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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Solution based, on chip direct growth of three-dimensionally wrinkled gold nanoparticles for a SERS active substrate.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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This work reports a solution-based method for on chip growth of wrinkled gold nanoparticles. During the growth process, time-resolved scattering profiles were measured, which permitted one to collect information regarding the growth kinetics. Finally, using the fabricated substrate, a 30 times stronger SERS enhancement was achieved than a spherical nanoparticle immobilized substrate.
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Hot-electron-transfer enhancement for the efficient energy conversion of visible light.
Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Great strides have been made in enhancing solar energy conversion by utilizing plasmonic nanostructures in semiconductors. However, current generation with plasmonic nanostructures is still somewhat inefficient owing to the ultrafast decay of plasmon-induced hot electrons. It is now shown that the ultrafast decay of hot electrons across Au nanoparticles can be significantly reduced by strong coupling with CdS quantum dots and by a Schottky junction with perovskite SrTiO3 nanoparticles. The designed plasmonic nanostructure with three distinct components enables a hot-electron-assisted energy cascade for electron transfer, CdS?Au?SrTiO3 , as demonstrated by steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy. Consequently, hot-electron transfer enabled the efficient production of H2 from water as well as significant electron harvesting under irradiation with visible light of various wavelengths. These findings provide a new approach for overcoming the low efficiency that is typically associated with plasmonic nanostructures.
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O-Succinyl-L-homoserine-based C4-chemical production: succinic acid, homoserine lactone, ?-butyrolactone, ?-butyrolactone derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol.
J. Ind. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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There has been a significant global interest to produce bulk chemicals from renewable resources using engineered microorganisms. Large research programs have been launched by academia and industry towards this goal. Particularly, C4 chemicals such as succinic acid (SA) and 1,4-butanediol have been leading the path towards the commercialization of biobased technology with the effort of replacing chemical production. Here we present O-Succinyl-L-homoserine (SH) as a new, potentially important platform biochemical and demonstrate its central role as an intermediate in the production of SA, homoserine lactone (HSL), ?-butyrolactone (GBL) and its derivatives, and 1,4-butanediol (BDO). This technology encompasses (1) the genetic manipulation of Escherichia coli to produce SH with high productivity, (2) hydrolysis into SA and homoserine (HS) or homoserine lactone hydrochloride, and (3) chemical conversion of either HS or homoserine lactone HCL (HSL·HCl) into drop-in chemicals in polymer industry. This production strategy with environmental benefits is discussed in the perspective of targeting of fermented product and a process direction compared to petroleum-based chemical conversion, which may reduce the overall manufacturing cost.
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A Study on Usefulness Evaluation of SUV Measured in Mini-PACS for Each One of PET/CT Equipment.
J Digit Imaging
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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To save and analyze the data from a positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) scan, it is sometimes important to use a server away from the workstation of the equipment or to install and operate mini-picture archiving and communication system (PACS). Mini-PACS was developed to save the data from a scan and measure the standard uptake value (SUV) in PACS that could be measured only in PET/CT equipment manufactured by many companies. Against this background, this study examined whether the SUV measured in PET/CT equipment was the same value in mini-PACS. This study evaluated Biograph 16 and Biograph 40 manufactured by SIEMENS and Discovery Ste 8 manufactured by GE, all of which are installed in this hospital. The SUV of the aorta of 30 patients, who had undergone an (18)F-FDG whole body PET scan in the period from February to October 2012, was measured at the height of the liver and mediastinum. In the mini-PACS program, the SUV was also measured and analyzed in an image with the same phase. According to the study results, the coefficient of the SUV of the liver in PET/CT equipment and mini-PACS was 0.99, 0.98, and 0.64 in Biograph 16, Biograph 40, and Discovery Ste 8, respectively, where the coefficient of the SUV of aorta was 0.98, 0.98, and 0.66 in Biograph 16, Biograph 40, and Discovery Ste 8, showing a positive correlation in all equipment.
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Preparation of energy storage material derived from a used cigarette filter for a supercapacitor electrode.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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We report on a one-step method for preparing nitrogen doped (N-doped) meso-/microporous hybrid carbon material (NCF) via the heat treatment of used cigarette filters under a nitrogen-containing atmosphere. The used cigarette filter, which is mostly composed of cellulose acetate fibers, can be transformed into a porous carbon material that contains both the mesopores and micropores spontaneously. The unique self-developed pore structure allowed a favorable pathway for electrolyte permeation and contact probability, resulting in the extended rate capability for the supercapacitor. The NCF exhibited a better rate capability and higher specific capacitance (153.8 F g(-1)) compared to that of conventional activated carbon (125.0 F g(-1)) at 1 A g(-1). These findings indicate that the synergistic combination of well-developed meso-/micropores, an enlarged surface area and pseudocapacitive behavior leads to the desired supercapacitive performance. The prepared carbon material is capable of reproducing its electrochemical performance during the 6000 cycles required for charge and discharge measurements.
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Lumbar intradural neurocysticercosis: a case report.
Korean J Spine
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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Cysticercosis is the most common parasitic disease affecting the central nervous system. Spinal involvement is rare in neurocysticercosis, and isolated spinal involvement without evidence of cranial involvement is even rarer. We report an unusual case of neurocysticercosis with isolated spinal involvement. A 59 year-old male presented with radiating pain in the left leg. He complained of aggravating weakness and numbness in the left leg since his previous visit one month ago. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed multiple peripheral wall-enhanced intradural cystic masses from L1 to L5. The patient underwent a total laminectomy of L4. Dissection revealed abnormal cystic masses compressing the nerve roots. The cyst was punctured, spilling clear mucoid fluid into the surgical field. The exposed cysticerci, white and mucoid, was easily removed. Patient received course of steroids and oral albendazole. The patient experienced symptomatic improvement without further neurologic deficits except for mild sensory impairment. Clinicians should include spinal neurocysticercosis in differential diagnosis of radiculopathies. Although isolated spinal neurocysticercosis is rare, it can be satisfactorily managed with surgery and medication.
