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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Trends in bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy among Taiwanese women undergoing benign hysterectomy: a population-based, pooled, cross-sectional study.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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This study aims to examine recent trends in the performance of elective bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy at benign hysterectomy and to identify associated patient and provider-related characteristics from 2000 to 2010.
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Genetic Loci Associated with Circulating Levels of Very Long-Chain Saturated Fatty Acids.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Very long-chain saturated fatty acids (VLSFA) are saturated fatty acids with 20 or more carbons. In contrast to the more abundant saturated fatty acids, such as palmitic acid, there is growing evidence that circulating VLSFA may have beneficial biological properties. Whether genetic factors influence circulating levels of VLSFA is not known. We investigated the association of common genetic variation with plasma phospholipid/erythrocyte levels of three VLSFA by performing genome-wide association studies in seven population-based cohorts comprising 10,129 subjects of European ancestry. We observed associations of circulating VLSFA concentrations with common variants in two genes, SPTLC3 (serine palmitoyl-transferase, long-chain base subunit 3), a gene involved in the rate-limiting step of de novo sphingolipid synthesis, and CERS4 (ceramide synthase 4). The SPTLC3 variant at rs680379 was associated with higher 20:0 (arachidic acid, p = 5.81x10-13). The CERS4 variant at rs2100944 was associated with higher levels of 20:0 (p = 2.65x10-40) and in analyses that adjusted for 20:0, with lower levels of 22:0 (behenic acid, p = 4.22x10-26) and 24:0 (lignoceric acid, p = 3.20x10-21). These novel associations highlight the inter-relationship of circulating VLSFA and sphingolipid synthesis.
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The sinus venosus contributes to coronary vasculature through VEGFC-stimulated angiogenesis.
Development
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Identifying coronary artery progenitors and their developmental pathways could inspire novel regenerative treatments for heart disease. Multiple sources of coronary vessels have been proposed, including the sinus venosus (SV), endocardium and proepicardium, but their relative contributions to the coronary circulation and the molecular mechanisms regulating their development are poorly understood. We created an ApjCreER mouse line as a lineage-tracing tool to map SV-derived vessels onto the heart and compared the resulting lineage pattern with endocardial and proepicardial contributions to the coronary circulation. The data showed a striking compartmentalization to coronary development. ApjCreER-traced vessels contributed to a large number of arteries, capillaries and veins on the dorsal and lateral sides of the heart. By contrast, untraced vessels predominated in the midline of the ventral aspect and ventricular septum, which are vessel populations primarily derived from the endocardium. The proepicardium gave rise to a smaller fraction of vessels spaced relatively uniformly throughout the ventricular walls. Dorsal (SV-derived) and ventral (endocardial-derived) coronary vessels developed in response to different growth signals. The absence of VEGFC, which is expressed in the epicardium, dramatically inhibited dorsal and lateral coronary growth but left vessels on the ventral side unaffected. We propose that complementary SV-derived and endocardial-derived migratory routes unite to form the coronary vasculature and that the former requires VEGFC, revealing its role as a tissue-specific mediator of blood endothelial development.
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Novel permanent magnet linear motor with isolated movers: Analytical, numerical and experimental study.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2014
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This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet linear motor possessing two movers and one stator. The two movers are isolated and can interact with the stator poles to generate independent forces and motions. Compared with conventional multiple motor driving system, it helps to increase the system compactness, and thus improve the power density and working efficiency. The magnetic field distribution is obtained by using equivalent magnetic circuit method. Following that, the formulation of force output considering armature reaction is carried out. Then inductances are analyzed with finite element method to investigate the relationships of the two movers. It is found that the mutual-inductances are nearly equal to zero, and thus the interaction between the two movers is negligible. A research prototype of the linear motor and a measurement apparatus on thrust force have been developed. Both numerical computation and experiment measurement are conducted to validate the analytical model of thrust force. Comparison shows that the analytical model matches the numerical and experimental results well.
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Hepatitis C virus NS5A protein enhances gluconeogenesis through upregulation of Akt-/JNK-PEPCK signalling pathways.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is highly associated with the type 2 diabetes mellitus, but the detailed mechanisms by which the viral proteins are involved in the clinical outcome remain unclear.
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A controlled pilot trial of two commercial video games for rehabilitation of arm function after stroke.
