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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genetically modified Tomato aspermy virus 2b protein as a tumor-targeting siRNA delivery carrier.
Acta Biomater
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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In nature, there exist a wide range of dsRNA-binding proteins that have different binding modes for small interfering RNA (siRNA) as well as structural differences, and some of these proteins have potential as effective siRNA delivery carriers. In order to deliver siRNA into cancer cells, a dsRNA-binding 2b protein derived from Tomato aspermy virus was genetically modified by fusing the integrin-targeting RGD peptide to its C-terminus, and biosynthesized. The resulting 2b-RGD protein possesses distinct characteristics favorable for biomedical applications of siRNA: (i) high affinity for siRNA, (ii) siRNA protection against RNases in serum, (iii) low cytotoxicity compared to the polycationic polymers often employed in conventional siRNA carriers, (iv) specific binding to integrins on cancer cells, and the ability to pass through the cell membrane via endocytosis, and (v) the ability to facilitate cytosolic release of siRNA. Here, we demonstrate that the 2b-RGD/siRNA complexes have great potential as a tumor-targeting siRNA delivery carrier and suggest their possible therapeutic applications for cancer treatment.
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Tumor-specific delivery of siRNA using supramolecular assembly of hyaluronic acid nanoparticles and 2b RNA-binding protein/siRNA complexes.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Anticancer therapeutics delivering exogenous siRNA have been explored to suppress the tumor-associated genes, but several limitations of siRNA delivery such as tumor-targeted delivery, controlled siRNA release at the sites of interest, or instabilities of siRNA in physiological fluids should be preferentially addressed for its clinical applications. As an attempt to meet these criteria, we designed a supramolecular assembly, which was composed of cholesterol-bearing hyaluronic acid (HA-Chol) conjugates and 2b RNA-binding protein (2b)/siRNA complexes. In contrast to the traditional siRNA polyplexes using electrostatic interactions, HA-Chol nanoparticles, as a results of self-assembly of HA-Chol conjugates, provide the hydrophobic core that acts as the container for 2b protein/siRNA complexes, where a high affinity of 2b protein for siRNA could neutralize the negative-charged siRNA. Here, we investigated the potential of HA-Chol/2b/siRNA complexes as the siRNA carriers that provide encapsulation, protection, and targeted delivery of siRNA. The HA-Chol nanoparticles could selectively deliver 2b protein/siRNA complexes to the tumor cells with up-regulated CD44 receptors and suppress the expression of target gene. The pH-associated binding properties of siRNA for 2b proteins allowed the controlled release of siRNA in the endocytic compartments, and ultimately the released siRNA could obtain the RNAi acitivities in the cells, whereas the encapsulated 2b proteins still stayed within the HA-Chol nanoparticles. Our delivery systems demonstrate the promising potential of the efficient siRNA carriers in the anticancer therapeutic applications.
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Designed Nanocage Displaying Ligand-Specific Peptide Bunches for High Affinity and Biological Activity.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Protein-cage nanoparticles are promising multifunctional platforms for targeted delivery of imaging and therapeutic agents owing to their biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low toxicity. The major advantage of protein-cage nanoparticles is the ability to decorate their surfaces with multiple functionalities through genetic and chemical modification to achieve desired properties for therapeutic and/or diagnostic purposes. Specific peptides identified by phage display can be genetically fused onto the surface of cage proteins to promote the association of nanoparticles with a particular cell type or tissue. Upon symmetrical assembly of the cage, peptides are clustered on the surface of the cage protein in bunches. The resulting PBNC (peptide bunches on nanocage) offers the potential of synergistically increasing the avidity of the peptide ligands, thereby enhancing their blocking ability for therapeutic purposes. Here, we demonstrated a proof-of-principle of PBNCs, fusing the interleukin-4 receptor (IL-4R)-targeting peptide, AP-1, identified previously by phage display, with ferritin-L-chain (FTL), which undergoes 24-subunit assembly to form highly stable AP-1-containing nanocage proteins (AP1-PBNCs). AP1-PBNCs bound specifically to the IL-4R-expressing cell line, A549, and their binding and internalization were specifically blocked by anti-IL-4R antibody. AP1-PBNCs exhibited dramatically enhanced binding avidity to IL-4R compared with AP-1 peptide, measured by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy. Furthermore, treatment with AP1-PBNCs in a murine model of experimental asthma diminished airway hyper-responsiveness and eosinophilic airway inflammation along with decreased mucus hyperproduction. These findings hold great promise for the application of various PBNCs with ligand-specific peptides in therapeutics for different diseases, such as cancer.
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Self-assembled amphiphilic DNA-cholesterol/DNA-peptide hybrid duplexes with liposome-like structure for doxorubicin delivery.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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DNA nanoparticles have been proposed for drug encapsulation and intracellular delivery, but it has remained a challenge to rationally design DNA nanoparticles for delivery of drug to human cancer cells, not to normal cells. In this study, we synthesized an amphiphilic DNA hybrid duplex by using Watson-Crick base pairing and DNA bioconjugation with cholesterol or tLyp-1 tumor-homing peptide. The resulting amphiphilic DNA hybrid duplexes can self-assemble in an aqueous solution into liposome-like nanoparticles (c-DNA-p nanoparticles) with the exposure of tLyp-1 peptides to their outside. As a nanocarrier for doxorubicin, c-DNA-p nanoparticles can efficiently intercalate doxorubicin and also show the pH-dependent complexing/dissociation behaviors with doxorubicin, resulting in release of doxorubicin into cytosol after cell uptake. Moreover, tLyp-1 peptides with cell penetrating properties and specific binding ability for Neuropilin-1 receptors enable doxorubicin-loaded c-DNA-p nanoparticles to be delivered into the target cells through the NRP-1-dependent internalization pathway. Here, we demonstrated the targeted delivery of doxorubicin to MDA-MB231 breast cancer cells, compared to HFF normal cells. These results provide an alternative approach to specifically delivering doxorubicin into targeted cells for cancer therapy as well as controlling drug release under the acidic conditions such as endosomes or lysosomes.