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Modified protection using far proximal portion of self-expandable closed-cell stents for embolization of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms.
Neuroradiology
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Stent-assisted embolization is sometimes limited in wide-necked aneurysms involving the acute-angled origins of tortuous branching arteries, and occasionally, Y-shaped stenting is required to remedy the sweeping effects of a broad aneurysmal neck on arterial branches. Described herein is a modified stent-assisted coil embolization technique entailing strategic placement of far proximal stent ("distal stenting") as an alternate approach in such scenarios.
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Theta-burst stimulation induces LTP at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Long-lasting synaptic modifications of excitatory and inhibitory synaptic transmissions induced by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) were examined in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus interpolaris (Vi). We found that conditioning afferents of another subnucleus caudalis (Vc) to the Vi with TBS produced long-term depression (LTD). However, when GABAA and glycine receptors were blocked, the same stimulation paradigm produced long-term potentiation (LTP). The induction of LTP involved neither NMDA receptors nor a presynaptic change. The expression of LTP was obviously suppressed by the activation of group I mGluRs because its magnitude increased in the presence of antagonists for group I mGluRs. Besides the LTP at excitatory synapses, TBS also induced LTP at inhibitory GABAergic synapses, which required the activation of NMDA receptors and NO-cGMP signaling but was not involved in the increase of postsynaptic Ca(2+) concentration. Therefore, this study shows, for the first time, an activity-dependent plasticity at excitatory and inhibitory synapses in the Vi by the same conditioning stimulation.
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Corticosteroid therapy against treatment-related pulmonary toxicities in patients with lung cancer.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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With the recent increased use of new anti-neoplastic agents, molecular-targeted drugs and radiation in patients with lung cancer, there has been an increase in the occurrence drug-induced or radiation-induced pulmonary toxicities. We conducted this study to evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with lung cancer who presented with treatment-related pulmonary toxicities and to analyze the dosage pattern of corticosteroid therapy against them.
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Larval chigger mites collected from small mammals in 3 provinces, Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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A total of 9,281 larval chigger mites were collected from small mammals captured at Hwaseong-gun, Gyeonggi-do (Province) (2,754 mites from 30 small mammals), Asan city, Chungcheongnam-do (3,358 mites from 48 mammals), and Jangseong-gun, Jeollanam-do (3,169 for 62 mammals) from April-November 2009 in the Republic of Korea (= Korea) and were identified to species. Leptotrombidium pallidum was the predominant species in Hwaseong (95.8%) and Asan (61.2%), while Leptotrombidium scutellare was the predominant species collected from Jangseong (80.1%). Overall, larval chigger mite indices decreased from April (27.3) to June (4.9), then increased in September (95.2) and to a high level in November (169.3). These data suggest that L. pallidum and L. scutellare are the primary vectors of scrub typhus throughout their range in Korea. While other species of larval chigger mites were also collected with some implications in the transmission of Orientia tsutsugamushi, they only accounted for 11.2% of all larval chigger mites collected from small mammals.
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Intestinal helminthic infections in striped field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from two southern regions of Korea.
Korean J. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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The present study was performed to know the infection status of intestinal helminths in a most common species of field mice, Apodemus agrarius, from 2 southern regions of Korea. Total 133 and 103 mice were collected by the mouse trap in Hapcheon-gun, Gyeongsangnam-do and Gurye-gun, Jeollanam-do, respectively, from July 2005 to June 2006. The small intestine of each mouse was resected and longitudinally opened with a pair of scissors. The intestinal contents were washed with 0.85% saline until the supernatant became clear. Helminths were collected with naked eyes or under a stereomicroscope from the sediment of the intestinal content. More than 11 species of helminths (4 nematode spp., 5 trematode spp., and 2 cestode spp.) were recovered. Among these, heligmosomoid nematodes (97.5%) was the most highly and heavily infected species. As the members of trematodes, Plagiorchis muris, Brachylaima sp., Echinostoma hortense, Echinostoma cinetorchis, and unidentified echinostome larvae were found in the small intestines of 35 (14.8%), 12 (5.1%), 6 (2.5%), 1 (0.4%), and 1 (0.4%) mice respectively. Two species of tapeworms, Hymenolepis nana and Hymenolepis diminuta were also detected in 79 (33.5%) and 21 (8.9%) mice, respectively. Conclusively, heligmosomoid nematodes were the most prevalent (dominant) species among more than 11 helminth species detected, and Brachylaima sp. fluke is newly added in the list of intestinal trematodes in Korea.
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Predictive factors for early clinical improvement after intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy in acute ischemic stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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In acute ischemic stroke, the speed of improvement after intra-arterial thrombolytic therapy (IAT)-mediated recanalization varies. This study aimed to identify clinical and radiological variables that are predictive of early improvement (EI) after IAT in acute ischemic stroke.
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Early detachment of the Solitaire stent during thrombectomy retrieval: an in vitro investigation.
J Neurointerv Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2014
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To elucidate the early detachment of the Solitaire stent during mechanical thrombectomy, we tested the stent in vitro under various conditions and evaluated with microscopy.
