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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Complete mitochondrial genome of a hybrid strain of the domesticated silkworm (Qiufeng?×?Baiyu).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Abstract The hybrid strain of the domesticated silkworm (Qiufeng?×?Baiyu) is one of the most popular commercial silkworm varieties in China. In this study, we reported its complete mitochondrial genome sequence for the first time. The 15,680?bp long genome contains 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes [PCGs], 2 rRNA genes, and 22 tRNA genes) and 1 major non-coding A?+?T-rich region, with the typical arrangement found in Lepidoptera. All PCGs started with typical ATN codons except for COI, which began with CGA. Eleven PCGs have complete stop codons, whereas COI and COII end with a single T. The 495?bp long A?+?T-rich region harbors the conserved sequence features typically found in lepidopteran insects. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of Qiufeng?×?Baiyu provides an important data source for further study on the mechanism of silkworm domestication.
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The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome of Bombyx mori strain Baiyun (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae) was determined in this study. The genome was 15,629?bp long with 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and 1 non-coding A?+?T-rich region. Its gene content and order were identical to those of other lepidopteran mitochondrial genomes. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) were initiated by ATN codons except for the COI gene, which began with CGA codon. Eleven PCGs stopped with termination codon TAA, whereas the COI and COII genes ended with single T. All the tRNA genes showed typical secondary cloverleaf structures. The 496?bp AT-rich region contains several features common to other lepidopterans, such as the motif ATAGA followed by an 18-bp poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (TA)8 and (AT)9 elements preceded by the ATTTA motif.
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Genetic variations in two seahorse species (Hippocampus mohnikei and Hippocampus trimaculatus): evidence for middle Pleistocene population expansion.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Population genetic of seahorses is confidently influenced by their species-specific ecological requirements and life-history traits. In the present study, partial sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome b (cytb) and control region (CR) were obtained from 50 Hippocampus mohnikei and 92 H. trimaculatus from four zoogeographical zones. A total of 780 base pairs of cytb gene were sequenced to characterize mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. The mtDNA marker revealed high haplotype diversity, low nucleotide diversity, and a lack of population structure across both populations of H. mohnikei and H. trimaculatus. A neighbour-joining (NJ) tree of cytb gene sequences showed that H. mohnikei haplotypes formed one cluster. A maximum likelihood (ML) tree of cytb gene sequences showed that H. trimaculatus belonged to one lineage. The star-like pattern median-joining network of cytb and CR markers indicated a previous demographic expansion of H. mohnikei and H. trimaculatus. The cytb and CR data sets exhibited a unimodal mismatch distribution, which may have resulted from population expansion. Mismatch analysis suggested that the expansion was initiated about 276,000 years ago for H. mohnikei and about 230,000 years ago for H. trimaculatus during the middle Pleistocene period. This study indicates a possible signature of genetic variation and population expansion in two seahorses under complex marine environments.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi (Ginsburg, 1933; Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the longsnout seahorse Hippocampus reidi was fisrt determined in this article. The total length of H. reidi mitogenome is 16,529?bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and 1 control region. The gene order and composition of H. reidi were similar to those of most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. reidi is 32.47% A, 29.41% T, 14.75% G and 23.37%?C, with a slight A?+?T rich feature (61.88%).
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Abstract We determined the complete mitochondrial genome of the Japanese pine sawyer Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), which is a major forest pest in Asia. The genome is 15,874?bp in length containing 37 typical animal mitochondrial genes and one non-coding A+T-rich region. Its gene content and order are typical of other coleopteran mitochondrial genomes described to date. All protein-coding genes (PCGs) are initiated by ATN codons. Eight PCGs use complete stop codons TAG or TAA, whereas other PCGs end with a single T. All tRNA genes show typical secondary cloverleaf structures except for tRNA(Ser(AGN)), which lacks the dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The large non-coding A+T-rich region of 1249?bp contains a 14?bp-long poly-T stretch and two microsatellite-like (AT)(TA)7 and (TA)8 elements.
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Complete mitochondrial genome of the pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens Girard, 1858 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the pacific seahorse Hippocampus ingens was determined using long polymerase chain reactions. The total length of H. ingens mitogenome is 16,526?bp and consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes and a control region. The gene order and composition of H. ingens were similar to those of most other vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. ingens is 32.6% A, 29.3% T, 23.5% G and 14.6% C, with a slight A+T rich feature (61.9%).
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour's seahorse Hippocampus barbouri Jordan & Richardson, 1908 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Barbour's seahorse Hippocampus barbouri was first determined in this paper. The total length of H. barbouri mitogenome is 16,526?bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The features of the H. barbouri mitochondrial genome were similar to the typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. barbouri is 32.68% A, 29.75% T, 22.91% C and 14.66% G, with an AT content of 62.43%.
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Complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus Perry, 1810 (Gasterosteiformes: Syngnathidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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Abstract The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the lined seahorse Hippocampus erectus was first determined in this article. The total length of H. erectus mitogenome is 16,529?bp, which consists of 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA and 2 rRNA genes and 1 control region. The features of the H. erectus mitochondrial genome were similar to the typical vertebrates. The overall base composition of H. erectus is 31.8% A, 28.6% T, 24.3% C and 15.3% G, with a slight A?+?T rich feature (60.4%).
