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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of PKC? attenuates methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic toxicity via up-regulation of phosphorylation of TH-Ser40 by modulations of PP2A and PKA.
Clin. Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Recently, we have proposed that inhibition of protein kinase C? (PKC?) may be a useful target for protection against methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. We have demonstrated that treatment with MA resulted in a significant decrease in phosphorylation of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) at Ser40 in the striatum, but not in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser31. Treatment with rottlerin, a PKC? inhibitor or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) significantly attenuated MA-induced reductions in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 and in the expression of protein kinase A (PKA). This attenuation was significantly counteracted by H89, a PKA inhibitor. Treatment with rottlerin or ASO significantly attenuated the MA-induced increase in protein phosphatase (PP) 2A activity. FTY720, a PP2A activator, significantly reversed the PKC? inhibition-mediated recovery in phosphorylation of TH against MA insult. Consistently, H89 and FTY720 counteracted PKC? inhibition-mediated recovery against MA-induced behavioral impairments, respectively. The effects, mediated by rottlerin or ASO, in MA-treated wild-type-mice were comparable to those in MA-treated PKC?(-/-) -mice. However, neither inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamily nor inhibition of calcium calmodulin kinase II significantly altered PKC? inhibition-mediated attenuation against MA-induced impaired phosphorylation of TH. Our results suggest that genetic or pharmacological inhibition of PKC? requires modulation of PKA expression and/or PP2A activity for attenuating impairments in the phosphorylation of TH at Ser40 and behavioral activity induced by MA. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The Novel Heat Shock Protein 90 Inhibitor NVP-AUY922 Synergizes with the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor PXD101 in Induction of Death of Anaplastic Thyroid Carcinoma Cells.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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Context: The influence of the novel heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) inhibitor NVP-AUY922 (AUY922) on anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells has not been investigated. Objective: The effect of AUY922 alone or in combination with the histone deacetylase inhibitor PXD101 on survival of ATC cells was evaluated. Results: In ATC cells, AUY922, compared with 17-allylamino-17-demethoxygeldanamycin, herbimycin A and radicicol, potently lead to growth inhibition and cell death with cleavage of caspase-3 and PARP and concomitant changes in expression of hsp90 client proteins. After treatment of both AUY922 and PXD101, compared with treatment of AUY922 or PXD101 alone, the percentage of non-viable cells, annexin V-stained cells and cytotoxic activity increased. All of the combination index values were lower than 1.0, suggesting the synergism between AUY922 and PXD101 in induction of cell death. In cells treated with both AUY922 and PXD101, compared with cells treated with AUY922 alone, the protein levels of phospho-Akt, cIAP, xIAP, survivin, ATM, and ATR decreased, while those of acetyl. histone H3, acetyl. histone H4, ?H2AX, cleaved DFF45 and cleaved PARP increased. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that AUY922 potently induces cytotoxicity with concomitant modulation of hsp90 client proteins in ATC cells. Moreover, AUY922 has a synergistic activity with PXD101 in induction of cytotoxicity in conjunction with the inactivation of PI3K/Akt signaling and survivin and the activation of DNA damage response in ATC cells.
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P-modified and carbon shell coated Co nanoparticles for efficient alkaline oxygen reduction catalysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Described herein is the development of a novel Co-based oxygen electrode catalyst coupled with unique carbon structures. The present carbon shell coated Co nanoparticles of which the surface composites are modified by phosphorus incorporation, exhibit efficient oxygen reduction activities as well as oxygen evolving properties.
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Weekend work and depressive symptoms among Korean employees.
Chronobiol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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The purpose of this study was to quantify the association between weekend work and depressive symptoms in a representative sample of Korean employees. Subjects were 29?171 employees of companies in Korea. Data were obtained as part of the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. Depressive symptoms were measured as a score of ?7 on the World Health Organization Well-being Index. The association between weekend work and depressive symptoms was quantified using logistic regression, controlling for sociodemographic and work-related factors including the number of hours worked per week and stratified by gender. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was higher in employees who reported working at least one weekend day in the past month than in employees who reported working no weekend days in the past month. After controlling for confounders, including the number of hours worked per week, 1-4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.36 [1.18-1.57] in males and 1.32 [1.12-1.58] in females) and >4 days of weekend work in the past month (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] of 1.45 [1.19-1.78] in males and 1.36 [1.07-1.73] in females) were significantly associated with depressive symptoms. Weekend work was related with a significant increase in the prevalence of depressive symptoms in Korean workers.
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Growth Hormone-Releaser Diet Attenuates Cognitive Dysfunction in Klotho Mutant Mice via Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Receptor Activation in a Genetic Aging Model.
Endocrinol Metab (Seoul)
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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It has been recognized that a defect in klotho gene expression accelerates the degeneration of multiple age-sensitive traits. Accumulating evidence indicates that aging is associated with declines in cognitive function and the activity of growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1).
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Interstitial lung disorders in the indium workers of Korea: An update study for the relationship with biological exposure indices.
Am. J. Ind. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Korea is one of the highest indium-consuming countries worldwide. The present study aims to determine the relationship between interstitial lung disorders and indium exposure in Korea.
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Substance P exacerbates dopaminergic neurodegeneration through neurokinin-1 receptor-independent activation of microglial NADPH oxidase.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Although dysregulated substance P (SP) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), how SP affects the survival of dopaminergic neurons remains unclear. Here, we found that mice lacking endogenous SP (TAC1(-/-)), but not those deficient in the SP receptor (neurokinin-1 receptor, NK1R), were more resistant to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced nigral dopaminergic neurodegeneration than wild-type controls, suggesting a NK1R-independent toxic action of SP. In vitro dose-response studies revealed that exogenous SP enhanced LPS- and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+))-induced dopaminergic neurodegeneration in a bimodal manner, peaking at submicromolar and subpicomolar concentrations, but was substantially less effective at intermediate concentrations. Mechanistically, the actions of submicromolar levels of SP were NK1R-dependent, whereas subpicomolar SP-elicited actions required microglial NADPH oxidase (NOX2), the key superoxide-producing enzyme, but not NK1R. Subpicomolar concentrations of SP activated NOX2 by binding to the catalytic subunit gp91(phox) and inducing membrane translocation of the cytosolic subunits p47(phox) and p67(phox). The importance of NOX2 was further corroborated by showing that inhibition or disruption of NOX2 blocked subpicomolar SP-exacerbated neurotoxicity. Together, our findings revealed a critical role of microglial NOX2 in mediating the neuroinflammatory and dopaminergic neurodegenerative effects of SP, which may provide new insights into the pathogenesis of PD.
