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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The Rates and Clinical Characteristics of Pneumolabyrinth in Temporal Bone Fracture.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Pneumolabyrinth is a rare inner ear clinical manifestation. To date, only about 50 cases have been reported-all as case reports. Consequently, the rate and clinical characteristics of pneumolabyrinth have not been evaluated.
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Protective Mechanisms of Acacetin against d-Galactosamine and Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Fulminant Hepatic Failure in Mice.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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This study examined the hepatoprotective effects of acacetin (1), a flavonoid isolated from Agastache rugosa, against d-galactosamine (GalN) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced fulminant hepatic failure. Mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 1 (25, 50, and 100 mg/kg), or the vehicle alone (5% dimethyl sulfoxide-saline), 1 h before GalN (800 mg/kg)/LPS (40 ?g/kg) treatment and sacrificed at 6 h after GalN/LPS injection. GalN/LPS markedly increased mortality and serum aminotransferase activity, and these increases were attenuated by 1. GalN/LPS increased serum tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels, while 1 attenuated TNF-? levels and further increased IL-6 levels. GalN/LPS increased protein expression of toll-like receptor 4, phosphorylation of extracellular signal-related kinase, and p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase and increased nuclear protein expression of nuclear factor ?B; these increases were attenuated by 1. GalN/LPS increased Atg5 and Atg7 protein expressions, and these increases were augmented by 1. GalN/LPS activated autophagic flux as indicated by decreased microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3-II and sequestosome1/p62 protein expression. This activation was enhanced by 1. These findings suggest that 1 protects against GalN/LPS-induced liver injury by suppressing TLR4 signaling and enhancing autophagic flux.
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A normative study of the disability assessment for dementia in community-dwelling elderly koreans.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
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We investigated demographic influences on Korean version of Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD-K) performance and developed normative data for DAD-K.
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PINK1 positively regulates HDAC3 to suppress dopaminergic neuronal cell death.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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Deciphering the molecular basis of neuronal cell death is a central issue in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's. Dysregulation of p53 levels has been implicated in neuronal apoptosis. The role of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) in suppressing p53-dependent apoptosis has been recently emphasized; however, the molecular basis of modulation of p53 function by HDAC3 remains unclear. Here we show that PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), which is linked to autosomal recessive early-onset familial Parkinson's disease, phosphorylates HDAC3 at Ser-424 to enhance its HDAC activity in a neural cell-specific manner. PINK1 prevents H2O2-induced C-terminal cleavage of HDAC3 via phosphorylation of HDAC3 at Ser-424, which is reversed by protein phosphatase 4c. PINK1-mediated phosphorylation of HDAC3 enhances its direct association with p53 and causes subsequent hypoacetylation of p53. Genetic deletion of PINK1 partly impaired the suppressive role of HDAC3 in regulating p53 acetylation and transcriptional activity. However, depletion of HDAC3 fully abolished the PINK1-mediated p53 inhibitory loop. Finally, ectopic expression of phosphomometic-HDAC3(S424E) substantially overcomes the defective action of PINK1 against oxidative stress in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Together, our results uncovered a mechanism by which PINK1-HDAC3 network mediates p53 inhibitory loop in response to oxidative stress-induced damage.
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Delayed diagnosis is linked to worse outcomes and unfavourable treatment responses in patients with axial spondyloarthritis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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The diagnosis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) has a lengthy delay; we investigated the outcomes and factors associated with the delayed diagnosis of SpA. This was a cross-sectional study on patients with SpA who visited a rheumatology clinic at a single tertiary centre. The data were collected from face-to-face interviews, physician assessments of disease status and reviews of medical records. In total, 105 patients with SpA were consecutively enrolled. Of the included patients, 94 had axial SpA and 11 had peripheral SpA. The median diagnostic delay was 8 years (interquartile range, 3-14) for axial SpA. Comparisons between the early and late diagnosis groups were performed to identify the factors related to delayed diagnosis in axial SpA. A definite diagnosis of SpA led to proper management and clinical improvements. The patients with delayed diagnosis showed worse outcomes in disease activity, function, spinal mobility and/or radiographic damage. These patients also demonstrated a less favourable treatment response according to the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index and the rate of radiographic progression. Multivariate analysis indicated that a prior diagnosis of mechanical back pain was an independent factor associated with diagnostic delay. The diagnosis of SpA is often delayed. Delayed diagnosis is associated with worse outcomes and poor treatment responses in SpA patients. Physician and patient awareness of inflammatory back pain are essential for the early diagnosis of SpA, and a referral guideline for patients with suspected SpA is needed.
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Comparison of ultrasound-guided anterior and posterior approaches for needle insertion into the tibialis posterior in hemiplegic children with spastic cerebral palsy.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Although the tibialis posterior is a potentially difficult muscle to locate for botulinum toxin injection because of its deep location, needle insertion is usually performed using anatomic landmarks for guidance. Accordingly, the ultrasonographic anatomy of the lower leg was investigated in hemiplegic children with spastic cerebral palsy to improve the safety and the accuracy of needle placement into the tibialis posterior.
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A normative study of total scores of the CERAD neuropsychological assessment battery in an educationally diverse elderly population.
Int Psychogeriatr
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the influences of age, education, and gender on the two total scores (TS-I and TS-II) of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease Neuropsychological assessment battery (CERAD-NP) and to provide normative information based on an analysis for a large number of elderly persons with a wide range of educational levels.
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A case of localized amyloid light-chain amyloidosis in the small intestine.
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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Amyloidosis is characterized by the abnormal deposition of extracellular amyloid fibrils. Cases involving amyloid light-chain amyloidosis in the small intestine have been reported infrequently in Korea. Here, we report a case of localized light chain protein amyloidosis in the small intestine. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, push enteroscopy, and capsule endoscopy revealed submucosal tumor-like lesions, multiple shallow ulcers, and several erosions in the distal duodenum and jejunum. An endoscopic biopsy established the diagnosis of amyloidosis. In through an immunohistochemical analysis, the presence of lambda light chain protein was detected. The patient had no evidence of an underlying clonal plasma cell disorder or additional organ involvement. Therefore, we concluded that the patient had localized amyloidosis of the small intestine.
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Analysis of the prevalence of and risk factors for tinnitus in a young population.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Tinnitus in children and adolescents is known to be as common as in adults. However, tinnitus in this young population is often overlooked, and a large population-based study designed to adjust for various risk factors for tinnitus is lacking.
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Application of diffusive gel-type probes for assessing redox zonation and mercury methylation in the Mekong Delta sediment.