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Efficient siRNA delivery into tumor cells by p19-YSA fusion protein.
Mol. Pharm.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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For the efficient cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA in a receptor-specific fashion, we designed a p19-YSA fusion protein composed of p19 RNA binding protein and ephrin mimetic peptide (YSA peptide). The resulting recombinant protein had the high affinity for EphA2 receptor overexpressed on cancer cells as well as the complexing ability with siRNA, thus leading to tumor-targeted delivery of siRNA. The buried structure of siRNA within p19-YSA/siRNA complexes allowed the bound siRNAs to be protected from the external RNases, resulting in the enhanced stability of siRNA in serum conditions. The p19-YSA carriers could complex with siRNA in a size-dependent and sequence-independent manner and showed the pH-dependent complexing/dissocation behaviors with siRNA. In contrast to electrostatic interaction-mediated siRNA delivery systems such as cationic polymers/siRNA or cationic polypeptides/siRNA complexes, the bound siRNA within p19-YSA/siRNA complexes showed enhanced stability against large polyanions found outside cells, due to the nanomolar levels of affinity. Here, we demonstrated the superior efficiency of p19-YSA/siRNA complexes in RFP gene silencing, compared to untreated cells. These results provide an alternative approach to enhance the stability of siRNA as well as to achieve the targeted siRNA delivery.
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Chimeric capsid protein as a nanocarrier for siRNA delivery: stability and cellular uptake of encapsulated siRNA.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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For the efficient cytoplasmic delivery of siRNA, we designed a chimeric capsid protein composed of a capsid shell, integrin targeting peptide, and p19 RNA binding protein. This recombinant protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and provided a nanocarrier for siRNA delivery. Our capsid nanocarriers had dual affinity both for siRNA within the interior and integin receptors on the exterior, and the capsid shell structure allowed the encapsulated siRNAs to be protected from the external nucleases, leading to the enhanced stability of siRNA in serum conditions. The capsid nanocarriers could complex with siRNA in a size-dependent and sequence-independent manner and showed the pH-dependent complexing/dissocation behaviors with siRNA. Moreover, RGD peptides on the exterior surface of the capsid shell enabled the capsid nanocarriers to deliver siRNA into the cytosol of the target cells. Here, we demonstrated the superior efficiency of our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes in RFP gene silencing, compared to untreated cells. These results provide an alternative approach to enhancing the stability of siRNA as well as to achieving targeted siRNA delivery.
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A monitoring method for Atg4 activation in living cells using peptide-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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To date, several principal methods are presently used to monitor the autophagic process, but they have some potential experimental pitfalls or limitations that make them not applicable to living cells. In order to improve on the currently developed detection methods for autophagy, we report here fluorescent peptide-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles loaded with a lysosome staining dye in their core. The fluorescent peptide is designed to be specifically cleaved by the Atg4 cysteine protease, which plays a crucial role in autophagy activation. In this study, we demonstrate that peptide-conjugated polymeric nanoparticles can be used to visualize Atg4 activity in both cell-free and cell culture systems. The fluorescence imaging of cells incubated with nanoparticles demonstrates that Atg4 activity is activated in the autophagy-induced conditions, but suppressed in the autophagy-inhibited conditions. These results indicate that Atg4 activity is correlated with autophagic flux through its own regulatory pathway. Therefore, our strategy provides an alternative detection method that can clearly distinguish between an "autophagy active" and "autophagy inactive" state in cultured cells. As our nanoparticles are highly cell-permeable and biocompatible, this detection system has general applicability to living cells and can be extended to cell-based screening to evaluate newly developed compounds.
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Small heat shock protein as a multifunctional scaffold: integrated tumor targeting and caspase imaging within a single cage.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Protein cages have the potential to serve as biomaterials for the targeted therapeutic and imaging systems. As an effort to exploit small heat shock protein (Hsp) cages as multifunctional biomaterials, we demonstrate that chemically and genetically modified Hsp cages permeate the cells via cancer cell binding and subsequent endocytic internalization and can image caspase activity in the live cells. Moreover, we report here that these functional Hsp cages can be specifically accumulated to tumor tissues of tumor-bearing mice when administered intravenously through the lateral tail vein. These tumor-targeting properties could be explained by the prolonged in vivo circulation and enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect as well as the ligand-mediated binding to cancer cells. Furthermore, when combined with the caspase sensing ability, our Hsp cage allows us to monitor the therapeutic evaluation after anticancer drug treatment by imaging the caspase activity within tumors. Therefore, we demonstrate that the Hsp cages have multifunctional scaffolds amenable to genetic and chemical modifications without loss of the cagelike architecture and can be exploited as biomedical materials including drug or imaging agent carriers.
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Coexpression and protein-protein complexing of DIX domains of human Dvl1 and Axin1 protein.
BMB Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2010
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The Dvl and Axin proteins, which are involved in the Wnt signaling pathway, each contain a conserved DIX domain in their sequences. The DIX domain mediates interaction between Dvl and Axin, which together play an important role in signal transduction. However, the extremely low production of DIX domain fragments in E. coli has prevented more widespread functional and structural studies. In this study, we demonstrate that the DIX domains of Dvl and Axin are expressed noticeably in a multi-cistronic system but not in a mono-cistronic system. Formation of the DIX(Dvl1)-DIX(Axin1) complex was investigated by affinity chromatography, SEC and crystallization studies. Unstable DIX domains were stabilized by complexing with counterpart DIX domains. The results of the preliminary crystallization and diffraction of the DIX(Dvl1)-DIX(Axin1) complex may prove useful for further crystallographic studies.
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Optimization of matrix metalloproteinase fluorogenic probes for osteoarthritis imaging.
