISHED: 12-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (TFPI-2) expression on biological behavior of BeWo and JEG-3 cell lines.
Related JoVE Video
Virion protein 16 induces demethylation of DNA integrated within chromatin in a novel mammalian cell model.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
DNA methylation and demethylation play important roles in mediating epigenetic regulation. So far, the mechanism of DNA demethylation remains elusive and controversial. Here, we constructed a plasmid, named with pCBS-luc, that contained an artificial CpG island, eight Gal4 DNA-binding domain binding site, an SV40 promoter, and a firefly luciferase reporter gene. The linearized pCBS-luc plasmid was methylated in vitro by DNA methyltransferase, and transfected into the HEK293 cells. The stable HEK293 transfectants with methylated pCBS-luc (me-pCBS-luc) were selected and obtained. The methylation status of the selected stable cell lines were confirmed by bisulfite sequencing polymerase chain reaction amplification. The methylation status could be maintained even after 15 passages. The virion protein 16 (VP16) was reported to enhance DNA demethylation around its binding sites of the promoter region in Xenopus fertilized eggs. Using our me-pCBS-luc model, we found that VP16 also had the ability to activate the expression of methylated luciferase reporter gene and induce DNA demethylation in chromatin DNA in mammalian cells. Altogether, we constructed a cell model stably integrated with the me-pCBS-luc reporter plasmid, and in this model we found that VP16 could lead to DNA demethylation. We believe that this cell model will have many potential applications in the future research on DNA demethylation and dynamic process of chromatin modification.
Related JoVE Video
PolyA RT-PCR-based quantification of microRNA by using universal TaqMan probe.
Biotechnol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Quantification of microRNAs (miRNAs) in tissues under normal and pathological conditions is important for elucidating miRNA functions. Based on a PolyA RT-PCR method we have described (J Zhang et al. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2008 377:136-140), a modified miRNA quantification method was developed and validated using a universal TaqMan probe complementary to the reverse transcript primer. This method effectively detects miRNA expression in cell lines and tissues. The TaqMan probe is more accurate and reliable than the SYBR Green method since it was free from primer dimers. A series of miRNAs were tested in five different mouse tissues: the method differentiated different miRNAs of the same family. This universal TaqMan probe-based PolyA RT-PCR method showed its advantages in precision, simplicity and high-throughput capability compared with other miRNA-detecting methods.
Related JoVE Video
Mining relational paths in integrated biomedical data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Much life science and biology research requires an understanding of complex relationships between biological entities (genes, compounds, pathways, diseases, and so on). There is a wealth of data on such relationships in publicly available datasets and publications, but these sources are overlapped and distributed so that finding pertinent relational data is increasingly difficult. Whilst most public datasets have associated tools for searching, there is a lack of searching methods that can cross data sources and that in particular search not only based on the biological entities themselves but also on the relationships between them. In this paper, we demonstrate how graph-theoretic algorithms for mining relational paths can be used together with a previous integrative data resource we developed called Chem2Bio2RDF to extract new biological insights about the relationships between such entities. In particular, we use these methods to investigate the genetic basis of side-effects of thiazolinedione drugs, and in particular make a hypothesis for the recently discovered cardiac side-effects of Rosiglitazone (Avandia) and a prediction for Pioglitazone which is backed up by recent clinical studies.
Related JoVE Video
Computationally designed and experimentally confirmed diastereoselective rhodium-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction at room temperature.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The computational analysis of the rhodium-catalyzed Pauson-Khand reaction indicates that the key transition state is highly charge-polarized, wherein different diastereoisomers have distinctively different charge polarization patterns. Experimental studies demonstrate that chloro-enynes provide the optimal ?-electron-withdrawing group to promote polarization and thereby reduce the activation barrier to provide a highly diastereoselective reaction at room temperature.
Related JoVE Video
Consumption of monosodium glutamate in relation to incidence of overweight in Chinese adults: China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS).
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It has been hypothesized that monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer, is positively associated with weight gain, which influences energy balance through the disruption of the hypothalamic signaling cascade of leptin action.
Related JoVE Video
Preclinical imaging of therapy response using metabolic and apoptosis molecular imaging.
Mol Imaging Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early after therapy, 2-deoxy-2-[(18)F]fluoro-D-glucose ([(18)F]FDG) imaging is not always reliable due to the influx of inflammatory cells while apoptosis imaging offers a direct and early measurement of therapy effects. This study uses an improved apoptosis probe ((99m)Tc-hAnxA5) in combination with [(18)F]FDG imaging to evaluate therapy response.
