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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Discovery and Characterization of the Tuberculosis Drug Lead Ecumicin.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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The new tuberculosis (TB) lead ecumicin (1), a cyclic tridecapeptide, was isolated from Nonomuraea sp. MJM5123, following a high-throughput campaign for anti-TB activity. The large molecular weight of 1599 amu detected by LC-HR-MS precluded the initial inference of its molecular formula. The individual building blocks were identified by extensive NMR experiments. The resulting two possible planar structures were distinguished by LC-MS(2). Determination of absolute configuration and unambiguous structural confirmation were carried out by X-ray crystallography and Marfey's analysis.
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Incorporation of human growth hormone-2 into proteoliposome enhances tissue regeneration with antioxidant and anti-senescence activities.
Rejuvenation Res
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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Human growth hormone-2 (GH-2) is a 191-amino acid protein also known as human placental hormone. During pregnancy, continuous secretion of GH-2 appears to have important implications for physiological adjustment to gestation, especially in controlling levels of maternal insulin-like growth factor 1. To compare the physiological activity of GH-2 between lipid-free and lipid-bound states, GH-2 was expressed and incorporated into proteoliposome. GH-2 was expressed and purified using pET28(a)-GH-2 vector in an E. coli system. Purified GH-2 was then characterized and synthesized into rHDL. Expression yield of GH-2 was 20-30 mg by BL21 (DE3) cells in 1 L of LB broth. Purified GH-2 of at least 98% purity (23 kDa) was incorporated into reconstituted high-density lipoprotein (rHDL) with human apolipoprotein (apo)A-I and 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) at a 1:1:95 (GH-2:apoA-I:POPC) molar ratio. Structural analysis revealed that GH-2 had 44% ?-helix content and a wavelength maximum fluorescence (WMF) of 349 nm in a lipid-free state. In a lipid-bound state, WMF of GH-2 was around 4 nm blue-shifted (345 nm) with 50% of ?-helix content. The lipid-bound GH-2 showed enhanced anti-atherosclerotic activity and anti-senescence activity with inhibition of fructose mediated glycation. Fin regeneration experiment using zebrafish (17-weeks-old, n=9) showed that lipid-bound GH-2 enhanced regeneration efficiency by 44% compared to native GH-2 (in lipid-free state) without any notable side effects. GH-2 has antioxidant activity to enhance tissue regeneration as well as to exert anti-diabetic activity. Incorporation of GH-2 into rHDL can enhance structural stability and tissue regeneration efficiency in vertebrate models, indicating a synergetic effect between GH-2 and apoA-I in rHDL.
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Extracorporeal Life Support as a Bridge to Heart Transplantation: Importance of Organ Failure in Recipient Selection.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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We investigated the utility of comprehensive scoring systems for organ failure compared with the duration of extracorporeal life support (ECLS) in predicting survival after heart transplantation. From November 2004 to August 2013, 25 adult patients ultimately underwent heart transplantation while on ECLS. We did not include patients who were younger than 18 years old or patients with extracorporeal ventricular assist devices. Seven patients (28%) died within one year after transplantation. The areas under the curve (optimal cutoff value) of the sequential organ-failure assessment (SOFA) and the model for end-stage liver disease score modified by the United Network for Organ Sharing (MELD UNOS) scores were 0.794 (13) and 0.825 (24), respectively. In multivariate analysis, the MELD UNOS score may be independently prognostic regardless of the duration of ECLS and SOFA score.
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Off-hour effect on 3-month functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke: a prospective multicenter registry.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The time of hospital arrival may have an effect on prognosis of various vascular diseases. We examined whether off-hour admission would affect the 3-month functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke patients admitted to tertiary hospitals.
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Liposomal melatonin rescues methamphetamine-elicited mitochondrial burdens, proapoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration through the inhibition PKC? gene.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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We have demonstrated that mitochondrial oxidative damage and PKC? overexpression contribute to methamphetamine-induced dopaminergic degeneration. Although it is recognized that antioxidant melatonin is effective in preventing neurotoxicity induced by methamphetamine, its precise mechanism remains elusive. C57BL/6J wild type mice exhibited a similar degree of dopaminergic deficit when methamphetamine was administered during light and dark phases. Furthermore, dopaminergic neuroprotection by genetic inhibition of PKC? during the light phase was comparable to that during the dark phase. Thus, we have focused on the light phase in order to examine whether melatonin modulates PKC?-mediated neurotoxic signaling after multiple high doses of methamphetamine. To enhance the bioavailability of melatonin, we applied liposomal melatonin. Treatment with methamphetamine resulted in hyperthermia, mitochondrial translocation of PKC?, oxidative damage (mitochondria > cytosol), mitochondrial dysfunction, pro-apoptotic changes, ultrastructural mitochondrial degeneration, dopaminergic degeneration, and behavioral impairment in wild type mice. Treatment with liposomal melatonin resulted in a dose-dependent attenuation against degenerative changes induced by methamphetamine in wild type mice. Attenuation by liposomal melatonin might be comparable to that by genetic inhibition (using PKC?((-/-)) mice or PKC? antisense oligonucleotide). However, liposomal melatonin did not show any additional protective effects on the attenuation by genetic inhibition of PKC?. Our results suggest that the circadian cycle cannot be a key factor in modulating methamphetamine toxicity under the current experimental condition, and that PKC? is one of the critical target genes for melatonin-mediated protective effects against mitochondrial burdens (dysfunction), oxidative stress, pro-apoptosis, and dopaminergic degeneration induced by methamphetamine. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Modified High-Density Lipoproteins by Artificial Sweetener, Aspartame, and Saccharin, Showed Loss of Anti-atherosclerotic Activity and Toxicity in Zebrafish.
Cardiovasc. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.
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Nanocomplexes based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid derivative and polyethylene glycol-lipid for ginsenoside rg3 delivery.
J Pharm Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Hybrid nanocomplex formulations, based on amphiphilic hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) and lipids, were fabricated for the delivery of 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg 3 [(S)-Rg3]. Nanocomplexes with less than 200 nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, spherical shape, and negative zeta potential were prepared. The maintenance of the structural stability of the hybrid nanocomplexes in the blood stream was demonstrated by measuring their particle size in serum. Nanocomplexes based on HACE, phosphatidylcholine (PC), and 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[methoxy(polyethyleneglycol)-2000] (DSPE-PEG) showed a sustained drug release profile compared with other formulations. Blank nanocomplexes exhibited negligible cytotoxicity within the tested concentration range in A549 human lung adenocarcinoma cells. The cellular uptake efficiency of hybrid nanocomplexes was improved compared with the HACE-based nanoparticles probably because of interactions between lipids and the cellular membrane. The results of a pharmacokinetic study in rats revealed decreased in vivo clearance of (S)-Rg3, especially in the HACE/PC/DSPE-PEG-based hybrid nanocomplex (F3) group. The hybrid nanostructure and the outer PEG chain likely contributed to improve in vivo performance of the F3 group. Thus, these developed hybrid nanocomplexes could serve as good candidates for tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer agents.
