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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Nephrotoxic potential and toxicokinetics of melamine combined with cyanuric Acid in rats.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2014
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To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of melamine (MEL) and cyanuric acid (CA) in male Sprague-Dawley rats, 7-d repeated-dose studies were performed. The experimental groups of MEL100 and CA100 were orally administered with MEL and CA at 100 mg/kg/d for 7 d, respectively. In groups dosed with MEL-CA mixtures, melamine and cyanuric acid (1:1) were simultaneously administered at 4, 20, or 100 mg/kg/d for 7 d (i.e., MEL-CA4, MEL-CA20, or MEL-CA100, respectively). Body weights were not markedly affected in MEL100, CA100, and MEL-CA4 groups, but significantly reduced in MEL-CA 20 and 100 rats. Most parameters determined in sera and tissues were not markedly altered in MEL100, CA100, and MEL-CA4-treated rodents. However, BUN, creatinine, total protein, and kidney weights were significantly increased in MEL-CA20- and MEL-CA100-treated animals. Renal histopathologic findings also revealed signs of toxicity, including tubular dilatation, crystal deposition, granulomatous tubulo-interstitial inflammation, and tubular necrosis with regeneration. Data suggested that the combination of MEL and CA might be responsible for observed nephrotoxicity that was not seen following individual exposure to either MEL or CA alone. Subsequently, the concentrations of MEL and CA were determined in serum, urine, and kidney tissues by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Toxicokinetic studies indicated that MEL or CA alone might be eliminated almost completely within 24 h after dosing showing no accumulation in kidney. However, the combined MEL-CA dose produced marked accumulation of chemicals in blood and kidneys. These results suggested that combined MEL and CA might produce renal toxicity due to significant chemical accumulation in kidney accompanied by low excretion.
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Upregulation of Stat1-HDAC4 confers resistance to etoposide through enhanced multidrug resistance 1 expression in human A549 lung cancer cells.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Despite efforts to develop efficient chemotherapeutic drug strategies to treat cancer, acquired drug resistance is a commonly encountered problem. In the present study, to investigate this phenomenon, human A549 lung cancer cells resistant to the topoisomerase inhibitor etoposide (A549RT?eto) were used and compared with A549 parental cells. A549RT?eto cells demonstrated increased resistance to etoposide?induced apoptosis when compared with A549 parental cells. Notably, A549RT?eto cells were observed to exhibit greater levels of histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4), phospho?Stat1 and P?glycoprotein [P?gp; encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene], compared with A549 cells. To address whether HDAC4 protein is involved in etoposide resistance in A549 cells, A549RT?eto cells were treated with trichostatin A (TSA; an HDAC inhibitor) during etoposide treatment. The combined treatment was demonstrated to enhance etoposide?induced apoptosis and reduce expression levels of HDAC4, P?gp and phospho?Stat1. In addition, the suppression of Stat1 with siRNA enhanced etoposide?induced apoptosis and reduced the expression levels of HDAC4 and P?gp, suggesting that Stat1 is essential in the regulation of resistance to etoposide, and in the upregulation of P?gp. Notably, TSA treatment reduced P?gp transcript levels but Stat1 siRNA treatment did not, suggesting that P?gp is regulated by HDAC at the transcriptional level and by Stat1 at the post?transcriptional level. These results suggest that the upregulation of Stat1 and HDAC4 determines etoposide resistance through P?gp expression in human A549 lung cancer cells.
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Metformin suppresses CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating aryl hydrocarbon receptor expression.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 and CYP1B1 by environmental xenobiotic chemicals or endogenous ligands through the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) has been implicated in a variety of cellular processes related to cancer, such as transformation and tumorigenesis. Here, we investigated the effects of the anti-diabetes drug metformin on expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and inducible conditions. Our results indicated that metformin down-regulated the expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in breast cancer cells under constitutive and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced conditions. Down-regulation of AhR expression was required for metformin-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression, and the metformin-mediated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 reduction is irrelevant to estrogen receptor ? (ER?) signaling. Furthermore, we found that metformin markedly down-regulated Sp1 protein levels in breast cancer cells. The use of genetic and pharmacological tools revealed that metformin-mediated down-regulation of AhR expression was mediated through the reduction of Sp1 protein. Metformin inhibited endogenous AhR ligand-induced CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression by suppressing tryptophan-2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) expression in MCF-7 cells. Finally, metformin inhibits TDO expression through a down-regulation of Sp1 and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein levels. Our findings demonstrate that metformin reduces CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 expression in breast cancer cells by down-regulating AhR signaling. Metformin would be able to act as a potential chemopreventive agent against CYP1A1 and CYP1B1-mediated carcinogenesis and development of cancer.
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Protein kinase a phosphorylates Dlx3 and regulates the function of Dlx3 during osteoblast differentiation.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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Protein kinase A (PKA), a serine/threonine kinase, regulates bone formation, and enhances Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-induced osteoblast differentiation. However, the mechanisms of how PKA controls the cellular response to BMP are not well known. We investigated the effects of modulating PKA activity during BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation, and found that PKA regulates the function of Dlx3. Dlx3 plays crucial roles in osteoblast differentiation and it is expressed in most skeletal elements during development. We found that PKA activation increases BMP2-induced expression of Dlx3 protein, and enhances the protein stability, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity of Dlx3. In addition, PKA activation induces the phosphorylation of Dlx3 at consensus PKA phosphorylation target site(s). Lastly, substitution of serine 10 in Dlx3 to alanine significantly reduces, if not completely abolishes, the phosphorylation of Dlx3 and the regulation of Dlx3 function by PKA. These results suggest that Dlx3 is a novel target of PKA, and that PKA mediates BMP signaling during osteoblast differentiation, at least in part, by phosphorylating Dlx3 and modulating the protein stability and function of Dlx3.
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Endosulfan induces COX-2 expression via NADPH oxidase and the ROS, MAPK, and Akt pathways.
Arch. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Endosulfan (1,4,5,6,7,7-hexachloro-8,9,10-trinorborn-5-en-2,3-ylenebismet-hylene) is correlated with endocrine disruption, reproductive, and immune dysfunctions. Recently, endosulfan was shown to have an effect on inflammatory pathways, but its influence on cyclooxygenase-2(COX-2) expression is unclear. This study investigated the effects of COX-2 and molecular mechanisms by endosulfan in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Endosulfan significantly induced COX-2 protein and mRNA levels, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity and the production of prostaglandin E2, a major COX-2 metabolite. Transfection experiments with several human COX-2 promoter constructs revealed that endosulfan activated NF-?B, C/EBP, AP-1, and CREB. Moreover, Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were significantly activated by endosulfan. Moreover, endosulfan increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2, and NOX3. Endosulfan-induced Akt/MAPK pathways and COX-2 expression were attenuated by DPI, a specific NOX inhibitor, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine. These results demonstrate that endosulfan induces COX-2 expression via NADPH oxidase, ROS, and Akt/MAPK pathways. These findings provide further insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory effects of endosulfan.
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Ilimaquinone induces death receptor expression and sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through activation of ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP signaling pathways.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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TRAIL induces apoptosis in a variety of tumor cells. However, development of resistance to TRAIL is a major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Therefore, novel pharmacological agents that enhance sensitivity to TRAIL are necessary. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which ilimaquinone isolated from a sea sponge sensitizes human colon cancer cells to TRAIL. Ilimaquinone pretreatment significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis in HCT 116 cells and sensitized colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through increased caspase-8, -3 activation, PARP cleavage, and DNA damage. Ilimaquinone also reduced the cell survival proteins Bcl2 and Bcl-xL, while strongly up-regulating death receptor (DR) 4 and DR5 expression. Induction of DR4 and DR5 by ilimaquinone was mediated through up-regulation of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP). The up-regulation of CHOP, DR4 and DR5 expression was mediated through activation of extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. Finally, the generation of ROS was required for CHOP and DR5 up-regulation by ilimaquinone. These results demonstrate that ilimaquinone enhanced the sensitivity of human colon cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis through ROS-ERK/p38 MAPK-CHOP-mediated up-regulation of DR4 and DR5 expression, suggesting that ilimaquinone could be developed into an adjuvant chemotherapeutic drug.
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Metallothionein-III increases ADAM10 activity in association with furin, PC7, and PKC? during non-amyloidogenic processing.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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A-disintegrin and metalloproteinase 10 (ADAM10) is involved in the generation of amyloid-? (A?) during amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing, and has a protective effect against A? neurotoxicity. We explored how metallothionein-III (MT-III) is regulated in the non-amyloidogenic pathway to generate soluble APP? (sAPP?). MT-??? increased sAPP? levels and reduced A? peptide levels, but did not affect ADAM10 expression. However, MT-III increased the activity of ADAM10. MT-???-induced sAPP? secretion, and A? peptide formation was blocked by specific inhibitors of furin, proprotein convertase7 (PC7), and PKC?. These results demonstrate that MT-??? increases the amount of active ADAM10 in association with furin, PC7 and PKC?.