Clin Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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To investigate the acceptability and potential efficacy of two commercial video games for improving upper extremity function after stroke in order to inform future sample size and study design.
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Reference-free beam-sampling system for freeform surface measurements.
Appl Opt
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Freeform optical elements have wide applications in optics, manufacturing, and precision industries. Due to the diversity of the nonrotationally symmetrical nature of a surface profile, few noncontact measurement techniques have been proposed or reported. This paper proposes and develops a new reference-free beam-sampling (RFBS) methodology and system for this particular application. The RFBS system uses the beam itself as an optical probe to sample the surface. Through introducing lateral disturbance to the modulated beam, the curvature matrix of the sample is measured. Simulation and experiments have been conducted to investigate the method's capability and study the configuration, so as to optimize the system. It is shown that a tens of nanometers measurement accuracy is achieved, even for surfaces with a peak valley value of more than 1 mm. The feasibility and effectiveness of the RFBS methodology is proven.
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Trends and outcome predictors after traumatic brain injury surgery: a nationwide population-based study in Taiwan.
J. Neurosurg.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Object The authors sought to analyze trends in hospital resource utilization and mortality rates in a population of patients who had received traumatic brain injury (TBI) surgery. Methods This nationwide population-based cohort study retrospectively analyzed 18,286 patients who had received surgical treatment for TBI between 1998 and 2010. The multiple linear regression model and Cox proportional hazards model were used for multivariate assessment of outcome predictors. Results The prevalence rate of surgical treatment for patients with TBI gradually but significantly (p < 0.001) increased by 47.6% from 5.0 per 100,000 persons in 1998 to 7.4 per 100,000 persons in 2010. Age, sex, Deyo-Charlson comorbidity index score, hospital volume, and surgeon volume were significantly associated with TBI surgery outcomes (p < 0.05). Over the 12-year period analyzed, the estimated mean hospital treatment cost increased 19.06%, whereas the in-hospital mortality rate decreased 10.9%. The estimated mean time of overall survival after TBI surgery (± SD) was 83.0 ± 4.2 months, and the overall in-hospital and 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates were 74.5%, 67.3%, 61.1%, and 57.8%, respectively. Conclusions These data reveal an increased prevalence of TBI, especially in older patients, and an increased hospital treatment cost but a decreased in-hospital mortality rate. Health care providers and patients should recognize that attributes of the patient and of the hospital may affect hospital resource utilization and the mortality rate. These results are relevant not only to other countries with similar population sizes but also to countries with larger populations.
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Persistence and adherence with urinary antispasmodic medications among employees and the impact of adherence on costs and absenteeism.
J Manag Care Pharm
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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Overactive bladder (OAB) and related conditions, such as urge urinary incontinence (UI), can interfere with work, leisure activities, and healthy sleep patterns.
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Candida albicans ethanol stimulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa WspR-controlled biofilm formation as part of a cyclic relationship involving phenazines.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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In chronic infections, pathogens are often in the presence of other microbial species. For example, Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common and detrimental lung pathogen in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF) and co-infections with Candida albicans are common. Here, we show that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation and phenazine production were strongly influenced by ethanol produced by the fungus C. albicans. Ethanol stimulated phenotypes that are indicative of increased levels of cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP), and levels of c-di-GMP were 2-fold higher in the presence of ethanol. Through a genetic screen, we found that the diguanylate cyclase WspR was required for ethanol stimulation of c-di-GMP. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that ethanol stimulates WspR signaling through its cognate sensor WspA, and promotes WspR-dependent activation of Pel exopolysaccharide production, which contributes to biofilm maturation. We also found that ethanol stimulation of WspR promoted P. aeruginosa colonization of CF airway epithelial cells. P. aeruginosa production of phenazines occurs both in the CF lung and in culture, and phenazines enhance ethanol production by C. albicans. Using a C. albicans adh1/adh1 mutant with decreased ethanol production, we found that fungal ethanol strongly altered the spectrum of P. aeruginosa phenazines in favor of those that are most effective against fungi. Thus, a feedback cycle comprised of ethanol and phenazines drives this polymicrobial interaction, and these relationships may provide insight into why co-infection with both P. aeruginosa and C. albicans has been associated with worse outcomes in cystic fibrosis.
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Hemostatic powder TC-325 in the management of upper and lower gastrointestinal bleeding: a two-year experience at a single institution.