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Transfromation of percutaneous extracorporeal life support to paracorporeal ventricular assist device: a case report.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Percutaneous extracorporeal life support (P-ECLS) is a useful modality for the management of refractory cardiac or pulmonary failure. However, venoarterial P-ECLS may result in a complication of left ventricular distension. In this case report, we discuss a patient with drug-induced dilated cardiomyopathy managed with venoarterial P-ECLS and a left atrial vent catheter. The venoarterial P-ECLS was modified to a paracorporeal left ventricular assist device (LVAD) by removing the femoral venous cannula. After 28 days of hospitalization, the patient was successfully weaned from the paracorporeal LVAD and discharged home from the hospital.
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Acute kidney injury after using contrast during cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Acute kidney injury (AKI) is closely associated with the mortality of hospitalized patients and long-term development of chronic kidney disease, especially in children. The purpose of our study was to assess the evidence of contrast-induced AKI after cardiac catheterization in children with heart disease and evaluate the clinical usefulness of candidate biomarkers in AKI. A total of 26 children undergoing cardiac catheterization due to various heart diseases were selected and urine and blood samples were taken at 0 hr, 6 hr, 24 hr, and 48 hr after cardiac catheterization. Until 48 hr after cardiac catheterization, there was no significant increase in serum creatinine level in all patients. Unlike urine kidney injury molecule-1, IL-18 and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, urine liver-type fatty acid-binding protein (L-FABP) level showed biphasic pattern and the significant difference in the levels of urine L-FABP between 24 and 48 hr. We suggest that urine L-FABP can be one of the useful biomarkers to detect subclinical AKI developed by the contrast before cardiac surgery.
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Changes in graft thickness after skull defect reconstruction with autogenous split calvarial bone graft.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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The ideal material for primary reconstruction of skull defect would be the autogenous bone. However, the long-term evaluation regarding the change in bone graft thickness has not been reported. In this article, we analyzed the thickness changes of the graft according to the time period. Between March 2005 and February 2011, a total of 29 patients underwent skull reconstruction with autogenous split calvarial bone grafts. After applying exclusion criteria, computed tomographic (CT) images of 15 patients were analyzed. The donor bone was harvested in full thickness as 1 piece and then as split. One half of the bone plate was transferred to the defect site; the other half, to the donor site. Both halves were fixed with titanium plates. To compare graft thickness changes, immediate postoperative and follow-up CT scans were analyzed by a single researcher. An anatomic reference was appointed for each patient, and the thickness of the graft on the same level was measured on time-series CT images. Collected data were analyzed with a polynomial random coefficient model. The main causes of the skull defects were trauma and tumor excision. In all cases, the graft thickness was not decreased but even increased in both the donor and recipient sites. The mean graft thicknesses between 6 months and 1 year after the surgery as well as those between 2 and 3 years after the surgery were 1.24-times and 1.56-times thicker than the immediate postoperative thickness, respectively. Graft thickness turned out to be either maintained or increased over time.
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An alternative surgical technique for repair of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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For the surgical management of anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA), there have been various techniques that reduce the tension and kinking of the coronary artery during reimplantation to the aorta. The aim of this study is to describe the results of our modified technique of coronary reimplantation for the treatment of ALCAPA.
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Treatment and Outcomes for Gangliogliomas: A Single-Center Review of 16 Patients.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Ganglioglioma is a rare and slowly growing benign tumor. We investigated the outcomes of patients who underwent different combination treatments.
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Dysfunctional lipoproteins from young smokers exacerbate cellular senescence and atherogenesis with smaller particle size and severe oxidation and glycation.
Toxicol. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Until now, there has been limited information on the effects of smoking on atherogenesis and senescence in the context of lipoprotein parameters, particularly in young smokers who have smoked fewer than 10 cigarettes per day for 3 years. In this study, lipoprotein profiles and functions were compared between smoker (n = 21) and control groups (n = 20). In the smoking group, ferric ion reduction abilities of serum and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) fractions were significantly reduced, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was severely oxidized. All lipoprotein particles from the smoker group showed higher advanced glycated end products with more triglyceride (TG) content compared with the control group. Lipoproteins from smokers showed faster agarose gel electromobility as well as greater smear band intensity in SDS-PAGE due to oxidation and glycation. LDL from smokers was more sensitive to oxidation and promoted foam cell forma-tion in macrophages. Gel filtration column chromatography revealed that the protein and cholesterol peaks of VLDL and LDL were elevated in the smoker group, whereas those of HDL were reduced. Human dermal fibroblast cells from the smoker group showed severe senescence following treatment with HDL2 and HDL3. Although HDL from young smokers showed impaired antioxidant ability, smaller particle size, and increased TG content, cholesteryl ester transfer protein activities were greatly enhanced in the serum and HDL fractions of the smoker group. In conclusion, smoking can cause production of dysfunctional lipoproteins having a smaller particle size that exacerbate senescence and atherogenic progress due to oxidation and glycation.
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Effects of Flavonoid Compounds on ?-amyloid-peptide-induced Neuronal Death in Cultured Mouse Cortical Neurons.
Chonnam Med J
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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Excessive accumulation of ?-amyloid peptide (A?) is one of the major mechanisms responsible for neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease. Flavonoids, primarily antioxidants, are a group of polyphenolic compounds synthesized in plant cells. The present study aimed to identify flavonoid compounds that could inhibit A?-induced neuronal death by examining the effects of various flavonoids on the neurotoxicity of A? fragment 25-35 (A?25-35) in mouse cortical cultures. A?25-35 induced concentration- and exposure-time-dependent neuronal death. Neuronal death induced by 20 µM A?25-35 was significantly inhibited by treatment with either Trolox or ascorbic acid. Among 10 flavonoid compounds tested [apigenin, baicalein, catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin, quercetin, and rutin], all except apigenin showed strong 1,1-diphenyl-2-pycrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity under cell-free conditions. The flavonoid compounds except apigenin at a concentration of 30 µM also significantly inhibited neuronal death induced by 20 µM A?25-35 at the end of 24 hours of exposure. Epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin showed more potent and persistent neuroprotective action than did the other compounds. These results demonstrated that oxidative stress was involved in A?-induced neuronal death, and antioxidative flavonoid compounds, especially epicatechin, EGCG, luteolin, and myricetin, could inhibit neuronal death. These findings suggest that these four compounds may be developed as neuroprotective agents against Alzheimer's disease.
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A Suggestion of Modified Classification of Trigeminal Schwannomas According to Location, Shape, and Extension.
Brain Tumor Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Comprehensive knowledge of the anatomical features of trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) is essential in planning surgery to achieve complete tumor resection. In the current report, we propose a modified classification of TSs according to their location of origin, shape, and extension into the adjacent compartment, and discuss appropriate surgical strategies with this classification.
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Surgery for partial anomalous pulmonary venous connections: modification of the warden procedure with a right atrial appendage flap.