Amino Acids
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2010
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Among the classical collagenases, matrix metalloproteinase-13 (called MMP-13, collagenase-3) is one of the most important components for cartilage destruction of osteoarthritis (OA) developments. Despite many efforts, the detection methods of MMP-13 activity have been met with limited success in vivo, in part, due to the low sensitivity and low selectivity by homology of MMP family. Previously, we demonstrated the use of strongly dark-quenched fluorogenic probe allowed for the visual detection of MMP-13 in vitro and in OA-induced rat models. In this study, we described the optimization of MMP-13 fluorogenic probe for OA detection in vivo. Three candidate probes demonstrated recovered fluorescent intensity proportional with MMP-13 concentrations, respectively; however, Probe 2 exhibited both high signal amplification and selective recognition for MMP-13, not MMP-2 and MMP-9 in vitro. When Probe 2 was applied to OA-induced rat models, clear visualization of MMP-13 activity in OA-induced cartilage was obtained. Optimized MMP-13 fluorogenic probe can be applied to detect and image OA and have potential for evaluating the in vivo efficacy of MMP-13 inhibitors which are being tested for therapeutic treatment of OA.
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The incorporation of GALA peptide into a protein cage for an acid-inducible molecular switch.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2010
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Caged proteins have been utilized as a biological container in a wide range of applications from material science to biomedicine, and GALA peptide has been known to undergo coil-to-helix transition upon the increased acidity. In this study, GALA synthetic peptide is incorporated to cage protein by genetic modification. Our engineered caged scaffold retains intact at the physiological pH but dissociate completely at pH 6.0, and the dissociated subunits are re-assembled simply by neutralization to biological pH. This acid-induced dissociation has the potential as molecular switch in vivo as well as in vitro so that the acid-sensitive caged proteins are applicable to drug delivery system for acidic target sites such as tumor. Since our design depends on the conformational transition of GALA peptide, not on removal of characteristic interface observed only in viral capsid-like protein, non-viral caged proteins can also be engineered to have molecular switching function. Therefore, this design for acid-sensitive scaffold would broaden the width of applications in nanotechnology including biomimetic material synthesis and biomedicine.
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy.
Daniel J Klionsky, Fábio C Abdalla, Hagai Abeliovich, Robert T Abraham, Abraham Acevedo-Arozena, Khosrow Adeli, Lotta Agholme, Maria Agnello, Patrizia Agostinis, Julio A Aguirre-Ghiso, Hyung Jun Ahn, Ouardia Ait-Mohamed, Slimane Ait-Si-Ali, Takahiko Akematsu, Shizuo Akira, Hesham M Al-Younes, Munir A Al-Zeer, Matthew L Albert, Roger L Albin, Javier Alegre-Abarrategui, Maria Francesca Aleo, Mehrdad Alirezaei, Alexandru Almasan, Maylin Almonte-Becerril, Atsuo Amano, Ravi Amaravadi, Shoba Amarnath, Amal O Amer, Nathalie Andrieu-Abadie, Vellareddy Anantharam, David K Ann, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Hiroshi Aoki, Nadezda Apostolova, Giuseppe Arancia, John P Aris, Katsuhiko Asanuma, Nana Y O Asare, Hisashi Ashida, Valerie Askanas, David S Askew, Patrick Auberger, Misuzu Baba, Steven K Backues, Eric H Baehrecke, Ben A Bahr, Xue-Yuan Bai, Yannick Bailly, Robert Baiocchi, Giulia Baldini, Walter Balduini, Andrea Ballabio, Bruce A Bamber, Edward T W Bampton, Gábor Bánhegyi, Clinton R Bartholomew, Diane C Bassham, Robert C Bast, Henri Batoko, Boon-Huat Bay, Isabelle Beau, Daniel M Béchet, Thomas J Begley, Christian Behl, Christian Behrends, Soumeya Bekri, Bryan Bellaire, Linda J Bendall, Luca Benetti, Laura Berliocchi, Henri Bernardi, Francesca Bernassola, Sébastien Besteiro, Ingrid Bhatia-Kiššová, Xiaoning Bi, Martine Biard-Piechaczyk, Janice S Blum, Lawrence H Boise, Paolo Bonaldo, David L Boone, Beat C Bornhauser, Karina R Bortoluci, Ioannis Bossis, Fréderic Bost, Jean-Pierre Bourquin, Patricia Boya, Michaël Boyer-Guittaut, Peter V Bozhkov, Nathan R Brady, Claudio Brancolini, Andreas Brech, Jay E Brenman, Ana Brennand, Emery H Bresnick, Patrick Brest, Dave Bridges, Molly L Bristol, Paul S Brookes, Eric J Brown, John H Brumell, Nicola Brunetti-Pierri, Ulf T Brunk, Dennis E Bulman, Scott J Bultman, Geert Bultynck, Lena F Burbulla, Wilfried Bursch, Jonathan P Butchar, Wanda Buzgariu, Sérgio P Bydlowski, Ken