Environ Sci Process Impacts
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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The vertical profiles of PO4(3-), Mn, Fe, S(2-), Hg, and CH3Hg(+) in sediment pore water were investigated using DGT and DET probes in the Tien River, the northern branch of Vietnam's Mekong Delta. Although some of the DGT measurements could be lower than the actual pore water concentrations due to the depletion of the species, the measurements provided information for understanding redox zonation and Hg methylation. The gradual increases in the measured species concentrations with the sediment depth were observed and the diffusive fluxes of the species to overlying water were expected. The vertical profiles suggested that (1) SO4(2-) seemed to be reduced before Fe(3+), or the two electron acceptors were reduced simultaneously; (2) the release of PO4(3-) was more closely related to S(2-) than Fe release; and (3) Hg methylation was active in the micro-niche between the aerobic and anaerobic transition zones. The maximum pore water CH3Hg(+) concentrations were observed at depths just above where the maximum S(2-) concentrations were detected. Hence, the maximum CH3Hg(+) concentration was observed near surficial sediments (less than 1 cm from the surface) in brackish water, and at a depth of 3 cm in fresh water. The different vertical profiles led to a CH3Hg(+) diffusive flux eight-times greater in brackish than in fresh water. The present study showed that the in situ application of DGT and DET probes was helpful to understand coupled biogeochemical reactions and mercury methylation by measuring pore water redox species.
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Palliative self-expandable metal stents for acute malignant colorectal obstruction: clinical outcomes and risk factors for complications.
Scand. J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) have been used as palliative treatment or bridge to surgery for obstructions caused by colorectal cancer (CRC). We assessed the long-term outcomes of palliative SEMSs and evaluated the risk factors influencing complications.
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Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid-rectal or low-rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): survival outcomes of an open-label, non-inferiority, randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Compared with open resection, laparoscopic resection of rectal cancers is associated with improved short-term outcomes, but high-level evidence showing similar long-term outcomes is scarce. We aimed to compare survival outcomes of laparoscopic surgery with open surgery for patients with mid-rectal or low-rectal cancer.
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Immunolocalization of Water Channel Proteins AQP1 and AQP4 in Rat Spinal Cord.
J. Histochem. Cytochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Aquaporin (AQP) is a water-selective channel protein. In the brain, AQPs play critical roles in the production of cerebrospinal fluid and in edema formation. In contrast, the expression and role of AQPs in spinal cord are unclear. We aimed to investigate the localization of AQP1 and AQP4 in normal rat spinal cord compared with the expression of marker proteins for astrocytes, neurons, and endothelial cells. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated that AQP1 and AQP4 are expressed along all levels of the spinal cord from the cervical to lumbar levels. AQP1 immunolabeling was observed in the dorsal horns in the gray matter, whereas the labeling was weak and mainly seen close to glia limitans in the white matter. AQP1 was co-labeled with marker proteins for unmyelinated neuronal fibers (peripherin) and endothelial cells (RECA-1) of blood vessels that had penetrated through the glia limitans. In contrast, AQP1 did not colocalize with GFAP, an astrocyte marker, at any level of the spinal cord. AQP4 was exclusively localized at the astrocytes, but AQP4 expression in spinal cord exhibited a less polarized and more spatial distribution than that of brain astrocytes. The observed characteristic localization and expression patterns of AQP1 and AQP4 could provide insights toward gaining an understanding of the role of AQPs in the spinal cord.
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Infliximab for refractory oral ulcers.
Am J Otolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Recurrent oral ulcer (ROU) is a common condition that significantly impacts quality of life. It is often related to systemic diseases, such as Behçet's disease (BD), Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis. Treatment of ROU depends on its severity: from topical agents for mild cases to systemic agents, such as corticosteroids, azathioprine, or other immunosuppressants for severe cases. Recently, good results have been reported with infliximab in refractory ROU. However, the optimal dosage and treatment duration have not been determined and the cost and potential side effects should be considered. We report on four patients who received a single-dose infliximab for refractory ROU. Two patients had refractory ROU with no underlying disease; one of them had soft palate perforation accompanied by severe oral ulcers. The two other patients had ROU of BD without major organ involvement. All patients received a single infusion of infliximab and an additional infusion was given on demand in one patient. Infliximab showed a rapid, good response in three patients and was also effective in improving the acute inflammation in the perforation of the soft palate, which had been resistant to conventional therapies. These effects diminished over a few weeks, but the ROU were tolerable and it was not necessary to increase steroids or add another medicine for about 1 year. We suggest that a single infusion of infliximab can be considered for refractory ROU.
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Effect of thymol and linalool fumigation on postharvest diseases of table grapes.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Several postharvest diseases of table grapes (Vitis vinifera) occur during storage, and gray mold rot is a particularly severe disease because the causal agent, Botrytis cinerea, grows at temperatures as low as 0?. Other postharvest diseases, such as those caused by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus spp., also often lead to deterioration in the quality of table grapes after harvest. The use of plant essential oils such as thymol and linalool, to reduce postharvest diseases in several kinds of fruits, including table grapes and oranges, has received much attention in European countries. However, to the best of our knowledge there has been no report of the use of thymol fumigation to control gray mold in table grapes in Korea. Thymol (30 µg/mL) and linalool (120 µg/mL) significantly inhibited mycelial growth and conidia germination of B. cinerea. The occurrence rate of gray mold rot of B. cinerea and other unknown fungi was significantly reduced by fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol in several table grape cultivars, such as Campbell early, Muscat Bailey A, Sheridan, and Geobong. In this study, fumigation with 30 µg/mL thymol, had no influence on the sugar content and hardness of grapes, but reduced fungal infection significantly. This suggests that 30 µg/mL thymol could be utilized to reduce deterioration of grapes due to gray mold and other fungal infections during long-term storage.
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Ultrasound-guided myofascial trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain: a pilot study.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To assess the efficacy of trigger point injection into brachialis muscle for rotator cuff disease patients with upper arm pain.
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Randomized clinical trial comparing reduced-volume oral picosulfate and a prepackaged low-residue diet with 4-liter PEG solution for bowel preparation.
Dis. Colon Rectum
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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Reduced-volume bowel preparation with a low-residue diet prior to colonoscopy would result in better patient compliance and sufficient bowel preparation.
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A normative study of the digit span in an educationally diverse elderly population.
Psychiatry Investig
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of demographic variables on Digit Span test (DS) performance in an educationally diverse elderly population and to provide normative information.