Korean J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Surgical repair of a partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) to the superior vena cava (SVC) may be complicated by sinus node dysfunction or SVC obstruction. We modified the Warden procedure by using a right atrial auricular flap to decrease the occurrence of these complications.
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In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the effect of puerarin on hepatic cytochrome p450-mediated drug metabolism.
Planta Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Puerarin (8-?-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one) is a major pharmacological component of Puerariae Radix, the root of Pueraria lobata. We investigated the effect of puerarin on hepatic cytochrome P450-mediated drug metabolism in rats and humans. The in vitro cytochrome P450 inhibitory effect of puerarin in human and rat liver microsomes was evaluated using the following model cytochrome P450 substrates: phenacetin for CYP1A, diclofenac for CYP2C, dextromethorphan for CYP2D, and testosterone for CYP3A. The in vivo pharmacokinetics of intravenous and oral buspirone, a probe substrate for CYP3A, was studied with single simultaneous intravenous coadministration of puerarin in rats. In the in vitro cytochrome P450 inhibition study, the rate of disappearance of testosterone was significantly reduced in the presence of 10?µM PU, while that of other cytochrome P450 substrates was not significantly affected in both human and rat liver microsomes, suggesting that puerarin inhibits the in vitro hepatic CYP3A-mediated metabolism in the human and rat systems (IC50?=?15.5?±?3.9?µM). After intravenous administration of buspirone with single simultaneous coadministration of intravenous puerarin at a dose of 10?mg/kg in rats, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity was increased while time-averaged total body clearance decreased. When buspirone was orally administered in rats with the 10?mg/kg intravenous puerarin coadministration, both total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity and the extent of absolute oral bioavailability were significantly increased. Therefore, results of the in vitro microsomal and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies suggest the possible inhibition of hepatic CYP3A-mediated drug metabolism by puerarin administration, potentially leading to metabolism-mediated herb-drug interactions with clinical significance.
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Residual and recurrent gradients after septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy-mechanisms of obstruction and outcomes of reoperation.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The aims of the present study were to identify the mechanisms of residual or recurrent left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in patients undergoing repeat septal myectomy for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and to assess the early and late results of reoperation.
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Outcomes of chronic dialysis in Korean children with respect to survival rates and causes of death.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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Adult Korean patients on chronic dialysis have a 9-year survival rate of 50%, with cardiovascular problems being the most significant cause of death. The 2011 annual report of the North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies group reported 3-year survival rates of 93.4% and relatively poorer survival in younger patients.
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Statin therapy improves long-term survival in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy: a pooled analysis of 4500 patients.
Heart Lung Circ
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2014
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Statin therapy has demonstrated a beneficial effect in patients with chronic heart failure. While the majority of patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy are prescribed these drugs, studies have demonstrated that less than one fifth of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy are on regular statin therapy. We have performed a meta-analysis of 4500 patients from six studies (four randomised controlled trials). Our results demonstrate that statin therapy significantly improves long-term survival in patients with non-ischaemic heart failure {Hazard ratio for mortality 0.45 (0.33-0.62); p<0.0001; I(2)=41%; p-value for heterogeneity=0.13}.
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Elaidic acid (EA) generates dysfunctional high-density lipoproteins and consumption of EA exacerbates hyperlipidemia and fatty liver change in zebrafish.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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It is well known that trans-fatty acids have proatherogenic properties while HDL has antiatherogenic activities in plasma. However, there has been no report on the effects of trans-fat on the functional and structural properties of HDL.
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Development of poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid nanoparticles-embedded hyaluronic acid-ceramide-based nanostructure for tumor-targeted drug delivery.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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A hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) nanostructure embedded with docetaxel (DCT)-loaded poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) was fabricated for tumor-targeted drug delivery. NPs with a narrow size distribution and negative zeta potential were prepared by embedding DCT-loaded PLGA NPs into a HACE nanostructure (DCT/PLGA/HACE). DCT-loaded PLGA and DCT/PLGA/HACE NPs were characterized by solid-state techniques, including Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). A sustained drug release pattern from the NPs developed was observed and negligible cytotoxicity was seen in NIH3T3 cells (normal fibroblast, CD44 receptor negative) and MDA-MB-231 cells (breast cancer cells, CD44 receptor positive). PLGA/HACE NPs containing coumarin 6, used as a fluorescent dye, exhibited improved cellular uptake efficiency, based on the HA-CD44 receptor interaction, compared to plain PLGA NPs. Cyanine 5.5 (Cy5.5)-labeled PLGA/HACE NPs were injected intravenously into a MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft mouse model and demonstrated enhanced tumor targetability, compared with Cy5.5-PLGA NPs, according to a near-infrared fluorescence (NIRF) imaging study. Considering these experimental results, the DCT/PLGA/HACE NPs developed may be useful as a tumor-targeted drug delivery system.
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Management of cardiac arrest caused by acute massive pulmonary thromboembolism: importance of percutaneous cardiopulmonary support.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2014
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Cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism is associated with high patient mortality. We reviewed patients who had cardiac arrest caused by acute pulmonary embolism. Between January 2001 and September 2013, we identified 20 patients at our institution with a confirmative diagnosis of acute pulmonary thromboembolism and cardiac arrest. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support (PCPS) and surgical embolectomy are the standard course of care for patients with shock or cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism at our institution. Patients were divided into two groups (PCPS group and non-PCPS group). Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support was used in 60% of patients. Surgical embolectomy was performed for 85% of patients. Overall in-hospital and surgical mortalities were 35% and 29%, respectively. On the basis of the multivariate analysis, both cardiopulmonary resuscitation more than 15 minutes and absence of PCPS were significant risk factors affecting survival (p = 0.001 and 0.049, respectively). When the duration of cardiac arrest is short, surgical embolectomy is a viable option after cardiac arrest caused by pulmonary thromboembolism. Percutaneous cardiopulmonary support may be a useful tool for both stabilizing the patient and providing a bridge when deciding on further management options.
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Recanalization therapy for internal carotid artery occlusion presenting as acute ischemic stroke.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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We aimed to describe the current status and clinical outcomes of recanalization therapy for internal carotid artery occlusion (ICAO) presenting as acute ischemic stroke.
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Use of hydrophilic extra-viral domain antigen of canine distemper virus H protein for ELISA development.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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Simple methods used to evaluate the level of serum antibody against canine distemper virus (CDV) would assist in the effective vaccination of dogs. We expressed hydrophilic extra-viral domain (HEVD) protein of the A75/17-CDV H gene in a pET 28a plasmid-based Escherichia coli expression vector system. Expression was confirmed using dot blotting and western blotting analyses. We proposed that E. coli-expressed H protein might be conformation-dependent because the reaction intensity varied between these two methods. The H gene HEVD protein was further purified and incorporated into the antigen attachment steps for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) development. Samples from dogs grouped into zero to strong anti-CDV antibody titer status were analyzed using this HEVD ELISA and a commercial CDV antibody detection kit (Immunocomb). A good correlation of HEVD antigenicity was found in preliminary assays including immunochromatography. These data indicated that the HEDV protein may be used as antigen for the development of antibody detection against CDV.