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Metformin induces microRNA-34a to downregulate the Sirt1/Pgc-1?/Nrf2 pathway, leading to increased susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and therapeutic agents.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in cellular redox balance and resistance to oxidative stress. Sirt1 exhibits oncogenic properties in wild-type p53 cancer cells, whereas it acts as a tumor suppressor in p53-mutated cancer cells. Here, we investigated the effects of metformin on Sirt1 expression in several cancer cell lines. Using human cancer cell lines that exhibit differential expression of p53, we found that metformin reduced Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cells bearing wild-type p53, but did not affect Sirt1 protein levels in cancer cell lines harboring mutant forms of p53. Metformin-induced p53 protein levels in wild-type p53 cancer cells resulted in upregulation of microRNA (miR)-34a. The use of a miR-34a inhibitor confirmed that metformin-induced miR-34a was required for Sirt1 downregulation. Metformin suppressed peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) coactivator-1? (Pgc-1?) expression and its downstream target Nrf2 in MCF-7 cells. Genetic tools demonstrated that the reduction of Sirt1 and Pgc-1? by metformin caused Nrf2 downregulation via suppression of PPAR? transcriptional activity. Metformin reduced heme oxygenase-1 and superoxide dismutase 2 but upregulated catalase expression in MCF-7 cells. Metformin-treated MCF-7 cells had no increase in basal levels of reactive oxygen species but were more susceptible to oxidative stress. Furthermore, upregulation of death receptor 5 by metformin-mediated Sirt1 downregulation enhanced the sensitivity of wild-type p53 cancer cells to TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Our results demonstrated that metformin induces miR-34a to suppress the Sirt1/Pgc-1?/Nrf2 pathway and increases susceptibility of wild-type p53 cancer cells to oxidative stress and TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
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Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins attenuate atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions via suppression of NF-?B and STAT1 and activation of Nrf2/ARE-mediated heme oxygenase-1.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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The consequences of precipitously rising allergic skin inflammation rates worldwide have accelerated the risk of atopic dermatitis (AD). Natural product-based agents with good efficacy and low risk of side effects offer promising prevention and treatment strategies for inflammation-related diseases. We have already reported that Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) have many pharmacological effects, including anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic effects, but its influence on AD remains unclear. Therefore, we evaluated the inhibitory effect of CKS, mainly platycodin D, on AD-like skin symptoms in mice and the possible mechanisms in cells.
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Leptin induces CYP1B1 expression in MCF-7 cells through ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Leptin, a hormone with multiple biological actions, is produced predominantly by adipose tissue. Among its functions, leptin can stimulate tumour cell growth. Oestrogen receptor ? (ER?), which plays an essential role in breast cancer development, can be transcriptionally activated in a ligand-independent manner. In this study, we investigated the effect of leptin on CYP1B1 expression and its mechanism in breast cancer cells. Leptin induced CYP1B1 protein, messenger RNA expression and promoter activity in ER?-positive MCF-7 cells but not in ER?-negative MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, leptin increased 4-hydroxyoestradiol in MCF-7 cells. Also, ER? knockdown by siRNA significantly blocked the induction of CYP1B1 expression by leptin, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression via an ER?-dependent mechanism. Transient transfection with CYP1B1 deletion promoter constructs revealed that the oestrogen response element (ERE) plays important role in the up-regulation of CYP1B1 by leptin. Furthermore, leptin stimulated phosphorylation of ER? at serine residues 118 and 167 and increased ERE-luciferase activity, indicating that leptin induced CYP1B1 expression by ER? activation. Finally, we found that leptin activated ERK and Akt signalling pathways, which are upstream kinases related to ER? phosphorylation induced by leptin. Taken together, our results indicate that leptin-induced CYP1B1 expression is mediated by ligand-independent activation of the ER? pathway as a result of the activation of ERK and Akt in MCF-7 cells.
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Protective Effects of Diallyl Sulfide against Thioacetamide-Induced Toxicity: A Possible Role of Cytochrome P450 2E1.
Biomol Ther (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Effects of diallyl sulfide (DAS) on thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity and immunotoxicity were investigated. When male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated orally with 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg of DAS in corn oil for three consecutive days, the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1-selective p-nitrophenol hydroxylase was dose-dependently suppressed. In addition, the activities of CYP 2B-selective benzyloxyresorufin O-debenzylase and pentoxyresorufin O-depentylase were significantly induced by the treatment with DAS. Western immunoblotting analyses also indicated the suppression of CYP 2E1 protein and/or the induction of CYP 2B protein by DAS. To investigate a possible role of metabolic activation by CYP enzymes in thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity, rats were pre-treated with 400 mg/kg of DAS for 3 days, followed by a single intraperitoneal treatment with 100 and 200 mg/kg of thioacetamide in saline for 24 hr. The activities of serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase significantly elevated by thioacetamide were protected in DAS-pretreated animals. Likewise, the suppressed antibody response to sheep erythrocytes by thioacetamide was protected by DAS pretreatment in female BALB/c mice. Taken together, our present results indicated that thioacetamide might be activated to its toxic metabolite(s) by CYP 2E1, not by CYP 2B, in rats and mice.
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Saponins from the Roots of Platycodon grandiflorum Suppresses TGF?1-Induced Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition Via Repression of PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 and Smad2/3 Pathway in Human Lung Carcinoma A549 Cells.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Transforming growth factor ? (TGF?) is a multifunctional cytokine that induces growth arrest, tissue fibrosis, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through activation of Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. EMT is the differentiation switch by which polarized epithelial cells differentiate into contractile and motile mesenchymal cells. Our previous studies have shown that saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have antiinflammatory, antioxidant, antimetastatic, and hepatoprotective effects. In this study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of CKS on TGF?1-induced alterations characteristic of EMT in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. We found that CKS-treated cells displayed inhibited TGF?1-mediated E-cadherin downregulation and Vimentin upregulation and also retained epithelial morphology. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression, a repressor of E-cadherin and an inducer of the EMT, was reduced by CKS. CKS inhibited TGF?1-induced phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and glycogen synthase kinase-3? (GSK-3?). Inhibition of PI3K/Akt and ERK1/2 also blocked TGF?1-induced GSK-3? phosphorylation and Snail activation. Furthermore, TGF?1-increased Snail expression was reduced by selective inhibitors of Akt and ERK1/2. Moreover, CKS treatment attenuated TGF?1-induced Smad2/3 phosphorylation and upregulated Smad7 expression. These results indicate that pretreatment with the CKS inhibits the TGF?1-induced EMT through PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2, GSK-3? and Smad2/3 in human lung carcinoma cells.
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Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methanol Extract of Mastixia arborea C.B. Clarke as to Mouse Macrophage and Paw Edema.
Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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The biological activity of Mastixia arborea (MA) relates to inflammation, but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory effects of a methanol extract of MA extract on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 mouse macrophage cells and carrageenan-induced mice paw edema. The MA extract significantly inhibited nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and IL-6 production in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In vitro expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was suppressed by the extract. The extract attenuated acute inflammatory responses in carrageenan-induced mice paw edema. A mechanism study indicated that translocation of the NF-?B (p65) subunit into the nucleus and phosphorylation of ERK and JNK were inhibited by the extract. These results indicate that the extract is an effective suppressor of the inflammatory response, blocking the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK and the translocation of NF-?B in macrophages, thereby producing an anti-inflammatory effect in vivo.
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Genipin induces cyclooxygenase-2 expression via NADPH oxidase, MAPKs, AP-1, and NF-?B in RAW 264.7 cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Genipin is a compound found in gardenia fruit extract with diverse pharmacological activities. However, the mechanism underlying genipin-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of genipin on COX-2 expression and determined that exposure to genipin dose-dependently enhanced the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in RAW 264.7 cells. These effects were mediated by genipin-induced activation of the COX-2 promoter, as well as AP-1 and NF-?B luciferase constructs. Phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase/Akt and MAPKs were also significantly activated by genipin, and Akt and MAPKs inhibitors (PD98059, SB20358, SP600125, and LY294002) inhibited genipin-induced COX-2 expression. Moreover, genipin increased production of the ROS and the ROS-producing NAPDH-oxidase (NOX) family oxidases, NOX2 and NOX3. Inhibition of NADPH with diphenyleneiodonium attenuated ROS production, COX-2 expression and NF-?B and AP-1 activation. These results suggest that the molecular mechanism mediating ROS-dependent COX-2 up-regulation and PGE2 production by genipin involves activation of Akt, MAPKs and AP-1/NF-?B.
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The effect of gut microbiota on drug metabolism.
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Numerous drugs and toxicants must be metabolized to an active form. Metabolic activation by host tissues, such as the liver, has been well studied. However, drug and toxicant metabolism by the intestinal microbiota is an unexplored, but essential, field of study in pharmacology and toxicology. The taxonomic diversity and sheer numbers of the intestinal microbiota, and their capacity to metabolize xenobiotics, underscore the importance of this mode of metabolism.
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Bromopropane compounds inhibit osteogenesis by ERK-dependent Runx2 inhibition in C2C12 cells.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Bromopropane (BP) is a halogenated alkan compound used in various industries as chemical intermediates, extraction solvents, and degreasing compounds. Halogenated alkan compounds can damage the nervous system, immune system, and hematopoietic and reproductive functions in animals and humans. However, the effect of BPs on bone formation has not yet been examined. This study examined the effects of BPs on osteoblast differentiation and analyzed the mechanisms involved in C2C12, mesenchymal stem cells. BPs dose dependently reduced the alkaline phosphatase activity, expression levels and promoter activity of bone marker genes. Additionally, 1,2-dibromopropane (1,2-DBP) significantly reduced the levels and transcriptional activity of Runx2 and Osterix, major bone transcription factors, in BMP2 induced C2C12 cells. Furthermore, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) were significantly inhibited by 1,2-DBP. These results demonstrate that BPs inhibit osteoblast differentiation by suppressing Runx2 and Osterix through the ERK/JNK pathway.