Endoscopy
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Background and study aims: TC-325 is a novel endoscopic hemostatic powder. Our aim was to describe a single-center experience with the use of TC-325 in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract, while for the first time attempting to determine how long the powder remains on a lesion. Patients and methods: The charts of consecutive patients receiving TC-325 therapy between July 2011 and July 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. Primary endpoints included immediate hemostasis and early rebleeding (??72 hours). Results: Overall, 60 patients received 67 treatments with TC-325: 21 for nonmalignant nonvariceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 19 for malignant upper gastrointestinal bleeding, 11 for lower gastrointestinal bleeding, and 16 for intra-procedural bleeding. Immediate hemostasis was achieved in 66 cases (98.5?%), with 6 cases (9.5?%) of early rebleeding. No serious adverse events were noted. No TC-325 powder was identified in the 11 patients who underwent second-look endoscopy, performed within 24 hours in 4 patients. Conclusions: TC-325 appears safe and effective for managing bleeding in the upper and lower gastrointestinal tract with a variety of causes. The time during which the powder remains in the gastrointestinal tract is short, with complete elimination from the gastrointestinal tract as early as within 24 hours after use.
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Androgen receptor roles in insulin resistance and obesity in males: the linkage of androgen-deprivation therapy to metabolic syndrome.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is one of the most frequently diagnosed malignancies in men. Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) is the first-line treatment and fundamental management for men with advanced PCa to suppress functions of androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signaling. ADT is effective at improving cancer symptoms and prolonging survival. However, epidemiological and clinical studies support the notion that testosterone deficiency in men leads to the development of metabolic syndrome that increases cardiovascular disease risk. The underlying mechanisms by which androgen/AR signaling regulates metabolic homeostasis in men are complex, and in this review, we discuss molecular mechanisms mediated by AR signaling that link ADT to metabolic syndrome. Results derived from various AR knockout mouse models reveal tissue-specific AR signaling that is involved in regulation of metabolism. These data suggest that steps be taken early to manage metabolic complications associated with PCa patients receiving ADT, which could be accomplished using tissue-selective modulation of AR signaling and by treatment with insulin-sensitizing agents.
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A mechanistic study on urine retention in d-amphetamine addicts.
Chin J Physiol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Chronic amphetamine intake leads to neurogenic bladder and chronic urinary retention. The mechanism underlying persistent urinary retention is unclear. The pelvic-urethral reflex (PUR) is essential for the urethra to develop sufficient resistance to maintain urine continence, an important function of the urinary system. Recent studies on PUR activities have indicated that repetitive/tetanic stimulation of the pelvic afferent fibers induces spinal reflex potentiation (SRP) in PUR activities, which further increases urinary retention. In this study, results showed that test stimulation (TS, 1/30 Hz) evoked a baseline reflex activity, while repetitive stimulation (RS, 1 Hz) induced reflex potentiation in the external urethral sphincter. Intrathecal d-amphetamine (AMPH, 30 ?M) did not but higher AMPH concentration (100 ?M) induced SRP in TS-induced reflex activity. H89 (10 ?M, a protein kinase A inhibitor), but not chelerythrine chloride (CTC, 10 ?M, a protein kinase C inhibitor), prevented the 100 ?M AMPH-elicited SRP. At 30 ?M, forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, elicited SRP. The co-administration of 10 ?M forskolin and 30 ?M AMPH induced SRP in TS-induced reflex activity. These results implied that the repetitive/tetanic stimulation of the pelvic afferent fibers could induce SRP in PUR activities, so that the urethra can produce sufficient resistance and played a significant role in urinary retention. Findings in this study demonstrated that amphetamine could induce bladder dysfunction by triggering protein kinase A activation, and provide a practical basis for the development of treatment for amphetamine-associated urinary retention.
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Routine vs. expert-guided transvaginal ultrasound in the diagnosis of endometriosis: A retrospective review.
Abdom Imaging
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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The objective of this study is to evaluate the sensitivity of routine trans vaginal ultrasound (TVUS) compared to expert-guided transvaginal ultrasound (ETVUS) for the diagnosis of endometriosis.
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Electron and positron fluxes in primary cosmic rays measured with the alpha magnetic spectrometer on the international space station.