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Chitosan-Based Hybrid Nanocomplex for siRNA Delivery and Its Application for Cancer Therapy.
Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Chitosan, a natural and biocompatible cationic polymer, is an attractive carrier for small interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery. The purpose of this study was to develop a chitosan-based hybrid nanocomplex that exhibits enhanced physical stability in the bloodstream compared with conventional chitosan complexes. Hybrid nanocomplexes composed of chitosan, protamine, lecithin, and thiamine pyrophosphate were prepared for systemic delivery of survivin (SVN) siRNA.
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Interconnected hyaluronic acid derivative-based nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles (NPs) based on interconnected hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) structure were fabricated and their anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated in vitro. Interconnected HACE was synthesized by cross-linking HACE with adipic acid dihydrazide (ADH) and its synthesis was identified by (1)H NMR analysis. DOX-loaded NPs with <200nm mean diameter, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were prepared. Interconnected HACE-based NPs increased drug-loading capacity and in vitro drug release, compared to HACE-based NPs. DOX release was dependent on the environmental pH, implying the feasibility of enhancing drug release in tumor region and endosomal compartments. Synthesized interconnected HACE did not show cytotoxic effect up to 1000?g/ml concentration in NIH3T3 and MDA-MB-231 cells. In cellular uptake studies using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and flow cytometry in MDA-MB-231 cells, higher uptake of DOX was observed in the interconnected HACE-based NPs than HACE NPs. In vitro anti-tumor efficacy was assessed by MTS-based assay, in which cytotoxic effect of DOX-loaded interconnected HACE NPs was higher than that of DOX-loaded HACE NPs. Thus, these results suggest the feasibility of interconnected HACE-based NPs to be used for efficient tumor-targeted delivery of anticancer drugs.
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Malperfusion syndrome without organ failure is not a risk factor for surgical procedures for type A aortic dissection.
Ann. Thorac. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Malperfusion syndrome caused by acute type A aortic dissection is associated with high mortality. However, the impact of subclinical malperfusion is not clear. We reviewed surgical outcomes in acute type A dissection for the presence of clinical and subclinical malperfusion.
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Predictors of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy for upper urinary tract urothelial carcinoma: an inflammation-based prognostic score.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Systemic inflammatory responses, which are defined in terms of the Glasgow prognostic score (GPS), have been reported to be independent predictors of unfavorable outcomes in various human cancers. We assessed the utility of the GPS as a predictor of intravesical recurrence after radical nephroureterectomy (RNU) in upper urinary tract carcinoma (UTUC).
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Efficacy and Tolerability of Anticholinergics in Korean Children with Overactive Bladder: A Multicenter Retrospective Study.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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We investigated the efficacy and tolerability of various anticholinergics in Korean children with non-neurogenic overactive bladder (OAB). A total of 326 children (males:females= 157:169) aged under 18 yr (mean age 7.3±2.6 yr) who were diagnosed with OAB from 2008 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. The mean duration of OAB symptoms before anticholinergic treatment was 16.9±19.0 months. The mean duration of medication was 5.6±7.3 months. Urgency urinary incontinence episodes per week decreased from 1.9±3.1 to 0.4±1.5 times (P<0.001). The median voiding frequency during daytime was decreased from 9.2±5.4 to 6.3±4.2 times (P<0.001). According to 3-day voiding diaries, the maximum and average bladder capacity were increased from 145.5±66.9 to 196.8±80.3 mL and from 80.8±39.6 to 121.8±56.5 mL, respectively (P<0.001). On uroflowmetry, maximum flow rate was increased from 17.6±8.4 to 20.5±8.2 mL/sec (P<0.001). Adverse effects were reported in 14 (4.3%) children and six children (1.8%) discontinued medication due to adverse effects. Our results indicate that anticholinergics are effective to improve OAB symptoms and tolerability was acceptable without severe complications in children.
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Thyroid status and cognitive function in euthyroid patients with early Parkinson's disease.
Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Alterations in thyroid hormone (TH) levels may be related to the pathogenesis of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. Cognitive deficits are common in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether variations within the normal ranges of thyroid function are related to cognitive function in early PD without dementia.
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Chondroitin sulfate-capped gold nanoparticles for the oral delivery of insulin.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Chondroitin sulfate (CS)-capped gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were synthesized and its feasibility for oral insulin (INS) delivery was investigated in vivo. CS was used as both reducing and stabilizing agent in the synthesis of AuNPs with around 48 nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, and negative zeta potential. After loading INS into CS-capped AuNPs structure, NPs with about 123 nm mean diameter, narrow size distribution, and negative zeta potential were successfully fabricated. By surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measurement, 0.5% (w/v) CS was chosen for the synthesis of AuNPs. Stability of AuNPs and AuNPs/INS was maintained for 7 weeks according to SPR study. Cytotoxicity of AuNPs/INS in Caco-2 cells was measured and no significant cytotoxicity was observed in tested AuNPs concentration range. In the streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat model, the oral administration of AuNPs/INS exhibited an efficient regulation of glucose level, compared to INS solution-treated group. The mean INS concentration in plasma at 120 min after oral administration of AuNPs/INS was 6.61-fold higher than that of INS solution-administered group. All of these findings indicate the successful application of CS-capped AuNPs for oral delivery of INS to the therapy of diabetes.
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Polyethylene glycol-modified arachidyl chitosan-based nanoparticles for prolonged blood circulation of doxorubicin.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded nanoparticles based on polyethylene glycol-conjugated chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid (CSOAA-PEG) were explored for potential application to leukemia therapy. PEG was conjugated with CSOAA backbone via amide bond formation and the final product was verified by (1)H NMR analysis. Using the synthesized CSOAA-PEG, nanoparticles having characteristics of a 166-nm mean diameter, positive zeta potential, and spherical shape were produced for the delivery of DOX. The mean diameter of CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles in the serum solution (50% fetal bovine serum) remained relatively constant over 72 h as compared with CSOAA nanoparticles (changes of 20.92% and 223.16%, respectively). The sustained release pattern of DOX from CSOAA-PEG nanoparticles was displayed at physiological pH, and the release rate increased under the acidic pH conditions. The cytotoxicity of the CSOAA-PEG conjugate was negligible in human leukemia cells (K562) at the concentrations tested (? 100 ?g/ml). The uptake rate of DOX from the nanoparticles by K562 cells was higher than that from the solution. Judging from the results of pharmacokinetic studies in rats, in vivo clearance rate of DOX from the CSOAA-PEG nanoparticle group was slower than other groups, subsequently extending the circulation period. The PEGylated CSOAA-based nanoparticles could represent an effective nano-sized delivery system for DOX which has been used for the treatment of blood malignancies.