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Protective effect of dieckol against chemical hypoxia-induced cytotoxicity in primary cultured mouse hepatocytes.
Drug Chem Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Abstract Hepatic ischemic injury is a major complication arising from liver surgery, transplantation, or other ischemic diseases, and both reactive oxygen species (ROS) and pro-inflammatory mediators play the role of key mediators in hepatic ischemic injury. In this study, we examined the effect of dieckol in chemical hypoxia-induced injury in mouse hepatocytes. Cell viability was significantly decreased after treatment with cobalt chloride (CoCl2), a well-known hypoxia mimetic agent in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with dieckol before exposure to CoCl2 significantly attenuated the CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability. Additionally, pretreatment with dieckol potentiated the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and attenuated the CoCl2-induced increase in the expression of Bax and caspase-3. Treatment with CoCl2 resulted in an increased intracellular ROS generation, which is inhibited by dieckol or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC, a ROS scavenger), and p38 MAPK phosphorylation, which is also blocked by dieckol or NAC. In addition, dieckol and SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) increased the CoCl2-induced decrease of Bcl-2 expression and decreased the CoCl2-induced increase of Bax and caspase-3 expressions. CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated by pretreatment with dieckol, NAC, and SB203580. Furthermore, dieckol attenuated CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Similar to the effect of dieckol, NAC also blocked CoCl2-induced COX-2 expression. Additionally, CoCl2-induced decrease of cell viability was attenuated not only by dieckol and NAC but also by NS-398 (a selective COX-2 inhibitor). In conclusion, dieckol protects primary cultured mouse hepatocytes against CoCl2-induced cell injury through inhibition of ROS-activated p38 MAPK and COX-2 pathway.
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Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, proapoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKC? gene.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKC? overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKC? during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase in order to examine whether melatonin modulates PKC?-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKC?((-/-)) mice or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKC?. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition, and that PKC? is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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INTRAVITREAL RANIBIZUMAB INJECTIONS WITH AND WITHOUT PNEUMATIC DISPLACEMENT FOR TREATING SUBMACULAR HEMORRHAGE SECONDARY TO NEOVASCULAR AGE-RELATED MACULAR DEGENERATION.
Retina (Philadelphia, Pa.)
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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To evaluate the efficacy of intravitreal ranibizumab with and without pneumatic displacement for the treatment of submacular hemorrhage secondary to neovascular age-related macular degeneration.
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Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior.
Annu. Rev. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable a subject to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Thus, relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows the subject's gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows the subject's gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making.
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0246?Weekend work and Psychosocial Well-being in Korean workers.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To identify association between weekend work and psychosocial well-being in a representative sample of Korean workers.
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0104?The impact of occupational stress on suicide ideation of subway drivers.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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To investigate and manage subway drivers' mental health, we conducted a temporary mental health checkup on the subway drivers of one transportation company, and analysed the relationship between the suicide ideation and occupational stress factors.
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Mutation analysis of SPAST, ATL1, and REEP1 in Korean Patients with Hereditary Spastic Paraplegia.
J Clin Neurol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) is a genetically heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative disorders that are characterized by progressive spasticity and weakness of the lower limbs. Mutations in the spastin gene (SPAST) are the most common causes of HSP, accounting for 40-67% of autosomal dominant HSP (AD-HSP) and 12-18% of sporadic cases. Mutations in the atlastin-1 gene (ATL1) and receptor expression-enhancing protein 1 gene (REEP1) are the second and third most common causes of AD-HSP, respectively.
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Clinical practice guidelines for gastric cancer in Korea: an evidence-based approach.
J Gastric Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Although gastric cancer is quite common in Korea, the treatment outcome is relatively favorable compared to those in western countries. However, there are currently no Korean multidisciplinary guidelines for gastric cancer. Experts from related societies developed guidelines de novo to meet Korean circumstances and requirements, including 23 recommendation statements for diagnosis (n=9) and treatment (n=14) based on relevant key questions. The quality of the evidence was rated according to the GRADE evidence evaluation framework: the evidence levels were based on a systematic review of the literature, and the recommendation grades were classified as either strong or weak. The applicability of the guidelines was considered to meet patients' view and preferences in the context of Korea. The topics of the guidelines cover diagnostic modalities (endoscopy, endoscopic ultrasound, and radiologic diagnosis), treatment modalities (surgery, therapeutic endoscopy, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy), and pathologic evaluation. An external review of the guidelines was conducted during the finalization phase.
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Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Significance of HER2 Expression in Gastric Cancer.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Background: HER2 positivity is reported to be <20% in gastric cancer. Clinicopathological characteristics will be helpful to understand the biological features of HER2-positive gastric cancer. Methods: A total of 813 gastric cancer patients who underwent HER2 testing between January 2005 and December 2010 were included in this study. Results: Ninety-five (11.7%) patients had HER2-positive gastric cancer. Elevated serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) concentration [odds ratio (OR), 5.629; p < 0.001] and differentiated histology (OR, 3.717; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors for HER2 positivity in localized disease. For recurrent or metastatic disease, elevated serum CEA concentration (OR, 2.545; p < 0.001), differentiated histology (OR, 3.299; p < 0.001), pulmonary metastasis (OR, 3.321; p = 0.001), and distant lymph node metastasis (OR, 2.286; p = 0.002) were significant predictive factors. Median disease-free survival (DFS) was shorter in HER2-positive patients than in others, especially in stage I or II disease (24.7 vs. 49.2 months; p < 0.001). Among HER2-negative patients with stage II diseases, patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy had longer DFS than others (42.2 vs. 30.7 months; p = 0.025). Conclusions: Clinicopathological factors may be useful in predicting the HER2 positivity of gastric cancer. Further studies are needed to understand the molecular basis of HER2-positive gastric cancer. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Predicting Recurrence and Progression of Non-Muscle-Invasive Bladder Cancer in Korean Patients: A Comparison of the EORTC and CUETO Models.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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This study aimed to confirm the utility of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and the Spanish Urological Club for Oncological Treatment (CUETO) scoring systems and to determine which model is preferred as a prognostic model in Korean patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer.
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Single-Dose, Randomized, Open-Label, 2-Way Crossover Study of the Pharmacokinetics of Amitriptyline Hydrochloride 10- and 25-mg Tablet in Healthy Male Korean Volunteers.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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Amitriptyline is the most widely used tricyclic antidepressant (TCA). Although amitriptyline hydrochloride 10 and 25 mg has been marketed in Korea, no data on the dose proportionality of amitriptyline in Korean subjects are available. This clinical trial was designed to evaluate and compare the relative bioavailability with regard to dose proportionality between the two marketed strengths of amitriptyline hydrochloride tablets after a single-dose, oral administration under fasting conditions in healthy, male, Korean volunteers.