M Aguilar, D Aisa, A Alvino, G Ambrosi, K Andeen, L Arruda, N Attig, P Azzarello, A Bachlechner, F Barao, A Barrau, L Barrin, A Bartoloni, L Basara, M Battarbee, R Battiston, J Bazo, U Becker, M Behlmann, B Beischer, J Berdugo, B Bertucci, G Bigongiari, V Bindi, S Bizzaglia, M Bizzarri, G Boella, W De Boer, K Bollweg, V Bonnivard, B Borgia, S Borsini, M J Boschini, M Bourquin, J Burger, F Cadoux, X D Cai, M Capell, S Caroff, J Casaus, V Cascioli, G Castellini, I Cernuda, F Cervelli, M J Chae, Y H Chang, A I Chen, H Chen, G M Cheng, H S Chen, L Cheng, A Chikanian, H Y Chou, E Choumilov, V Choutko, C H Chung, C Clark, R Clavero, G Coignet, C Consolandi, A Contin, C Corti, B Coste, Z Cui, M Dai, C Delgado, S Della Torre, M B Demirköz, L Derome, S Di Falco, L Di Masso, F Dimiccoli, C Díaz, P von Doetinchem, W J Du, M Duranti, D D'Urso, A Eline, F J Eppling, T Eronen, Y Y Fan, L Farnesini, J Feng, E Fiandrini, A Fiasson, E Finch, P Fisher, Y Galaktionov, G Gallucci, B García, R García-López, H Gast, I Gebauer, M Gervasi, A Ghelfi, W Gillard, F Giovacchini, P Goglov, J Gong, C Goy, V Grabski, D Grandi, M Graziani, C Guandalini, I Guerri, K H Guo, M Habiby, S Haino, K C Han, Z H He, M Heil, J Hoffman, T H Hsieh, Z C Huang, C Huh, M Incagli, M Ionica, W Y Jang, H Jinchi, K Kanishev, G N Kim, K S Kim, Th Kirn, R Kossakowski, O Kounina, A Kounine, V Koutsenko, M S Krafczyk, S Kunz, G La Vacca, E Laudi, G Laurenti, I Lazzizzera, A Lebedev, H T Lee, S C Lee, C Leluc, H L Li, J Q Li, Q Li, T X Li, W Li, Y Li, Z H Li, Z Y Li, S Lim, C H Lin, P Lipari, T Lippert, D Liu, H Liu, T Lomtadze, M J Lu, Y S Lu, K Luebelsmeyer, F Luo, J Z Luo, S S Lv, R Majka, A Malinin, C Mañá, J Marin, T Martin, G Martinez, N Masi, D Maurin, A Menchaca-Rocha, Q Meng, D C Mo, L Morescalchi, P Mott, M Müller, J Q Ni, N Nikonov, F Nozzoli, P Nunes, A Obermeier, A Oliva, M Orcinha, F Palmonari, C Palomares, M Paniccia, A Papi, E Pedreschi, S Pensotti, R Pereira, F Pilo, A Piluso, C Pizzolotto, V Plyaskin, M Pohl, V Poireau, E Postaci, A Putze, L Quadrani, X M Qi, P G Rancoita, D Rapin, J S Ricol, I Rodríguez, S Rosier-Lees, A Rozhkov, D Rozza, R Sagdeev, J Sandweiss, P Saouter, C Sbarra, S Schael, S M Schmidt, D Schuckardt, A Schulz von Dratzig, G Schwering, G Scolieri, E S Seo, B S Shan, Y H Shan, J Y Shi, X Y Shi, Y M Shi, T Siedenburg, D Son, F Spada, F Spinella, W Sun, W H Sun, M Tacconi, C P Tang, X W Tang, Z C Tang, L Tao, D Tescaro, Samuel C C Ting, S M Ting, N Tomassetti, J Torsti, C Türkoğlu, T Urban, V Vagelli, E Valente, C Vannini, E Valtonen, S Vaurynovich, M Vecchi, M Velasco, J P Vialle, L Q Wang, Q L Wang, R S Wang, X Wang, Z X Wang, Z L Weng, K Whitman, J Wienkenhöver, H Wu, X Xia, M Xie, S Xie, R Q Xiong, G M Xin, N S Xu, W Xu, Q Yan, J Yang, M Yang, Q H Ye, H Yi, Y J Yu, Z Q Yu, S Zeissler, J H Zhang, M T Zhang, X B Zhang, Z Zhang, Z M Zheng, H L Zhuang, V Zhukov, A Zichichi, N Zimmermann, P Zuccon, C Zurbach, .