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De novo aortic insufficiency during long-term support on a left ventricular assist device: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
ASAIO J.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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Aortic insufficiency (AI) may occur while supported on a left ventricular assist device (LVAD). We conducted a systematic review to determine the incidence, predictors, and consequences of AI during LVAD support. MEDLINE was searched for original studies presenting clinical data regarding patients who developed AI during LVAD implant. Seven observational studies (657 patients) were selected for review; 65% of patients underwent implantation with a continuous-flow device (Cf-LVAD). The incidence of AI was 25% (11-42%) (Support period: 412 ± 281 days). AI increased by 4% (1-6%) per month of support (p < 0.01). AI-positive patients were older at implant (weighted mean difference, 7.7 [4.3; 11.1]; p < 0.01). Female sex (0.002 ± 0.001; p = 0.01) and smaller body surface area (-0.003 ± 0.001 per m; p < 0.01) correlated with progressive AI. Destination therapy patients (odds ratio [OR], 5.3 [1.2, 24]; p = 0.02) and those with Cf-LVAD pumps were likely to develop AI (hazard ratio [HR], 2.2 [1.2, 3.8]; p < 0.01). A closed aortic valve was associated with AI (OR, 4.7 [1.9, 11.8]; p < 0.01). Survival was comparable in both cohorts (HR, 1.5 [0.81, 2.8]; p = 0.2). A significant number of patients develop de novo AI during LVAD support. Advanced age, longer support duration, continuous-flow pumps, and a closed aortic valve are associated with AI. Large cohort studies would improve our understanding of this condition.
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A new injectable liquid crystal system for one month delivery of leuprolide.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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An injectable liquid crystal-forming system (LCFS) was prepared by using sorbitan monooleate (SMO) as a new liquid crystal-forming material for injections, and its potential use of clinically available sustained-release formulation was evaluated. LCFS was prepared using SMO mixed with phosphatidyl choline and tocopherol acetate, and contained 3.75 mg of leuprolide acetate as a monthly dose in 90 ?l in liquid form. The semi-solid mesophase was formed from the liquid LCFS when it contacted water. The mesophase showed typical characteristics of the liquid crystalline phase, which was classified as the hexagonal phase. The safety of the LCFS was studied by an in vitro extraction colony assay and by examining the injection site in rats and white rabbits after an autopsy. Both in vitro release test and in vivo pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies showed a sustained release of leuprolide. When compared with a commercial depot formulation of leuprolide, the LCFS showed a similar AUClast value and significantly reduced initial burst with sufficient suppression of testosterone after subcutaneous injections in rats and dogs. The LCFS can serve as a new type of sustained-release injection formulation for its safety, ease of preparation, and sustained release properties.
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Pharmacokinetic properties and bioequivalence of 2 formulations of valsartan 160-mg tablets: A randomized, single-dose, 2-period crossover study in healthy Korean male volunteers.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The solubility of valsartan is dependent on pH and thus may cause patient variability in drug absorption and failure in bioequivalence studies; thus, increasing the solubility and release of valsartan at low pH has been suggested for a more favorable pharmacokinetic profile. However, due to this pH dependence, the change in the formulation process could alter the disintegration and/or dissolution profile of the drug, possibly making the results of bioequivalence studies misleading.
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Emulsion-based colloidal nanosystems for oral delivery of doxorubicin: improved intestinal paracellular absorption and alleviated cardiotoxicity.
Int J Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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We have previously reported that the limited intestinal absorption via the paracellular pathway may be the primary cause of the low oral bioavailability of doxorubicin (DOX). In this study, we have formulated medium chain glycerides-based colloidal nanosystems to enhance the intestinal paracellular absorption of DOX and reduce its cardiotoxicity. The DOX formulations prepared by the construction of pseudo-ternary phase diagram were characterized in terms of their droplet size distribution, viscosity, drug loading, and drug release. Further evaluation was conducted by an in vitro Caco-2 transport study as well as in situ/in vivo intestinal absorption, bioavailability and toxicity studies. Compared with DOX solution, these formulations enhanced the absorptive transport of DOX across Caco-2 cell monolayers at least partly due to the paracellular-enhancing effects of their lipidic components. Moreover, the in situ intestinal absorption and in vivo oral bioavailability of DOX in rats were markedly enhanced. In addition, no discernible damage was observed in the rat jejunum after oral administration of these DOX formulations while the cardiac toxicity was significantly reduced when compared with intravenous DOX solution. Taken together, the medium chain glycerides-based colloidal nanosystems prepared in this study represent a potentially effective oral delivery system for DOX.
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Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) copolymer-based nanoparticles for anticancer drug delivery.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Poly(styrene)-b-poly(DL-lactide) (PS-PDLLA) copolymer-based nanoparticles (NPs) of a narrow size distribution, negative zeta potential, and spherical shape were fabricated for the delivery of docetaxel (DCT). The particle size was consistently maintained in serum for 24 hours and a sustained drug release pattern was observed for 10 days in the tested formulations. The cytotoxicity of the developed blank NPs was negligible in prostate cancer (PC-3) cells. Cellular uptake and distribution of the constructed NPs containing a hydrophobic fluorescent dye was monitored by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) for 24 hours. Anti-tumor efficacy of the PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs in PC-3 cells was significantly more potent than that of the group treated with commercially available DCT, Taxotere (P<0.05). Blood biochemistry tests showed that no serious toxicity was observed with the blank NPs in the liver and kidney. In a pharmacokinetic study of DCT in rats, in vivo clearance of PS-PDLLA/DCT NPs decreased while the half-life in blood increased compared to the Taxotere-treated group (P<0.05). The PS-PDLLA NPs are expected to be a biocompatible and efficient nano-delivery system for anticancer drugs.
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To do or not to do; dilemma of intra-arterial revascularization in acute ischemic stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There has still been lack of evidence for definite imaging criteria of intra-arterial revascularization (IAR). Therefore, IAR selection is left largely to individual clinicians. In this study, we sought to investigate the overall agreement of IAR selection among different stroke clinicians and factors associated with good agreement of IAR selection.
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Various blood glucose parameters that indicate hyperglycemia after intravenous thrombolysis in acute ischemic stroke could predict worse outcome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperglycemia is common after stroke, and it is well known to worsen its outcome. However, it is important to consider that blood glucose (BG) levels can undergo dynamic changes during the acute stage of ischemic stroke. We sought to investigate the clinical significance of various glucose parameters within first 24 hours in acute ischemic stroke (AIS). The study focused on hyperacute stage patients who underwent IVT and investigated which parameters of glucose demonstrated to be helpful for predicting outcome.
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Use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic transformation in acute ischemic stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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There have been neither appropriate guidelines nor clinical studies about the use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic transformation (HT). We sought to find whether the use of antithrombotics after hemorrhagic infarction might be associated with aggravation of HT and neurological deterioration.