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Translational validation of personalized treatment strategy based on genetic characteristics of glioblastoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Glioblastoma (GBM) heterogeneity in the genomic and phenotypic properties has potentiated personalized approach against specific therapeutic targets of each GBM patient. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has been established the comprehensive genomic abnormalities of GBM, which sub-classified GBMs into 4 different molecular subtypes. The molecular subtypes could be utilized to develop personalized treatment strategy for each subtype. We applied a classifying method, NTP (Nearest Template Prediction) method to determine molecular subtype of each GBM patient and corresponding orthotopic xenograft animal model. The models were derived from GBM cells dissociated from patient's surgical sample. Specific drug candidates for each subtype were selected using an integrated pharmacological network database (PharmDB), which link drugs with subtype specific genes. Treatment effects of the drug candidates were determined by in vitro limiting dilution assay using patient-derived GBM cells primarily cultured from orthotopic xenograft tumors. The consistent identification of molecular subtype by the NTP method was validated using TCGA database. When subtypes were determined by the NTP method, orthotopic xenograft animal models faithfully maintained the molecular subtypes of parental tumors. Subtype specific drugs not only showed significant inhibition effects on the in vitro clonogenicity of patient-derived GBM cells but also synergistically reversed temozolomide resistance of MGMT-unmethylated patient-derived GBM cells. However, inhibitory effects on the clonogenicity were not totally subtype-specific. Personalized treatment approach based on genetic characteristics of each GBM could make better treatment outcomes of GBMs, although more sophisticated classifying techniques and subtype specific drugs need to be further elucidated.
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On-chip colorimetric detection of Cu2+ ions via density-controlled plasmonic core-satellites nanoassembly.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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We report on an on-chip colorimetric method for the detection and analysis of Cu(2+) ions via the targeted assembly of plasmonic silver nanoparticles (2.6 nm satellites) on density-controlled plasmonic gold nanoparticles (50 nm cores) on a glass substrate. Without any ligand modification of the nanoparticles, by directly using an intrinsic moiety (carboxylate ion, COO(-)) surrounded with nanoparticles, the method showed a high selectivity for Cu(2+), resulting in a nearly 2 times greater optical response compared to those of other metal ions via the targeted core-satellites assembly. By modulating the surface chemistry, it was possible to control the density of core gold nanoparticles on the surface, thus permitting easy tuning of the optical responses induced by plasmon coupling generated between each core-satellites nanostructure. Using chips with a controlled optimal core density, we observed the remarkable scattering color changes of the chips from green to yellow and finally to orange with the increase of Cu(2+) concentration. The detection limits of the fabricated chips with controlled core densities (ca. 1821 and 3636 particles/100 ?m(2)) are 10 nM and 10 pM, respectively, which are quite tunable and below the level of 20 ?M (or 1.3 ppm) defined by the United States Environmental Protection Agency. The findings suggest that the method is a potentially promising protocol for detecting small molecules with target selectivity and the tunability of the detection limits by replacing with ligands and adjusting core densities.
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Endovascular mechanical thrombectomy in basilar artery occlusion: initial experience.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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This study was conducted to assess the efficacy and safety of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) for patients diagnosed with basilar artery (BA) occlusion.
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Effect of dispersion stability on the deposition of citrate-capped silver nanoparticles in natural soils.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Although little is known about the behavior of engineered nanomaterials after exposure to terrestrial areas, recent studies indicate that silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) can perturb the soil environment due to their biocidal and catalytic properties. The fundamental evaluation of the environmental fate of AgNPs would be a significant step toward a comprehensive understanding of the harmful effects of such particles on ecosystems. Therefore, from an eco-toxicological perspective, the estimation of AgNP behavior in soil should be investigated. Among the various environmental characteristics, the deposition of nanoparticles in the soil constitute is a critical step in their migration into surface or groundwater and interaction with organisms, which is determined by the stability of aqueous dispersions in a soil micro-environment. In the present study, we observed the aggregation and deposition of AgNPs to natural soil surfaces by comparing the partitioning of AgNPs in a soil/water interface with that of Ag+ ion. Both AgNPs and Ag+ ion were selectively quantified by means of inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometry and an ion-selective electrode (ISE). We interpreted the partitioning of AgNPs and Ag+ ion using the Freundlich isotherm and the findings indicate that AgNPs with reduced dispersion stability in a soil micro-environment were aggregated and deposited on the surface of natural soil. This study provides a fundamental basis for understanding the deposition of AgNPs, which will enable their accumulation and mobility in a soil environment to be predicted.
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Quantification of electron transfer rates of different facets on single gold nanoparticles during catalytic reactions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Rayleigh scattering spectra of high-index {730} elongated tetrahexahedral gold nanoparticles and low-index {100}, {110}, and {111} gold nanorods were collected in real time in the reduction of 4-nitrophenol. The high-index facets are capable of accepting electrons seven times faster and emitting electrons two-and-a-half times faster than low-index facets.
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A comparison of stent-assisted mechanical thrombectomy and conventional intra-arterial thrombolysis for acute cerebral infarction.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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We evaluated whether stent-assisted thrombectomy (SAT) is safer or more clinically beneficial than aggressive mechanical clot disruption (AMCD) for patients with acute intracranial artery occlusion.
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Spotted fever group rickettsia closely related to Rickettsia monacensis isolated from ticks in South Jeolla province, Korea.
Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Rickettsia monacensis, a spotted fever group rickettsia, was isolated from Ixodes nipponensis ticks collected from live-captured small mammals in South Jeolla province, Korea in 2006. Homogenates of tick tissues were inoculated into L929 and Vero cell monolayers using shell vial assays. After several passages, Giemsa staining revealed rickettsia-like organisms in the inoculated Vero cells, but not the L929 cells. Sequencing analysis revealed that the ompA-small part (25-614?bp region), ompA-large part (2849-4455?bp region), nearly full-length ompB (58-4889?bp region) and gltA (196-1236?bp region) of the isolates had similarities of 100%, 99.8%, 99.3% and 99.5%, respectively, to those of R. monacensis. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis showed that the isolate was grouped into the cluster in the same way as R. monacensis in the trees of all genes examined. These results strongly suggest that the isolate is closely related to R. monacensis. As far as is known, this is the first report of isolation of R. monacensis from ticks in Korea.
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The TRPA1 agonist, methyl syringate suppresses food intake and gastric emptying.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transient receptor potential channel ankryn 1 (TRPA1) expressed in the gastrointestinal tract is associated with gastric motility, gastric emptying, and food intake. In this study, we investigated the effects of methyl syringate, a specific and selective TRPA1 agonist, on food intake, gastric emptying, and gut hormone levels in imprinting control region (ICR) mice. The administration of methyl syringate suppressed cumulative food intake and gastric emptying. In addition, treatment with ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC-030031, a selective TRPA1 antagonist, inhibited methyl syringate-induced reduction of food intake and delayed gastric emptying in ICR mice. Methyl syringate also increased plasma peptide YY (PYY) levels, but not glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels. The elevation in PYY was blocked by treatment with RR and HC-030031. The present findings indicate that methyl syringate regulates food intake and gastric emptying through a TRPA1-mediated pathway and, by extension, can contribute to weight suppression.
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Direct observation of defects and increased ion permeability of a membrane induced by structurally disordered Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase aggregates.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Interactions between protein aggregates and a cellular membrane have been strongly implicated in many protein conformational diseases. However, such interactions for the case of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) protein, which is related to fatal neurodegenerative disorder amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have not been explored yet. For the first time, we report the direct observation of defect formation and increased ion permeability of a membrane induced by SOD1 aggregates using a supported lipid bilayer and membrane patches of human embryonic kidney cells as model membranes. We observed that aggregated SOD1 significantly induced the formation of defects within lipid membranes and caused the perturbation of membrane permeability, based on surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and electrophysiology. In the case of apo SOD1 with an unfolded structure, we found that it bound to the lipid membrane surface and slightly perturbed membrane permeability, compared to other folded proteins (holo SOD1 and bovine serum albumin). The changes in membrane integrity and permeability were found to be strongly dependent on the type of proteins and the amount of aggregates present. We expect that the findings presented herein will advance our understanding of the pathway by which structurally disordered SOD1 aggregates exert toxicity in vivo.
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Immunohistochemical study on the expression of calcium binding proteins (calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin) in the cerebral cortex and in the hippocampal region of nNOS knock-out(-/-) mice.
Anat Cell Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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Nitric oxide (NO) modulates the activities of various channels and receptors to participate in the regulation of neuronal intracellular Ca(2+) levels. Ca(2+) binding protein (CaBP) expression may also be altered by NO. Accordingly, we examined expression changes in calbindin-D28k, calretinin, and parvalbumin in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region of neuronal NO synthase knockout(-/-) (nNOS(-/-)) mice using immunohistochemistry. For the first time, we demonstrate that the expression of CaBPs is specifically altered in the cerebral cortex and hippocampal region of nNOS(-/-) mice and that their expression changed according to neuronal type. As changes in CaBP expression can influence temporal and spatial intracellular Ca(2+) levels, it appears that NO may be involved in various functions, such as modulating neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis, regulating synaptic transmission, and neuroprotection, by influencing the expression of CaBPs. Therefore, these results suggest another mechanism by which NO participates in the regulation of neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis. However, the exact mechanisms of this regulation and its functional significance require further investigation.
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The sensitive, anion-selective detection of arsenate with poly(allylamine hydrochloride) by single particle plasmon-based spectroscopy.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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The use of single gold nanoparticle plasmon-based spectroscopy for the sensitive, anion-selective detection of arsenate is described. The method is based on the selective formation of electrostatic complexes between arsenate and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and changes in the single particle plasmon in Rayleigh scattering profiles. PAH, when modified with gold nanoparticles, binds arsenate via its amine-functionalities. The scattering properties of the resulting selectively formed complexes are altered, leading to significant changes in the surface plasmon resonance wavelength. The limit of detection of the method was determined to be 10 nM, which is ca. 13 times more sensitive than U.S. EPA regulation levels. The response is essentially linear in the concentration range of 50-300 nM. The method also shows good selectivity for arsenate in the presence of other environmentally relevant anions, including H(2)PO(4)(-), SO(4)(2-), NO(3)(-), and Cl(-).
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Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1 is phosphorylated and activated by its substrate AtMPK6.
Plant Cell Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2011
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Arabidopsis MAP kinase phosphatase 1 (AtMKP1) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK) phosphatase family, which negatively regulates AtMPKs. We have previously shown that AtMKP1 is regulated by calmodulin (CaM). Here, we examined the phosphorylation of AtMKP1 by its substrate AtMPK6. Intriguingly, AtMKP1 was phosphorylated by AtMPK6, one of AtMKP1 substrates. Four phosphorylation sites were identified by phosphoamino acid analysis, TiO(2) chromatography and mass spectrometric analysis. Site-directed mutation of these residues in AtMKP1 abolished the phosphorylation by AtMPK6. In addition, AtMKP1 interacted with AtMPK6 as demonstrated by the yeast two-hybrid system. Finally, the phosphatase activity of AtMKP1 increased approximately twofold following phosphorylation by AtMPK6. By in-gel kinase assays, we showed that AtMKP1 could be rapidly phosphorylated by AtMPK6 in plants. Our results suggest that the catalytic activity of AtMKP1 in plants can be regulated not only by Ca(2+)/CaM, but also by its physiological substrate, AtMPK6.