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Comparison of JEV neutralization assay using pseudotyped JEV with the conventional plaque-reduction neutralization test.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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We previously reported the development of a neutralization assay system for evaluating Japanese Encephalitis Virus (JEV) neutralizing antibody (NAb) using pseudotyped-JEV (JEV-PV). JEV-PV-based neutralization assay offers several advantages compared with the current standard plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT), including simplicity, safety, and speed. To evaluate the suitability of the JEV-PV assay as new replacement neutralization assay, we compared its repeatability, reproducibility, specificity, and correlated its results with those obtained using the PRNT. These analyses showed a close correlation between the results obtained with the JEV-PV assay and the PRNT, using the 50% plaque reduction method as a standard for measuring NAb titers to JEV. The validation results met all analytical acceptance criteria. These results suggest that the JEV-PV assay could serve as a safe and simple method for measuring NAb titer against JEV and could be used as an alternative approach for assaying the potency of JEV neutralization.
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Results of anterior facial nerve rerouting procedures for removing skull base tumors.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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The purpose of this study was to estimate the rates of functional recovery of the facial nerve and of total tumor resection in patients who undergo short anterior rerouting and long anterior rerouting of the facial nerve in removal of skull base tumors.
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Clinical features and associated abnormalities in children and adolescents with corpus callosal anomalies.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Callosal anomalies are frequently associated with other central nervous system (CNS) and/or somatic anomalies. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical features of corpus callosal agenesis/hypoplasia accompanying other CNS and/or somatic anomalies. We reviewed the imaging and clinical information of patients who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging in our hospital, between 2005 and 2012. Callosal anomalies were isolated in 13 patients, accompanied by other CNS anomalies in 10 patients, associated with only non-CNS somatic anomalies in four patients, and with both CNS and non-CNS abnormalities in four patients. Out of 31 patients, four developed normally, without impairments in motor or cognitive functions. Five of nine patients with cerebral palsy were accompanied by other CNS and/or somatic anomalies, and showed worse Gross Motor Function Classification System scores, compared with the other four patients with isolated callosal anomaly. In addition, patients with other CNS anomalies also had a higher seizure risk.
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Expression of hypoxic signaling markers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and its clinical significance.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Hypoxia is a consistent finding in fast-growing tumors; it contributes to tumor progression and therapeutic responses. We explored the expression of hypoxia-associated biomarkers in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) to assess their relationship with clinical factors in HNSCC. In total, 90 patients with HNSCC were enrolled. Expression of HIF-1?, HSP70, HSP90, VEGF, IGF-1R, and P16 was investigated by immunohistochemistry. Their correlations with clinical factors, including location of primary sites, T stage, N stage, M stage, HPV status, primary treatment success/failure, recurrences, disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival, were analyzed. HIF-1?, HPS70, HPS90, VEGF, and IGF-1R were positive in 33 of 89 (37.1 %), 62 of 87 (71.3 %), 83 of 89 (93.3 %), 41 of 87 (47.1 %), and 50 of 56 (89.3 %) cases, respectively. Expression levels of some of these markers were correlated. High HIF-1? or HSP 70 correlated with poor DFS, and expression of HSP70 correlated with LN metastasis. HPV-related carcinomas showed high HSP 70 and IGF-1R expression. Hypoxia-associated proteins were highly expressed and associated with aggressive clinical features in HNSCC. Expression of HIF-1? or HSP70 can be considered poor prognostic indicator in HNSCC. Our results suggest that hypoxic signaling is activated in HNSCC, especially in HPV-related tumors.
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Changes in blood glucose and cortisol levels after epidural or shoulder intra-articular glucocorticoid injections in diabetic or nondiabetic patients.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in blood glucose and cortisol levels after glucocorticoid injections into the epidural space or the glenohumeral joint in patients with or without diabetes.
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Prognostic impact of circumferential resection margin in rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The circumferential resection margin (CRM) is a strong prognostic factor in rectal cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between CRM distance and recurrence in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
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Does metformin affect the incidence of colonic polyps and adenomas in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus?
Intest Res
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops from colonic adenomas. Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated with a higher risk of CRC and metformin decreases CRC risk. However, it is not certain if metformin affects the development of colorectal polyps and adenomas. This study aimed to elucidate if metforminaffects the incidence of colonic polyps and adenomas in patients with type 2 DM.
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Relationship Between the Type and Amount of Physical Activity and Low Back Pain in Koreans Aged 50 Years and Older.
PM R
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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To examine the association between the type and amount of physical activity (PA) and low back pain (LBP) in people aged ?50 years.
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Association of homocysteine with hippocampal volume independent of cerebral amyloid and vascular burden.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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This study aimed to clarify whether homocysteine has independent association, not mediated by cerebral beta amyloid protein deposition and vascular burden, with whole brain or hippocampal volume in elderly individuals with normal cognition, mild cognitive impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. Nineteen mild cognitive impairment and 24 Alzheimer's disease patients were recruited from the Dementia Clinic of the Seoul National University Hospital. Fourteen cognitively normal elderly subjects were also selected from a pool of elderly volunteers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that plasma total homocysteine level was significantly associated with hippocampal volume even after controlling the degree of global cerebral beta amyloid deposition and vascular burden as well as other potential confounders including age, gender, education, and apolipoprotein E ?4 genotype. On the contrary, plasma total homocysteine level did not show any significant association with whole brain volume. Our finding of the independent negative association between homocysteine and hippocampal volume suggests that homocysteine has a direct adverse effect, not mediated by cerebral beta amyloid deposition and vascular burden, on the hippocampus.
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Potential ?-glucosidase inhibitors from thermal transformation of (+)-catechin.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Thermal transformation of the (+)-catechin (1) with heating processing afforded a new oxidation product, gambiriin D (2), along with catechin [6'-8]-catechin (3), and (+)-epicatechin (4). The structure of a new catechin dimer with C-C linkage was determined on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. The catechin dimers 2 and 3 exhibited significantly improved inhibitory activities against ?-glucosidase, with IC50 values of 0.16±0.2 and 0.14±0.2?M, respectively, when compared to parent (+)-catechin. Kinetic analysis showed that the two effective compounds 2 and 3 have noncompetitive modes of action.
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Hepatocystin contributes to interferon-mediated antiviral response to hepatitis B virus by regulating hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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Hepatocystin/80K-H is known as a causative gene for autosomal dominant polycystic liver disease. However, the role of hepatocystin in hepatitis B virus-related liver disease remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of hepatocystin on the cytokine-mediated antiviral response against hepatitis B virus infection. We investigated the antiviral effect and mechanism of hepatocystin by ectopic expression and RNAi knockdown in cell culture and mouse livers. Hepatocystin suppressed the replication of hepatitis B virus both in vitro and in vivo. This inhibitory effect was HBx-independent and mediated by the transcriptional regulation of viral genome via the activation of exogenous signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and the reduced expression of hepatocyte nuclear factor 4?, a transcription factor essential for hepatitis B virus replication. The amino-terminal region of hepatocystin was essential for regulation of this antiviral signaling pathway. We also found that hepatocystin acts as a critical component in interferon-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway, and the interferon-induced antiviral activity against hepatitis B virus is associated with the expression levels of hepatocystin. We demonstrated that hepatocystin plays a critical role in modulating the susceptibility of hepatitis B virus to interferon, suggesting that the modulation of hepatocystin expression is important for cytokine-mediated viral clearance during hepatitis B virus infection.