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Surface-modified solid lipid nanoparticles for oral delivery of docetaxel: enhanced intestinal absorption and lymphatic uptake.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Docetaxel is a potent anticancer drug, but development of an oral formulation has been hindered mainly due to its poor oral bioavailability. In this study, solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) surface-modified by Tween 80 or D-alpha-tocopheryl poly(ethylene glycol 1000) succinate (TPGS 1000) were prepared and evaluated in terms of their feasibility as oral delivery systems for docetaxel. Tween 80-emulsified and TPGS 1000-emulsified tristearin-based lipidic nanoparticles were prepared by a solvent-diffusion method, and their particle size distribution, zeta potential, drug loading, and particle morphology were characterized. An in vitro release study showed a sustained-release profile of docetaxel from the SLNs compared with an intravenous docetaxel formulation (Taxotere®). Tween 80-emulsified SLNs showed enhanced intestinal absorption, lymphatic uptake, and relative oral bioavailability of docetaxel compared with Taxotere in rats. These results may be attributable to the absorption-enhancing effects of the tristearin nanoparticle. Moreover, compared with Tween 80-emulsified SLNs, the intestinal absorption and relative oral bioavailability of docetaxel in rats were further improved in TPGS 1000-emulsified SLNs, probably due to better inhibition of drug efflux by TPGS 1000, along with intestinal lymphatic uptake. Taken together, it is worth noting that these surface-modified SLNs may serve as efficient oral delivery systems for docetaxel.
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Hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost technique with concurrent and adjuvant temozolomide for glioblastoma.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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Aims and background. We assessed the therapeutic efficacy of combined hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide in patients with primary glioblastoma. Methods and study design. Thirty-nine patients with histologically confirmed glioblastoma were accrued. Using the simultaneous integrated boost technique, a dose of 50 Gy in 5-Gy fractions was applied to the gross tumor volume, together with 40 Gy in 4-Gy fractions and 30 Gy in 3-Gy fractions to the 1- and 2-cm margins from the gross tumor volume, respectively. Patients were also treated with concurrent temozolomide during intensity-modulated radiotherapy, followed by six cycles of adjuvant temozolomide. Results. Median follow-up was 16.8 months (range, 4.3-54.3). Tumor progression was observed in 28 patients (71.8%), and the median time to progression was 6.8 months. Median survival was 16.8 months, and it was affected significantly by the extent of surgery. During adjuvant temozolomide treatment, 3 patients (9.7%) developed grade 3-4 hematologic or hepatic toxicity. Radiation necrosis developed in 7 patients (17.9%) and massive necrosis, requiring emergency surgery, in 1 patient (2.6%). Conclusions. The regimen of hypofractionated intensity-modulated radiotherapy with temozolomide showed a relatively good outcome in patients with glioblastoma. Further studies are required to define the optimal fraction size for glioblastoma using this highly sophisticated radiation technique.
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Acute cardiovascular toxicity of sterilizers, PHMG, and PGH: severe inflammation in human cells and heart failure in zebrafish.
Cardiovasc. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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In 2011, dozens of children and pregnant women in Korea died by exposure to sterilizer for household humidifier, such as Oxy(®) and Cefu(®). Until now, however, it remains unknown how the sterilizer affect the human health to cause the acute deaths. To find its toxicity for organ, we investigated the putative toxicity of the sterilizer in the cardiovascular system. The sterilizers, polyhexamethylene guanidine phosphate (PHMG, Cefu(®)), and oligo-[2-(2-ethoxy)-ethoxyethyl)-guanidinium-chloride (PGH, Oxy(®)) were treated to human lipoproteins, macrophages, and dermal fibroblast cells. The PGH and PHMG at normal dosages caused severe atherogenic process in human macrophages, cytotoxic effect, and aging in human dermal cell. Zebrafish embryos, which were exposed to the sterilizer, showed early death with acute inflammation and attenuated developmental speed. All zebrafish exposed to the working concentration of PHMG (final 0.3 %) and PGH (final 10 mM) died within 70 min and displayed acute increases in serum triacylglycerol level and fatty liver induction. The dead zebrafish showed severe accumulation of fibrous collagen in the bulbous artery of the heart with elevation of reactive oxygen species. In conclusion, the sterilizers showed acute toxic effect in blood circulation system, causing by severe inflammation, atherogenesis, and aging, with embryo toxicity.
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Surgery for pericardial disease.
Heart Fail Rev
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2013
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The pericardium is an important structure, and there are many diseases that affect the pericardium and the heart. Often, surgery is required for drainage or removal of the pericardium, but techniques are not standardized, and there is controversy, especially with regard to treatment of constrictive pericarditis. This paper reviews surgical methods for the treatment of inflammatory and constrictive pericarditis and presents early and late outcome of operation.
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Gender differences in the age-stratified prevalence of risk factors in Korean ischemic stroke patients: a nationwide stroke registry-based cross-sectional study.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2013
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Although ethnic or cultural differences affect prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, limited information is available about the age- and gender-stratified prevalence of the risk factors in Asian stroke population.
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In vitro-in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) for predicting human intestinal absorption and first-pass elimination of drugs: principles and applications.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2013
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Abstract Oral administration remains the preferred dosing method in clinical practice and drug development. Oral bioavailability (F) is a function of the fraction absorbed (Fabs), gastrointestinal or gut wall availability (FG), and hepatic availability (FH). Therefore, predicting intestinal absorption (Fabs) and first-pass elimination (FG and FH) from in vitro data may facilitate the selection of more orally bioavailable drug candidates in earlier stages of drug discovery and development. This review provides an overview of the determinants of intestinal absorption and first-pass elimination of drugs and focuses on the principles and applications of conventional in vitro--in vivo extrapolation (IVIVE) methods to predict Fabs, FG, and FH in humans.
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Hyaluronic acid derivative-coated nanohybrid liposomes for cancer imaging and drug delivery.
J Control Release
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2013
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Nanohybrid liposomes coated with amphiphilic hyaluronic acid-ceramide (HACE) was fabricated for targeted delivery of anticancer drug and in vivo cancer imaging. Nanohybrid liposomes including doxorubicin (DOX) and Magnevist, a contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, with 120-130nm mean diameter and a narrow size distribution were developed. DOX release from the developed formulation was improved at acidic pH (pH5.5 and 6.8) versus physiological pH (pH7.4). Cytotoxicity induced by the blank plain liposome was reduced by coating the outer surface of the nanohybrid liposome with HACE. Cellular uptake of DOX from the nanohybrid liposome was enhanced by HA and CD44 receptor interaction, versus the plain liposome. In vivo contrast-enhancing effects revealed that the nanohybrid liposome can be used as a tumor targeting MR imaging probe for cancer diagnosis. In a pharmacokinetic study in rats, in vivo clearance of DOX was decreased in the order DOX solution, plain liposome (F2), and nanohybrid liposome (F3), indicating prolonged circulation of the drug in the blood stream and improved therapeutic efficacy of the nanohybrid liposome (F3). Based on these findings, the nanohybrid liposomal system may be a useful candidate for real-time cancer diagnosis and therapy.
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A simple modification for a longer and larger internal thoracic artery as a composite Y-graft.
Scand. Cardiovasc. J.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2013
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Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using bilateral internal thoracic artery (BITA) has been proven to improve survival. Many surgeons use the composite Y-graft which is made of left ITA (LITA) and right ITA (RITA) grafts. The LITA is typically anastomosed to left anterior descending artery (LAD). However, we have used RITA for LAD instead of LITA and reviewed the patency of ITA grafts and their clinical outcomes.