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The induction of STAT1 gene by activating transcription factor 3 contributes to pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and its dysfunction in streptozotocin-treated mice.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2010
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It is well established that the IFN-gamma/STAT1 pathway plays an important role in the pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis that is observed in STZ-induced type 1 diabetes; however, the upstream regulatory proteins involved have not been understood. Here, we investigated whether activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) affects STAT1-mediated beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis in streptozotocin-treated mice. To this, STZ (80 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to wild-type and STAT1(-/-) or IFN-gamma(-/-) mice for 5 days and the mice were euthanized after 14 days. STZ-induced beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis were associated with increased STAT1/IRF-1 and ATF3 expression and were correlated with elevated IFN-gamma levels. Genetic depletion using IFN-gamma(-/-) or STAT1(-/-) mice strongly inhibited the reduction of islet cell mass or insulin synthesis/secretion and the increase of beta-cell apoptosis observed in STZ-treated wild-type mice. ATF3 overexpression, especially the C-terminal domain, strongly enhanced beta-cell dysfunction and apoptosis by enhancing STAT1 activation and its accumulation, which were abolished with an ATF3-specific siRNA or C-terminal-deleted ATF3. The STZ induction of ATF3 was completely depleted in IFN-gamma(-/-) mice, but not in STAT1(-/-) mice. Furthermore, STAT1 did not affect ATF3 expression, but STAT1 depletion or its inactivation inhibited STZ-induced ATF3 nuclear translocation and beta-cell apoptosis. Interestingly, ATF3 also increased STAT1 transcription by directly binding to a putative binding region (-116 to -96 bp) in the STAT1 promoter. Our results suggest that ATF3 functions as a potent upstream regulator of STAT1 and ATF3 may play a role in STZ-induced beta-cell dysfunction by enhancing the steady state abundance of STAT1.
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Biological activities of Fructus arctii fermented with the basidiomycete Grifola frondosa.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
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Fructus arctii extract containing phenolic glycosides was cultured with Grifola frondosa mycelia to produce ?-glucosidase and its biological activities were studied. This ?-glucosidase converted the glycosides (arctiin and caffeic acid derivatives) into aglycones (arctigenin and caffeic acid). Fermented Fructus arctii extract (G-FAE) with G. frondosa had antioxidant and 5-lipoxygenase inhibitory activities. The photoprotective potential of G-FAE was tested in human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) exposed to ultra-violet A (UVA). It was revealed that G-FAE had an inhibitory effect on human interstitial collagenase (matrix metalloproteinase, MMP-1) expression in UVA-irradiated HDF. The treatment of UVA-irradiated HDF with G-FAE resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in the expression level of MMP-1 mRNA. G-FAE also showed notable stimulation of collagen biosynthetic activity for fibroblasts. These diverse functionalities suggest that G-FAE could be a promising cosmetic ingredient.
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Lipid molecules induce the cytotoxic aggregation of Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase with structurally disordered regions.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) is present in the cytosol, nucleus, peroxisomes and mitochondrial intermembrane space of human cells. More than 114 variants of human SOD1 have been linked to familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which is also known as Lou Gehrigs disease. Although the ultimate mechanisms underlying SOD1-mediated cytotoxicity are largely unknown, SOD1 aggregates have been strongly implicated as a common feature in ALS. This study examined the mechanism for the formation of SOD1 aggregates in vitro as well as the nature of its cytotoxicity. The aggregation propensity of SOD1 species was investigated using techniques ranging from circular dichroism spectroscopy to fluorescence dye binding methods, as well as electron microscopic imaging. The aggregation of SOD1 appears to be related to its structural instability. The demetallated (apo)-SOD1 and aggregated SOD1 species, with structurally disordered regions, readily undergo aggregation in the presence of lipid molecules, whereas metallated (holo)-SOD1 does not. The majority of aggregated SOD1s that are induced by lipid molecules have an amorphous morphology and exhibit significant cytotoxicity. The lipid binding propensity of SOD1 was found to be closely related to the changes in surface hydrophobicity of the proteins, even at very low levels, which induced further binding and assembly with lipid molecules. These findings suggest that lipid molecules induce SOD1 aggregation under physiological conditions and exert cytotoxicity, and might provide a possible mechanism for the pathogenesis of ALS.
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Intentional sparing of daughter sac from coil packing in the embolization of aneurysms causing the third cranial nerve palsy : initial clinical and radiological results.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2010
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Cerebral aneurysms which cause oculomotor nerve [cranial nerve (CN) III] palsy, are frequently found with a daughter sac of the aneurysm dome. We assumed that CN III might be compressed by the daughter sac and it would be more helpful not to fill the daughter sac with coils than vice versa during endosaccular embolization for recovering from CN III palsy, because it may give a greater chance for the daughter sac to shrink by itself later. We reviewed the initial results of our experiences of such cases.