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1H NMR-based metabolite profiling of plasma in a rat model of chronic kidney disease.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is characterized by the gradual loss of the kidney function to excrete wastes and fluids from the blood. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics was exploited to investigate the altered metabolic pattern in rats with CKD induced by surgical reduction of the renal mass (i.e., 5/6 nephrectomy (5/6 Nx)), particularly for identifying specific metabolic biomarkers associated with early of CKD. Plasma metabolite profiling was performed in CKD rats (at 4- or 8-weeks after 5/6 Nx) compared to sham-operated rats. Principle components analysis (PCA), partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) score plots showed a significant separation between the groups. The resulting metabolic profiles demonstrated significantly increased plasma levels of organic anions, including citrate, ?-hydroxybutyrate, lactate, acetate, acetoacetate, and formate in CKD. Moreover, levels of alanine, glutamine, and glutamate were significantly higher. These changes were likely to be associated with complicated metabolic acidosis in CKD for counteracting systemic metabolic acidosis or increased protein catabolism from muscle. In contrast, levels of VLDL/LDL (CH2)n and N-acetylglycoproteins were decreased. Taken together, the observed changes of plasma metabolite profiles in CKD rats provide insights into the disturbed metabolism in early phase of CKD, in particular for the altered metabolism of acid-base and/or amino acids.
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Laparoscopic versus open surgery for stage I rectal cancer: long-term oncologic outcomes.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Laparoscopic resection is increasingly being performed for rectal cancer. However, few data are available to compare long-term outcomes after open versus laparoscopic surgery for early-stage rectal cancer.
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The osmotic stress response of split influenza vaccine particles in an acidic environment.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Oral influenza vaccine provides an efficient means of preventing seasonal and pandemic disease. In this work, the stability of envelope-type split influenza vaccine particles in acidic environments has been investigated. Owing to the fact that hyper-osmotic stress can significantly affect lipid assembly of vaccine, osmotic stress-induced morphological change of split vaccine particles, in conjunction with structural change of antigenic proteins, was investigated by the use of stopped-flow light scattering (SFLS), intrinsic fluorescence, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and hemagglutination assay. Split vaccine particles were found to exhibit a step-wise morphological change in response to osmotic stress due to double-layered wall structure. The presence of hyper-osmotic stress in acidic medium (0.3 osmolarity, pH 2.0) induced a significant level of membrane perturbation as measured by SFLS and TEM, imposing more damage to antigenic proteins on vaccine envelope than can be caused by pH-induced conformational change at acidic iso-osmotic condition. Further supports were provided by the intrinsic fluorescence and hemagglutinin activity measurements. Thus, hyper-osmotic stress becomes an important factor for determining stability of split vaccine particles in acidic medium. These results are useful in better understanding the destabilizing mechanism of split influenza vaccine particles in gastric environment and in designing oral influenza vaccine formulations.
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Influences of demographic changes and medical insurance status on tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy rates in Korea.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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In Korea, the proportion of the pediatric population is decreasing due to low fertility rates and aging of the society. It is hypothesized that this change in population structure and medical insurance status may affect rates of elective surgeries more significantly than clinical factors. An observational study conducted using data from the Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service for tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy, with 403,924 registered patients from 2007 through 2011. We analyzed longitudinal changes in crude and age-adjusted surgery rates of three surgeries-tonsillectomy without adenoidectomy (T), adenoidectomy without tonsillectomy (A), and tonsillectomy with adenoidectomy (T&A)-according to medical insurance status: health insurance (HI) group (better economic status) versus health aid (HA) group (poorer economic status). Most of the surgeries (51.8 % of T, 93.7 % of A, and 95.1 % of T&A) were performed in patients younger than 15. Over 5 years, the proportion of the child population numbers decreased, from 17.43 to 15.41 % in the HI group and from 21.20 to 13.15 % in the HA group. Thus, crude surgery rates for T, A, and T&A decreased more rapidly in the HA group (7.50, 14.79, and 15.55 %) than the HI group (1.69, 1.49, and 0.90 %) each year. Adjusted surgery rates for T, A, and T&A increased in the HI group (1.01, 2.64, and 3.36 %) and decreased in the HA group (1.39, 2.86, and 2.76 %) each year. These adjusted surgery rates partially explains the sharper decrease in crude surgery rates in the HA group than the HI group. The crude and adjusted rates of surgeries were usually higher in lower economic status groups. In conclusion, surgery rates were affected by changes in the population structure, but by other factors as well. Predictable socioeconomic factors could be used to calculate and predict the rates for other well-established surgeries.
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Experience of de-identification system development for clinical research in tertiary hospital.
Stud Health Technol Inform
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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To protect patients privacy and to improve the convenience of research, Asan Medical Center (AMC) has been developing a de-identification system for biomedical research, which mainly consists of three components: de-identification tool, search tool, and chart review tool. The de-identification tool can substitute a randomly assigned research ID for a hospital patient ID, remove the identifiers in the structured format, and mask them in the unstructured format, i.e., texts. The search tool can find the number of patients which satisfies given criteria. The chart review tool can provide de-identified patients clinical data for review. We found that clinical data warehouse was essential for successful implementation of de-identification system, and this system should be tightly linked to an electronic institutional review board system for easy operation of honest brokers.
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Comparison of peristomal adhesion formation between laparoscopic and open low anterior resection of rectal cancer.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Postoperative adhesions appear to be less common following laparoscopic surgery than after conventional open surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the impact of laparoscopic and conventional open rectal surgery on peristomal adhesion formation.
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Long-term outcomes in children with swallowing dysfunction.
Dev Neurorehabil
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Purpose: To evaluate swallowing function using a videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS), and to identify factors related to long-term swallowing function in children with swallowing dysfunction. Methods: Ninety children, aged 1-120 months (mean 27.5 months) were randomly selected from among children referred for the evaluation of swallowing dysfunction. We retrospectively reviewed the charts, and long-term outcomes were tracked up to 5 years. Results: Baseline American Speech-Language-Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) scale was 3.4?±?2.5. Supraglottic penetration and subglottic aspiration comfirmed by VFSS were detected in 30 children. After follow-up, oral feeding was possible in 74 patients, and the ASHA NOMS swallowing scale improved significantly, from 3.4?±?2.5 to 5.8?±?2.0. Baseline VFSS severity, serum albumin concentration, baseline weight percentile and neurologic conditions were significantly correlated with long-term swallowing function. Conclusions: The long-term outcomes in children with swallowing dysfunction were favorable, and baseline videofluoroscopic severity was significantly correlated with long-term swallowing function.