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The administrative process for recognition and compensation for occupational diseases in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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In the Workers' Compensation Insurance (WCI) system in Korea, occupational diseases (ODs) are approved through deliberation meetings of the Committee on Occupational Disease Judgment (CODJ) after disease investigations when workers or medical institutions requested the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (COMWEL) for medical care benefits. Insufficient data presented by employers or workers or lack of objective evidence may increase the possibility of disapproval. The expertise of accident investigation staff members should be reinforced and employers' and related institutions' obligations to cooperate and submit data should be specified under the law. The deliberation meetings of the CODJ are held separately for musculoskeletal, cerebro-cardiovascular, and medical diseases, and the judgments of ODs are made by the chairperson of COMWEL and six committee members by majority vote by issue. To reinforce the expertise of the members of the CODJ, periodic education and a system to accredit the committee members after appropriate education should be introduced. To fairly and quickly compensate for diseases that occur in workers, the criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases should be continuously amended and the systems for disease investigations and judgments should be continuously improved.
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Factors associated with polyp regression after intravitreal ranibizumab injections for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
Jpn. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To investigate the predictive factors of polyp regression after intravitreal ranibizumab injections for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
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Ginseng gintonin activates the human cardiac delayed rectifier K+ channel: involvement of Ca2+/calmodulin binding sites.
Mol. Cells
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Gintonin, a novel, ginseng-derived G protein-coupled lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) receptor ligand, elicits [Ca(2+)]i transients in neuronal and non-neuronal cells via pertussis toxin-sensitive and pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins. The slowly activating delayed rectifier K(+) (I(Ks)) channel is a cardiac K(+) channel composed of KCNQ1 and KCNE1 subunits. The C terminus of the KCNQ1 channel protein has two calmodulin-binding sites that are involved in regulating I(Ks) channels. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of gintonin-mediated activation of human I(Ks) channel activity by expressing human I(Ks) channels in Xenopus oocytes. We found that gintonin enhances IKs channel currents in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners. The EC50 for the I(Ks) channel was 0.05 ± 0.01 ?g/ml. Gintonin-mediated activation of the I(Ks) channels was blocked by an LPA1/3 receptor antagonist, an active phospholipase C inhibitor, an IP3 receptor antagonist, and the calcium chelator BAPTA. Gintonin-mediated activation of both the I(Ks) channel was also blocked by the calmodulin (CaM) blocker calmidazolium. Mutations in the KCNQ1 [Ca(2+)]i/CaM-binding IQ motif sites (S373P, W392R, or R539W)blocked the action of gintonin on I(Ks) channel. However, gintonin had no effect on hERG K(+) channel activity. These results show that gintonin-mediated enhancement of I(Ks) channel currents is achieved through binding of the [Ca(2+)]i/CaM complex to the C terminus of KCNQ1 subunit.
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Workers' compensation for occupational respiratory diseases.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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The respiratory system is one of the most important body systems particularly from the viewpoint of occupational medicine because it is the major route of occupational exposure. In 2013, there were significant changes in the specific criteria for the recognition of occupational diseases, which were established by the Enforcement Decree of the Industrial Accident Compensation Insurance Act (IACIA). In this article, the authors deal with the former criteria, implications of the revision, and changes in the specific criteria in Korea by focusing on the 2013 amendment to the IACIA. Before the 2013 amendment to the IACIA, occupational respiratory disease was not a category because the previous criteria were based on specific hazardous agents and their health effects. Workers as well as clinicians were not familiar with the agent-based criteria. To improve these criteria, a system-based structure was added. Through these changes, in the current criteria, 33 types of agents and 11 types of respiratory diseases are listed under diseases of the respiratory system. In the current criteria, there are no concrete guidelines for evaluating work-relatedness, such as estimating the exposure level, latent period, and detailed examination methods. The results of further studies can support the formulation of detailed criteria.
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Proper Timing of Adjuvant Chemotherapy Affects Survival in Patients with Stage 2 and 3 Gastric Cancer.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2014
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Adjuvant chemotherapy improves survival in patients with gastric cancer. However, the relationship between the timing of adjuvant chemotherapy and survival has not been investigated.
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel may modulate opioid reward.
Neuropsychopharmacology
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1), a nonselective cation channel, is a well-known pain-related receptor. TRPV1 involvement in morphine-induced antinociception, tolerance, and withdrawal symptoms has been previously reported. Emerging evidence indicates that TRPV1 may be related to both the cellular and behavioral effects of addictive drugs. In the present study, we investigated the role of TRPV1 in morphine reward using the conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in mice. Repeated morphine treatments upregulated TRPV1 expression in the dorsal striatum (DSt). Treatment with a TRPV1 agonist potentiated morphine reward, and pretreatment with TRPV1 antagonists attenuated these effects. Microinjection of a selective TRPV1 antagonist into the DSt significantly inhibited morphine-CPP. In addition, treatment with a TRPV1 antagonist suppressed morphine-induced increases in ?-opioid receptor binding, adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) expression in the DSt. Administering a p38 inhibitor not only prevented morphine-CPP, but also prevented morphine-induced NF-?B and TRPV1 activation in the DSt. Furthermore, injecting an NF-?B inhibitor significantly blocked morphine-CPP. Our findings suggest that TRPV1 in the DSt contribute to morphine reward via AC1, p38 MAPK, and NF-?B. Brain TRPV1 may serve as a novel therapeutic target to treat morphine-addictive disorders.
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Standardization of D2 lymphadenectomy and surgical quality control (KLASS-02-QC): a prospective, observational, multicenter study [NCT01283893].
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Extended systemic lymphadenectomy (D2) is standard procedure for surgical treatment of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) although less extensive lymphadenectomy (D1) can be applied to early gastric cancer. Complete D2 lymphadenectomy is the mandatory procedure for studies that evaluate surgical treatment results of AGC. However, the actual extent of D2 lymphadenectomy varies among surgeons because of a lacking consensus on the anatomical definition of each lymph node station. This study is aimed to develop a consensus for D2 lymphadenectomy and also to qualify surgeons that can perform both laparoscopic and open D2 gastrectomy.
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Comparison of perioperative surgical outcomes between a bipolar device and an ultrasonic device during laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The use of energy devices during laparoscopic gastrectomy for gastric cancer has increased as the frequency of laparoscopic surgery has increased. Our aim was to compare the perioperative surgical outcomes between using a bipolar device and an ultrasonic device during laparoscopic gastrectomy.