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Precision measurements by the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station of the primary cosmic-ray electron flux in the range 0.5 to 700 GeV and the positron flux in the range 0.5 to 500 GeV are presented. The electron flux and the positron flux each require a description beyond a single power-law spectrum. Both the electron flux and the positron flux change their behavior at ?30??GeV but the fluxes are significantly different in their magnitude and energy dependence. Between 20 and 200 GeV the positron spectral index is significantly harder than the electron spectral index. The determination of the differing behavior of the spectral indices versus energy is a new observation and provides important information on the origins of cosmic-ray electrons and positrons.
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High Statistics Measurement of the Positron Fraction in Primary Cosmic Rays of 0.5-500 GeV with the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer on the International Space Station.
L Accardo, M Aguilar, D Aisa, B Alpat, A Alvino, G Ambrosi, K Andeen, L Arruda, N Attig, P Azzarello, A Bachlechner, F Barao, A Barrau, L Barrin, A Bartoloni, L Basara, M Battarbee, R Battiston, J Bazo, U Becker, M Behlmann, B Beischer, J Berdugo, B Bertucci, G Bigongiari, V Bindi, S Bizzaglia, M Bizzarri, G Boella, W De Boer, K Bollweg, V Bonnivard, B Borgia, S Borsini, M J Boschini, M Bourquin, J Burger, F Cadoux, X D Cai, M Capell, S Caroff, G Carosi, J Casaus, V Cascioli, G Castellini, I Cernuda, D Cerreta, F Cervelli, M J Chae, Y H Chang, A I Chen, H Chen, G M Cheng, H S Chen, L Cheng, A Chikanian, H Y Chou, E Choumilov, V Choutko, C H Chung, F Cindolo, C Clark, R Clavero, G Coignet, C Consolandi, A Contin, C Corti, B Coste, Z Cui, M Dai, C Delgado, S Della Torre, M B Demirköz, L Derome, S Di Falco, L Di Masso, F Dimiccoli, C Díaz, P von Doetinchem, W J Du, M Duranti, D D'Urso, A Eline, F J Eppling, T Eronen, Y Y Fan, L Farnesini, J Feng, E Fiandrini, A Fiasson, E Finch, P Fisher, Y Galaktionov, G Gallucci, B García, R García-López, H Gast, I Gebauer, M Gervasi, A Ghelfi, W Gillard, F Giovacchini, P Goglov, J Gong, C Goy, V Grabski, D Grandi, M Graziani, C Guandalini, I Guerri, K H Guo, D Haas, M Habiby, S Haino, K C Han, Z H He, M Heil, R Henning, J Hoffman, T H Hsieh, Z C Huang, C Huh, M Incagli, M Ionica, W Y Jang, H Jinchi, K Kanishev, G N Kim, K S Kim, Th Kirn, R Kossakowski, O Kounina, A Kounine, V Koutsenko, M S Krafczyk, S Kunz, G La Vacca, E Laudi, G Laurenti, I Lazzizzera, A Lebedev, H T Lee, S C Lee, C Leluc, G Levi, H L Li, J Q Li, Q Li, T X Li, W Li, Y Li, Z H Li, Z Y Li, S Lim, C H Lin, P Lipari, T Lippert, D Liu, H Liu, M Lolli, T Lomtadze, M J Lu, Y S Lu, K Luebelsmeyer, F Luo, J Z Luo, S S Lv, R Majka, A Malinin, C Mañá, J Marin, T Martin, G Martinez, N Masi, F Massera, D Maurin, A Menchaca-Rocha, Q Meng, D C Mo, B Monreal, L Morescalchi, P Mott, M Müller, J Q Ni, N Nikonov, F Nozzoli, P Nunes, A Obermeier, A Oliva, M Orcinha, F Palmonari, C Palomares, M Paniccia, A Papi, M Pauluzzi, E Pedreschi, S Pensotti, R Pereira, R Pilastrini, F Pilo, A Piluso, C Pizzolotto, V Plyaskin, M Pohl, V Poireau, E Postaci, A Putze, L Quadrani, X M Qi, P G Rancoita, D Rapin, J S Ricol, I Rodríguez, S Rosier-Lees, L Rossi, A Rozhkov, D Rozza, G Rybka, R Sagdeev, J Sandweiss, P Saouter, C Sbarra, S Schael, S M Schmidt, D Schuckardt, A Schulz von Dratzig, G Schwering, G Scolieri, E S Seo, B S Shan, Y H Shan, J Y Shi, X Y Shi, Y M Shi, T Siedenburg, D Son, F Spada, F Spinella, W Sun, W H Sun, M Tacconi, C P Tang, X W Tang, Z C Tang, L Tao, D Tescaro, Samuel C C Ting, S M Ting, N Tomassetti, J Torsti, C Türkoğlu, T Urban, V Vagelli, E Valente, C Vannini, E Valtonen, S Vaurynovich, M Vecchi, M Velasco, J P Vialle, V Vitale, G Volpini, L Q Wang, Q L Wang, R S Wang, X Wang, Z X Wang, Z L Weng, K Whitman, J Wienkenhöver, H Wu, K Y Wu, X Xia, M Xie, S Xie, R Q Xiong, G M Xin, N S Xu, W Xu, Q Yan, J Yang, M Yang, Q H Ye, H Yi, Y J Yu, Z Q Yu, S Zeissler, J H Zhang, M T Zhang, X B Zhang, Z Zhang, Z M Zheng, F Zhou, H L Zhuang, V Zhukov, A Zichichi, N Zimmermann, P Zuccon, C Zurbach, .
Phys. Rev. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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A precision measurement by AMS of the positron fraction in primary cosmic rays in the energy range from 0.5 to 500 GeV based on 10.9 million positron and electron events is presented. This measurement extends the energy range of our previous observation and increases its precision. The new results show, for the first time, that above ?200??GeV the positron fraction no longer exhibits an increase with energy.