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Anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effect of a novel selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor in the diet-induced obese mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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It has been reported that the selective inhibitors of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11?-HSD1) have considerable potential for treating type 2 diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and inflammation. In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of N-(5-carbamoyladamantan-2-yl)-3-((2-fluorophenyl) sulfonyl)thiazolidine-2-carboxamide (KR-67105), a novel 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, in diabetic mice model and preadipocyte model. KR-67105 concentration dependently inhibited 11?-HSD1 activity in human and mouse 11?-HSD1 overexpressing cells and mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Furthermore, KR-67105 concentration-dependently inhibited 11?-HSD1 activity in the ex vivo assay of C57BL/6 mice. In the study with diet-induced obese (DIO) mice, the administration of KR-67105 (100mg/kg/day, orally for 28 days) improved the glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity as determined by the oral glucose tolerance test and the insulin tolerance test. Anti-diabetic effect by KR-67105 was associated with the suppression of diabetic related genes expression in liver and fat. Furthermore, KR-67105 suppressed 11?-HSD1 activity in liver and fat of diabetic mice, but showed no effect on adrenal grand weight/body weight ratio and plasma corticosterone concentration in diabetic mice. In 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, cortisone induced the mRNA of inflammatory cytokines and 11?-HSD1 and reactive oxygen species formation. This effect was abolished by co-incubation with KR-67105 in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, KR-67105 attenuated cortisone induced iNOS expression and phosphorylation of NF-?B p65, p38 MAPK, and ERK1/2 in preadipocytes. Taken together, it is concluded that a selective 11?-HSD1 inhibitor, KR-67105, may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes with chronic inflammation without toxicity.
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Mollugin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis by suppressing fatty acid synthase in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Mollugin is a naphthohydroquine found in the roots of Rubia cordifolia, and has been reported to have a variety of biological activities, including anti-inflammatory and apoptotic effects. In the present study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which mollugin exerts anti-tumor effect in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Our results showed that mollugin exhibited potent inhibitory effects on cancer cell proliferation, especially in HER2-overexpressing SK-BR-3 human breast cancer cells and SK-OV-3 human ovarian cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner without affecting immortalized normal mammary epithelial cell line MCF-10A. Furthermore, we found that a blockade of Akt/SREBP-1c signaling through mollugin treatment significantly reduced FAS expression and subsequently suppressed cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells. Mollugin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level, potentially in part through suppression of NF-?B activation. The combination of mollugin with a MEK1/2 inhibitor may be required in order to achieve optimal efficacy in HER2-overexpressing cancers. These data provide evidence that mollugin inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells by blocking expression of the FAS gene through modulation of a HER2/Akt/SREBP-1c signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that mollugin is a novel modulator of the HER2 pathway in HER2-overexpressing cancer cells with a potential role in the treatment and prevention of human breast and ovarian cancer with HER2 overexpression.
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Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha phosphorylates and regulates the osteogenic activity of Osterix.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Osteoblast-specific transcription factor Osterix is a zinc-finger transcription factor that required for osteoblast differentiation and new bone formation. The function of Osterix can be modulated by post-translational modification. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha (GSK3?) is a multifunctional serine/threonine protein kinase that plays a role in the Wnt signaling pathways and is implicated in the control of several regulatory proteins and transcription factors. In the present study, we investigated how GSK3? regulates Osterix during osteoblast differentiation. Wide type GSK3? up-regulated the protein level, protein stability and transcriptional activity of Osterix. These results suggest that GSK3? regulates osteogenic activity of Osterix.
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Role of metabolism by intestinal microbiota in pharmacokinetics of oral baicalin.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Baicalin (baicalein-7-glucuronide) is a flavonoid purified from Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi that has traditionally been used for treatment of hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and viral hepatitis. In this study, the effects of intestinal microbiota on the pharmacokinetics of baicalin were investigated in normal and antibiotic-pretreated rats following p.o. administration of 100 mg/kg baicalin by using liquid chromatography/ion trap mass spectrometry. When rats were pretreated orally with cefadroxil, oxytetracycline and erythromycin for 3 days to control the number of intestinal bacteria, the pharmacokinetic parameters of oral baicalin were significantly affected by antibiotics: Cmax, T1/2(?), Kel and AUC values were significantly changed compared to those in normal rats. These results indicate that intestinal microbiota might play a key role in the oral pharmacokinetics of baicalin.
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Antitumor efficacy of piperine in the treatment of human HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Piperine is a bioactive component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, commonly used for daily consumption and in traditional medicine. Here, the molecular mechanisms by which piperine exerts antitumor effects in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells was investigated. The results showed that piperine strongly inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis through caspase-3 activation and PARP cleavage. Furthermore, piperine inhibited HER2 gene expression at the transcriptional level. Blockade of ERK1/2 signaling by piperine significantly reduced SREBP-1 and FAS expression. Piperine strongly suppressed EGF-induced MMP-9 expression through inhibition of AP-1 and NF-?B activation by interfering with ERK1/2, p38 MAPK, and Akt signaling pathways resulting in a reduction in migration. Finally, piperine pretreatment enhanced sensitization to paclitaxel killing in HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells. Our findings suggest that piperine may be a potential agent for the prevention and treatment of human breast cancer with HER2 overexpression.
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S-allyl cysteine attenuates free fatty acid-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.
J. Nutr. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2013
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S-Allyl cysteine (SAC), a nontoxic garlic compound, has a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. In this report, we provide evidence that SAC prevented free fatty acid (FFA)-induced lipid accumulation and lipotoxicity in hepatocytes. SAC significantly reduced FFA-induced generation of reactive oxygen species, caspase activation and subsequent cell death. Also, SAC mitigated total cellular lipid and triglyceride accumulation in steatotic HepG2 cells. SAC significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) in HepG2 cells. Additionally, SAC down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1 (SREBP-1) and its target genes, including ACC and fatty acid synthase. Use of a specific inhibitor showed that SAC activated AMPK via calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase (CaMKK) and silent information regulator T1. Our results demonstrate that SAC activates AMPK through CaMKK and inhibits SREBP-1-mediated hepatic lipogenesis. Therefore, SAC has therapeutic potential for preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.
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Inhibitory effect of dihydroartemisinin against phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2013
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Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin isolated from the traditional Chinese herb Artemisia annua L., has recently been shown to possess antitumor activity in various cancer cells. However, the effect of anti-inflammatory potentials of DHA in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells has not been studied. The present study investigated the effect of COX-2 and molecular mechanisms by DHA in PMA stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. DHA dose-dependently decreased PMA-induced COX-2 expression and PGE2 production, as well as COX-2 promoter-driven luciferase activity. Additionally, DHA decreased luciferase activity of COX-2 regulation-related transcription factors including NF-?B, AP-1, C/EBP and CREB. DHA also remarkably reduced PMA-induced p65, C/EBP?, c-jun and CREB nuclear translocation. Furthermore, DHA evidently inhibited PMA-induced phosphorylation of AKT and the MAP Kinases, such as ERK, JNK and p38. Taken together, our data indicated that DHA effectively attenuates COX-2 production via down-regulation of AKT and MAPK pathway, revealing partial molecular basis for the anti-inflammatory properties of DHA.
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Platycodi Radix attenuates dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver fibrosis in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the anti-fibrotic effects of the aqueous extract of the Platycodi Radix root (Changkil: CK) on dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. DMN treatment for 4 weeks led to marked liver fibrosis as assessed by serum biochemistry, histopathological examination, and hepatic lipid peroxidation and collagen content. CK significantly inhibited DMN-induced increases in serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities, fibrosis score, and hepatic malondialdehyde and collagen content. CK also inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analyses revealed that CK inhibited DMN-induced increases in matrix metalloproteinase-13 (MMP-13), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) mRNA, and collagen type I and ?-smooth muscle actin protein. DMN-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) activation was reduced by CK treatment. Furthermore, CK induced activation of nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-mediated antioxidant enzymes such as ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in HepG2 cells. These results demonstrated that CK attenuates DMN-induced liver fibrosis through the activation of Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes.
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Metformin inhibits heme oxygenase-1 expression in cancer cells through inactivation of Raf-ERK-Nrf2 signaling and AMPK-independent pathways.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Resistance to therapy is the major obstacle to more effective cancer treatment. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is often highly up-regulated in tumor tissues, and its expression is further increased in response to therapies. It has been suggested that inhibition of HO-1 expression is a potential therapeutic approach to sensitize tumors to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the anti-tumor effects of metformin are mediated by suppression of HO-1 expression in cancer cells. Our results indicate that metformin strongly suppresses HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in human hepatic carcinoma HepG2, cervical cancer HeLa, and non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells. Metformin also markedly reduced Nrf2 mRNA and protein levels in whole cell lysates and suppressed tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ)-induced Nrf2 protein stability and antioxidant response element (ARE)-luciferase activity in HepG2 cells. We also found that metformin regulation of Nrf2 expression is mediated by a Keap1-independent mechanism and that metformin significantly attenuated Raf-ERK signaling to suppress Nrf2 expression in cancer cells. Inhibition of Raf-ERK signaling by PD98059 decreased Nrf2 mRNA expression in HepG2 cells, confirming that the inhibition of Nrf2 expression is mediated by an attenuation of Raf-ERK signaling in cancer cells. The inactivation of AMPK by siRNA, DN-AMPK or the pharmacological AMPK inhibitor compound C, revealed that metformin reduced HO-1 expression in an AMPK-independent manner. These results highlight the Raf-ERK-Nrf2 axis as a new molecular target in anticancer therapy in response to metformin treatment.