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Robotic spleen-preserving total gastrectomy for gastric cancer: comparison with conventional laparoscopic procedure.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Robotic systems recently have been introduced to overcome technical limitations of conventional laparoscopic surgery, especially for complex procedures. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving total gastrectomy with D2 lymph node (LN) dissection (LTGD2) is one of the most complicated procedures. We hypothesized that robotic LN dissection would be more thorough and accurate. We compared robotic spleen-preserving total gastrectomy with D2 LN dissection (RTGD2) with LTGD2 to investigate the impact of robotics.
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A prospective phase II trial of S-1 and cisplatin-based chemoradiotherapy for locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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S-1 is a novel oral fluoropyrimidine anticancer agent designed to enhance clinical efficacy, reduce gastrointestinal toxicity, and enhance radiotherapy effectiveness. A phase II trial was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of preoperative chemoradiation with S-1 and cisplatin in locoregionally advanced esophageal cancer.
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Minimally invasive surgery for remnant gastric cancer: a comparison with open surgery.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Completion total gastrectomy for remnant gastric cancer (RGC) is technically challenging, especially using the minimally invasive approach. Only a few small case series have reported the technical feasibility of completion total gastrectomy by minimally invasive surgery (MIS). The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of MIS and open surgery for RGC.
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A prospective Korean multicenter study for infectious complications in patients undergoing prostate surgery: risk factors and efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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This multicenter study was undertaken to determine the efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and identify the risk factors for infectious complications after prostate surgery in Korean patients. A total of 424 patients who underwent surgery of the prostate were reviewed. All patients underwent urinalysis and urine culture preoperatively and postoperatively. Efficacy of antibiotic prophylaxis and risk factors for infectious complications were investigated. Infectious complications were observed in 34.9% of all patients. Factors independently associated with infectious complications were diabetes mellitus (adjusted OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.09-3.65, P=0.025) and operation time (adjusted OR, 1.08; 95% CI, 1.03-1.13, P=0.004). Clinicians should be aware of the high risk of infectious complications in patients with diabetes and those who undergo a prolonged operation time. Neither the type nor duration of prophylactic antibiotics resulted in differences in infectious complications.
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The expression of PHO92 is regulated by Gcr1, and Pho92 is involved in glucose metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Curr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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Ydr374c (Pho92) contains a YTH domain in its C-terminal region and is a human YTHDF2 homologue. Previously, we reported that Pho92 regulates phosphate metabolism by regulating PHO4 mRNA stability. In this study, we found that growth of the ?pho92 strain on SG media was slower than that of the wild type and that PHO92 expression was up-regulated by non-fermentable carbon sources, such as ethanol and glycerol, but not by fermentable carbon sources. Furthermore, two conserved Gcr1-binding regions were identified in the upstream, untranslated region of PHO92. Gcr1 is an important factor involved in the coordinated regulation of glycolytic gene expression. Mutation of two Gcr1-binding sites of the PHO92 upstream region resulted in a growth defect on SD media. Finally, mutagenesis of the Gcr1-binding sites of the PHO92 upstream region and deletion of GCR1 resulted in up-regulation of PHO92, and this resulted from inhibition of PHO4 mRNA degradation. Based on these results, we suggest that Gcr1 regulates the expression of PHO92, and Pho92 is involved in glucose metabolism.
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Feasibility of a robot-assisted thoracoscopic lymphadenectomy along the recurrent laryngeal nerves in radical esophagectomy for esophageal squamous carcinoma.
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Lymph node dissection along bilateral recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLNs) is an essential component of radical esophagectomy for esophageal squamous carcinoma. However, it is associated with significant morbidity and requires a great deal of skill when performed with minimally invasive surgery.
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Differential effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Quercetin, a representative flavonoid, is a compound of low molecular weight found in various colored plants and vegetables. Quercetin shows a wide range of neuropharmacological activities. In fact, quercetin naturally exists as monomer-(quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside) (Rham1), dimer-(Rutin), or trimer-glycosides [quercetin-3-(2(G)-rhamnosylrutinoside)] (Rham2) at carbon-3 in fruits and vegetables. The carbohydrate components are removed after ingestion into gastrointestinal systems. The role of the glycosides attached to quercetin in the regulation of ?-aminobutyric acid class C (GABAC) receptor channel activity has not been determined. In the present study, we examined the effects of quercetin glycosides on GABAC receptor channel activity by expressing human GABAC alone in Xenopus oocytes using a two-electrode voltage clamp technique and also compared the effects of quercetin glycosides with quercetin. We found that GABA-induced inward current (I GABA ) was inhibited by quercetin or quercetin glycosides. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were concentration-dependent and reversible in the order of Rutin ? quercetin ? Rham 1 > Rham 2. The inhibitory effects of quercetin and its glycosides on I GABA were noncompetitive and membrane voltage-insensitive. These results indicate that quercetin and its glycosides regulate GABAC receptor channel activity through interaction with a different site from that of GABA, and that the number of carbohydrate attached to quercetin might play an important role in the regulation of GABAC receptor channel activity.
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The optimal endoscopic screening interval for detecting early gastric neoplasms.
Gastrointest. Endosc.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The optimal interval between endoscopic examinations for detecting early gastric neoplasms, including gastric adenomas, has not previously been studied.
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Ginsenoside Re rescues methamphetamine-induced oxidative damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, microglial activation, and dopaminergic degeneration by inhibiting the protein kinase C? gene.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Ginsenoside Re, one of the main constituents of Panax ginseng, possesses novel antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the pharmacological mechanism of ginsenoside Re in dopaminergic degeneration remains elusive. We suggested that protein kinase C (PKC) ? mediates methamphetamine (MA)-induced dopaminergic toxicity. Treatment with ginsenoside Re significantly attenuated methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration in vivo by inhibiting impaired enzymatic antioxidant systems, mitochondrial oxidative stress, mitochondrial translocation of protein kinase C?, mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-inflammatory microglial activation, and apoptosis. These protective effects were comparable to those observed with genetic inhibition of PKC? in PKC? knockout (-/-) mice and with PKC? antisense oligonucleotides, and ginsenoside Re did not provide any additional protective effects in the presence of PKC? inhibition. Our results suggest that PKC? is a critical target for ginsenoside Re-mediated protective activity in response to dopaminergic degeneration induced by MA.
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Effects of prostatic inflammation on LUTS and alpha blocker treatment outcomes.