Related JoVE Video
Finding complex biological relationships in recent PubMed articles using Bio-LDA.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The overwhelming amount of available scholarly literature in the life sciences poses significant challenges to scientists wishing to keep up with important developments related to their research, but also provides a useful resource for the discovery of recent information concerning genes, diseases, compounds and the interactions between them. In this paper, we describe an algorithm called Bio-LDA that uses extracted biological terminology to automatically identify latent topics, and provides a variety of measures to uncover putative relations among topics and bio-terms. Relationships identified using those approaches are combined with existing data in life science datasets to provide additional insight. Three case studies demonstrate the utility of the Bio-LDA model, including association predication, association search and connectivity map generation. This combined approach offers new opportunities for knowledge discovery in many areas of biology including target identification, lead hopping and drug repurposing.
Related JoVE Video
Hypomethylated DSCR4 is a placenta-derived epigenetic marker for trisomy 21.
Prenat. Diagn.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Trisomy 21 is the most common chromosomal aberration in live births. Some efforts have been made to develop noninvasive prenatal detection of trisomy 21 by using fetal DNA in maternal plasma. Due to the maternal DNA background, a distinguishable marker between maternal DNA and fetal DNA must be used, such as DNA methylation. The objective of this study was to search for fetal-specific methylation markers on chromosome 21.
Related JoVE Video
Chem2Bio2RDF: a semantic framework for linking and data mining chemogenomic and systems chemical biology data.
BMC Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently there has been an explosion of new data sources about genes, proteins, genetic variations, chemical compounds, diseases and drugs. Integration of these data sources and the identification of patterns that go across them is of critical interest. Initiatives such as Bio2RDF and LODD have tackled the problem of linking biological data and drug data respectively using RDF. Thus far, the inclusion of chemogenomic and systems chemical biology information that crosses the domains of chemistry and biology has been very limited
Related JoVE Video
Effect of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on lower ureteral stones with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy.
Asian J Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficiency of alpha1-adrenergic antagonists on stone clearance after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) in patients with lower ureteral stones.
Related JoVE Video
Integrating epidermal growth factor receptor assay with clinical parameters improves risk classification for relapse and survival in head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) overexpression has been consistently found to be an independent predictor of local-regional relapse (LRR) after radiotherapy. We assessed the extent by which it can refine risk classification for overall survival (OS) and LRR in patients with head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).
Related JoVE Video
Experience of retroperitoneal laparoscopic treatment on pheochromocytoma.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the safety and efficacy of retroperitoneal laparoscopic resection for pheochromocytoma.
Related JoVE Video
Expression and characterization of Kunitz domain 3 and C-terminal of human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Human tissue factor pathway inhibitor-2 (hTFPI-2) is a serine protease inhibitor and its inhibitory activity is enhanced by heparin. The Kunitz domain 3 and Cterminal of hTFPI-2 (hTFPI-2/KD3C), which has the activity toward heparin calcium, have been successfully expressed in Pichia pastoris and purified by SPSepharose and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. The Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman spectroscopy, and circular dichroism (CD) experiment results implied that hTFPI-2/KD3C contained small contents of alpha-helix and beta-strand, but large amounts of random coil and two kinds of disulfide bonds, gauche-gauche-gauche (ggg) and trans-gauchetrans (tgt). The interaction of hTFPI-2/KD3C with heparin calcium was investigated by CD. It was found that heparin calcium induced b-strands in hTFPI-2/ KD3C to different extents depending on the ratio of hTFPI-2/KD3C and heparin calcium.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective study on nutrition transition in China.
Nutr. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of the prospective study reported here was to examine the effects of social and economic transformation on dietary patterns and nutritional status in China. The study began in 1989 and continued with follow-ups in 1991, 1993, 1997, 2000, and 2004. A total of 5000 subjects aged 18-45 years from 4280 households in nine provinces were included. Weighed records and three consecutive 24-h recalls were used. Over the study period, average consumption of all animal foods except milk increased, while cereal intake decreased. The proportion of animal protein and fat as a percentage of energy also increased. However, vitamin A and calcium intake did not increase and remained low. Child height and weight increased while undernutrition decreased and overweight increased. The results indicate that rapid changes in dietary pattern are associated with economic reforms in China.