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Picomolar selective detection of mercuric ion (Hg(2+)) using a functionalized single plasmonic gold nanoparticle.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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A highly sensitive method for the selective detection and quantification of mercuric ions (Hg(2+)) using single plasmonic gold nanoparticle (GNP)-based dark-field microspectroscopy (DFMS) is demonstrated. The method is based on the scattering property of a single GNP that is functionalized with thiolated molecules, which is altered when analytes bind to the functionalized GNP. The spectral resolution of the system is 0.26 nm and a linear response to Hg(2+) was found in the dynamic range of 100 pM-10 microM. The method permits Hg(2+) to be detected at the picomolar level, which is a remarkable reduction in the detection limit, considering the currently proscribed Environmental Protection Agency regulation level (10 nM, or 2 ppb) and the detection limits of other optical methods for detecting Hg(2+) (recently approx. 1-10 nM). In addition, Hg(2+) can be sensitively detected in the presence of Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Ni(2+), which do not interfere with the analysis. Based on the findings reported herein, it is likely that single-nanoparticle-based metal ion sensing can be extended to the development of other chemo- and biosensors for the direct detection of specific targets in an intracellular environment as well as in environmental monitoring.
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A critical role of STAT1 in streptozotocin-induced diabetic liver injury in mice: controlled by ATF3.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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It is well-established that the administration of streptozotocin accelerates diabetic liver injury as well as type-I diabetes, however the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we investigated the molecular mechanisms of diabetic liver injury in a model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type-I diabetes. STZ administration induced type-1 diabetes and chronic liver injury was associated with increased STAT1, which is implicated in diabetic liver injury by virtue of its ability to promote hepatocyte apoptosis, in the liver and pancreas, which were all strongly inhibited in STAT1(-)(/-) mice. Similarly, STZ-induced ATF3, a stress-inducible gene, was completely abolished in the liver of IFN-gamma(-/-) mice, but not in STAT1(-/-) mice. Inhibition of STAT1 by siRNA or dominant-negative DNA did not affect ATF3 protein expression but blocked IFN-gamma-induced ATF3 translocation from the cytosol into the nucleus. In contrast, inhibition of ATF3 by using siRNA diminished STAT1 protein expression and IFN-gamma/STZ-induced hepatocyte apoptosis. Furthermore, GST pull-down and co-IP assay showed that STAT1 bound to C-terminal domain of ATF3. Such direct interaction increased the stability of STAT1 by inhibiting its ubiquitination as well as proteasome activity. Our results suggest that STAT1 is a common signaling pathway contributing to STZ-induced diabetes and diabetic liver injury. ATF3 functions as a potent regulator of STAT1 stability, accelerating STZ-induced diabetes and diabetic liver injury.
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Effects of acid pre-treatment on bio-hydrogen production and microbial communities during dark fermentation.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2009
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Optimal conditions for acid pre-treatment were investigated for the enrichment of hydrogen-producing bacteria (HPB) in a mixed culture using three strong acids: HCl, HNO(3), and H2SO4 x HCl was selected as a suitable acid for the enrichment of HPB in the fermentation process. The volume of bio-hydrogen produced when the mixed culture was pre-treated using HCl at pH 2 was 3.2 times higher than that obtained without acid pre-treatment. Changes in the microbial community during acid pre-treatment were monitored using images obtained by the fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) method and the Live/Dead cell viability test. The tests clearly indicated that the Clostridium species of cluster I were the predominant strains involved in bio-H(2) fermentation, and could be selectively enriched by HCl pre-treatment.
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Signal transduction mechanisms underlying group I mGluR-mediated increase in frequency and amplitude of spontaneous EPSCs in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis of the rat.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and 5) pre- and/or postsynaptically regulate synaptic transmission at glutamatergic synapses. By recording spontaneous EPSCs (sEPSCs) in the spinal trigeminal subnucleus oralis (Vo), we here investigated the regulation of glutamatergic transmission through the activation of group I mGluRs. Bath-applied DHPG (10 microM/5 min), activating the group I mGluRs, increased sEPSCs both in frequency and amplitude; particularly, the increased amplitude was long-lasting. The DHPG-induced increases of sEPSC frequency and amplitude were not NMDA receptor-dependent. The DHPG-induced increase in the frequency of sEPSCs, the presynaptic effect being further confirmed by the DHPG effect on paired-pulse ratio of trigeminal tract-evoked EPSCs, an index of presynaptic modulation, was significantly but partially reduced by blockades of voltage-dependent sodium channel, mGluR1 or mGluR5. Interestingly, PKC inhibition markedly enhanced the DHPG-induced increase of sEPSC frequency, which was mainly accomplished through mGluR1, indicating an inhibitory role of PKC. In contrast, the DHPG-induced increase of sEPSC amplitude was not affected by mGluR1 or mGluR5 antagonists although the long-lasting property of the increase was disappeared; however, the increase was completely inhibited by blocking both mGluR1 and mGluR5. Further study of signal transduction mechanisms revealed that PLC and CaMKII mediated the increases of sEPSC in both frequency and amplitude by DHPG, while IP3 receptor, NO and ERK only that of amplitude during DHPG application. Altogether, these results indicate that the activation of group I mGluRs and their signal transduction pathways differentially regulate glutamate release and synaptic responses in Vo, thereby contributing to the processing of somatosensory signals from orofacial region.
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Mitochondrial dysfunction: glucokinase downregulation lowers interaction of glucokinase with mitochondria, resulting in apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2009
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Mitochondrial dysfunction has been considered a critical component in the development of diabetes. In pancreatic beta-cells especially, mitochondrial dysfunction impairs insulin secretion and the eventual apoptosis of beta-cells. The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying these events. Metabolic stress induced by antimycin or oligomycin was used to impair mitochondrial function in MIN6N8 cells, a mouse pancreatic beta-cells, and the effects of glucokinase (GCK) and mitochondria were investigated. Concurrent with reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential (DeltaPsim) and cellular ATP content, impaired mitochondrial function reduced GCK expression and resulted in decreased insulin secretion and beta-cell apoptosis. Specifically, lowered GCK expression led to decreased interactions between GCK and mitochondria, which increased Bax binding to mitochondria and cytochrome C release into cytoplasm. However, these events were blocked by treatment with the antioxidant, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), as well as GCK overexpression. Moreover, examination of the GCK promoter in antimycin-treated cells demonstrated that the promoter region within -287 bases from transcription site is involved in the transcriptional repression of GCK by mitochondrial stress, whose region contains a putative binding site for pancreatic duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1). Mitochondrial stress reduced PDX-1 expression, and increased ATF3 expression dependent on reactive oxygen species (ROS). Collectively, these data demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction by metabolic stress reduces GCK expression through PDX-1 downregulation via production of ROS, which then decreases the association of GCK with mitochondria, resulting in pancreatic beta-cell apoptosis and reduction of insulin secretion.