Int Braz J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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To evaluate the association between prostatic inflammation and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), and to identify the effects of prostatic inflammation on the treatment with an alpha blocker.
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Evaluation of brain iron content in idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging.
Parkinsonism Relat. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Neuroimaging studies in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) show similar structural and functional changes to alpha-synucleinopathies, including PD. Until now, there have been few attempts to characterize brain iron deposition in iRBD. The aim of this study was to investigate brain iron content in patients with iRBD using quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
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YY162 prevents ADHD-like behavioral side effects and cytotoxicity induced by Aroclor1254 via interactive signaling between antioxidant potential, BDNF/TrkB, DAT and NET.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Methylphenidate (MP) has become the primary drug of choice for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, its psychotropic effects severely hamper long-term clinical use. We evaluated the effects of YY162, which consists of terpenoid-strengthened Ginkgo biloba and ginsenoside Rg3, on the ADHD-like condition induced by Aroclor1254, because both components have been suggested to modulate oxidative stress, dopaminergic neurotransmission, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling, which may be critical targets for understanding the pathogenesis of ADHD. YY162 attenuated the increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in BDNF levels induced by Aroclor1254 in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. YY162 significantly attenuated Aroclor1254-induced ADHD-like behavior and oxidative stress in ICR mice. Furthermore, YY162 attenuated reductions in p-TrkB, BDNF, dopamine transporter (DAT) and norepinephrine transporter (NET) expression. These attenuating effects of YY162 were comparable to those of MP. Importantly, K252a, a TrkB antagonist, counteracted the protective effects of YY162. Our results suggest that YY162 possesses significant protective activities against ADHD-like conditions with negligible behavioral side effects, and that interactive signaling between antioxidant potential and BDNF/TrkB receptor for the positive modulation of the DAT and NET is important for YY162-mediated neuroprotective activity.
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Distribution of secretory phospholipase A2 XIIA in the brain and its role in lipid metabolism and cognition.
Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Phospholipases A(2) (PLA(2)) catalyze the hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids to produce free fatty acids and lysophospholipids, which have important functions in cell signaling. The present study elucidated differential expression of PLA(2) isoforms in the rat cortex by quantitative reverse transcription PCR and demonstrated that sPLA(2)-XIIA had greater messenger RNA expression than iPLA(2)-VI or cPLA(2)-IVA in different brain regions, or compared to other sPLA(2) isoforms in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus. Western blots identified a 24-kDa band in different regions of the adult brain, and high levels of sPLA(2)-XIIA protein expression were detected in the PFC, striatum, and thalamus. Electron microscopy showed that sPLA(2)-XIIA is present in axon terminals and dendrites. Injection of antisense oligonucleotide to sPLA(2)-XIIA in the PFC and lipidomic analysis showed increase in phospholipid but decrease in lysophospholipid species consistent with decreased catalytic activity of the enzyme, changes in arachidonic acid release, and alterations in sphingolipids. sPLA(2)-XIIA knockdown also resulted in shorter latency timings in the passive avoidance test, and higher number of errors in the attention set-shifting task, indicating deficits in working memory and attention. Together, the results show an important role of sPLA(2)-XIIA in lipid metabolism, prefrontal cortical function, and cognition.
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Association between Voluntary/Involuntary Job Loss and the Development of Stroke or Cardiovascular Disease: A Prospective Study of Middle-Aged to Older Workers in a Rapidly Developing Asian Country.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The aim of this research was to investigate the association between job loss and the development of stroke or cardiovascular disease among middle-aged to older individuals in Korea. We also examined how this relationship was modified by gender and the nature of the job loss.
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Separate groups of dopamine neurons innervate caudate head and tail encoding flexible and stable value memories.
Front Neuroanat
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Dopamine (DA) neurons are thought to be critical for reward value-based learning by modifying synaptic transmissions in the striatum. Yet, different regions of the striatum seem to guide different kinds of learning. Do DA neurons contribute to the regional differences of the striatum in learning? As a first step to answer this question, we examined whether the head and tail of the caudate nucleus of the monkey (Macaca mulatta) receive inputs from the same or different DA neurons. We chose these caudate regions because we previously showed that caudate head neurons learn values of visual objects quickly and flexibly, whereas caudate tail neurons learn object values slowly but retain them stably. Here we confirmed the functional difference by recording single neuronal activity while the monkey performed the flexible and stable value tasks, and then injected retrograde tracers in the functional domains of caudate head and tail. The projecting dopaminergic neurons were identified using tyrosine hydroxylase immunohistochemistry. We found that two groups of DA neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta project largely separately to the caudate head and tail. These groups of DA neurons were mostly separated topographically: head-projecting neurons were located in the rostral-ventral-medial region, while tail-projecting neurons were located in the caudal-dorsal-lateral regions of the substantia nigra. Furthermore, they showed different morphological features: tail-projecting neurons were larger and less circular than head-projecting neurons. Our data raise the possibility that different groups of DA neurons selectively guide learning of flexible (short-term) and stable (long-term) memories of object values.
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Serum uric Acid and nigral iron deposition in Parkinson's disease: a pilot study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Uric acid (UA) is an endogenous antioxidant which is known to reduce oxidative stress and also chelate iron ion. Recent studies have provided evidence that UA may play a neuroprotective role in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, it is unknown whether UA relates to nigral iron deposition, which is a characteristic pathophysiological alteration in PD. The aim of this study was to determine the potential relationship of these two markers in patients with PD.
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Association between Blood Cadmium Levels and 10-Year Coronary Heart Disease Risk in the General Korean Population: The Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2008-2010.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Non-occupational heavy metals are considered risk factors for coronary heart disease (CHD). Several recent epidemiologic studies have evaluated the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study was designed to investigate the relationship between non-occupational cadmium exposure and risk factors for CHD using the Framingham estimate of 10 year CHD risk.
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Anti-tumoral effect of the mitochondrial target domain of Noxa delivered by an engineered Salmonella typhimurium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bacterial cancer therapy relies on the fact that several bacterial species are capable of targeting tumor tissue and that bacteria can be genetically engineered to selectively deliver therapeutic proteins of interest to the targeted tumors. However, the challenge of bacterial cancer therapy is the release of the therapeutic proteins from the bacteria and entry of the proteins into tumor cells. This study employed an attenuated Salmonella typhimurium to selectively deliver the mitochondrial targeting domain of Noxa (MTD) as a potential therapeutic cargo protein, and examined its anti-cancer effect. To release MTD from the bacteria, a novel bacterial lysis system of phage origin was deployed. To facilitate the entry of MTD into the tumor cells, the MTD was fused to DS4.3, a novel cell-penetrating peptide (CPP) derived from a voltage-gated potassium channel (Kv2.1). The gene encoding DS4.3-MTD and the phage lysis genes were placed under the control of PBAD , a promoter activated by L-arabinose. We demonstrated that DS4.3-MTD chimeric molecules expressed by the Salmonellae were anti-tumoral in cultured tumor cells and in mice with CT26 colon carcinoma.