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Laparoscopic versus abdominal myomectomy: practice patterns and health care use in british columbia.
J Obstet Gynaecol Can
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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To examine the relative frequency and surgical outcomes of laparoscopic myomectomy compared with abdominal myomectomy in British Columbia.
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Targetable kinase-activating lesions in Ph-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Philadelphia chromosome-like acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph-like ALL) is characterized by a gene-expression profile similar to that of BCR-ABL1-positive ALL, alterations of lymphoid transcription factor genes, and a poor outcome. The frequency and spectrum of genetic alterations in Ph-like ALL and its responsiveness to tyrosine kinase inhibition are undefined, especially in adolescents and adults.
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Artificial neural network for predicting pathological stage of clinically localized prostate cancer in a Taiwanese population.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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We developed an artificial neural network (ANN) model to predict prostate cancer pathological staging in patients prior to when they received radical prostatectomy as this is more effective than logistic regression (LR), or combined use of age, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), body mass index (BMI), digital rectal examination (DRE), trans-rectal ultrasound (TRUS), biopsy Gleason sum, and primary biopsy Gleason grade.
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Native American ancestry is associated with severe diabetic retinopathy in Latinos.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of blindness in working age adults. Studies have observed that Latinos have a higher prevalence of DR than whites. The purpose of this study is to test the association between genetic admixture and severe DR in Latinos with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).
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Mediating effects of social support and self-concept on depressive symptoms in adults with spinal cord injury.
Spinal Cord
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Study design:Cross-sectional, correlational design.Objectives:To examine the effects of individual demographics, activities of daily living, social support, and self-concept on depressive symptoms in people with spinal cord injury (SCI).Setting:A convenience sample of 135 adults with SCI was recruited from medical and rehabilitation centres in Taiwan.Methods:Face-to-face, structured interviews were employed to collect information. Study questionnaires included a demographic sheet, the Barthel scale, the modified Social Support Inventory, the Huang self-concept scale and the Beck Depression Inventory. Data were analysed by structural equation modelling (SEM).Results:The average age of the participants was 43.3 years (±11.98), the mean duration of injury was 114 months (±93.78), and most were males. Emotional support (r=-0.173, P<0.05) and appraisal support (r=-0.261, P<0.01) were negatively correlated with depressive symptoms. The best fitted SEM model included individual demographics and physical function, social support and self-concept as significant predictors of depressive symptoms, with self-concept acting as a mediator in this relationship. Participants' characteristics and social support both contributed substantial indirect effects on depressive symptoms via self-concept. Self-concept also mediated the relationship between education, income, physical functioning and participants' depressive symptoms.Conclusion:For this sample, the more negative that individuals perceived themselves, the more likely they were to report worsening depressive symptoms. The more social support that individuals have, the more likely they were to report less depressive symptoms. Further longitudinal research will help clarify the direction of these relationships.Spinal Cord advance online publication, 30 September 2014; doi:10.1038/sc.2014.158.