Cadwell, Monika Cahova, Dongsheng Cai, Jiyang Cai, Qian Cai, Bruno Calabretta, Javier Calvo-Garrido, Nadine Camougrand, Michelangelo Campanella, Jenny Campos-Salinas, Eleonora Candi, Lizhi Cao, Allan B Caplan, Simon R Carding, Sandra M Cardoso, Jennifer S Carew, Cathleen R Carlin, Virginie Carmignac, Leticia A M Carneiro, Serena Carra, Rosario A Caruso, Giorgio Casari, Caty Casas, Roberta Castino, Eduardo Cebollero, Francesco Cecconi, Jean Celli, Hassan Chaachouay, Han-Jung Chae, Chee-Yin Chai, David C Chan, Edmond Y Chan, Raymond Chuen-Chung Chang, Chi-Ming Che, Ching-Chow Chen, Guang-Chao Chen, Guo-Qiang Chen, Min Chen, Quan Chen, Steve S-L Chen, WenLi Chen, Xi Chen, Xiangmei Chen, Xiequn Chen, Ye-Guang Chen, Yingyu Chen, Yongqiang Chen, Yu-Jen Chen, Zhixiang Chen, Alan Cheng, Christopher H K Cheng, Yan Cheng, Heesun Cheong, Jae-Ho Cheong, Sara Cherry, Russ Chess-Williams, Zelda H Cheung, Eric Chevet, Hui-Ling Chiang, Roberto Chiarelli, Tomoki Chiba, Lih-Shen Chin, Shih-Hwa Chiou, Francis V Chisari, Chi Hin Cho, Dong-Hyung Cho, Augustine M K Choi, DooSeok Choi, Kyeong Sook Choi, Mary E Choi, Salem Chouaib, Divaker Choubey, Vinay Choubey, Charleen T Chu, Tsung-Hsien Chuang, Sheau-Huei Chueh, Taehoon Chun, Yong-Joon Chwae, Mee-Len Chye, Roberto Ciarcia, Maria R Ciriolo, Michael J Clague, Robert S B Clark, Peter G H Clarke, Robert Clarke, Patrice Codogno, Hilary A Coller, María I Colombo, Sergio Comincini, Maria Condello, Fabrizio Condorelli, Mark R Cookson, Graham H Coombs, Isabelle Coppens, Ramón Corbalán, Pascale Cossart, Paola Costelli, Safia Costes, Ana Coto-Montes, Eduardo Couve, Fraser P Coxon, James M Cregg, José L Crespo, Marianne J Cronjé, Ana Maria Cuervo, Joseph J Cullen, Mark J Czaja, Marcello D'Amelio, Arlette Darfeuille-Michaud, Lester M Davids, Faith E Davies, Massimo De Felici, John F de Groot, Cornelis A M de Haan, Luisa De Martino, Angelo De Milito, Vincenzo De Tata, Jayanta Debnath, Alexei Degterev, Benjamin Dehay, Lea M D Delbridge, Francesca Demarchi, Yi Zhen Deng, Jörn Dengjel, Paul Dent, Donna Denton, Vojo Deretic, Shyamal D Desai, Rodney J Devenish, Mario Di Gioacchino, Gilbert Di Paolo, Chiara Di Pietro, Guillermo Díaz-Araya, Inés Díaz-Laviada, Maria T Diaz-Meco, Javier Diaz-Nido, Ivan Dikic, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Wen-Xing Ding, Clark W Distelhorst, Abhinav Diwan, Mojgan Djavaheri-Mergny, Svetlana Dokudovskaya, Zheng Dong, Frank C Dorsey, Victor Dosenko, James J Dowling, Stephen Doxsey, Marlène Dreux, Mark E Drew, Qiuhong Duan, Michel A Duchosal, Karen Duff, Isabelle Dugail, Madeleine Durbeej, Michael Duszenko, Charles L Edelstein, Aimee L Edinger, Gustavo Egea, Ludwig Eichinger, N Tony Eissa, Suhendan Ekmekcioglu, Wafik S El-Deiry, Zvulun Elazar, Mohamed Elgendy, Lisa M Ellerby, Kai Er Eng, Anna-Mart Engelbrecht, Simone Engelender, Jekaterina Erenpreisa, Ricardo Escalante, Audrey Esclatine, Eeva-Liisa Eskelinen, Lucile Espert, Virginia Espina, Huizhou Fan, Jia Fan, Qi-Wen Fan, Zhen Fan, Shengyun Fang, Yongqi Fang, Manolis Fanto, Alessandro Fanzani, Thomas Farkas, Jean-Claude Farré, Mathias Faure, Marcus Fechheimer, Carl G Feng, Jian Feng, Qili Feng, Youji Feng, László Fésüs, Ralph Feuer, Maria E Figueiredo-Pereira, Gian Maria Fimia, Diane C Fingar, Steven Finkbeiner, Toren Finkel, Kim D Finley, Filomena Fiorito, Edward A Fisher, Paul B Fisher, Marc Flajolet, Maria L Florez-McClure, Salvatore Florio, Edward A Fon, Francesco Fornai, Franco Fortunato, Rati Fotedar, Daniel H Fowler, Howard S Fox, Rodrigo Franco, Lisa B Frankel, Marc Fransen, José M Fuentes, Juan Fueyo, Jun Fujii, Kozo Fujisaki, Eriko Fujita, Mitsunori Fukuda, Ruth H Furukawa, Matthias Gaestel, Philippe Gailly, Malgorzata Gajewska, Brigitte Galliot, Vincent Galy, Subramaniam Ganesh, Barry Ganetzky, Ian G Ganley, Fen-Biao Gao, George F Gao, Jinming Gao, Lorena Garcia, Guillermo Garcia-Manero, Mikel Garcia-Marcos, Marjan Garmyn, Andrei L Gartel, Evelina Gatti, Mathias Gautel, Thomas R Gawriluk, Matthew E Gegg, Jiefei Geng, Marc Germain, Jason E Gestwicki, David A Gewirtz, Saeid Ghavami, Pradipta Ghosh, Anna M Giammarioli, Alexandra N Giatromanolaki, Spencer B Gibson, Robert W Gilkerson, Michael L Ginger, Henry N Ginsberg, Jakub Golab, Michael S Goligorsky, Pierre Golstein, Candelaria Gomez-Manzano, Ebru Goncu, Céline Gongora, Claudio D Gonzalez, Ramon Gonzalez, Cristina González-Estévez, Rosa Ana González-Polo, Elena Gonzalez-Rey, Nikolai V Gorbunov, Sharon Gorski, Sandro Goruppi, Roberta A Gottlieb, Devrim Gozuacik, Giovanna Elvira Granato, Gary D Grant, Kim N Green, Aleš Gregorc, Frédéric Gros, Charles Grose, Thomas W Grunt, Philippe Gual, Jun-Lin Guan, Kun-Liang Guan, Sylvie M Guichard, Anna S Gukovskaya, Ilya Gukovsky, Jan Gunst, Asa B Gustafsson, Andrew J