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Anatomic Extent of Metastatic Lymph Nodes: Still Important for Gastric Cancer Prognosis.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
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Currently, gastric cancer staging systems do not consider the anatomic extent of metastatic lymph nodes (mLNs) as a prognostic factor. We therefore investigated the prognostic impact of the anatomic extent of mLNs on gastric cancer.
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Work-related Risk Factors for Workplace Violence among Korean Employees.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2013
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to identify work-related risk factors for workplace violence in a representative sample of Korean employees. Methods: We analyzed the associations between work-related factors and workplace violence in 29,171 employees using data from the 2011 Korean Working Conditions Survey. The survey included questions about verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention, threats and behavior that humiliated the victim, physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment, and a respondent who answered yes to any of these 6 items was considered a victim of workplace violence. Results: The prevalences of verbal abuse, unwanted sexual attention and threats/behavior that humiliated victims in the month preceding the study were 4.8%, 1.0% and 1.5%, respectively. The prevalences of physical violence, bullying/harassment and sexual harassment in the year preceding the study were 0.7%, 0.3% and 0.4%, respectively. Service workers had higher prevalences of overall workplace violence. Non-regular workers (OR=2.38, 95% CI=2.01-2.84), working more than 60 hours per week as opposed to 40-48 hours per week (OR=1.83, 95% CI=1.45-2.31) and night shift work (OR=1.88, 95% CI=1.54-2.30) were significant risk factors associated with workplace violence. Conclusions: Long working hours, job insecurity and night shift work were associated with a significant increase in workplace violence among Korean employees.
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Vitamin B(12) deficiency after gastrectomy for gastric cancer: an analysis of clinical patterns and risk factors.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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To identify risk factors for postgastrectomy vitamin B12 deficiency and the time course of its development.
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Effect of morphology of electrodeposited Ni catalysts on the behavior of bubbles generated during the oxygen evolution reaction in alkaline water electrolysis.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2013
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We have investigated the release of active sites blocked by bubbles attached on the surface of catalysts during the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in alkaline water electrolysis, via the modulation of the wetting properties of the four different morphologies of a nickel catalyst.
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Working Hours and Cardiovascular Disease in Korean Workers: A Case-control Study.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2013
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Objectives: Long working hours can negatively impact a workers health. The objective of this study was to examine the association between working hours and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and compare the degree of risk based on CVD subtypes in Korean workers. Methods: This study was a case-control study of the patients registered in the Occupational Cardiovascular Diseases Surveillance 2010. The cases included 348 patients diagnosed with a CVD (123 cerebral infarction, 69 intracerebral hemorrhage, 57 subarachnoid hemorrhage, 99 acute myocardial infarction). Controls were 769 participants with no history of CVDs matched for gender, age, type of occupation, and region. Participants working hours in the previous week and the average working hours over the past three months were assessed to examine short-term and long-term effects. Results: After adjusting for confounding factors, the odds ratios (ORs) for CVDs in the short-term were 2.66 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 1.78-3.99) for working ?40 hours, 1.85 (95% CI: 1.22-2.81) for working 50.1-60 hours and 4.23 (95% CI: 2.81-6.39) for working >60 hours compared with the 40.1-50-hour working group. The ORs in the long-term were 2.90 (95% CI: 1.86-4.52) for working ?40 hours, 1.73 (95% CI: 1.03-2.90) for working 48.1-52 hours and 3.46 (95% CI: 2.38-5.03) for working >52 hours compared with the 40.1-48-hour working group. Conclusion: Long working hours are related to an increased risk of CVDs, and the degree of risk differs based on CVD subtype. Short working hours are also related to an increased risk for CVDs. More prospective studies targeting specific disease risks are required.
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A monoclonal antibody against human MUDENG protein.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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MUDENG (mu-2-related death-inducing gene, MuD) encodes a predicted ?54-kDa protein in humans, considered to be involved in trafficking proteins from endosomes toward other membranous compartments as well as in inducing cell death. Here we report on the generation of a mouse monoclonal antibody (MAb) against the middle domain of human (h) MuD. This IgG sub 1 MAb, named M3H9, recognizes residues 244-326 in the middle domain of the MuD protein. Thus, the MuD proteins expressed in an astroglioma cell line and primary astrocytes can be detected by the M3H9 MAb. We showed that M3H9 MAb can be useful in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and immunoblot experiments. In addition, M3H9 MAb can detect the expression of the MuD protein in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded mouse ovary and uterus tissues. These results indicate that the MuD MAb M3H9 could be useful as a new biomarker of hereditary spastic paraplegia and other related diseases.
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Long Work Hours and Obesity in Korean Adult Workers.
J Occup Health
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Objectives: The present study was designed to identify the association between work hours and obesity in Korean adult manual and nonmanual workers, and to determine whether there is a gender difference in this association. Methods: The study was conducted using Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected between 2007 and 2010. Individuals aged below 25 or over 64 years, pregnant women, part-time workers, soldiers, housewives and students were excluded. The total number of individuals included in the analysis was 8,889 (5,241 male and 3,648 female subjects). The outcome variable was obesity, defined as body mass index ?25 kg/m(2). Variables considered in the model were age, education, income, marital status, alcohol drinking, smoking, daily energy intake, physical activity, sleep hours per day, the type of job, work hours, and work schedule. Work hours were categorized as <40, 40-48 (reference), 49-60, and >60 hours per week. Results: In the multiple SURVEYLOGISTIC regression analyses, the adjusted odds ratio of obesity for long work hours (>60 hours per week) in male manual workers was 1.647 (95% confidence interval 1.262-2.151). Long work hours did not significantly increase the odds ratio for obesity in male nonmanual workers and female manual and nonmanual workers. Conclusions: More than 60 work hours per week increased the risk of obesity in Korean male manual workers. This result might be helpful in preventing obesity in Korean adult workers, especially male manual workers.