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Reversal of P-glycoprotein-mediated multidrug resistance is induced by mollugin in MCF-7/adriamycin cells.
Phytomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2013
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P-glycoprotein (P-gp), an important efflux transporter, is encoded by the MDR1 class of genes and is a central element of the multidrug resistance (MDR) phenomenon in cancer cells. In the present study, we investigated whether mollugin, purified from roots of Rubica cordifolia L., down-regulated MDR1 expression in MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/adr) cells, a human breast multidrug-resistant cancer cell line. Mollugin treatment significantly inhibited MDR1 expression by blocking MDR1 transcription. Mollugin treatment also significantly increased intracellular accumulation of the fluorescently-tagged P-gp substrate, rhodamine-123. The suppression of MDR1 promoter activity and protein expression was mediated through mollugin-induced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). Furthermore, mollugin inhibited MDR1 expression through the suppression of NF-?B and CREB activation. Interestingly, mollugin also inhibited COX-2 expression. These results suggest that mollugin treatment enhanced suppression of P-gp expression by inhibiting the NF-?B signaling pathway and COX-2 expression, as well as attenuating CRE transcriptional activity through AMPK activation.
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3-Caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea attenuates high glucose-induced hepatic lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells through activation of the liver kinase B1 and silent information regulator T1/AMPK-dependent pathway.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Increasing evidence indicates that polyphenols may protect against metabolic disease through activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The aims of our study were to provide new data on the molecular mechanism(s) underlying the role of the phenolic compound, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) from Salicornia herbacea, in the prevention of high glucose-induced lipogenesis in human HepG2 cells.
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Saponins from Platycodon grandiflorum inhibit hepatic lipogenesis through induction of SIRT1 and activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in high-glucose-induced HepG2 cells.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. This study investigated the effects of CKS on AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation and hepatic lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. CKS suppressed high-glucose-induced lipid accumulation and inhibited high-glucose-induced fatty acid synthase (FAS) and sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) expression in HepG2 cells. Moreover, the use of a pharmacological AMPK inhibitor revealed that AMPK is essential for the suppression of SREBP-1c expression in CKS-treated cells. Finally, the activation of calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase kinase ? (CaMKK?) and SIRT1 was necessary for CKS-enhanced activation of AMPK. These results indicate that CKS prevents lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells by blocking the expression of SREBP-1c and FAS through SIRT1 and CaMKK?/AMPK activation. Using CKS to target AMPK activation may provide a promising approach for the prevention lipogenesis.
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Cultivated ginseng inhibits 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene-induced atopic dermatitis-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice and TNF-?/IFN-?-induced TARC activation in HaCaT cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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Ginseng contains many bioactive constituents, including various ginsenosides that are believed to have anti-allergic, anti-oxidant, and immunostimulatory activities; however, its effects on atopic dermatitis (AD) remain unclear. In the current study, we hypothesized that cultivated ginseng (CG) would inhibit 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB)-induced AD-like skin lesions in NC/Nga mice by regulating the T helper (Th)1/Th2 balance. Also, CG inhibits TNF-?/IFN-?-induced thymus- and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) expression through nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B)-dependent signaling in HaCaT cells. CG ameliorated DNCB-induced dermatitis severity, serum levels of IgE and TARC, and mRNA expression of TARC, TNF-?, IFN-?, IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 in mice. Histopathological examination showed reduced thickness of the epidermis/dermis and dermal infiltration of inflammatory cells in the ears. Furthermore, CG suppressed the TNF-?/IFN-?-induced mRNA expression of TARC in HaCaT cells. CG inhibited TNF-?/IFN-?-induced NF-?B activation. These results suggest that CG inhibited the development of the AD-like skin symptoms by modulating Th1 and Th2 responses in the skin lesions in mice and TARC expression by suppressing TNF-?/IFN-?-induced NF-?B activation in keratinocytes, and so may be a useful tool in the therapy of AD-like skin symptoms.
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Saponins, especially platycodin D, from Platycodon grandiflorum modulate hepatic lipogenesis in high-fat diet-fed rats and high glucose-exposed HepG2 cells.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a central role in controlling hepatic lipid metabolism through modulating the downstream acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC) and sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c) pathway. Saponins, particularly platycodin D, from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (Changkil saponins, CKS) have a variety of pharmacological properties, including antioxidant and hepatoprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CKS on hepatic lipogenesis and on the expression of genes involved in lipogenesis, and the mechanisms involved. CKS attenuated fat accumulation and the induction of the lipogenic genes encoding SREBP-1c and fatty acid synthase in the livers of HFD-fed rats and in steatotic HepG2 cells. Blood biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations showed that CKS prevented liver injury. CKS and platycodin D each increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-CoA carboxylase in HFD-fed rats and HepG2 cells. The use of specific inhibitors showed that platycodin D activated AMPK via SIRT1/CaMKK? in HepG2 cells. This study demonstrates that CKS or platycodin D alone can regulate hepatic lipogenesis via an AMPK-dependent signalling pathway.
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Role of metabolism by the human intestinal microflora in arbutin-induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cell cultures.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2011
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A possible role for metabolism by the human intestinal microflora in arbutin-induced cytotoxicity was investigated using human hepatoma HepG2 cells. When the cytotoxic effects of arbutin and hydroquinone (HQ), a deglycosylated metabolite of arbutin, were compared, HQ was more toxic than arbutin. Incubation of arbutin with a human fecal preparation could produce HQ. Following incubation of arbutin with a human fecal preparation for metabolic activation, the reaction mixture was filter-sterilized to test its toxic effects on HepG2 cells. The mixture induced cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. In addition, the mixture considerably inhibited expression of Bcl-2 together with an increase in Bax expression. Likewise, activation stimulated cleavage of caspase-3 and production of reactive oxygen species in HepG2 cell cultures. Furthermore, induction of apoptosis by the intestinal microflora reaction mixture was confirmed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling assay. Taken together, these findings suggest that the human intestinal microflora is capable of metabolizing arbutin to HQ, which can induce apoptosis in mammalian cells.
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Purple sweet potato anthocyanins attenuate hepatic lipid accumulation through activating adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in human HepG2 cells and obese mice.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Purple sweet potato is a functional food rich in anthocyanins that possess disease-preventive properties. Anthocyanins are known to possess potent antidiabetic properties. However, the effect of the anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato on hepatic lipid metabolism remains unclear. Our hypothesis is that AF inhibits hepatic lipid accumulation through the activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathways in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated body weight, liver histology, and hepatic lipid content in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed ICR mice treated with AF. In addition, we characterized the underlying mechanism of AFs effects in HepG2 hepatocytes through Western blot analysis. Anthocyanin fraction (200 mg/kg per day) reduced weight gain and hepatic triglyceride accumulation and improved serum lipid parameters in mice fed an HFD for 4 weeks. Anthocyanin fraction significantly increased the phosphorylation of AMPK and acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACC) in the liver and HepG2 hepatocytes. In addition, AF down-regulated the levels of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 and its target genes including ACC and fatty acid synthase (FAS). The specific AMPK inhibitor compound C attenuated the effects of AF on the expression of lipid metabolism-related proteins such as SREBP-1 and FAS in HepG2 hepatocytes. The beneficial effects of AF on HFD-induced hepatic lipid accumulation are thus mediated through AMPK signaling pathways, suggesting a potential target for the prevention of obesity.
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Puerarin activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase through estrogen receptor-dependent PI3-kinase and calcium-dependent AMP-activated protein kinase.
Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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The cardioprotective properties of puerarin, a natural product, have been attributed to the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-mediated production of nitric oxide (NO) in EA.hy926 endothelial cells. However, the mechanism by which puerarin activates eNOS remains unclear. In this study, we sought to identify the intracellular pathways underlying eNOS activation by puerarin. Puerarin induced the activating phosphorylation of eNOS on Ser1177 and the production of NO in EA.hy926 cells. Puerarin-induced eNOS phosphorylation required estrogen receptor (ER)-mediated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling and was reversed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) inhibition. Importantly, puerarin inhibited the adhesion of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?-stimulated monocytes to endothelial cells and suppressed the TNF-? induced expression of intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1. Puerarin also inhibited the TNF-?-induced nuclear factor-?B activation, which was attenuated by pretreatment with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a NOS inhibitor. These results indicate that puerarin stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via activation of an estrogen receptor-mediated PI3K/Akt- and CaMKII/AMPK-dependent pathway. Puerarin may be useful for the treatment or prevention of endothelial dysfunction associated with diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
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Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum suppress ultraviolet A-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression via MAPKs and NF-?B/AP-1-dependent signaling in HaCaT cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) have been shown to exhibit many pharmacological activities, including anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory activities and antioxidant effects. However, anti-skin photoaging effects of CKS have not yet been reported. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of CKS against UVA damage on immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). We then explored the inhibitory effects of CKS on UVA-induced MMP-1 and investigated the molecular mechanism underlying those effects. CKS increased the cell viability and inhibited reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in HaCaT cells exposed to UVA irradiation. Pre-treatment of HaCaT cells with CKS inhibited UVA-induced production of MMP-1 and MMP-9. In addition, CKS decreased UVA-induced expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-6. Western blot analysis further revealed that CKS markedly suppressed the enhancement of collagen degradation in UVA-exposed HaCaT cells. CKS also suppressed UVA-induced activation of NF-?B or c-Jun and c-Fos, and the phosphorylation of MAPKs, which are upstream modulators of NF-?B and AP-1.