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Relation of atrial fibrillation (AF) and change of lipoproteins: Male patients with AF exhibited severe pro-inflammatory and pro-atherogenic properties in lipoproteins.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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This study was designed to search putative biomarkers for detection of relatively young-onset atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Polyclonal gammopathy related to renal bleeding in a peritoneal dialysis patient.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Polyclonal gammopathy represents the diffuse activation of B cells and is usually related to inflammation or immune-related diseases. However, the mechanisms leading to polyclonal gammopathy are essentially speculative. Generally, infectious, inflammatory, or various other reactive processes may be indicated by the presence of a broad-based peak or band in the gamma region on serum protein electrophoresis results. A 15-year-old girl, who had been receiving peritoneal dialysis, presented with polyclonal gammopathy and massive gross hematuria. Renal artery embolization was performed, after which the continuous bleeding subsided and albumin-globulin dissociation resolved. This is a rare case of polyclonal gammopathy related to renal bleeding.
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Current status of acute stroke management in Korea: a report on a multicenter, comprehensive acute stroke registry.
Int J Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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There are limited data on the utilization of diagnostics and the variation of treatments at the national level in acute stroke care. Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division stroke registry aimed to describe stroke statistics and quality of care in Korea and to implement quality indicators. Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division registry was established in April 2008 and covers pretreatment demographics, medical and stroke severity measures, diagnostic evaluation, hyperacute revascularization, in-hospital management, discharge disposition, quality indicators, and long-term functional outcomes. Consecutive stroke cases from 12 participating centers are registered to a web-based database. Meticulous data management and auditing policy were applied. A total of 14?792 ischemic stroke cases were enrolled from April 2008 to January 2012. The median National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score was 4 at admission, with median delay of onset to arrival of 14?h. Rate of risk factor management before stroke exceeds more than 80% for hypertension and diabetes. Revascularization procedures were performed in 1736 subjects (12%), and 34% were endovascular (n?=?598). Substantial variability was noted in the preferred modality of hyperacute revascularization (range of endovascular recanalization?=?6-60%), use of computed tomography (30-93%), and perfusion imaging (2-96%). The Clinical Research Center for Stroke - 5th division registry documented that the current practice of acute stroke care in South Korea largely met the standard of guidelines, but variability of practice still remains. The registry would provide an opportunity to evaluate the quality of stroke care across South Korea and compare it with that of other countries.
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Caffeine-containing medicines increase the risk of hemorrhagic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Research on the relationship between caffeine-containing medicines (CCMs) and the risk of hemorrhagic stroke (HS) is sparse. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between CCMs and the risk of HS.
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Long-term changes in serum IGF-1 levels after successful surgical treatment of growth hormone-secreting pituitary adenoma.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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Successful treatment of acromegaly is known to normalize serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels within days after surgery. However, our clinical observations indicate that many cases of acromegaly show delayed normalization of serum IGF-1 levels after complete tumor resection.
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Serotonergic Genes and Suicidal Ideation 2 Weeks and 1 Year After Stroke in Korea.
Am J Geriatr Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Serotonergic genes are associated with suicidal behavior; this association has not been tested in stroke survivors, however. In this study, we investigated whether serotonin transporter (5-HTT) and serotonin 2a receptor (5-HTR2a) genes were associated with suicidal ideation at 2 weeks and at 1 year after stroke.
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Budesonide/cyclodextrin complex-loaded lyophilized microparticles for intranasal application.
Drug Dev Ind Pharm
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Abstract Objective: Lyophilized microparticles composed of budesonide (BDS), hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD), and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na) were developed for intranasal delivery and their characteristics were evaluated. Materials and methods: The particle size and morphology were assessed by mean diameter measurement and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image, respectively. The solid-state of products was tested by X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). In vitro drug release and cytotoxicity to the primary human nasal epithelial (HNE) cells were also evaluated. Results and discussion: Lyophilized microparticles exhibited vanishment of crystallinity of drug in XRPD analysis, the enfeeblement of carbonyl (C=O) stretching bands of carboxyl group in BDS in FT-IR spectra and the disappearance of endothermic peak of drug in the results of DSC study. Based on the results of solid-state studies, BDS was existed as an amorphous form in the lyophilized microparticles. CD complexation enhanced drug solubility and release rate, and HPMC or CMC-Na also improved drug dissolution rates. Cytotoxicity of developed microparticles to the HNE cells was measured and their safety to HNE cell was identified. Conclusion: Developed microparticles can efficiently deliver insoluble drug, such as BDS, to the nasal epithelium and thus it may improve therapeutic efficacy in the respiratory tract.
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Curcumin inhibits oxLDL-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation through the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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The uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein (oxLDL) via scavenger receptors transforms macrophages into foam cells, which are a hallmark of atherosclerosis. OxLDL markedly increases the expression of the CD36 scavenger receptor. Here, we investigated whether curcumin modulate CD36 expression in oxLDL-treated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Our results showed that curcumin dramatically inhibits CD36 expression and foam cell formation. Furthermore, oxLDL-induced expression and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-?), which is involved in CD36 expression, is also blocked in curcumin-treated cells. OxLDL activates the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling transduction pathway, and p38 MAPK is associated with oxLDL-induced CD36 and PPAR-? expression. Overexpression of dominant negative p38 MAPK blocks oxLDL-induced CD36 and PPAR-? expression. Furthermore, curcumin markedly inhibits p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Taken together, our results suggest that curcumin modulates oxLDL-induced CD36 expression and foam cell formation via the inhibition of p38 MAPK phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages.
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Bovine apolipoprotein (apo)A-I displays more enhanced antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic activity in lipid-free and lipid-bound states than human and porcine apoA-I.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) is a major component of high-density lipoprotein (HDL), which displays anti-atherosclerotic activity in plasma. In the current study, we compared the functional and structural characteristics of human, bovine and porcine apoA-I as regards their antioxidant ability and protein stability. In the lipid-free state, the immunoreactivity of bovine and porcine apoA-I differed from that of human apoA-I and bovine and porcine apoA-I exhibited greater resistance to denaturation induced by urea treatment. Bovine apoA-I showed the weakest binding ability of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine; however, bovine apoA-I formed slightly larger reconstituted HDL (rHDL) particles with palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylcholine, with a higher number of apoA-I-containing particles. Bovine and porcine apoA-I comprised of pentameric structures, whereas human apoA-I in the rHDL state consisted of trimeric structures. Although apoA-I from all three species showed a similar content of ?-helicity in the lipid-free state (approximately 53%), bovine apoA-I showed a lower ?-helicity content (approximately 66%) compared with human apoA-I (approximately 74%) in the rHDL state. Bovine apoA-I was more resistant to denaturation and glycation upon treatment with urea and fructose, respectively. Furthermore, bovine apoA-I showed a greater inhibition of cupric ion-mediated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and uptake of acetylated LDL by macrophages compared with human or porcine apoA-I in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states. In conclusion, bovine apoA-I has unique functional properties in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states, and displays significantly enhanced anti-atherosclerotic activity.