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Reward value-contingent changes of visual responses in the primate caudate tail associated with a visuomotor skill.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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A goal-directed action aiming at an incentive outcome, if repeated, becomes a skill that may be initiated automatically. We now report that the tail of the caudate nucleus (CDt) may serve to control a visuomotor skill. Monkeys looked at many fractal objects, half of which were always associated with a large reward (high-valued objects) and the other half with a small reward (low-valued objects). After several daily sessions, they developed a gaze bias, looking at high-valued objects even when no reward was associated. CDt neurons developed a response bias, typically showing stronger responses to high-valued objects. In contrast, their responses showed no change when object values were reversed frequently, although monkeys showed a strong gaze bias, looking at high-valued objects in a goal-directed manner. The biased activity of CDt neurons may be transmitted to the oculomotor region so that animals can choose high-valued objects automatically based on stable reward experiences.
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Distinct basal ganglia circuits controlling behaviors guided by flexible and stable values.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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Choosing valuable objects is critical for survival, but their values may change flexibly or remain stable. Therefore, animals should be able to update the object values flexibly by recent experiences and retain them stably by long-term experiences. However, it is unclear how the brain encodes the two conflicting forms of values and controls behavior accordingly. We found that distinct circuits of the primate caudate nucleus control behavior selectively in the flexible and stable value conditions. Single caudate neurons encoded the values of visual objects in a regionally distinct manner: flexible value coding in the caudate head and stable value coding in the caudate tail. Monkeys adapted in both conditions by looking at objects with higher values. Importantly, inactivation of each caudate subregion disrupted the high-low value discrimination selectively in the flexible or stable context. This parallel complementary mechanism enables animals to choose valuable objects in both flexible and stable conditions.
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Why skill matters.
Trends Cogn. Sci. (Regul. Ed.)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Maximizing rewards per unit time is ideal for success and survival in humans and animals. This goal can be approached by speeding up behavior aiming at rewards and this is done most efficiently by acquiring skills. Importantly, reward-directed skills consist of two components: finding a good object (i.e., object skill) and acting on the object (i.e., action skill), which occur sequentially. Recent studies suggest that object skill is based on high-capacity memory for object-value associations. When a learned object is encountered the corresponding memory is quickly expressed as a value-based gaze bias, leading to the automatic acquisition or avoidance of the object. Object skill thus plays a crucial role in increasing rewards per unit time.
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Evaluation of cognitive behaviors in young offspring of C57BL/6J mice after gestational nicotine exposure during different time-windows.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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Gestational nicotine exposure is associated with cognitive abnormalities in young offspring. However, practical strategies for prevention or treatment of impaired cognitive behaviors of offspring are not available due to the lack of systematic investigation of underlying mechanism. Therefore, this study aimed at examining the effects of gestational and/or perinatal nicotine exposure (GPNE) on cognitive behaviors in offspring of C57BL/6J mice to provide systematic behavioral data. Pregnant mice were exposed to nicotine via sweetened drinking water during six time-windows, including gestational day 0 to day 13 (G0-G13), G14-postnatal day 0 (P0), G0-P0, G14-P7, G0-P7, and P0-P7. During P42-P56 days, both male and female offspring were given a battery of behavioral tests. Depending on the time of exposure, GPNE impaired working memory, object-based attention, and prepulse inhibition in male and female offspring to different extents. Nicotine exposure during G14-P0 also decreased norepinephrine turnover in the prefrontal cortex on P28 and P56. Overall results indicate that nicotine exposure during any time-windows of development impairs cognitive behaviors in offspring, and suggest that certain time-windows, e.g., G14-P0, should be selected for further studies on the underlying neurochemical or molecular mechanisms.
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Pathologic and oncologic outcomes in locally advanced gastric cancer with neoadjuvant chemotherapy or chemoradiotherapy.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Although neoadjuvant therapy has been accepted as a treatment option in locally-advanced gastric cancer, its prognostic value has been difficult to evaluate.
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Performance of Anyplex™ II multiplex real-time PCR for the diagnosis of seven sexually transmitted infections: comparison with currently available methods.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The real-time PCR assay is the most sensitive test for screening and diagnosing sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and has made diagnosing these infections easier for clinicians. The aim of this study was to investigate the reliability, accuracy, and usefulness of the real-time multiplex PCR assay for the detection of seven sexually transmitted microorganisms in clinical samples.
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Nobiletin, a citrus flavonoid, ameliorates cognitive impairment, oxidative burden, and hyperphosphorylation of tau in senescence-accelerated mouse.
Behav. Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) is a model of aging characterized by the early onset of learning and memory impairment and various pathological features of Alzheimers disease (AD). Our recent studies have demonstrated that nobiletin, a polymethoxylated flavone from citrus peels, ameliorates learning and memory impairment in olfactory-bulbectomized mice, amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice, and NMDA receptor antagonist-treated mice. Here, we present evidence that this natural compound improves age-related cognitive impairment and reduces oxidative stress and tau phosphorylation in SAMP8 mice. Treatment with nobiletin (10 or 50mg/kg) reversed the impairment of recognition memory and context-dependent fear memory in SAMP8 mice. Treatment with nobiletin also restored the decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio in the brain of SAMP8 mice. In addition, increases in glutathione peroxidase and manganese-superoxide dismutase activities, as well as a decrease in protein carbonyl level, were observed in the brain of nobiletin-treated SAMP8 mice. Furthermore, nobiletin reduced tau phosphorylation in the hippocampus of SAMP8 mice. Together, the markedly beneficial effects of nobiletin represent a potentially useful treatment for ameliorating the learning and memory deficits, oxidative stress, and hyperphosphorylation of tau in aging as well as age-related neurodegenerative diseases such as AD.
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Effects of ginsenoside Rg3 on ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents.
Biol. Pharm. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Ginsenosides is a low molecular weight substance found in ginseng as one of the active ingredients. Ginsenosides, like other herbal medicines, has a wide range of neuropharmacological actions including neuroprotective effects. The ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is one of numerous nicotinic acetylcholine receptors that exists as a heteropentameric form in auditory hair cells of the cochlea. In this study, we report the effects of ginsenosides on rat ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-mediated ion currents using the two-electrode voltage clamp technique. Treatment with acetylcholine evoked inward currents (IACh) in oocytes heterologously expressing the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. Ginsenosides blocked IACh in order of potency of Rg3> Rb2> CK>Re = Rg2> Rf>Rc> Rb1> Rg1 with reversible manners, and the blocking effect of Rg3 on IACh was same after pre-application than co-application of Rg3. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of Rg3 was 39.6 ± 4.9 µm. Rg3-induced IACh inhibition was not affected by acetylcholine concentration and was independent of membrane holding potential. Although the inhibitory effect of Rg3 on IACh was abolished in oocytes expressing ?9 subunit alone, indicating that the presence of ?10 subunit might be required for Rg3-induced regulations of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor channel activity. These results indicate that ?10 subunit of ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor might play an important role in Rg3-induced regulation of the ?9?10 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.