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Metformin inhibits P-glycoprotein expression via the NF-?B pathway and CRE transcriptional activity through AMPK activation.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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The expression of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), encoded by the multidrug resistance 1 (MDR1) gene, is associated with the emergence of the MDR phenotype in cancer cells. We investigated whether metformin (1,1-dimethylbiguanide hydrochloride) down-regulates MDR1 expression in MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/adr) cells.
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Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC expression by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin in A549 cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-?B activation. CKS also repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, which are upstream signaling molecules that control MUC5AC expression. In addition, the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (ERK1/2), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and SB203580 (p38 MAPK), and a PKC delta inhibitor (rottlerin; PKC?) inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity. CKS repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of PKC?. Moreover, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity through the suppression of PKC? and MAPK activation, and CKS repressed acrolein-induced ROS production. These results suggest that CKS suppresses acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-?B via ROS-PKC?-MAPK signaling.
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Xanthohumol from the hop plant stimulates osteoblast differentiation by RUNX2 activation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2011
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Xanthohumol (XN), the principal prenylated flavonoid from the hop plant, an additive that contributes bitterness and flavor to beer, is known to be a potent phytoestrogen. Although XN has been identified as a chemopreventive agent and as an anti-infective agent, its effects on bone are unknown. In the present study, the effects of XN on osteoblast differentiation and function were determined by analyzing the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoblast marker, and the regulation of RUNX2, a master gene of osteoblast differentiation, in a mesenchymal stem cell line. XN upregulated ALP activity and the expression of osteogenic marker genes. Additionally, XN increased the expression and transcriptional activity of RUNX2. To determine which signaling pathways are involved in the osteogenic effects of XN, we tested the effect of inhibitors of kinases known to regulate RUNX2. Enhancement of the transcriptional activity and expression of RUNX2 were inhibited by treatment with a p38 and an ERK inhibitor. These findings suggest that XN stimulates osteoblast differentiation by activation of RUNX2 via mechanisms related to the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathway. Regulation of RUNX2 activation by XN may be an important therapeutic target for osteoporosis.
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Protective mechanisms of anthocyanins from purple sweet potato against tert-butyl hydroperoxide-induced hepatotoxicity.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2011
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Anthocyanins have been shown to exert anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory effects and anti-carcinogenic activity. In the present work, we investigated the protective effects of anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato on tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced hepatotoxicity in HepG2 cell line and in rat liver. The result showed that the oral pretreatment of AF before t-BHP treatment significantly lowered the serum levels of the hepatic enzyme markers (ALT and AST) and reduced oxidative stress of the liver by evaluation of malondialdehyde and glutathione. Histopathological evaluation of the livers also revealed that AF reduced the incidence of liver lesions. The in vitro result showed that AF significantly reduced t-BHP-induced oxidative injury, as determined by cell cytotoxicity, intracellular glutathione content, lipid peroxidation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and caspases activation. Also, AF up-regulated antioxidant enzymes including heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), NAD(P)H:quinone reductase, and glutathione S-transferase. Moreover, AF induced Nrf2 nuclear translocation and Akt and ERK1/2 activation, pathways that are involved in inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation. Taken together, these results suggest that the protective effects of AF against t-BHP-induced hepatotoxicity may, at least in part, be due to its ability to scavenge ROS and to regulate the antioxidant enzyme HO-1 via the Akt and ERK1/2/Nrf2 signaling pathways.
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Molecular Mechanism of Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)-induced Target Organ Toxicity in Sprague-Dawley Male Rats.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) are present in many consumer products ranging from fabrics to plastics and electronics. Wide use of flame retardants can pose an environmental hazard, which makes it important to determine the mechanism of their toxicity. In the present study, dose-dependent toxicity of tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a flame retardant, was examined in male prepubertal rats (postnatal day 18) treated orally with TBBPA at 0, 125, 250 or 500 mg/kg for 30 days. There were no differences in body weight gain between the control and TBBPA-treated groups. However, absolute and relative liver weights were significantly increased in high dose of TBBPA-treated groups. TBBPA treatment led to significant induction of CYP2B1 and constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) expression in the liver. In addition, serum thyroxin (T4) concentration was significantly reduced in the TBBPA treated group. These results indicate that repeated exposure to TBBPA induces drug-metabolising enzymes in rats through the CAR signaling pathway. In particular, TBBPA efficiently produced reactive oxygen species (ROS) through CYP2B1 induction in rats. We measured 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage, in the kidney, liver and testes of rats following TBBPA treatment. As expected, TBBPA strongly induced the production of 8-OHdG in the testis and kidney. These observations suggest that TBBPA-induced target organ toxicity may be due to ROS produced by metabolism of TBBPA in Sprague- Dawley rats.
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Inhibitory effect of Pleurotus eryngii extracts on the activities of allergic mediators in antigen-stimulated mast cells.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2011
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Pleurotus eryngii is an edible mushroom native to Europe, the Middle East, and North Africa, and is also grown in parts of Asia. The present study investigated the anti-allergy potential of P. eryngii extract (PEE) in antigen-stimulated RBL-2H3 mast cells. PEE inhibited allergy markers, including release of hexosaminidase and histamine, in antigen-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. PEE also suppressed the expression and production of interleukin-4 and reduced antigen-induced NFAT and NF-?B transcriptional activity in antigen-sensitized mast cells. Moreover, PEE decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines and COX-2 and iNOS expression in antigen-sensitized mast cells. Finally, PEE suppressed antigen-induced signal protein phosphorylation of Lyn, PLC?2, PKC, Akt, and MAP kinases. Taken together, these results suggest that P. eryngii extract may provide insight into the prevention and treatment of allergic and inflammatory diseases.
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CCAAT/ enhancer-binding protein ? activation by capsaicin contributes to the regulation of CYP1A1 expression, mediated by the aryl hydrocarbon receptor.
Br. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2011
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Capsaicin, a constituent of peppers, has been linked to the suppression of tumorigenesis and carcinogenesis. The influence of capsaicin on cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1, which is involved in metabolism of carcinogens, and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we examined the effect of capsaicin on CYP1A1 expression in mouse hepatoma cells.
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N-Acetylglucosamine suppress collagenases activation in ultraviolet B-irradiated human dermal fibroblasts: Involvement of calcium ions and mitogen-activated protein kinases.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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N-Acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) and its derivates have been utilized in dietary supplements and for therapeutic development due to their unique characteristics. GlcNAc is recognized primarily for its function as a precursor to hyaluronic acid, which plays a significant role in the structure and hydration of the extracellular matrix in skin, in both the epidermis and the dermis.
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Psidium guajava extract inhibits thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC/CCL17) production in human keratinocytes by inducing heme oxygenase-1 and blocking NF-?B and STAT1 activation.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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Psidium guajava (P. guajava) is a food and medicinal plant with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities that support its traditional uses. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of P. guajava ethyl acetate extract (PGEA) on atopic dermatitis and to investigate the possible mechanisms by which PGEA inhibits cytokine-induced Th2 chemokine expression in HaCaT human keratinocyte cells. We found that PGEA suppressed the IFN-?/TNF-?-co-induced production of thymus and activation-regulated chemokine (TARC) protein and mRNA in HaCaT cells. Additionally, PGEA inhibited the TNF-?/IFN-?-co-induced activation of NF-?B and STAT1 and increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein and mRNA. HO-1 inhibitor enhanced the suppressive effects of PGEA on TNF-?/IFN-?-co-induced TARC production and gene expression. Collectively, these data demonstrate that PGEA inhibits chemokine expression in keratinocytes by inducing HO-1 expression and it suggests a possible therapeutic application in atopic dermatitis and other inflammatory skin diseases.
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Suppression of EGF-induced tumor cell migration and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression by capsaicin via the inhibition of EGFR-mediated FAK/Akt, PKC/Raf/ERK, p38 MAPK, and AP-1 signaling.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Capsaicin is a cancer-suppressing agent. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of capsaicin on tumor invasion and migration; the possible mechanisms involved in this inhibition were investigated in human fibrosarcoma cells.
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Role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in arbutin-induced toxicity in vitro.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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A possible role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in arbutin-induced toxicity was investigated in mammalian cell cultures. Following an incubation of arbutin with intestinal bacteria, either Bifidobacterium longum HY81 or Bifidobacterium adolescentis, for 24 h, its aglycone hydroquinone could be produced and detected in the bacterial culture media. The bacterial growth was not affected up to 10 mM arbutin in the culture medium. When the toxicity of bacteria cultured medium with arbutin was tested in the HepG2 cell lines, the medium with arbutin was more toxic than either parent arbutin only or bacteria cultured medium without arbutin, indicating that metabolic activation might be required in arbutin-induced toxicity. In addition, bacteria cultured medium with arbutin could suppress LPS and ConA mitogenicity in splenocyte cultures prepared from normal mice. The results indicate that the present toxicity testing system might be applied for assessing the possible role of metabolism by intestinal bacteria in certain chemical-induced toxicity in mammalian cell cultures.