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Valgus femoral osteotomy for noncontainable Perthes hips: prognostic factors of remodeling.
J Pediatr Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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The authors have performed valgus femoral osteotomy (VFO) with rotational and sagittal components for Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease hips with hinge abduction. We analyzed skeletally mature patients to determine: (1) whether VFO improved hip function; (2) whether favorable radiographic remodeling of the hip occurred; and (3) whether any clinical or radiographic factors were associated with remodeling of femoral head deformity.
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Novel GPR119 agonist HD0471042 attenuated type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2013
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In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients, the gradual loss of pancreatic ?-cell function is a characteristic feature of disease progression that is associated with sustained hyperglycemia. Recently, G protein-coupled receptor 119 (GPR119) has been identified as a promising anti-diabetic therapeutic target. It is predominantly expressed in pancreatic ?-cells, directly promotes glucose stimulated insulin secretion and indirectly increases glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) levels reducing appetite and food intake. Activation of GPR119 leads to insulin release in ?-cells by increasing intracellular cAMP. Here, we identified a novel structural class of small-molecule GPR119 agonists, HD0471042, consisting of substituted a 3-isopropyl-1,2,4-oxadiazol-piperidine derivative with promising potential for the treatment of T2DM. The GPR119 agonist, HD0471042 increased intracellular cAMP levels in stably human GPR119 expressing CHO cell lines and HIT-T15 cell lines, hamster ?-cell line expressing endogenously GPR119. HD0471042, significantly elevated insulin release in INS-1 cells of rat pancreatic ?-cell line. In in vivo experiments, a single dose of HD0471042 improved glucose tolerance. Insulin and GLP-1 level were increased in a dose-dependent manner. Treatment with HD0471042 for 6 weeks in diet induced obesity mice and for 4 weeks in ob/ob and db/db mice improved glycemic control and also reduced weight gain in a dose-dependent manner. These data demonstrate that the novel GPR119 agonist, HD0471042, not only effectively controlled glucose levels, but also had an anti-obesity effect, a feature observed with GLP-1. We therefore suggest that HD0471042 represents a new type of anti-diabetes agent with anti-obesity potential for the effective treatment of type 2 diabetes.
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Cost-comparison of laparoscopic and open surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy: data from a randomized controlled trial.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to compare the direct costs of laparoscopic surgery (LS) and open surgery (OS) in the treatment of mid or low rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy in patients in Korea.
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New application of dual point 18F-FDG PET/CT in the evaluation of neoadjuvant chemoradiation response of locally advanced rectal cancer.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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FDG PET/CT has been suggested as the most reliable modality to predict pathological tumor responses after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC). However, several confounding factors including radiation-induced inflammation could not be easily avoided with the commonly used single-point FDG PET/CT. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy of a dual-point PET/CT protocol in LARC response prediction to CRT.
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Comparisons of Three Indicators for Freys Syndrome: Subjective Symptoms, Minors Starch Iodine Test, and Infrared Thermography.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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To correlate Freys syndrome with subjective symptoms, Minors starch iodine test results, and infrared thermography measurements, and to discuss the utility of thermography as a quantitative diagnostic method.
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PKA negatively regulates PP2C? to activate NF-?B-mediated inflammatory signaling.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Protein phosphatase 2C? (PP2C?) was found to act as a negative regulator of NF-?B-mediated inflammatory signaling; however, its regulatory mechanism has not been examined. Here, we show that protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates the PP2C?, which was inhibited by PKA-specific inhibitor, H89. Mutation analysis of serine residues in PP2C? revealed that Ser-195 in PP2C? is phosphorylated by PKA. Importantly, PKA inhibition by H89 abrogated the Forskolin-induced destabilization of PP2C? against ubiquitin-dependent proteosomal degradation pathway. Furthermore, H89 treatment efficiently reversed the negative effect of Forskolin on the anti-inflammatory function of PP2C?. Collectively, these data suggest that PKA destabilizes PP2C? upon inflammatory stimuli via phosphorylation of Ser-195 in PP2C?.
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CK2-NCoR signaling cascade promotes prostate tumorigenesis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The aberrant expressions of casein kinase 2 (CK2) was found in prostate cancer patient and cell lines, but little is known of the detailed mechanisms implicated in prostate tumorigenesis. In this study, we report that both CK2 activity and CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation are significantly elevated in the androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line DU145 and PC-3 compared with RWPE1 and LNCaP cells. Increased phosphorylation inversely correlates with the mRNA level of the NCoR-regulated gene, interferon-?-inducible protein 10 (IP-10). CK2 inhibition abrogated NCoR phosphorylation, IP-10 transcriptional repression, and the invasion activity of PC-3 cells. Inhibition of the CK2-NCoR network significantly reduced in vivo PC-3 cell tumorigenicity, likely due to transcriptional derepression of IP-10. Clinicopathological analyses revealed that increased CK2-mediated NCoR phosphorylation significantly correlates with poor survival among prostate cancer patients. These findings elucidate a CK2-modulated oncogenic cascade in prostate tumorigenesis.
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Characteristics of mercury emission from linear type of spent fluorescent lamp.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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In order to recycle the linear type of SFL (spent fluorescent lamp), mercury from SFL should be controlled to prevent leaking into the environment. For mercury emission from SFL, mercury concentration is estimated in the parts of SFL such as glass tube, phosphor powder, and base cap using the end-cutting unit. It is also evaluated mercury emission in the effluent gas in the end-cutting unit with changing flow rate. From the results of mercury emission from SFLs, phosphor powder has greater than 80% of mercury amount in SFL and about 15% of mercury amount contained in glass tube. The initial mercury concentration in vapor phase is almost decreased linearly with increasing airflow rate from 0.7L/min to 1.3L/min. It is desirable that airflow rate should be high until the concentration of mercury vapor will be stable because the stabilized concentration becomes to be low and the stabilized time goes to be short as increased airflow rate. From KET and TCLP results, finally, phosphor powder should be managed as a hazardous waste but base-cap and glass are not classified as hazardous wastes.
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Preoperative plasma hyperfibrinogenemia is predictive of poor prognosis in patients with nonmetastatic colon cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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The outcomes of colorectal cancer are determined by host factors, including systemic inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of fibrinogen and inflammation-based scores, as markers of the inflammatory response, in colon cancer.