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Optofluidic realization and retaining of cell-cell contact using an abrupt tapered optical fibre.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Studies reveal that there exists much interaction and communication between bacterial cells, with parts of these social behaviors depending on cell-cell contacts. The cell-cell contact has proved to be crucial for determining various biochemical processes. However, for cell culture with relatively low cell concentration, it is difficult to precisely control and retain the contact of a small group of cells. Particularly, the retaining of cell-cell contact is difficult when flows occur in the medium. Here, we report an optofluidic method for realization and retaining of Escherichia coli cell-cell contact in a microfluidic channel using an abrupt tapered optical fibre. The contact process is based on launching a 980-nm wavelength laser into the fibre, E. coli cells were trapped onto the fibre tip one after another, retaining cell-cell contact and forming a highly organized cell chain. The formed chains further show the ability as bio-optical waveguides.
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Sexual dimorphism of steroidogenesis regulated by GnIH in the goldfish, Carassius auratus.
Biol. Reprod.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) has been shown to inhibit reproduction in several species. GnIH suppresses gonadotropin synthesis/release at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels; however, increasing evidence suggests that GnIH has a putative function in the gonad. In this study, we demonstrated that GnIH receptors localize to the ovary and testis in goldfish. In situ hybridization illustrated that goldfish GnIHRs were localized exclusively to the oocytes before the cortical alveolus stage and to the interstitial tissue to the testis. Implantation of goldfish GnIH peptides did not affect the serum estradiol levels in female goldfish, but it did enhance the serum testosterone levels in males. Conversely, injecting goldfish GnIH peptides increased the expression of StAR and 3bHSD mRNA and decreased the expression of CYP19 mRNA significantly in the testis, but these genes remained unchanged in the ovary. In addition, goldfish GnIH peptides not only increased the expression of StAR and 3bHSD and decreased CYP19 mRNA, but they also increased the expression of FSHR and LHR mRNA in testicular cells. However, they did not affect the expression of these genes in ovarian cells in vitro. Thus, we suggest that GnIH may contribute to the sexual dimorphism of steroidogenesis in goldfish.
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[Study on rat nasal absorption in situ of borneol based on single pass perfusion method].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2011
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To investigate the absorption characteristic of borneol.
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Molecular cloning, characterization and expression profiles of multiple leptin genes and a leptin receptor gene in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).
Gen. Comp. Endocrinol.
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Leptin plays key roles in body weight regulation, energy metabolism, food intake, reproduction and immunity in mammals. However, its function in teleosts is still unclear. In the present study, two leptin genes (gLepA and gLepB) and one leptin receptor gene (gLepR) were cloned and characterized in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The cDNAs of gLepA and gLepB were 671 bp and 684 bp in length, encoding for proteins of 161 amino acid (aa) and 158 aa, respectively. The three-dimensional (3D) structures modeling of gLepA and gLepB showed strong conservation of tertiary structure with that of other vertebrates. The total length of gLepR cDNA was 4242 bp, encoding a protein of 1169 aa which contained all functionally important domains conserved among vertebrate LEPR. Tissue distribution analysis showed that gLepA was highly expressed in cerebellum, liver and ovary, while gLepB mRNA abundantly in the brain regions, as well as in the ovary with some extend. The gLepR was mainly expressed in kidney, head kidney and most of brain regions. Analysis of expression profiles of gLep and gLepR genes during the embryonic stages showed that high expression of gLepR was observed in the brain vesicle stage, while neither gLepA nor gLepB mRNA was detected during different embryonic stages. Finally, fasting and refeeding experiments were carried out to investigate the possible function of leptin genes in food intake and energy metabolism, and the results showed that a significant increase of gLepA expression in the liver was induced by food deprivation in both short-term (7 days) and long-term (3 weeks) fasting and gLepA mRNA upregulation was eliminated after refeeding, while gLepB wasnt detected in the liver of grouper during fasting. No significant differences in hypothalamic leptin and leptin receptor expression were found during short-term fasting and refeeding. Hepatic expression of gLepA mRNA increased significantly 9h after a single meal. These results suggested gLepA, other than gLepB, functioned in the regulation of energy metabolism and food intake in this Perciform fish.
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Interleukin-27 inhibits vaccine-enhanced pulmonary disease following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.
J. Virol.
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of lower respiratory tract disease in young children. In the 1960s, infants vaccinated with formalin-inactivated RSV developed a more severe disease characterized by excessive inflammatory immunopathology in lungs upon natural RSV infection. The fear of causing the vaccine-enhanced disease (VED) is an important obstacle for development of safe and effective RSV vaccines. The recombinant vaccine candidate G1F/M2 immunization also led to VED. It has been proved that cellular memory induced by RSV vaccines contributed to VED. Interleukin-27 (IL-27) and IL-23 regulate Th1, Th17, and/or Th2 cellular immune responses. In this study, mice coimmunized with pcDNA3-IL-27 and G1F/M2 were fully protected and, importantly, did not develop vaccine-enhanced inflammatory responses and immunopathology in lungs after RSV challenge, which was correlated with moderate Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses activated by RSV. In contrast, G1F/M2- or pcDNA3-IL-23+G1F/M2-immunized mice, in which robust Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were induced, developed enhanced pulmonary inflammation and severe immunopathology. Mice coimmunized with G1F/M2 and the two cytokine plasmids exhibited mild inflammatory responses as well as remarkable Th1-, suppressed Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses. These results suggested that Th1-, Th2-, and Th17-like memory responses and, in particular, excessive Th2- and Th17-like memory responses were closely associated with VED; IL-27 may inhibit VED following respiratory syncytial virus infection by regulating cellular memory responses.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.