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Suppression of phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate-induced tumor cell invasion by piperine via the inhibition of PKC?/ERK1/2-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Piperine is a major component of black pepper, Piper nigrum Linn, used widely in traditional medicine. Several previous studies reported that piperine possesses various beneficial biological activities including antioxidant, anti-tumor and anti-inflammation properties. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of piperine on tumor invasion and migration and the possible mechanisms involved using human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. We found that piperine suppresses PMA-enhanced matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression at the protein, mRNA, and transcriptional levels through the suppression of NF-?B and AP-1 activation without changing the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. Piperine also inhibits PMA-enhanced membrane-type 1 MMP expression without changing the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 and TIMP-2. Piperine inhibited PMA-induced NF-?B and c-Jun nuclear translocation, which are upstream of PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and invasion. Furthermore, piperine strongly repressed the PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK, which are dependent on the PKC? pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of piperine may occur through inhibition of PKC? and ERK phosphorylation and reduction of NF-?B and AP-1 activation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 expression. Thus, piperine has potential as a potent anti-cancer drug in therapeutic strategies for fibrosarcoma metastasis.
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Metallothionein-2A overexpression increases the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 and invasion of breast cancer cells.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The overexpression of metallothionein-2A (MT-2A) is frequently observed in invasive human breast tumors and has been linked with more aggressive breast cancers. MT-2A overexpression led to the induction of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell migratory and invasive abilities. The reduction of MT-2A expression through small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting MT-2A in invasive MDA-MB-231 cells completely inhibited both cell invasion and migration. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and the transcriptional activity of AP-1 and NF-?B were upregulated by MT-2A overexpression. Collectively, our results provide the first demonstration that MT-2A promotes breast cancer cell invasion by upregulating MMP-9 via AP-1 and NF-?B activation. Furthermore, we found that MT-2A silencing can inhibit breast cancer invasiveness.
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Upregulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by 4-nonylphenol is mediated through the cyclic amp response element activation pathway.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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The organic compound nonylphenol (NP) belongs to the family of alkylphenols and is a product of industrial synthesis formed during phenol alkylation. Nonylphenol is considered to be an endocrine disruptor due to weak ability to mimic estrogen and subsequently to disrupt the natural balance of hormones in a given organism. Since the endocrine and immune systems share portions of common signaling pathways, it is conceivable that NP may also affect immune system functions. However, the influence of NP on inflammation and macrophages responsiveness to NP is unclear. Thus, the effects of NP were investigated on cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression in cultured macrophages. NP induced COX-2 protein and gene expression in murine macrophage RAW264.7 cells and enhanced COX-2 promoter activity and prostaglandin E(2) production. Transfection of RAW264.7 cells with hCOX-2 or various deletion and mutation promoter constructs revealed that the cyclic AMP response element (CRE) was the predominant mediator responsive to NP-induced effects. Moreover, transfection with pCRE-Luc plasmid followed by immunoblotting demonstrated that NP activated CRE sites and CRE binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. NP also increased nuclear CREB accumulation and CREB binding to the COX-2 promoter. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase, Akt, and the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases) p38 and JNK were also significantly activated by NP. Our data demonstrate that NP induces COX-2 expression through the PI3-kinase/Akt/MAP kinases/CRE pathway. These findings provide insight into the signal transduction pathways involved in the inflammatory responses induced by NP in macrophages.
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Role of metabolism in 1-bromopropane-induced hepatotoxicity in mice.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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A possible role of metabolism in 1-bromopropane (1-BP)-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in male ICR mice. The depletion of glutathione (GSH) by formation of GSH conjugates was associated with increased hepatotoxicity in 1-BP-treated mice. The formation of S-propyl and 2-hydroxypropyl GSH conjugates were identified in the liver following 1-BP treatment. In addition, the formation of reactive metabolites of 1-BP by certain cytochrome P-450 (CYP) may be involved in 1-BP-induced hepatotoxicity. The decreased content of hepatic GSH produced by 1-BP was associated not only with increased activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) but also with elevated levels of hepatic thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) in mice where metabolic enzymes were induced by pretreatment with phenobarbital. In addition, the hepatotoxicity induced by 1-BP was prevented by pretreatment with SKF-525A. Taken together, the formation of reactive metabolites by CYP and depletion of GSH may play important roles in hepatotoxicity induced by 1-BP.
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Anthocyanins isolated from the purple-fleshed sweet potato attenuate the proliferation of hepatic stellate cells by blocking the PDGF receptor.
Environ. Toxicol. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2010
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During the process of liver fibrosis, hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a critical role in the increased formation and reduced degradation of extracellular matrix in the liver. We investigated the anti-proliferative effects of an anthocyanin fraction (AF), isolated from the purple-fleshed sweet potato, on platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB-dependent signaling pathways in HSC-T6 cells. HSC proliferation plays a pivotal role in liver fibrogenesis. The AF suppressed HSC activation, including PDGF-induced proliferation and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) expression. Additionally, AF inhibited PDGF-BB-induced Akt and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. AF inhibited the phosphorylation level of PDGF receptor-? (PDGFR-?) following PDGF-BB stimulation, providing a mechanism for the inhibition of AF-mediated kinase. These results suggest that AF suppresses HSC proliferation by blocking PDGFR-? signaling, inhibiting Akt and ERK1/2 activation and ?-SMA expression.
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Anthocyanins from purple sweet potato attenuate dimethylnitrosamine-induced liver injury in rats by inducing Nrf2-mediated antioxidant enzymes and reducing COX-2 and iNOS expression.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2010
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Anthocyanins of the purple sweet potato exhibit antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities via a multitude of biochemical mechanisms. However, the signaling pathways involved in the actions of anthocyanin-induced antioxidant enzymes against chronic liver injury are not fully understood. We examined whether an anthocyanin fraction (AF) from purple sweet potato may prevent dimethylnitrosamine (DMN)-induced liver injury by inducing antioxidants via nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) pathways and by reducing inflammation. Treatment with AF attenuated the DMN-induced increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities. It also prevented the formation of hepatic malondialdehyde and the depletion of glutathione and maintained normal glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity in the livers of DMN-intoxicated rats. Furthermore, AF increased the expression of Nrf2, NADPH:quinine oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1, and GST?, which were reduced by DMN, and decreased the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. An increase in the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) was observed in the DMN-induced liver injury group, but AF inhibited this translocation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that AF increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes and Nrf2 and at the same time decreases the expression of inflammatory mediators in DMN-induced liver injury. These data imply that AF induces antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and reduces inflammation via NF-?B inhibition.
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Ethyl acetate extract of Psidium guajava inhibits IgE-mediated allergic responses by blocking Fc?RI signaling.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Psidium guajava (P. guajava) is an important food crop and medicinal plant with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-allergic activities, supporting its traditional uses. However, its precise effects remain unknown. We investigated the effects of P. guajava ethyl acetate extract (PGEA) on IgE-mediated allergic responses in rat mast RBL-2H3 cells. PGEA reduced antigen (DNP-BSA)-induced release of ?-hexosaminidase and histamine in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. In addition, it inhibited antigen-induced IL-4 and TNF-? mRNA expression and protein production in IgE-sensitized RBL-2H3 cells. PGEA also suppressed antigen-induced COX-2 mRNA and protein expression in these cells, as well as antigen-induced activation of NFAT and reactive oxygen species. Moreover, it inhibited antigen-induced activation of NF-?B and degradation of I?B-?. To identify the mechanisms underpinning the inhibition of degranulation and cytokine production by PGEA, we examined the activation of intracellular Fc?RI signaling molecules. PGEA suppressed antigen-induced phosphorylation of Syk, LAT, Gab2, and PLC?2 but not Lyn, and inhibited antigen-induced phosphorylation of downstream signaling intermediates including MAP kinases and Akt. Collectively, the anti-allergic effects of PGEA in vitro suggest its possible therapeutic application to inflammatory allergic diseases, in which its inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production and Fc?RI-dependent signaling events in mast cells may be hugely beneficial.
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Acteoside inhibits PMA-induced matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression via CaMK/ERK- and JNK/NF-?B-dependent signaling.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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Acteoside, an active phenylethanoid glycoside found in bitter tea and many medicinal plants, displays chemopreventive properties. The aim of our study was to determine the effect of acteoside on tumor invasion and migration; the possible mechanisms involved in this inhibition were investigated in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells.
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The role of cyclooxygenase-2-dependent signaling via cyclic AMP response element activation on aromatase up-regulation by o,p-DDT in human breast cancer cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2010
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o,p-Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (o,p-DDT) is a DDT isomer and xenoestrogen that can induce inflammation and cancer. However, the effect of o,p-DDT on aromatase is unclear. Thus, we investigated the effects of o,p-DDT on aromatase expression in human breast cancer cells. We also examined whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is involved in o,p-DDT-mediated aromatase expression. Treatment with o,p-DDT-induced aromatase protein expression in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells; enhancing aromatase gene expression, and enzyme and promoter activity. Treatment with ICI 182.780, a estrogen receptor antagonist, did not affect the inductive effects of o,p-DDT on aromatase expression. In addition, o,p-DDT increased COX-2 protein levels markedly, increased COX-2 mRNA expression and promoter activity, enhanced the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), induced cyclic AMP response element (CRE) activation, and cAMP levels and binding of CREB. o,p-DDT also increased the phosphorylation of PKA, Akt, ERK, and JNK in their signaling pathways in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Finally, o,p-DDT induction of aromatase was inhibited by various inhibitors [COX-2 (by NS-398), PKA (H-89), PI3-K/Akt (LY 294002), EP2 (AH6809), and EP4 receptor (AH23848)]. Together, these results suggest that o,p-DDT increases aromatase, and that o,p-DDT-induced aromatase is correlated with COX-2 up-regulation, mediated via the CRE activation and PKA and PI3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways in breast cancer cells.