Halayko, Amber N Hale, Sandra K Halonen, Maho Hamasaki, Feng Han, Ting Han, Michael K Hancock, Malene Hansen, Hisashi Harada, Masaru Harada, Stefan E Hardt, J Wade Harper, Adrian L Harris, James Harris, Steven D Harris, Makoto Hashimoto, Jeffrey A Haspel, Shin-Ichiro Hayashi, Lori A Hazelhurst, Congcong He, You-Wen He, Marie-Josee Hebert, Kim A Heidenreich, Miep H Helfrich, Gudmundur V Helgason, Elizabeth P Henske, Brian Herman, Paul K Herman, Claudio Hetz, Sabine Hilfiker, Joseph A Hill, Lynne J Hocking, Paul Hofman, Thomas G Hofmann, Jörg Höhfeld, Tessa L Holyoake, Ming-Huang Hong, David A Hood, Gökhan S Hotamisligil, Ewout J Houwerzijl, Maria Høyer-Hansen, Bingren Hu, Chien-An A Hu, Hong-Ming Hu, Ya Hua, Canhua Huang, Ju Huang, Shengbing Huang, Wei-Pang Huang, Tobias B Huber, Won-Ki Huh, Tai-Ho Hung, Ted R Hupp, Gang Min Hur, James B Hurley, Sabah N A Hussain, Patrick J Hussey, Jung Jin Hwang, Seungmin Hwang, Atsuhiro Ichihara, Shirin Ilkhanizadeh, Ken Inoki, Takeshi Into, Valentina Iovane, Juan L Iovanna, Nancy Y Ip, Yoshitaka Isaka, Hiroyuki Ishida, Ciro Isidoro, Ken-Ichi Isobe, Akiko Iwasaki, Marta Izquierdo, Yotaro Izumi, Panu M Jaakkola, Marja Jäättelä, George R Jackson, William T Jackson, Bassam Janji, Marina Jendrach, Ju-Hong Jeon, Eui-Bae Jeung, Hong Jiang, Hongchi Jiang, Jean X Jiang, Ming Jiang, Qing Jiang, Xuejun Jiang, Alberto Jiménez, Meiyan Jin, Shengkan Jin, Cheol O Joe, Terje Johansen, Daniel E Johnson, Gail V W Johnson, Nicola L Jones, Bertrand Joseph, Suresh K Joseph, Annie M Joubert, Gábor Juhász, Lucienne Juillerat-Jeanneret, Chang Hwa Jung, Yong-Keun Jung, Kai Kaarniranta, Allen Kaasik, Tomohiro Kabuta, Motoni Kadowaki, Katarina Kågedal, Yoshiaki Kamada, Vitaliy O Kaminskyy, Harm H Kampinga, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Chanhee Kang, Khong Bee Kang, Kwang Il Kang, Rui Kang, Yoon-A Kang, Tomotake Kanki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti, Haruo Kanno, Anumantha G Kanthasamy, Arthi Kanthasamy, Vassiliki Karantza, Gur P Kaushal, Susmita Kaushik, Yoshinori Kawazoe, Po-Yuan Ke, John H Kehrl, Ameeta Kelekar, Claus Kerkhoff, David H Kessel, Hany Khalil, Jan A K W Kiel, Amy A Kiger, Akio Kihara, Deok Ryong Kim, Do-Hyung Kim, Dong-Hou Kim, Eun-Kyoung Kim, Hyung-Ryong Kim, Jae-Sung Kim, Jeong Hun Kim, Jin Cheon Kim, John K Kim, Peter K Kim, Seong Who Kim, Yong-Sun Kim, Yonghyun Kim, Adi Kimchi, Alec C Kimmelman, Jason S King, Timothy J Kinsella, Vladimir Kirkin, Lorrie A Kirshenbaum, Katsuhiko Kitamoto, Kaio Kitazato, Ludger Klein, Walter T Klimecki, Jochen Klucken, Erwin Knecht, Ben C B Ko, Jan C Koch, Hiroshi Koga, Jae-Young Koh, Young Ho Koh, Masato Koike, Masaaki Komatsu, Eiki Kominami, Hee Jeong Kong, Wei-jia Kong, Viktor I Korolchuk, Yaichiro Kotake, Michael I Koukourakis, Juan B Kouri Flores, Attila L Kovács, Claudine Kraft, Dimitri Krainc, Helmut Krämer, Carole Kretz-Remy, Anna M Krichevsky, Guido Kroemer, Rejko Krüger, Oleg Krut, Nicholas T Ktistakis, Chia-Yi Kuan, Róza Kucharczyk, Ashok Kumar, Raj Kumar, Sharad Kumar, Mondira Kundu, Hsing-Jien Kung, Tino Kurz, Ho Jeong Kwon, Albert R La Spada, Frank Lafont, Trond Lamark, Jacques Landry, Jon D Lane, Pierre Lapaquette, Jocelyn F Laporte, Lajos László, Sergio Lavandero, Josée N Lavoie, Robert Layfield, Pedro A Lazo, Weidong Le, Laurent Le Cam, Daniel J Ledbetter, Alvin J X Lee, Byung-Wan Lee, Gyun Min Lee, Jongdae Lee, Ju-Hyun Lee, Michael Lee, Myung-Shik Lee, Sug Hyung Lee, Christiaan Leeuwenburgh, Patrick Legembre, Renaud Legouis, Michael Lehmann, Huan-Yao Lei, Qun-Ying Lei, David A Leib, José Leiro, John J Lemasters, Antoinette Lemoine, Maciej S Lesniak, Dina Lev, Victor V Levenson, Beth Levine, Efrat Levy, Faqiang Li, Jun-lin Li, Lian Li, Sheng Li, Weijie Li, Xue-Jun Li, Yan-Bo Li, Yi-Ping Li, Chengyu Liang, Qiangrong Liang, Yung-Feng Liao, Pawel P Liberski, Andrew Lieberman, Hyunjung J Lim, Kah-Leong Lim, Kyu Lim, Chiou-Feng Lin, Fu-Cheng Lin, Jian Lin, Jiandie D Lin, Kui Lin, Wan-Wan Lin, Weei-Chin Lin, Yi-Ling Lin, Rafael Linden, Paul Lingor, Jennifer Lippincott-Schwartz, Michael P Lisanti, Paloma B Liton, Bo Liu, Chun-Feng Liu, Kaiyu Liu, Leyuan Liu, Qiong A Liu, Wei Liu, Young-Chau Liu, Yule Liu, Richard A Lockshin, Chun-Nam Lok, Sagar Lonial, Benjamin Loos, Gabriel Lopez-Berestein, Carlos Lopez-Otin, Laura Lossi, Michael T Lotze, Péter Low, Binfeng Lu, Bingwei Lu, Bo Lu, Zhen Lu, Fredéric Luciano, Nicholas W Lukacs, Anders H Lund, Melinda A Lynch-Day, Yong Ma, Fernando Macian, Jeff P MacKeigan, Kay F Macleod, Frank Madeo, Luigi Maiuri, Maria Chiara Maiuri, Davide Malagoli, May Christine V Malicdan, Walter Malorni, Na Man, Eva-Maria Mandelkow, Stéphen Manon, Irena Manov, Kai Mao, Xiang Mao, Zixu Mao, Philippe Marambaud, Daniela Marazziti, Yves L Marcel, Katie