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Anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of the marine-derived compound comaparvin isolated from the crinoid Comanthus bennetti.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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To date, no study has been conducted to explore the bioactivity of the crinoid Comanthus bennetti. Here we report the anti-inflammatory properties of comaparvin (5,8-dihydroxy-10-methoxy-2-propylbenzo[h]chromen-4-one) based on in vivo experiments. Our preliminary screening for anti-inflammatory activity revealed that the crude extract of Comanthus bennetti significantly inhibited the expression of pro-inflammatory proteins in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Comaparvin isolated from crinoids significantly decreased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein and mRNA in LPS-stimulated macrophage cells. Moreover, our results showed that post-treatment with comaparvin significantly inhibited mechanical allodynia, thermal hyperalgesia and weight-bearing deficits in rats with carrageenan-induced inflammation. Comaparvin also attenuated leukocyte infiltration and iNOS protein expression in carrageenan-induced inflamed paws. These results suggest that comaparvin is a potential anti-inflammatory therapeutic agent against inflammatory pain.
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Efficacy, toxicity and mortality of autologous SCT in multiple myeloma patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure.
Bone Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Numerous studies have reported the feasibility and safety of autologous SCT (ASCT) in patients with multiple myeloma (MM) and mild to moderate renal impairment, but there are limited data in dialysis-dependent patients. In this retrospective study, we reviewed the toxicities and efficacy outcomes of 33? MM patients with dialysis-dependent renal failure who underwent ASCT at our institution from 1998 to 2012. The most common grade 3 non-hematologic toxicities were mucositis (49%), infection (15%) and bleeding (6%). Atrial dysrhythmias (24%) and delirium (30%) of all grades were also common. Hematologic toxicities included febrile neutropenia (88%); and RBC and platelet transfusions were required by 71 and 100% of patients, respectively. Transplant-related mortality (TRM) was high at 15%, predominantly caused by septic shock. Response to ASCT was at least VGPR (very good PR) in 50%, PR in 46.2% and stable disease (SD) in 3.8%. Median OS was 5.6 years, comparable to our overall institutional data. Overall, seven patients became dialysis independent. We conclude that ASCT can be an effective treatment for dialysis-dependent MM patients, with high response rates and survival. However, toxicities and a high TRM are observed indicating that further studies are needed to enhance the safety of this approach.Bone Marrow Transplantation advance online publication, 6 October 2014; doi:10.1038/bmt.2014.226.
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Nationwide cohort study of hip fractures: time trends in the incidence rates and projections up to 2035.
Osteoporos Int
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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A growing elderly population is expected worldwide, and the burden of hip fractures on health care system will continue to increase. By 2035, there will be a 2.7-fold increase in the number of hip fractures in Taiwan. The study provides quantitative basis for the future distribution of medical resources.
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Can the presence of endoscopic high-risk stigmata be predicted before endoscopy? A multivariable analysis using the RUGBE database.
Can J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Many aspects in the management of acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding rely on pre-esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) stratification of patients likely to exhibit high-risk stigmata (HRS); however, data predicting the presence of HRS are lacking.
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Fesoterodine prescription fill patterns and evaluation of the YourWay patient support plan for patients with overactive bladder symptoms and physicians.
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Adherence with oral medication for overactive bladder syndrome is suboptimal. To improve adherence, the YourWay plan was developed to assist patients and health care providers in defining treatment expectations and facilitating communication.