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Anti-fibrotic effects of the anthocyanins isolated from the purple-fleshed sweet potato on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine administration in rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2010
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In current study, we investigated the protective effects of the anthocyanin fraction (AF) obtained from the purple-fleshed sweet potato on hepatic fibrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration in rats. Treatment with DMN for 4 weeks produced marked liver fibrosis as assessed by increased serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity and hepatic collagen content. These increases were inhibited by treatment with AF prior to the administration of DMN. In addition, AF inhibited DMN-induced reductions in rat body and liver weights in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological evaluation of the rat livers revealed that AF reduced the incidence of hepatic fibrosis lesions and inhibited DMN-induced increases in ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) and collagen type I and III expression levels. AF also decreased DMN-induced expression levels platelet-derived growth factor receptors-beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and transforming growth factor-beta. This study demonstrates that AF administration can effectively improve liver fibrosis caused by DMN, and may be used as a therapeutic option and preventive measure against hepatic fibrosis.
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3-Caffeoyl, 4-dihydrocaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea inhibits tumor cell invasion by regulating protein kinase C-delta-dependent matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2010
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In this study, we determined the effects of a novel chlorogenic acid, 3-caffeoyl, 4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ) isolated from Salicornia herbacea, on tumor invasion and migration in human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells and investigated the possible mechanism(s) involved. CDCQ reduced the phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-induced activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and MMP-2 and inhibited cell invasion and migration. CDCQ suppressed PMA-induced expression of MMP-9 mRNA and protein by suppressing the transcription factor AP-1, without changing the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. CDCQ-inhibited PMA-induced MMP-2 expression by suppressing membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), but did not alter the TIMP-2 level. CDCQ also inhibited the PMA-induced nuclear translocation of c-Jun and c-Fos, which are upstream of PMA-induced MMP-9 expression. Furthermore, CDCQ strongly repressed PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK, p38 MAPK, and JNK, which are dependent on the PKCdelta pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of CDCQ occur through the inhibition of AP-1 and signaling pathways involving PKCdelta and three MAPKs, leading to the downregulation of MMP-9 expression. Thus, CDCQ is an effective anti-metastatic agent that functions by downregulating MMP-9 gene expression.
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Saponins from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum stimulate osteoblast differentiation via p38 MAPK- and ERK-dependent RUNX2 activation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
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Changkil (CK), the aqueous extract of the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum, has been used as a traditional oriental medicine for the treatment of chronic adult diseases. Although a saponin fraction derived from CK (CKS) has been suggested to have a variety of functional effects, its effect on bone is unknown. In the present study, the effects of CKS on osteoblast differentiation and function were determined by analyzing the activity of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoblast marker, and the regulation of RUNX2, a master gene of osteoblast differentiation, in a mesenchymal stem cell line. CKS upregulated ALP activity and the expression of osteogenic marker genes in C2C12 cells. In addition, CKS increased the expression and transcriptional activity of RUNX2. To determine which signaling pathways are involved in the osteogenic effects of CKS, we tested the effect of inhibitors of kinases known to regulate RUNX2. CKS-induced enhancement of RUNX2 and ALP was inhibited by treatment with a p38 inhibitor (SB203580) and an ERK inhibitor (U0126). These findings suggest that CKS stimulates osteoblast differentiation by activation of RUNX2 via mechanisms related to the p38 MAPK and ERK signaling pathways. The regulation of RUNX2 activation by CKS may be an important therapeutic target for osteoporosis.
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The flavonoids apigenin and luteolin suppress ultraviolet A-induced matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression via MAPKs and AP-1-dependent signaling in HaCaT cells.
J. Dermatol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation causes major changes in skin connective tissues as a result of the degradation of collagen, a major structural component of the extracellular matrix. This process is likely mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Such changes in collagenous skin tissues have been suggested to be causes of cutaneous aging and skin cancer.
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Suppression of PMA-induced tumor cell invasion by dihydroartemisinin via inhibition of PKCalpha/Raf/MAPKs and NF-kappaB/AP-1-dependent mechanisms.
Biochem. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Dihydroartemisinin (DHA), a semi-synthetic derivative of artemisinin, has recently been shown to possess antitumor activity in various cancer cells. However, the effects of DHA in preventing the invasion of cancer cells have not been studied. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effects of DHA on tumor invasion and migration and the possible mechanisms involved using human fibrosarcoma HT-1080 cells. DHA reduced PMA-induced activation of MMP-9 and MMP-2 and further inhibited cell invasion and migration. DHA suppressed PMA-enhanced expression of MMP-9 protein, mRNA, and transcriptional activity through suppressing NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation without changing the level of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1. DHA also reduced PMA-enhanced MMP-2 expression by suppressing membrane-type 1 MMP (MT1-MMP), but did not alter TIMP-2 levels. DHA-inhibited PMA-induced NF-kappaB and c-Jun nuclear translocation, which are upstream of PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and invasion. Furthermore, DHA strongly repressed the PMA-induced phosphorylation of Raf/ERK and JNK, which are dependent on the PKCalpha pathway. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the anti-invasive effects of DHA may occur through inhibition of PKCalpha/Raf/ERK and JNK phosphorylation and reduction of NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation, leading to down-regulation of MMP-9 expression. The data presented show that DHA is an effective anti-metastatic agent that functions by down-regulating MMP-9 gene expression.
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Molecular mechanism of endothelial nitric-oxide synthase activation by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Nitric oxide (NO) produced by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) has antithrombotic and antiatherosclerotic properties in the vasculature. Previously, we demonstrated that saponins derived from the roots of Platycodon grandiflorum (CKS) inhibited the tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced expression of adhesion molecules in human endothelial cells. In this study, we found that CKS increased eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human endothelial cells. Treatment with CKS increased the phosphorylation of Akt, p38/MAPK, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMK II) leading to increased NO production in human endothelial cells. Moreover, inhibitors of Akt (LY294002), p38/MAPK (SB203580), AMPK (compound C), and CaMK II (W7) failed to suppress CKS-induced eNOS phosphorylation. In addition, CKS-induced eNOS phosphorylation was inhibited by the overexpression of a dominant-negative mutant form of AMPK (DN-AMPK). Taken together, these results indicate that CKS stimulates eNOS phosphorylation and NO production via the activation of PI3K/Akt, p38/MAPK, AMPK, and CaMK II.
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Molecular mechanism of suppression of MDR1 by puerarin from Pueraria lobata via NF-kappaB pathway and cAMP-responsive element transcriptional activity-dependent up-regulation of AMP-activated protein kinase in breast cancer MCF-7/adr cells.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2010
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Multidrug resistance (MDR) is a major obstacle in cancer chemotherapy and its inhibition is an effective way to reverse cancer drug resistance. In the present study, we investigated that puerarin, a natural isoflavonoid from Pueraria lobata, down-regulated MDR1 expression in MCF-7/adriamycin (MCF-7/adr), a human breast MDR cancer cell line. Puerarin treatment significantly inhibited MDR1 expression, MDR1 mRNA and MDR1 promoter activity in MCF-7/adr cells. The suppression of MDR1 was accompanied by partial recovery of intracellular drug accumulation, leading to increased toxicity of adriamycin and fluorescence of rhodamine 123, indicating that puerarin reversed the MDR phenotype by inhibiting the drug efflux function of MDR1. Moreover, nuclear factor kappa-B activity and IkappaB degradation were inhibited by puerarin. Puerarin stimulated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), acetyl-CoA carboxylase and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta phosphorylation, but puerarin decreased cAMP-responsive element-binding protein phosphorylation. The puerarin-induced suppression of MDR1 expression was reduced by AMPK inhibitor (compound C). Furthermore, both MDR1 protein expression and the transcriptional activity of cAMP-responsive element (CRE) were inhibited by puerarin and protein kinase A/CRE inhibitor (H89). Taken together, our results suggested that puerarin down-regulated MDR1 expression via nuclear factor kappa-B and CRE transcriptional activity-dependent up-regulation of AMPK in MCF-7/adr cells.
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Bisphenol A-induced aromatase activation is mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 up-regulation in rat testicular Leydig cells.
Toxicol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Bisphenol A (4,4-dihydroxy-2,2-diphenylpropane; BPA) is an endocrine disruptor that affects the reproductive health of wildlife and possibly of humans. Evidence suggests that BPA interrupts ovarian steroidogenesis by altering steroidogenic enzymes. We evaluated the effect of BPA on aromatase expression in rat testicular Leydig cells. In addition, we investigated whether cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was involved in BPA-induced aromatase expression. BPA induced a time- and concentration-dependent increase in aromatase protein expression in rat testicular Leydig R2C cells. It also increased aromatase gene expression and its enzyme and promoter activity, but reduced testosterone synthesis; increased COX-2 mRNA expression and promoter activity, the production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), and the gene expression of PGE(2) (EP2 and EP4) receptors; induced the activation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element (CRE) and CREB binding; and increased the phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA), Akt, and mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase signaling pathways. BPA activation of aromatase was reversed by various inhibitors (COX-2, PKA, Akt, ERK, JNK, and p38). Taken together, these results suggest that BPA increases aromatase activity, which is correlated with COX-2 up-regulation mediated by the CRE, PKA, Akt, and MAP kinase signaling pathways in rat testicular Leydig cells.