Marchbank, Piero Marchetti, Stefan J Marciniak, Mateus Marcondes, Mohsen Mardi, Gabriella Marfè, Guillermo Mariño, Maria Markaki, Mark R Marten, Seamus J Martin, Camille Martinand-Mari, Wim Martinet, Marta Martinez-Vicente, Matilde Masini, Paola Matarrese, Saburo Matsuo, Raffaele Matteoni, Andreas Mayer, Nathalie M Mazure, David J McConkey, Melanie J McConnell, Catherine McDermott, Christine McDonald, Gerald M McInerney, Sharon L McKenna, BethAnn McLaughlin, Pamela J McLean, Christopher R McMaster, G Angus McQuibban, Alfred J Meijer, Miriam H Meisler, Alicia Meléndez, Thomas J Melia, Gerry Melino, Maria A Mena, Javier A Menendez, Rubem F S Menna-Barreto, Manoj B Menon, Fiona M Menzies, Carol A Mercer, Adalberto Merighi, Diane E Merry, Stefania Meschini, Christian G Meyer, Thomas F Meyer, Chao-Yu Miao, Jun-Ying Miao, Paul A M Michels, Carine Michiels, Dalibor Mijaljica, Ana Milojkovic, Saverio Minucci, Clelia Miracco, Cindy K Miranti, Ioannis Mitroulis, Keisuke Miyazawa, Noboru Mizushima, Baharia Mograbi, Simin Mohseni, Xavier Molero, Bertrand Mollereau, Faustino Mollinedo, Takashi Momoi, Iryna Monastyrska, Martha M Monick, Mervyn J Monteiro, Michael N Moore, Rodrigo Mora, Kevin Moreau, Paula I Moreira, Yuji Moriyasu, Jorge Moscat, Serge Mostowy, Jeremy C Mottram, Tomasz Motyl, Charbel E-H Moussa, Sylke Müller, Sylviane Muller, Karl Münger, Christian Münz, Leon O Murphy, Maureen E Murphy, Antonio Musarò, Indira Mysorekar, Eiichiro Nagata, Kazuhiro Nagata, Aimable Nahimana, Usha Nair, Toshiyuki Nakagawa, Kiichi Nakahira, Hiroyasu Nakano, Hitoshi Nakatogawa, Meera Nanjundan, Naweed I Naqvi, Derek P Narendra, Masashi Narita, Miguel Navarro, Steffan T Nawrocki, Taras Y Nazarko, Andriy Nemchenko, Mihai G Netea, Thomas P Neufeld, Paul A Ney, Ioannis P Nezis, Huu Phuc Nguyen, Daotai Nie, Ichizo Nishino, Corey Nislow, Ralph A Nixon, Takeshi Noda, Angelika A Noegel, Anna Nogalska, Satoru Noguchi, Lucia Notterpek, Ivana Novak, Tomoyoshi Nozaki, Nobuyuki Nukina, Thorsten Nürnberger, Beat Nyfeler, Keisuke Obara, Terry D Oberley, Salvatore Oddo, Michinaga Ogawa, Toya Ohashi, Koji Okamoto, Nancy L Oleinick, F Javier Oliver, Laura J Olsen, Stefan Olsson, Onya Opota, Timothy F Osborne, Gary K Ostrander, Kinya Otsu, Jing-hsiung James Ou, Mireille Ouimet, Michael Overholtzer, Bulent Ozpolat, Paolo Paganetti, Ugo Pagnini, Nicolas Pallet, Glen E Palmer, Camilla Palumbo, Tianhong Pan, Theocharis Panaretakis, Udai Bhan Pandey, Zuzana Papackova, Issidora Papassideri, Irmgard Paris, Junsoo Park, Ohkmae K Park, Jan B Parys, Katherine R Parzych, Susann Patschan, Cam Patterson, Sophie Pattingre, John M Pawelek, Jianxin Peng, David H Perlmutter, Ida Perrotta, George Perry, Shazib Pervaiz, Matthias Peter, Godefridus J Peters, Morten Petersen, Goran Petrovski, James M Phang, Mauro Piacentini, Philippe Pierre, Valérie Pierrefite-Carle, Gérard Pierron, Ronit Pinkas-Kramarski, Antonio Piras, Natik Piri, Leonidas C Platanias, Stefanie Pöggeler, Marc Poirot, Angelo Poletti, Christian Poüs, Mercedes Pozuelo-Rubio, Mette Prætorius-Ibba, Anil Prasad, Mark Prescott, Muriel Priault, Nathalie Produit-Zengaffinen, Ann Progulske-Fox, Tassula Proikas-Cezanne, Serge Przedborski, Karin Przyklenk, Rosa Puertollano, Julien Puyal, Shu-Bing Qian, Liang Qin, Zheng-Hong Qin, Susan E Quaggin, Nina Raben, Hannah Rabinowich, Simon W Rabkin, Irfan Rahman, Abdelhaq Rami, Georg Ramm, Glenn Randall, Felix Randow, V Ashutosh Rao, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Brinda Ravikumar, Swapan K Ray, Bruce H Reed, John C Reed, Fulvio Reggiori, Anne Regnier-Vigouroux, Andreas S Reichert, John J Reiners, Russel J Reiter, Jun Ren, Jose L Revuelta, Christopher J Rhodes, Konstantinos Ritis, Elizete Rizzo, Jeffrey Robbins, Michel Roberge, Hernan Roca, Maria C Roccheri, Stéphane Rocchi, H Peter Rodemann, Santiago Rodríguez de Córdoba, Bärbel Rohrer, Igor B Roninson, Kirill Rosen, Magdalena M Rost-Roszkowska, Mustapha Rouis, Kasper M A Rouschop, Francesca Rovetta, Brian P Rubin, David C Rubinsztein, Klaus Ruckdeschel, Edmund B Rucker, Assaf Rudich, Emil Rudolf, Nelson Ruiz-Opazo, Rossella Russo, Tor Erik Rusten, Kevin M Ryan, Stefan W Ryter, David M Sabatini, Junichi Sadoshima, Tapas Saha, Tatsuya Saitoh, Hiroshi Sakagami, Yasuyoshi Sakai, Ghasem Hoseini Salekdeh, Paolo Salomoni, Paul M Salvaterra, Guy Salvesen, Rosa Salvioli, Anthony M J Sanchez, José A Sánchez-Alcázar, Ricardo Sánchez-Prieto, Marco Sandri, Uma Sankar, Poonam Sansanwal, Laura Santambrogio, Shweta Saran, Sovan Sarkar, Minnie Sarwal, Chihiro Sasakawa, Ausra Sasnauskiene, Miklós Sass, Ken Sato, Miyuki Sato, Anthony H V Schapira, Michael Scharl, Hermann M Schätzl, Wiep Scheper, Stefano Schiaffino, Claudio Schneider, Marion E Schneider, Regine Schneider-Stock, Patricia V