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Mechanical thrombectomy using a solitaire stent in acute ischemic stroke; initial experience in 40 patients.
J Cerebrovasc Endovasc Neurosurg
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This study was conducted in order to demonstrate the initial experience of the Solitaire AB stent in mechanical intracranial thrombectomy.
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Experimental and clinical factors influencing long-term stable in vitro expansion of multipotent neural cells from human adult temporal lobes.
Exp. Neurol.
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Autologous adult human neural stem cells may be used for regenerative cell therapies bypass potential ethical problems. However, stable in vitro expansion protocols and experimental/clinical factors influencing primary cultures need to be further elucidated for clinically applicable techniques. To address these issues, we obtained biopsy specimens from 23 temporal lobe epilepsy patients and adult human multipotent neural cells (ahMNCs) were primarily cultured in a defined attachment culture condition. When the success of primary cultures was defined as stable expansion of cells (>ten in vitro passages) and expression of NSC markers, success rate of the primary culture was 39% (nine of 23 temporal lobes). During the long-term expansion, expressions of NSC markers and differentiation potentials into astrocytes and neurons were maintained. After the 18th sub-culture, spontaneous senescence and differentiation were observed, and the cultivated ahMNCs ceased their proliferation. The culture results were not affected by seizure characteristics; however, an older age (>40 years) and a smaller sample volume (<2 ml) were found to exert negative influences on the primary culture results. Furthermore therapeutic effects of ahMNCs against stroke were analyzed in an animal model. Transplantation of ahMNCs cells reduced infarction volumes and enhanced motor activity, significantly. The results here would provide promising experimental and clinical strategy of using patient-specific autologous ahMNCs in regenerative medicine in the future.
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Rac1 controls the subcellular localization of the Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor Net1A to regulate focal adhesion formation and cell spreading.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
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RhoA is overexpressed in human cancer and contributes to aberrant cell motility and metastatic progression; however, regulatory mechanisms controlling RhoA activity in cancer are poorly understood. Neuroepithelial transforming gene 1 (Net1) is a RhoA guanine nucleotide exchange factor that is overexpressed in human cancer. It encodes two isoforms, Net1 and Net1A, which cycle between the nucleus and plasma membrane. Net1 proteins must leave the nucleus to activate RhoA, but mechanisms controlling the extranuclear localization of Net1 isoforms have not been described. Here, we show that Rac1 activation causes relocalization of Net1 isoforms outside the nucleus and stimulates Net1A catalytic activity. These effects do not require Net1A catalytic activity, its pleckstrin homology domain, or its regulatory C terminus. We also show that Rac1 activation protects Net1A from proteasome-mediated degradation. Replating cells on collagen stimulates endogenous Rac1 to relocalize Net1A, and inhibition of proteasome activity extends the duration and magnitude of Net1A relocalization. Importantly, we demonstrate that Net1A, but not Net1, is required for cell spreading on collagen, myosin light chain phosphorylation, and focal adhesion maturation. These data identify the first physiological mechanism controlling the extranuclear localization of Net1 isoforms. They also demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for Net1A in regulating cell adhesion.
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Heterologous carotenoid-biosynthetic enzymes: functional complementation and effects on carotenoid profiles in Escherichia coli.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
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A limited number of carotenoid pathway genes from microbial sources have been studied for analyzing the pathway complementation in the heterologous host Escherichia coli. In order to systematically investigate the functionality of carotenoid pathway enzymes in E. coli, the pathway genes of carotenogenic microorganisms (Brevibacterium linens, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Rhodobacter sphaeroides, Rhodobacter capsulatus, Rhodopirellula baltica, and Pantoea ananatis) were modified to form synthetic expression modules and then were complemented with Pantoea agglomerans pathway enzymes (CrtE, CrtB, CrtI, CrtY, and CrtZ). The carotenogenic pathway enzymes in the synthetic modules showed unusual activities when complemented with E. coli. For example, the expression of heterologous CrtEs of B. linens, C. glutamicum, and R. baltica influenced P. agglomerans CrtI to convert its substrate phytoene into a rare product-3,4,3,4-tetradehydrolycopene-along with lycopene, which was an expected product, indicating that CrtE, the first enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthesis pathway, can influence carotenoid profiles. In addition, CrtIs of R. sphaeroides and R. capsulatus converted phytoene into an unusual lycopene as well as into neurosporene. Thus, this study shows that the functional complementation of pathway enzymes from different sources is a useful methodology for diversifying biosynthesis as nature does.
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Over-expression of a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor, p190RhoGEF, in mouse dendritic cells negatively regulates cellular responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide.