Related JoVE Video
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 is a tumor stem cell-associated marker in lung cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tumor contains small population of cancer stem cells (CSC) that are responsible for its maintenance and relapse. Analysis of these CSCs may lead to effective prognostic and therapeutic strategies for the treatment of cancer patients. We report here the identification of CSCs from human lung cancer cells using Aldefluor assay followed by fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. Isolated cancer cells with relatively high aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1) activity display in vitro features of CSCs, including capacities for proliferation, self-renewal, and differentiation, resistance to chemotherapy, and expressing CSC surface marker CD133. In vivo experiments show that the ALDH1-positive cells could generate tumors that recapitulate the heterogeneity of the parental cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis of 303 clinical specimens from three independent cohorts of lung cancer patients and controls show that expression of ALDH1 is positively correlated with the stage and grade of lung tumors and related to a poor prognosis for the patients with early-stage lung cancer. ALDH1 is therefore a lung tumor stem cell-associated marker. These findings offer an important new tool for the study of lung CSCs and provide a potential prognostic factor and therapeutic target for treatment of the patients with lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Ubiquitin C-terminal Hydrolase 37, a novel predictor for hepatocellular carcinoma recurrence, promotes cell migration and invasion via interacting and deubiquitinating PRP19.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase 37 (UCH37) plays a crucial role in numerous biological processes and is also involved in oncogenesis. In this study, clinicopathologic data showed that UCH37 was over-expressed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cancerous tissues and was a significant predictor for time to recurrence (TTR). In vitro, we discovered that UCH37 could promote cell migration and invasion. Subsequently, we utilized Isobaric Tags for Relative and Absolute Quantitation (iTRAQ) to identify differentially expressed proteins in UCH37 over-expressing cells compared with the control cells, and found that PRP19, an essential RNA splicing factor, was up-regulated. The relationship between UCH37, PRP19 and the capability of cell migration and invasion was further confirmed. Collectively, this study demonstrated that UCH37 could promote cell migration and invasion in HCC cell lines through interacting and deubiquitinating PRP19, and suggested that UCH37 could be a novel predictor for HCC recurrence after curative resection.
Related JoVE Video
A report of 15 hand allotransplantations in 12 patients and their outcomes in China.
Transplantation
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limb allotransplantation is emerging as a promising solution to the loss of a limb with the development of advanced surgical techniques and new, highly effective immunosuppressive agents.
Related JoVE Video
Mutation rates at 16 Y-chromosome STRs in the South China Han population.
Int. J. Legal Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nine hundred eighteen DNA-confirmed father-son pairs were typed for 16 Y-chromosomal short tandem repeat (Y-STR) markers by AmpFLSTR® Yfiler™ PCR Amplification kit. In a total of 15,606 allele transmissions, 36 mutations were detected. The average mutation rate across all 16 Y-STR markers was 0.0023 (95 % confidence interval, 0.0016-0.0032). One two-step mutation was found at DYS389II, and all other mutations were single steps. The losses and gains were balanced at all other loci, excluding DYS385 and DYS458, where losses were more frequent than gains. Mutation rates among different Y-STR loci were significantly different (? (2)?=?69.05, P?=?0.000). Mutation rates were correlated with the lengths of the alleles. Alleles with higher number of repeats were more likely to mutate. Mutation rates were also correlated with the gene diversity of the locus (r (2)?=?0.565, P?=?0.023). Loci with higher gene diversity had higher mutation rates. In addition, the mutation rate of the older father was found to be notably higher than that of the younger father.
Related JoVE Video
Loss-of-function mutations in HOXC13 cause pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pure hair and nail ectodermal dysplasia (PHNED) is a congenital condition characterized by hypotrichosis and nail dystrophy. Autosomal-recessive PHNED has previously been mapped to chromosomal region 12q12-q14.1, which contains the type II hair keratin and HOXC clusters. Hoxc13-null mice are known to develop hair and nail defects very similar to those seen in human PHNED. We performed whole-exome sequencing in a consanguineous Chinese family affected by PHNED and identified a homozygous nonsense mutation (c.390C>A [p.Tyr130(?)]) in HOXC13 in all affected individuals. In an additional affected female from a consanguineous Afghan family, we found a 27.6 kb homozygous microdeletion involving the first exon of HOXC13. We examined HOXC13 expression in scalp specimen obtained from the index individual of the Chinese family and detected dramatically reduced mRNA levels in skin tissue and nearly absent protein staining in hair follicles, suggesting a mechanism of nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. We also observed markedly decreased expression of four HOXC13 target genes in the specimen. Taken together, our results demonstrate that loss-of-function mutations in HOXC13 cause autosomal-recessive PHNED and further highlight the importance of HOXC13 in hair and nail development.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the effect of nutritional status in childhood on health status in adulthood.
Related JoVE Video
[Intergenerational differences on the nutritional status and lifestyle of Chinese residents].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the diversities on nutritional status and lifestyle of adult Chinese residents born in different years.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.