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Protein kinase A phosphorylates NCoR to enhance its nuclear translocation and repressive function in human prostate cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2013
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Protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylates diverse protein substrates to modulate their function. In this study, we found that PKA specifically phosphorylates the RD1 (repression domain 1) domain of nuclear receptor corepressor (NCoR). We demonstrated that the Serine-70 of NCoR is identified the critical amino acid for PKA-dependent NCoR phosphorylation. Importantly, we found that PKA-dependent phosphorylation enhances the nuclear translocation of NCoR. More importantly, the activation of PKA enhanced the repressive activity of NCoR in a reporter assay and potentiated the antagonist activity in the androgen receptor (AR)-mediated transcription. Taken together, these results uncover a regulatory mechanism by which PKA positively modulates NCoR function in transcriptional regulation in prostate cancer.
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Hepatocystin/80K-H inhibits replication of hepatitis B virus through interaction with HBx protein in hepatoma cell.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Hepatitis B virus (HBV) X protein (HBx) is a key player in HBV replication as well as HBV-induced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the pathogenesis of HBV infection and the mechanisms of host-virus interactions are still elusive. In this study, a combination of affinity purification and mass spectrometry was applied to identify the host factors interacting with HBx in hepatoma cells. Thirteen proteins were identified as HBx binding partners. Among them, we first focused on determining the functional significance of the interaction between HBx and hepatocystin. A physical interaction between HBx and hepatocystin was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and Western blotting. Immunocytochemistry demonstrated that HBx and hepatocystin colocalized in the hepatoma cells. Domain mapping of both proteins revealed that the HBx C-terminus (amino acids 110-154) was responsible for binding to the mannose 6-phosphate receptor homology domain (amino acids, 419-525) of hepatocystin. Using translation and proteasome inhibitors, we found that hepatocystin overexpression accelerated HBx degradation via a ubiquitin-independent proteasome pathway. We demonstrated that this effect was mediated by an interaction between both proteins using a HBx deletion mutant. Hepatocystin overexpression significantly inhibited HBV DNA replication and expression of HBs antigen concomitant with HBx degradation. Using the hepatocystin mutant constructs that bind HBx, we also confirmed that hepatocystin inhibited HBx-dependent HBV replication. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that hepatocystin functions as a chaperon-like molecule by accelerating HBx degradation, and thereby inhibits HBV replication. Our results suggest that inducing hepatocystin may provide a novel therapeutic approach to control HBV infection.
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Lessons Learned from Development of De-identification System for Biomedical Research in a Korean Tertiary Hospital.
Healthc Inform Res
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The Korean government has enacted two laws, namely, the Personal Information Protection Act and the Bioethics and Safety Act to prevent the unauthorized use of medical information. To protect patients privacy by complying with governmental regulations and improve the convenience of research, Asan Medical Center has been developing a de-identification system for biomedical research.
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Effect of lumbar stabilization and dynamic lumbar strengthening exercises in patients with chronic low back pain.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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To compare the effects of lumbar stabilization exercises and lumbar dynamic strengthening exercises on the maximal isometric strength of the lumbar extensors, pain severity and functional disability in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP).
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NEK8 links the ATR-regulated replication stress response and S phase CDK activity to renal ciliopathies.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Renal ciliopathies are a leading cause of kidney failure, but their exact etiology is poorly understood. NEK8/NPHP9 is a ciliary kinase associated with two renal ciliopathies in humans and mice, nephronophthisis (NPHP) and polycystic kidney disease. Here, we identify NEK8 as a key effector of the ATR-mediated replication stress response. Cells lacking NEK8 form spontaneous DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) that further accumulate when replication forks stall, and they exhibit reduced fork rates, unscheduled origin firing, and increased replication fork collapse. NEK8 suppresses DSB formation by limiting cyclin A-associated CDK activity. Strikingly, a mutation in NEK8 that is associated with renal ciliopathies affects its genome maintenance functions. Moreover, kidneys of NEK8 mutant mice accumulate DNA damage, and loss of NEK8 or replication stress similarly disrupts renal cell architecture in a 3D-culture system. Thus, NEK8 is a critical component of the DNA damage response that links replication stress with cystic kidney disorders.
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Association between CASR polymorphisms, calcium intake, and colorectal cancer risk.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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The current study aimed to assess the effect of dietary calcium intake and possible interactions with calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene polymorphisms on colorectal cancer risk.
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Analysis of molecular expression in adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells : prospects for use in the treatment of intervertebral disc degeneration.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Recent studies have shown encouraging progress toward the use of autogenic and allogenic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) to arrest, or even lead to partial regeneration in, intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration. However, this technology is still in its infancy, and further development is required. The aim of this study was to analyze whether rat adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSC) can differentiate towards IVD-like cells after treatment with transforming growth factor ?3 (TGF-?3) in vitro. We also performed quantitative analysis of gene expression for ADMSC only, ADMSCs treated with TGF-?3, and co-cultured ADMSCs treated with TGF-?3.
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Ductal variation of the sublingual gland: A predisposing factor for ranula formation.
Head Neck
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate ranula development according to anatomic variation of the sublingual gland (SLG). METHODS: We conducted a prospective, consecutive case series considering other clinical conditions. Twenty-five cases treated by SLG excision were enrolled in this study. The ductal structures of the SLGs of another 11 patients undergoing similar surgeries for other conditions were compared. RESULTS: In 19 of a total of 25 ranulas (76.0%) and 16 of 18 oral nonplunging ranulas (88.9%), the SLG showed an anatomic variation of the main duct called Bartholins duct structure. Meanwhile, only 3 of 7 plunging ranulas (42.9%) had Bartholins ducts. Bartholins duct structure of the SLG was not found in the 11 control cases. CONCLUSION: Anatomic variation of the ductal system of the SLG might be a possible cause of ranulas. Surgical resection of the SLG is a better treatment choice for ranulas than other, more conservative treatments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2013.
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TGF-?1-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and acetylation of Smad2 and Smad3 are negatively regulated by EGCG in human A549 lung cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Transforming growth factor-?1, the key ligand of Smad-dependent signaling pathway, is critical for epithelial-mesenchymal transition during embryo-morphogenesis, fibrotic diseases, and tumor metastasis. In this study, we found that activation of p300/CBP, a histone acetyltransferase, by TGF-?1 mediates Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) via acetylating Smad2 and Smad3 in TGF-?1 signaling pathway. We demonstrated that treatment with EGCG inhibited p300/CBP activity in human lung cancer cells. Also, we observed that EGCG potently inhibited TGF-?1-induced EMT and reversed the up-regulation of various genes during EMT. Our findings suggest that EGCG inhibits the induction of p300/CBP activity by TGF-?1. Therefore, EGCG inhibits TGF-?1-mediated EMT by suppressing the acetylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in human lung cancer cells.