Schoenlein, Daniel F Schorderet, Christoph Schüller, Gary K Schwartz, Luca Scorrano, Linda Sealy, Per O Seglen, Juan Segura-Aguilar, Iban Seiliez, Oleksandr Seleverstov, Christian Sell, Jong Bok Seo, Duska Separovic, Vijayasaradhi Setaluri, Takao Setoguchi, Carmine Settembre, John J Shacka, Mala Shanmugam, Irving M Shapiro, Eitan Shaulian, Reuben J Shaw, James H Shelhamer, Han-Ming Shen, Wei-Chiang Shen, Zu-Hang Sheng, Yang Shi, Kenichi Shibuya, Yoshihiro Shidoji, Jeng-Jer Shieh, Chwen-Ming Shih, Yohta Shimada, Shigeomi Shimizu, Takahiro Shintani, Orian S Shirihai, Gordon C Shore, Andriy A Sibirny, Stan B Sidhu, Beata Sikorska, Elaine C M Silva-Zacarin, Alison Simmons, Anna Katharina Simon, Hans-Uwe Simon, Cristiano Simone, Anne Simonsen, David A Sinclair, Rajat Singh, Debasish Sinha, Frank A Sinicrope, Agnieszka Sirko, Parco M Siu, Efthimios Sivridis, Vojtech Skop, Vladimir P Skulachev, Ruth S Slack, Soraya S Smaili, Duncan R Smith, María S Soengas, Thierry Soldati, Xueqin Song, Anil K Sood, Tuck Wah Soong, Federica Sotgia, Stephen A Spector, Claudia D Spies, Wolfdieter Springer, Srinivasa M Srinivasula, Leonidas Stefanis, Joan S Steffan, Ruediger Stendel, Harald Stenmark, Anastasis Stephanou, Stephan T Stern, Cinthya Sternberg, Björn Stork, Peter Stralfors, Carlos S Subauste, Xinbing Sui, David Sulzer, Jiaren Sun, Shi-Yong Sun, Zhi-Jun Sun, Joseph J Y Sung, Kuninori Suzuki, Toshihiko Suzuki, Michele S Swanson, Charles Swanton, Sean T Sweeney, Lai-King Sy, Gyorgy Szabadkai, Ira Tabas, Heinrich Taegtmeyer, Marco Tafani, Krisztina Takács-Vellai, Yoshitaka Takano, Kaoru Takegawa, Genzou Takemura, Fumihiko Takeshita, Nicholas J Talbot, Kevin S W Tan, Keiji Tanaka, Kozo Tanaka, Daolin Tang, Dingzhong Tang, Isei Tanida, Bakhos A Tannous, Nektarios Tavernarakis, Graham S Taylor, Gregory A Taylor, J Paul Taylor, Lance S Terada, Alexei Terman, Gianluca Tettamanti, Karin Thevissen, Craig B Thompson, Andrew Thorburn, Michael Thumm, Fengfeng Tian, Yuan Tian, Glauco Tocchini-Valentini, Aviva M Tolkovsky, Yasuhiko Tomino, Lars Tönges, Sharon A Tooze, Cathy Tournier, John Tower, Roberto Towns, Vladimir Trajkovic, Leonardo H Travassos, Ting-Fen Tsai, Mario P Tschan, Takeshi Tsubata, Allan Tsung, Boris Turk, Lorianne S Turner, Suresh C Tyagi, Yasuo Uchiyama, Takashi Ueno, Midori Umekawa, Rika Umemiya-Shirafuji, Vivek K Unni, Maria I Vaccaro, Enza Maria Valente, Greet Van den Berghe, Ida J van der Klei, Wouter van Doorn, Linda F van Dyk, Marjolein van Egmond, Leo A van Grunsven, Peter Vandenabeele, Wim P Vandenberghe, Ilse Vanhorebeek, Eva C Vaquero, Guillermo Velasco, Tibor Vellai, Jose Miguel Vicencio, Richard D Vierstra, Miquel Vila, Cécile Vindis, Giampietro Viola, Maria Teresa Viscomi, Olga V Voitsekhovskaja, Clarissa von Haefen, Marcela Votruba, Keiji Wada, Richard Wade-Martins, Cheryl L Walker, Craig M Walsh, Jochen Walter, Xiang-Bo Wan, Aimin Wang, Chenguang Wang, Dawei Wang, Fan Wang, Fen Wang, Guanghui Wang, Haichao Wang, Hong-Gang Wang, Horng-Dar Wang, Jin Wang, Ke Wang, Mei Wang, Richard C Wang, Xinglong Wang, Xuejun Wang, Ying-Jan Wang, Yipeng Wang, Zhen Wang, Zhigang Charles Wang, Zhinong Wang, Derick G Wansink, Diane M Ward, Hirotaka Watada, Sarah L Waters, Paul Webster, Lixin Wei, Conrad C Weihl, William A Weiss, Scott M Welford, Long-Ping Wen, Caroline A Whitehouse, J Lindsay Whitton, Alexander J Whitworth, Tom Wileman, John W Wiley, Simon Wilkinson, Dieter Willbold, Roger L Williams, Peter R Williamson, Bradly G Wouters, Chenghan Wu, Dao-Cheng Wu, William K K Wu, Andreas Wyttenbach, Ramnik J Xavier, Zhijun Xi, Pu Xia, Gengfu Xiao, Zhiping Xie, Zhonglin Xie, Da-zhi Xu, Jianzhen Xu, Liang Xu, Xiaolei Xu, Ai Yamamoto, Akitsugu Yamamoto, Shunhei Yamashina, Michiaki Yamashita, Xianghua Yan, Mitsuhiro Yanagida, Dun-Sheng Yang, Elizabeth Yang, Jin-Ming Yang, Shi Yu Yang, Wannian Yang, Wei Yuan Yang, Zhifen Yang, Meng-Chao Yao, Tso-Pang Yao, Behzad Yeganeh, Wei-Lien Yen, Jia-Jing Yin, Xiao-Ming Yin, Ook-Joon Yoo, Gyesoon Yoon, Seung-Yong Yoon, Tomohiro Yorimitsu, Yuko Yoshikawa, Tamotsu Yoshimori, Kohki Yoshimoto, Ho Jin You, Richard J Youle, Anas Younes, Li Yu, Long Yu, Seong-Woon Yu, Wai Haung Yu, Zhi-Min Yuan, Zhenyu Yue, Cheol-Heui Yun, Michisuke Yuzaki, Olga Zabirnyk, Elaine Silva-Zacarin, David Zacks, Eldad Zacksenhaus, Nadia Zaffaroni, Zahra Zakeri, Herbert J Zeh, Scott O Zeitlin, Hong Zhang, Hui-Ling Zhang, Jianhua Zhang, Jing-Pu Zhang, Lin Zhang, Long Zhang, Ming-Yong Zhang, Xu Dong Zhang, Mantong Zhao, Yi-Fang Zhao, Ying Zhao, Zhizhuang J Zhao, Xiaoxiang Zheng, Boris Zhivotovsky, Qing Zhong, Cong-Zhao Zhou, Changlian Zhu, Wei-Guo Zhu, Xiao-feng Zhu, Xiongwei Zhu, Yuangang Zhu, Teresa Zoladek, Wei-Xing Zong, Antonio Zorzano, Jürgen Zschocke, Brian Zuckerbraun.
Autophagy