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Comparison of lumbopelvic rhythm and flexion-relaxation response between 2 different low back pain subtypes.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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A cross-sectional study to compare the kinematics and muscle activities during trunk flexion and return task in people with and without low back pain (LBP).
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Aortic stent and renal autotransplantation for the management of renovascular hypertension with Takayasus arteritis: report of a case.
Surg. Today
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Takayasus arteritis (TA) is a rare inflammatory disease affecting the aorta and its major branches. In patients with TA, middle aortic syndrome with aortic and renal artery involvement causes severe hypertension that does not respond well to medical therapy. Currently, the optimal therapeutic options have not been established, and the reported results of different treatments vary widely. We herein present a case of middle aortic syndrome with renovascular hypertension caused by TA in a 12-year-old male treated by an aortic stent and renal autotransplantation as a two-staged procedure.
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Porous hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate composite scaffolds for human adipose-derived stem cells delivery.
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of hyaluronic acid/sodium alginate (HA/SA) scaffold-based interpenetrating polymeric network (IPN) for the proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of the human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs). The hADSCs cultured in HA/SA IPN scaffold exhibited enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation compared to the HA scaffold. Superior chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs in HA/SA IPN scaffold, compared to HA-based scaffold, was confirmed by measuring expression levels of chondrogenic markers. These results suggested that HA/SA IPN scaffold could provide a desirable environment for the cell adhesion, proliferation and chondrogenic differentiation of hADSCs.
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Clinical approach to quality of life in children with end-stage renal disease.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Quality of life in addition to various medical problems in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) should be objectively assessed to accomplish normal growth and development during childhood. However, unfortunately, studies of quality of life (QoL) in children with ESRD have been not popular yet and there are only fewer suitable assessment tools compared with adults. Recently, disease-specific modules to evaluate QoL in children with chronic disease such as ESRD have been developed. This review was made to introduce these QoL instruments for children and help the clinical application of them.
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Adenosine deaminase activity in cerebrospinal fluid and serum for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2013
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To evaluate the usefulness of serum and CSF adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity for the diagnosis of tuberculous meningitis (TBM) from other meningitis.
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Serum amyloid A stimulates macrophage foam cell formation via lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 upregulation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Elevated levels of serum amyloid A (SAA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, however, the role of SAA in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here we show that SAA induced macrophage foam cell formation. SAA-stimulated foam cell formation was mediated by c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling. Moreover, both SAA and SAA-conjugated high density lipoprotein stimulated the expression of the important scavenger receptor lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX1) via nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B). A LOX1 antagonist carrageenan significantly blocked SAA-induced foam cell formation, indicating that SAA promotes foam cell formation via LOX1 expression. Our findings therefore suggest that SAA stimulates foam cell formation via LOX1 induction, and thus likely contributes to atherogenesis.
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Self-assembled magnetic resonance imaging nanoprobes based on arachidyl chitosan for cancer diagnosis.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Arachidyl chitosan (chitosan oligosaccharide-arachidic acid; CSOAA)-based self-assembled nanoprobes for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of neoplastic lesions was developed and evaluated in vitro. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic dianhydride (DTPA) was conjugated to chitosan oligosaccharide (CSO) and Gd(3+) was chelated to the resulting ligand. DTPA conjugation and Gd(3+) chelation were confirmed primarily by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and zeta potential measurement. A spherical nanoprobe of around 150 nm mean diameter in the tested concentration range was formed in an aqueous environment by simple dissolution. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) of the CSOAA-based nanoprobe was 3.86 ?g/ml, indicating its stability after dilution in body fluid. The nanoprobe had negligible toxicity in head and neck cancer cell lines (Hep-2 and FaDu cells). The amount of Cy5.5-labeled nanoprobe taken-up by cells, as observed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM), increased according to incubation time (up to 12h). A phantom study showed a T1-positive contrast-enhancing effect of the developed CSOAA-based nanoprobe, compared to that of the commercial formulation (Gd-DTPA; Magnevist). These results indicate that the CSOAA-based nanoprobe can be used for efficient MR imaging of neoplastic cells.
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A longitudinal study of SLC6A4 DNA promoter methylation and poststroke depression.
J Psychiatr Res
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) has been shown to play an important role in the pathophysiology of mood disorders including poststroke depression (PSD). SLC6A4 expression is influenced by DNA methylation status and the SLC6A4 linked promoter region (5-HTTLPR) polymorphism. This study aimed to investigate whether SLC6A4 methylation status was associated with depression ascertained at two weeks and one year after stroke taking into account the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism. A total of 286 patients were evaluated two weeks after stroke, and 222 (78%) were followed one year later. Depression was diagnosed according to DSM-IV criteria, and depression severity was assessed by the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) at each evaluation point. The effects of SLC6A4 methylation status on PSD status and HAMD scores were investigated using multivariate logistic regression models and partial correlation tests, respectively. Analyses were repeated after stratification by 5-HTTLPR genotype groups (l/l or l/s and s/s). Higher SLC6A4 promoter methylation status was independently associated with PSD both at 2 weeks and more prominently at 1 year after stroke, and was significantly associated with the worsening of depressive symptoms over one year. These findings were significant only in the presence of the 5-HTTLPR s/s genotype. SLC6A4 methylation profile was supported as a potential diagnostic and prognostic biomarker for PSD; associations with SLC6A4 methylation status may represent a target for drug development.
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Proximal arterial occlusion in acute ischemic stroke with low NIHSS scores should not be considered as mild stroke.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Untreated acute mild stroke patients have substantial 90-day disability rates and worse outcomes than those who are treated with thrombolysis. There is little information regarding which patients with acute mild stroke will benefit from thrombolysis. We sought to investigate factors that are associated with early neurological deterioration (END) and poor prognosis in patients with acute mild stroke.
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Apolipoprotein A-IV is a novel substrate for matrix metalloproteinases.
J. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2011
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Screening of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-14 substrates in human plasma using a proteomics approach previously identified apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) as a novel substrate for MMP-14. Here, we show that among the tested MMPs, purified apoA-IV is most susceptible to cleavage by MMP-7, and that apoA-IV in plasma can be cleaved more efficiently by MMP-7 than MMP-14. Purified recombinant apoA-IV (44-kDa) was cleaved by MMP-7 into several fragments of 41, 32, 29, 27, 24, 22 and 19 kDa. N-terminal sequencing of the fragments identified two internal cleavage sites for MMP-7 in the apoA-IV sequence, between Glu(185) and Leu(186), and between Glu(262) and Leu(263). The cleavage of lipid-bound apoA-IV by MMP-7 was less efficient than that of lipid-free apoA-IV. Further, MMP-7-mediated cleavage of apoA-IV resulted in a rapid loss of its intrinsic anti-oxidant activity. Based on the fact that apoA-IV plays important roles in lipid metabolism and possesses anti-oxidant activity, we suggest that cleavage of lipid-free apoA-IV by MMP-7 has pathological implications in the development of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.