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Predictive value of (18)FDG PET-CT for tumour response in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated by preoperative chemoradiotherapy.
Int J Colorectal Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Although (18)fluorine-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography ((18)FDG PET-CT) is considered a reliable modality for determining tumour response after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC), the role of (18)FDG PET-CT for predicting pathologic complete response (pCR) remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether (18)FDG PET-CT can predict tumour response after CRT in patients with LARC, in terms of downstaging and pCR.
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HBx-induced NF-?B signaling in liver cells is potentially mediated by the ternary complex of HBx with p22-FLIP and NEMO.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Sustained activation of NF-?B is one of the causative factors for various liver diseases, including liver inflammation and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). It has been known that activating the NF-?B signal by hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) is implicated in the development of HCC. However, despite numerous studies on HBx-induced NF-?B activation, the detailed mechanisms still remain unsolved. Recently, p22-FLIP, a cleavage product of c-FLIPL, has been reported to induce NF-?B activation through interaction with the I?B kinase (IKK) complex in primary immune cells. Since our previous report on the interaction of HBx with c-FLIPL, we explored whether p22-FLIP is involved in the modulation of HBx function. First, we identified the expression of endogenous p22-FLIP in liver cells. NF-?B reporter assay and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) revealed that the expression of p22-FLIP synergistically enhances HBx-induced NF-?B activation. Moreover, we found that HBx physically interacts with p22-FLIP and NEMO and potentially forms a ternary complex. Knock-down of c-FLIP leading to the downregulation of p22-FLIP showed that endogenous p22-FLIP is involved in HBx-induced NF-?B activation, and the formation of a ternary complex is necessary to activate NF-?B signaling. In conclusion, we showed a novel mechanism of HBx-induced NF-?B activation in which ternary complex formation is involved among HBx, p22-FLIP and NEMO. Our findings will extend the understanding of HBx-induced NF-?B activation and provide a new target for intervention in HBV-associated liver diseases and in the development of HCC.
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pH stability and comparative evaluation of ranaspumin-2 foam for application in biochemical reactors.
Nanotechnology
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Aqueous channels of foam represent a simplified, natural bioreactor on the micro-/nano-scale. Previous studies have demonstrated the feasibility and potential application of foams in replicating cellular process in vitro, but no research has been performed to establish a basis for designing stable and biocompatible foam formulations. Our research has been directed specifically to the evaluation of ranaspumin-2 (RSN-2), a frog foam nest protein. The strong surfactant activity of RSN-2 enabled us to produce foams using low protein concentration (1 mg ml(-1)) over a wide pH range (pH ? 3). Importantly, the RSN-2 formulation exhibited the best foam stability at a near neutral pH condition, which shows a potential for application to various biosynthesis applications. Model cellular systems such as liposomes and inactivated A/PR/8/34 influenza virus maintained their physicochemical stability and full hemagglutination activity, indicating biocompatibility of RSN-2 with both cellular membranes and proteins both in bulk solution and in foam. Moreover, the addition of RSN-2 did not exert any deteriorative effects on bacterial cell growth kinetics. In contrast, Tween 20, Triton X-100, and BSA did not show satisfactory performance in terms of foamability, foam stability, physicochemcial stability, and biochemical stability. Although our study has been limited to representative formulations composed of only surfactant molecules, a number of unique advantages make RSN-2 a promising candidate for in vitro foam biosynthesis.
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Serpin B5 is a CEA-interacting biomarker for colorectal cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Serpin B5 is a candidate tumour suppressor, but its oncogenic activity has also been reported. Its function may be affected by protein interactions. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between serpin B5 and carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC). We also analysed the clinicopathological significance of serpin B5 expression in patients with CRC. Downregulation of serpin B5 was identified in a CEA-suppressed LoVo cell line using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and matrix-associated laser desorption ionisation-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). The specific interaction and co-localisation of serpin B5 with CEA were confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation and confocal microscopy. Western blot analysis and ELISAs revealed significant positive correlations between levels of serpin B5 and CEA in human colon cancer cell lines and in the blood of patients with CRC. Tissue expression of serpin B5 in 377 patients with CRC was significantly associated with serum CEA, histological grade, stage, lymph node metastasis, lymphatic and perineural invasion, and infiltrative border. Strong expression of serpin B5 was also associated with a reduced DFS (p = 0.001) and OS (p = 0.017). Together, these findings describe a relationship between serpin B5 and CEA expression in CRC. Strong expression of serpin B5 was associated with a worse prognosis in patients with CRC and its expression may correlate with CEA levels in CRC.
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Implications of complex anatomical junctions on conductance catheter measurements of coronary arteries.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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In vivo, the position of the conductance catheter to measure vessel lumen cross-sectional area may vary depending on where the conductance catheter is deployed in the complex anatomical geometry of arteries, including branches, bifurcations, or curvatures. The objective here is to determine how such geometric variations affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) estimates obtained using the cylindrical model. Computer simulations and in vitro and in vivo experiments were used to assess how the electric field and associated CSA measurement accuracy are affected by three typical in vivo conditions: 1) a vessel with abrupt change in lumen diameter (e.g., transition from aorta to coronary ostia); 2) a vessel with a T-bifurcation or a Y-bifurcation; and 3) a vessel curvature, such as in the right coronary artery, aorta, or pulmonary artery. The error in diameter from simulation results was shown to be relatively small (<7%), unless the detection electrodes were placed near the junction between two different lumen diameters or at a bifurcation junction. Furthermore, the present findings show that the effect of misaligned catheter-vessel geometrical configuration and vessel curvature on measurement accuracy is negligible. Collectively, the findings support the accuracy of the conductance method for sizing blood vessels, despite the geometric complexities of the cardiovascular system, as long as the detection electrodes are not placed at a large discontinuity in diameter or at bifurcation junctions.
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Comparison between the radionuclide salivagram and videofluoroscopic swallowing study methods for evaluating patients with aspiration pneumonia.
Ann Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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A videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) is generally used to assess dysphagia and aspiration, although false-negative results may be obtained. Saliva aspiration may cause false-negative VFSS findings in elderly people. A radionuclide salivagram can be useful in detecting saliva aspiration. We therefore compared these two methods for the evaluation of patients with aspiration pneumonia.