Mol. Cells
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We studied the role of a RhoA-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factor (p190RhoGEF) in dendritic cells (DCs), using transgenic (TG) mice that over-express a full gene of p190RhoGEF under the control of an invariant chain promoter. TG mice lacked localization of activated DCs to the T cell zone in the spleen and had reduced serum levels of IL-6 in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. DCs from these mice also showed reduced surface expression of CD86, CD40, and CD205, but not MHCII, as well as a reduced capability to uptake antigen. Moreover, chemokine-driven migration and secretion of IL-6, but not of IL-12, were impaired after LPS-stimulation of TG DCs. Collectively, these results suggest that over-expressing p190RhoGEF negatively regulates conventional DC function in response to bacterial LPS infection.
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Core-satellites assembly of silver nanoparticles on a single gold nanoparticle via metal ion-mediated complex.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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We report core-satellites (Au-Ag) coupled plasmonic nanoassemblies based on bottom-up, high-density assembly of molecular-scale silver nanoparticles on a single gold nanoparticle surface, and demonstrate direct observation and quantification of enhanced plasmon coupling (i.e., intensity amplification and apparent spectra shift) in a single particle level. We also explore metal ion sensing capability based on our coupled plasmonic core-satellites, which enabled at least 1000 times better detection limit as compared to that of a single plasmonic nanoparticle. Our results demonstrate and suggest substantial promise for the development of coupled plasmonic nanostructures for ultrasensitive detection of various biological and chemical analytes.
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Effect of ammonia water on the morphology of monoethanolamine-assisted sonochemicaly synthesized ZnO nanostructures.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
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In the present work, ZnO nanostructures were synthesized by monoethanolamine (MEA)-assisted ultrasonic method at low temperature. Structural analysis was carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD) confirmed the formation of hexagonal wurtzite structure of ZnO. The effect of ammonia water on the molecular structure of MEA, and its effect on the morphology of ZnO nanostructures were monitored by electron microscopy. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results suggest that ZnO nanoparticles with 100 nm in diameter were produced in case of MEA-assisted ultrasonic method. However, as ammonia water was added into the reaction system the morphology of ZnO nanoparticles changed into nanorods, flower-like nanostructures and finally microrods. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED) studies showed that as prepared ZnO nanostructures were single crystalline in nature and grew in different directions resulted in the formation of various structures. The growth mechanism of as prepared ZnO nanostructures was discussed in detail. It was proposed that the addition of ammonia water into the reaction system resulted into the formation of ethylene diamine (EDA) which directed the growth of ZnO. The optical property was studied by photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy showed only UV emission and no defects mediated visible emission.
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Therapeutic effects of human adipose stem cell-conditioned medium on stroke.
J. Neurosci. Res.
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Stem cell therapy is a promising approach for stroke. However, low survival rates and potential tumorigenicity of implanted cells could undermine the efficacy of the cell-based treatment. The use of stem cell-conditioned medium (CM) may be a feasible approach to overcome these limitations. Especially, specific stem cell culture condition and continuous infusion of CM into ischemic brains would have better therapeutic results. The CM was prepared by culturing human adipose-derived stem cells in a three-dimensional spheroid form to increase the secretion of angiogenic/neuroprotective factors. Ischemic stroke was induced by standard middle cerebral artery occlusion methods in the brain of 8-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats. Continuous infusion of CM or ?MEM media (0.5 ?l/hr) into the lateral ventricle was initiated 8 days after the surgery and maintained for 7 days. Alteration in the motor function was monitored by the rotarod test. Infarction volume and the number of microvessels or TUNEL-positive neural cells were analyzed 15 days after the surgery. Compared with ?MEM, continuous CM infusion reduced the infarction volume and maintained motor function. The number of CD31-positive microvessels and TUNEL-positive neural cells significantly increased and decreased, respectively, in the penumbra regions. Although the apoptosis of all neural cell types decreased, reduction in the microglial apoptosis and astrogliosis was prominent and significant. In this study, the therapeutic effects of the CM against stroke were confirmed in an animal model. Increased endothelial cell proliferation, reduced neural cell apoptosis, and milder astrogliosis may play important roles in the treatment effects of CM.
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Patellofemoral alignment and anterior knee pain after closing- and opening-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy.
Arthroscopy
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The purpose of this study was to compare the clinical and radiographic outcomes of opening- and closing-wedge valgus high tibial osteotomy (HTO) for the treatment of medial unicompartmental knee osteoarthritis with a minimum follow-up of 3 years, with a focus on patellofemoral alignment and anterior knee pain.
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Effect of a hot water extract of Chlorella vulgaris on proliferation of IEC-6 cells.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
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Chlorella vulgaris, a unicellular microalgae, exerts various biological effects; however their effect on proliferation signaling pathways in normal cells has not been studied. We investigated the effect of hot water extracts of Chlorella vulgaris (CVE) on cell proliferation and related signaling pathways in rat intestinal epithelial cells (IEC-6). CVE increased the expression of insulin-like growth factor-I receptor (IGF-IR) and the phosphorylation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Src. In addition, CVE induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathways. We verified the increased phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK) and Akt and the increased expression of the PI3K regulatory subunit p85. CVE also influenced the canonical Wnt pathway through increased expression of the nuclear ?-catenin, cyclin D1. Tyr-397 of FAK mediates interactions with Src homology 2 (SH2) domains in a number of other signaling proteins, including PI3K, PLC-?, Shc, Grb7, Src and Nck2. Because CVE induced FAK activation, FAK may affect the Wnt pathway. Addition of a FAK inhibitor decreased the expression of nuclear ?-catenin, cyclin D1 and c-myc, and increased the expression of cytosolic ?-catenin. We conclude that CVE stimulated proliferation of IEC-6 cells via the MAPK, PI3K/Akt and canonical Wnt pathways, and that this affected the canonical Wnt pathway.
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