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Nephrotoxic potential and toxicokinetics of tetrabromobisphenol A in rat for risk assessment.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), one of the most widely used global brominated flame retardants, is used to improve fire safety of laminates in electrical and electronic equipment. To investigate the nephrotoxic potential of TBBPA and its toxicokinetic profile in rats, single-dose and daily 14-d repeated-dose toxicity studies at 200, 500, or 1000 mg/kg were performed. Several biochemical parameters were analyzed to evaluate nephrotoxicity of TBBPA. High-dose 1000 mg/kg TBBPA significantly elevated renal thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was increased at all 3 doses administered. This was associated with no change in the activity of catalase (CAT). Our results suggest that acute 1-d high-dose administration of TBBPA produced transient renal changes at 5 h. Subsequently, TBBPA in serum, urine, and kidney was determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC/MS). Toxicokinetic studies indicated that TBBPA shows relatively a short half-life (7-9 h) and was eliminated almost completely in feces by 2 d. Based on the results from the 14-d repeated-dose study, TBBPA did not accumulate in the rat, and was eliminated in feces. The present results suggested that TBBPA may not be toxic to kidney, as the chemical is not bioavailable and is not present in renal tissue.
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Risk assessment of tetrabromobisphenol A on cyclooxygenase-2 expression via MAP kinase/NF-kappaB/AP-1 signaling pathways in murine macrophages.
J. Toxicol. Environ. Health Part A
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Tetrabromobisphenol A [2,2-bis-(3,5-dibromo-4-hydroxyphenyl)propane; TBBPA] is used worldwide as a flame retardant in numerous products. In the present study, the effects of TBBPA were examined on the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), inflammation-related cytokines, transcription factors, and signaling pathways responsible for transcriptional activation of the COX-2 gene in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages. Exposure to TBBPA markedly enhanced the production of prostaglandin E(2), a major COX-2 metabolite, in macrophages. TBBPA concentration-dependently increased the levels of COX-2 protein and mRNA. In addition, TBBPA increased the secretion and mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1beta. Transfection of a human COX-2 promoter construct demonstrated that TBBPA induced COX-2 promoter activity. Furthermore, transfection with pNF-kappaB-Luc and pAP-1-Luc plasmid revealed that TBBPA activated the NF-kappaB and AP-1 sites. Phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3) kinase, its downstream signaling molecule, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) were also significantly activated by TBBPA. Our data demonstrate TBBPA-induced COX-2 and proinflammatory cytokine expression occurs through the PI3-kinase/Akt/MAP kinase/NF-kappaB/AP-1 pathways.
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Novel role of Pin1 induction in type II collagen-mediated rheumatoid arthritis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation in joints and subsequent destruction of cartilage and bone. Inflammatory mediators such as PGs and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to RA progress. Pin1, a peptidyl prolyl isomerase, plays important pathophysiological roles in several diseases, including cancer and neurodegeneration. We found that both Pin1 and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) were highly expressed in ankle tissues of type II collagen-induced RA mice. HTB-94 cells overexpressing Pin1 and primary cultured human chondrocytes showed increased basal expression of proinflammatory proteins (COX-2, inducible NO synthase, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta). Site-directed mutagenesis revealed that Pin1-mediated transcriptional activation of COX-2 was coordinately regulated by NF-kappaB, CREB, and C/EBP. Gel shift, reporter gene, and Western blot analyses confirmed that NF-kappaB, CREB, and C/EBP were consistently activated in chondrocytes overexpressing Pin1. Treatment of RA mice with juglone, a chemical inhibitor of Pin1, significantly reduced RA progress and COX-2 expression in the ankle tissues. Moreover, juglone dose dependently decreased the basal COX-2 expression in primary cultured chondrocytes from RA patients. These results demonstrate that Pin1 induction during RA progress stimulates proinflammatory protein expression by activating NF-kappaB, CREB, and C/EBP, and suggest that Pin1 is a potential therapeutic target of RA.
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Inhibitory effect of 3-caffeoyl-4-dicaffeoylquinic acid from Salicornia herbacea against phorbol ester-induced cyclooxygenase-2 expression in macrophages.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2009
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Salicornia herbacea (S. herbacea), an annual herb that grows in the salt marshes of the Korean peninsula, has been used as a folk medicine to treat a variety of diseases such as constipation, obesity, diabetes, and cancer. However, the effect of S. herbacea on inflammation is unclear. In the present study, we investigated the effects of a novel chlorogenic acid, 3-caffeoyl-4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (CDCQ), isolated from S. herbacea, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in murine macrophage RAW 264.7 cells. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) induces COX-2 expression and production of prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)). PMA-induced COX-2 protein, gene expression and PGE(2) production were significantly inhibited by CDCQ in a dose-dependent manner. Transfection of hCOX-2, as well as of deletion and mutation promoter constructs, revealed that the CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP) and activator protein-1 (AP-1) predominantly contributed to the effects of CDCQ. In addition, electrophoretic mobility shift assays and transfection results showed that CDCQ directly inhibited PMA-induced C/EBP and AP-1 transcription and binding activity. CDCQ also remarkably reduced PMA-induced C/EBPbeta and c-jun protein expression. Furthermore, CDCQ significantly inhibited PMA-induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAP kinases), JNK and p38. These findings demonstrate that CDCQ effectively attenuates COX-2 production, and enhance our understanding of the anti-inflammatory properties of CDCQ.
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Up-regulation of CYP1A1 by rutaecarpine is dependent on aryl hydrocarbon receptor and calcium.
Toxicology
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2009
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Rutaecarpine is a quinazolinocarboline alkaloid isolated from a traditional Chinese medicinal fruit, Evodia rutaecarpa. In the present study, we investigated the effect of rutaecarpine on CYP1A1 expression mediated by [Ca(2+)] and the AhR pathway in mouse hepatoma Hepa-1c1c7 cells. Rutaecarpine also significantly increased CYP1A1 enzyme activity and mRNA and protein levels. Rutaecarpine markedly induced XRE and AhR binding activity. CH-223191, an AhR antagonist, blocked the rutaecarpine-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activity and mRNA and protein expression. In addition, rutaecarpine remarkably induced the phosphorylation of Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK). W7 and BAPTA/AM, a CaM antagonist and an intracellular Ca(2+) chelator, respectively, blocked the rutaecarpine-induced CYP1A1 enzyme activity and mRNA and protein expression. These results indicate that rutaecarpine induces CYP1A1 expression through AhR- and calcium-dependent mechanisms.
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Metallothionein-III provides neuronal protection through activation of nuclear factor-kappaB via the TrkA/phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/Akt signaling pathway.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2009
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Metallothionein (MT)-III is associated with resistance to neuronal injury. However, the underlying mechanism for its effects is unclear. The present study investigated the mechanisms of MT-III protection of neuronal cells from hypoxia or DNA damage-induced cell death. MT-III reduced the hydrogen peroxide- or DNA damage-induced effects on neuronal cells, including the cell death, the activation of caspase-3 and -9, and the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c to the cytoplasm in a dose-dependent manner. MT-III also increased the activation of Akt, the phosphorylation and degradation of IkappaB, the nuclear translocation/accumulation and the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in neuronal cells in a dose-dependent manner. The MT-III-induced antiapoptotic effects and increase in NF-kappaB activity were blocked by specific inhibitors of TrkA, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K), Akt, or NF-kappaB, indicating that MT-III provides neuronal protection by activating NF-kappaB through the TrkA/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.
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Suppression of PMA-induced tumor cell invasion and metastasis by aqueous extract isolated from Prunella vulgaris via the inhibition of NF-kappaB-dependent MMP-9 expression.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2009
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Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) plays an important role in the invasion and metastasis of cancer cells. In this study, we examined the inhibitory effects of tumor cell migration and invasion by aqueous extract isolated from Prunella vulgaris (PVAE) using in vitro and in vivo assays. PVAE reduced PMA-induced activation of MMP-9 and further inhibited cell invasion and migration. PVAE suppressed PMA-enhanced expression of MMP-9 protein, mRNA and transcription activity levels through suppression of NF-kappaB activation without changing the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase level. PVAE inhibited PMA-induced NF-kappaB nuclear translocation, which is upstream of PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and invasion. Furthermore, pretreatment with NF-kappaB activation inhibitor inhibited the PMA-induced MMP-9 expression and activity. PVAE repressed the PMA-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, which is upstream signaling molecules in MMP-9 expression. We confirmed that the inhibitory effect of PVAE on lung metastasis and tumor cell growth using B16-F10 melanoma cells or B16-F1 melanoma cells in C57BL/6 mice. The oral administrations of PVAE reduced the lung metastasis and tumor cell growth by B16-F10 or B16-F1 melanoma cells. These results suggested that the anti-metastatic effect of PVAE is mediated through the suppression of MMP-9 expression by the inhibition of NF-kappaB via ERK1/2 signaling pathway as well as MMP-9 activity.
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