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In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Accordingly, it is important to update these guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Various reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose. Nevertheless, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers or volume of autophagic elements (e.g., autophagosomes or autolysosomes) at any stage of the autophagic process vs. those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway (i.e., the complete process); thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from stimuli that result in increased autophagic activity, defined as increased autophagy induction coupled with increased delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes and some protists such as Dictyostelium) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). In other words, it is especially important that investigators new to the field understand that the appearance of more autophagosomes does not necessarily equate with more autophagy. In fact, in many cases, autophagosomes accumulate because of a block in trafficking to lysosomes without a concomitant change in autophagosome biogenesis, whereas an increase in autolysosomes may reflect a reduction in degradative activity. Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of methods for use by investigators who aim to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as for reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to monitor autophagy. In these guidelines, we consider these various methods of assessing autophagy and what information can, or cannot, be obtained from them. Finally, by discussing the merits and limits of particular autophagy assays, we hope to encourage technical innovation in the field.
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Systemic delivery of siRNA by chimeric capsid protein: tumor targeting and RNAi activity in vivo.
Mol. Pharm.
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Recently, we reported that a chimeric capsid protein assembled into a macromolecular container-like structure with capsid shell and the resulting siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in the cell culture system. To extend RNAi to the in vivo applications, we here demonstrated that the siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes could have tumor-specific targeting ability in vivo as well as the increased stability of siRNA during body circulation. When systemically administered, our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes delivered siRNA to tumor tissues and efficiently suppressed RFP gene expression in tumor-bearing mice. The enhanced longevity of siRNA in vivo could be explained by shielding effect derived from the capsid shell, where the encapsulated siRNAs are protected from nucleases in plasma. The multivalent RGD peptides on shell surface, as a result of self-assembling of capsid protein subunits, showed efficient delivery of siRNA to the tumor tissues in vivo, due to the RGD-mediated binding to integrin receptors overexpressed on tumor cells. Moreover, the prolonged in vivo circulation time of our siRNA/capsid nanocarrier complexes increased the potential to serve as siRNA carriers for optimal in vivo RNAi. These results provide an alternative approach to systemically deliver siRNA to the tumor sites as well as to enhance the stability of siRNA in vivo. Therefore, our results revealed the promising potential of our capsid nanocarrier system as a therapeutic siRNA carrier for cancer treatment.
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Novel ?-structure of YLR301w from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
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When the Z-type variant of human ?(1)-antitrypsin was overexpressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, proteomics analysis identified YLR301w as one of the up-regulated proteins. YLR301w is a 27.5 kDa protein with no sequence homology to any known protein and has been reported to interact with Sec72 and Hrr25. The crystal structure of S. cerevisiae YLR301w has been determined at 2.3 Å resolution, revealing a novel ?-structure. It consists of an N-terminal ten-stranded ?-barrel with two short ?-helices connected by a 23-residue linker to a seven-stranded half-barrel with two short helices at the C-terminus. The N-terminal barrel has a highly conserved hydrophobic channel that can bind hydrophobic molecules such as PEG. It forms a homodimer both in the crystal and in solution. YLR301w binds Sec72 with a K(d) of 6.2 µM, but the biological significance of this binding requires further investigation.
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