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Minimal killing unit of the mitochondrial targeting domain of Noxa.
J. Pept. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Noxa is a key player in p53-induced cell death via mitochondrial dysfunction, and the mitochondrial-targeting domain (MTD) of Noxa is responsible for the translocation of Noxa to mitochondria and for the induction of necrotic cell death. The purpose of this study was to define the minimal killing unit of MTD in vitro and in vivo. It was found that the peptides R8:MTD(10), R8:MTD(9), and R8:MTD(8) can kill various human tumor cells (HCT116, HeLa, MCF-7, BJAB), but that R8:MTD(7) abolishes the killing activity of MTD mainly because of the loss of mitochondrial targeting activity. We find it interesting that R8:MTD(8) was found to kill tumor cells but showed a limited killing activity on normal peritoneal macrophages. Furthermore, R8:MTD(10), R8:MTD(9), and R8:MTD(8) limitedly suppressed tumor growth when injected i.v. into BalB/C mice bearing CT26 cell-derived tumors. These results indicate that MTD(8) is the minimal killing unit of MTD.
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MUDENG is cleaved by caspase-3 during TRAIL-induced cell death.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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MUDENG, also known as AP5M1, was originally identified as an adaptin domain-containing gene that induced cell death in lymphoma cell lines. However, little is known of the mechanism responsible for MUDENG-mediated cell death. In this study, we investigated MUDENG changes during TRAIL-induced cell death. We found that MUDENG is rapidly processed in response to TRAIL in Jurkat and BJAB cells with time line similar to that of caspase activation. Caspase-3-mediated MUDENG cleavage was confirmed by an in vitro cleavage assay using recombinant active caspase proteins. Caspase cleavage sites (D276 and D290) were located in the adaptin domain of MUDENG, and cleaved MUDENG showed the reduced killing activity. These results suggest that the adaptin domain plays a key role in MUDENG-mediated cell death.
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Self-expanding metal stents or nonstent endoscopic therapy: which is better for anastomotic leaks after total gastrectomy?
Surg Endosc
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Anastomotic leaks are a life-threatening complication of gastrectomies with high mortality after surgical reintervention. Endoscopic therapy using fibrin glue injection, endoclip, and other devices is an alternative to surgical intervention for anastomotic leaks. Recently, self-expanding metal stents (SEMS) were introduced to treat anastomotic leaks. The purpose of this study was to assess the clinical characteristics and therapeutic outcomes of SEMS and nonstent endoscopic therapy (NSET) for treatment of anastomotic leaks after total gastrectomy with the aim of assisting endoscopists in choosing a treatment method.
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Platelet-activating factor receptor knockout mice are protected from MPTP-induced dopaminergic degeneration.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
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Platelet-activating factor (PAF), a potent mediator of inflammatory and immune responses, plays various roles in neuronal functions. However, little is known about the role of PAF/platelet-activating factor receptor (PAF-R) in Parkinsons disease. Treatment with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) resulted in significant increases in PAF species in the striatum of wild-type mice. These increases paralleled PAF-R gene expression in wild-type mice. Although nuclear factor kappa B (NF-?B) DNA-binding activity was increased significantly in MPTP-treated wild-type mice, this increase was not significant in PAF-R antagonist ginkgolide B (GB)-treated mice or PAF-R knockout (PAF-R(-/-)) mice. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC), an NF-?B inhibitor, significantly ameliorated the dopaminergic deficits induced by MPTP in wild-type mice. MPTP treatment significantly increased oxidative damage, the immunoreactivity of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1 (Iba-1)-positive microglial cells, and microglial differentiation of the M1 type in the striatum of wild-type mice. Consistently, PDTC significantly attenuated MPTP-induced behavioral impairments in wild-type mice. However, dopaminergic deficits, oxidative damage, reactive microglial cells, and behavioral impairments induced by MPTP were not significantly observed in GB-treated mice or PAF-R(-/-) mice. PDTC did not significantly alter the attenuations evident in MPTP-treated PAF-R(-/-) mice, indicating that NF-?B is a critical target for neurotoxic modulation of PAF-R. We propose for the first time that PAF/PAF-R can mediate dopaminergic degeneration via an NF-?B-dependent signaling process.
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Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor monotherapy in the treatment of submacular hemorrhage secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2013
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To evaluate the effect of intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections on submacular hemorrhage secondary to polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
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Transurethral procedures for lower urinary tract symptoms resulting from benign prostatic enlargement: a quality and meta-analysis.
Int Neurourol J
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Thanks to advancements in surgical techniques and instruments, many surgical modalities have been developed to replace transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). However, TURP remains the gold standard for the surgical treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). We conducted a meta-analysis on the efficacy and safety of minimally invasive surgical therapies for BPH compared with TURP.
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Involvement of small GTPase RhoA in the regulation of superoxide production in BV2 cells in response to fibrillar A? peptides.
Cell. Signal.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Fibrillar amyloid-beta (fA?) peptide causes neuronal cell death, which is known as Alzheimers disease. One of the mechanisms for neuronal cell death is the activation of microglia which releases toxic compounds like reactive oxygen species (ROS) in response to fA?. We observed that fA? rather than soluble form blocked BV2 cell proliferation of microglial cell line BV2, while N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of superoxide, prevented the cells from death, suggesting that cell death is induced by ROS. Indeed, both fA?1-42 and fA?25-35 induced superoxide production in BV2 cells. fA?25-35 produced superoxide, although fA?25-35 is not phagocytosed into BV2 cells. Thus, superoxide production by fA? does not seem to be dependent on phagocytosis of fA?. Herein we studied how fA? produces superoxide in BV2. Transfection of dominant negative (DN) RhoA (N19) cDNA plasmid, small hairpin (sh)-RhoA forming plasmid, and Y27632, an inhibitor of Rho-kinase, abrogated the superoxide formation in BV2 cells stimulated by fA?. Furthermore, fA? elevated GTP-RhoA level as well as Rac1 and Cdc42. Tat-C3 toxin, sh-RhoA, and Y27632 inhibited the phosphorylation of p47(PHOX). Moreover, peritoneal macrophages from p47(PHOX) (-/-) knockout mouse could not produce superoxide in response to fA?. These results suggest that RhoA closely engages in the regulation of superoxide production induced by fA? through phosphorylation of p47(PHOX) in microglial BV2 cells.
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Effects of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability on anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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To evaluate the effect of choroidal vascular hyperpermeability, as determined using indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), on the outcome of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) treatment for polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.