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Influence ofAPOE Genotype on Whole-Brain Functional Networks in Cognitively Normal Elderly.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) ?4 allele on whole-brain functional networks in cognitively normal (CN) elderly by applying graph theoretical analysis to brain glucose metabolism. Eighty-six CN elderly [28 APOE ?4 carriers (?4+) and 58 non-carriers (?4-)] underwent clinical evaluation and resting [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography scan. Whole-brain functional networks were constructed from correlations of the 90 regions of interest using the automated anatomical labeling template, and analyzed using graph theoretical approaches. The overall small-world property seen in ?4- was preserved in ?4+. However, both local clustering and path length were lower in ?4+ compared to ?4-. In terms of the hubs of functional networks, ?4+ showed decreased centrality of the right hippocampus but increased centrality of several brain regions associated with the default mode network compared to ?4-. Our results indicate that genetic vulnerability to Alzheimers disease may alter whole-brain functional networks even before clinical symptoms appear.
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Effect of saline injection mixing on accuracy of conductance lumen sizing of peripheral vessels.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transient displacement of blood in vessel lumen with saline injection is necessary in the conductance method for measurement of arterial cross-sectional area (CSA). The displacement of blood is dictated by the interactions between arterial flow hemodynamics and saline injection dynamics. The objective of the present study is to understand how the accuracy of conductance measurements is affected by the saline injection. Computational simulations were performed to assess the error in predictions of arterial CSA using conductance measurements over a range of peripheral artery diameters (i.e., 4, 7, and 10 mm) with an introducing catheter (6 Fr.) for various blood flow and saline injection rates. The simulation results were validated using the conductance measurements of the phantoms with known diameters (i.e., 7 and 10 mm). The results demonstrated that a minimum ratio of saline injection rate to blood flow rate of 3 is needed to fully displace the blood and result in accurate measurement of CSA for the peripheral artery sizes considered. Furthermore, the error was shown to be minimized as the detection electrodes are positioned between the distal to the mixing zone induced by saline injection and far downstream (4-8 cm from the injection catheter tip). The present study shows that even for the large peripheral arteries (7-10 mm) where mixing can occur, an appropriate injection rate and detection position can produce accurate measurement of lumen size.
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Stroke propensity is increased under atrial fibrillation hemodynamics: a simulation study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained dysfunction in heart rhythm clinically and has been identified as an independent risk factor for stroke through formation and embolization of thrombi. AF is associated with reduced cardiac output and short and irregular cardiac cycle length. Although the effect of AF on cardiac hemodynamic parameters has been reported, it remains unclear how the hemodynamic perturbations affect the potential embolization of blood clots to the brain that can cause stroke. To understand stroke propensity in AF, we performed computer simulations to describe trajectories of blood clots subject to the aortic flow conditions that represent normal heart rhythm and AF. Quantitative assessment of stroke propensity by blood clot embolism was carried out for a range of clot properties (e.g., 2-6 mm in diameter and 0-0.8 m/s ejection speed) under normal and AF flow conditions. The simulations demonstrate that the trajectory of clot is significantly affected by clot properties as well as hemodynamic waveforms which lead to significant variations in stroke propensity. The predicted maximum difference in stroke propensity in the left common carotid artery was shown to be about 60% between the normal and AF flow conditions examined. The results suggest that the reduced cardiac output and cycle length induced by AF can significantly increase the incidence of carotid embolism. The present simulations motivate further studies on patient-specific risk assessment of stroke in AF.
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A mechanistic study on the destabilization of whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine in gastric environment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Oral immunization using whole inactivated influenza virus vaccine promises an efficient vaccination strategy. While oral vaccination was hampered by harsh gastric environment, a systematic understanding about vaccine destabilization mechanisms was not performed. Here, we investigated the separate and combined effects of temperature, retention time, pH, and osmotic stress on the stability of influenza vaccine by monitoring the time-dependent morphological change using stopped-flow light scattering. When exposed to osmotic stress, clustering of vaccine particles was enhanced in an acidic medium (pH 2.0) at ?25°C. Fluorescence spectroscopic studies showed that hyper-osmotic stress at pH 2.0 and 37°C caused a considerable increase in conformational change of antigenic proteins compared to that in acidic iso-osmotic medium. A structural integrity of membrane was destroyed upon exposure to hyper-osmotic stress, leading to irreversible morphological change, as observed by undulation in stopped-flow light scattering intensity and transmission electron microscopy. Consistent with these analyses, hemagglutination activity decreased more significantly with an increasing magnitude of hyper-osmotic stress than in the presence of the hypo- and iso-osmotic stresses. This study shows that the magnitude and direction of the osmotic gradient has a substantial impact on the stability of orally administrated influenza vaccine.
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Is step section necessary for determination of complete pathological response in rectal cancer patients treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy?
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2011
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To assess the efficacy of the step section for determination of pathological complete response (pCR) in rectal cancer treated with preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT).
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Occurrence of Violet Root Rot on Membranous Milk Vetch Caused by Helicobasidium mompa in Korea.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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Severe violet root rot occurred in a field of membranous milk vetch in Bonghwa, Korea, in October 2010. Two fungal isolates from the diseased plants were identified as Helicobasidium mompa based on their morphological, cultural, and molecular characteristics. This is the first report that H. mompa causes violet root rot on membranous milk vetch in Korea.
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Occurrence of Clubroot on Shepherds-purse Caused by Plasmodiophora brassicae.
Mycobiology
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Clubroot symptoms were frequently observed on roots of shepherds-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris) grown in a field in Nonsan, Chungnam province, Korea in March, 2009. Many resting spores were found in the cells of the root gall tissues collected from the field. The clubroot pathogen was identified as Plasmodiophora brassicae based on its morphological and pathological characteristics. This is the first report that P. brassicae causes clubroot of shepherds-purse in Korea.
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Induction of remission is difficult due to frequent relapse during tapering steroids in Korean patients with polymyalgia rheumatica.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2011
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Polymyalgia rheumatica is an inflammatory disease affecting elderly and involving the shoulder and pelvic girdles. No epidemiological study of polymyalgia rheumatica was conducted in Korea. We retrospectively evaluated patients with polymyalgia rheumatica followed up at the rheumatology clinics of 10 tertiary hospitals. In total 51 patients, 36 patients (70.6%) were female. Age at disease onset was 67.4 yr. Twenty-three patients (45.1%) developed polymyalgia rheumatica in winter. Shoulder girdle ache was observed in 45 patients (90%) and elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (> 40 mm/h) in 49 patients (96.1%). Initial steroid dose was 23.3 mg/d prednisolone equivalent. Time to normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 4.1 months. Only 8 patients (15.7%) achieved remission. Among 41 patients followed up, 28 patients (68.3%) had flare at least once. Number of flares was 1.5 ± 1.6. The frequency of flare was significantly lower in patients with remission (P = 0.02). In Korea, polymyalgia rheumatica commonly develops during winter. Initial response to steroid is fairly good, but the prognosis is not benign because remission is rare with frequent relapse requiring long-term steroid treatment.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.