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Early gene expression in salivary gland after isoproterenol treatment.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Isoproterenol, a ?-adrenergic agonist, has been shown to induce salivary gland hyperplasia. However, the mechanism involved in this pharmacological phenomenon is not well understood. To gain a better understanding of the underlying changes, including genes, networks and pathways altered by isoproterenol, microarray-based gene expression analysis was conducted on rat parotid glands at 10, 30, and 60?min after isoproterenol injection. After isoproterenol treatment, the number of differentially expressed genes was increased in a time-dependent manner. Pathway analysis showed that cell hyperplasia, p38(MAPK) , and IGF-1 were the most altered function, network and pathway, respectively. The balanced regulation of up- and down-expression of genes related to cell proliferation/survival may provide a better understanding of the mechanism of isoproterenol-induced parotid gland enlargement without tumor transformation. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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VEGF-C and aortic cardiomyocytes guide coronary artery stem development.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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Coronary arteries (CAs) stem from the aorta at 2 highly stereotyped locations, deviations from which can cause myocardial ischemia and death. CA stems form during embryogenesis when peritruncal blood vessels encircle the cardiac outflow tract and invade the aorta, but the underlying patterning mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, using murine models, we demonstrated that VEGF-C-deficient hearts have severely hypoplastic peritruncal vessels, resulting in delayed and abnormally positioned CA stems. We observed that VEGF-C is widely expressed in the outflow tract, while cardiomyocytes develop specifically within the aorta at stem sites where they surround maturing CAs in both mouse and human hearts. Mice heterozygous for islet 1 (Isl1) exhibited decreased aortic cardiomyocytes and abnormally low CA stems. In hearts with outflow tract rotation defects, misplaced stems were associated with shifted aortic cardiomyocytes, and myocardium induced ectopic connections with the pulmonary artery in culture. These data support a model in which CA stem development first requires VEGF-C to stimulate vessel growth around the outflow tract. Then, aortic cardiomyocytes facilitate interactions between peritruncal vessels and the aorta. Derangement of either step can lead to mispatterned CA stems. Studying this niche for cardiomyocyte development, and its relationship with CAs, has the potential to identify methods for stimulating vascular regrowth as a treatment for cardiovascular disease.
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An Orientation Measurement Method Based on Hall-effect Sensors for Permanent Magnet Spherical Actuators with 3D Magnet Array.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2014
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An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in East Asian-ancestry populations identifies four new loci for body mass index.
Wanqing Wen, Wei Zheng, Yukinori Okada, Fumihiko Takeuchi, Yasuharu Tabara, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Rajkumar Dorajoo, Huaixing Li, Fuu-Jen Tsai, Xiaobo Yang, Jiang He, Ying Wu, Meian He, Yi Zhang, Jun Liang, Xiuqing Guo, Wayne Huey-Herng Sheu, Ryan Delahanty, Xingyi Guo, Michiaki Kubo, Ken Yamamoto, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Min Jin Go, Jian Jun Liu, Wei Gan, Ching-Chu Chen, Yong Gao, Shengxu Li, Nanette R Lee, Chen Wu, Xueya Zhou, Huaidong Song, Jie Yao, I-Te Lee, Jirong Long, Tatsuhiko Tsunoda, Koichi Akiyama, Naoyuki Takashima, Yoon Shin Cho, Rick Th Ong, Ling Lu, Chien-Hsiun Chen, Aihua Tan, Treva K Rice, Linda S Adair, Lixuan Gui, Matthew Allison, Wen-Jane Lee, Qiuyin Cai, Minoru Isomura, Satoshi Umemura, Young Jin Kim, Mark Seielstad, James Hixson, Yong-Bing Xiang, Masato Isono, Bong-Jo Kim, Xueling Sim, Wei Lu, Toru Nabika, Juyoung Lee, Wei-Yen Lim, Yu-Tang Gao, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Dae-Hee Kang, Tien Yin Wong, Chao Agnes Hsiung, I-Chien Wu, Jyh-Ming Jimmy Juang, Jiajun Shi, Bo Youl Choi, Tin Aung, Frank Hu, Mi Kyung Kim, Wei Yen Lim, Tzung-Dao Wang, Min-Ho Shin, Jeannette Lee, Bu-Tian Ji, Young-Hoon Lee, Terri L Young, Dong Hoon Shin, Byung-Yeol Chun, Myeong-Chan Cho, Bok-Ghee Han, Chii-Min Hwu, Themistocles L Assimes, Devin Absher, Xiaofei Yan, Eric Kim, Jane Z Kuo, Soonil Kwon, Kent D Taylor, Yii-Der I Chen, Jerome I Rotter, Lu Qi, Dingliang Zhu, Tangchun Wu, Karen L Mohlke, Dongfeng Gu, Zengnan Mo, Jer-Yuarn Wu, Xu Lin, Tetsuro Miki, E Shyong Tai, Jong-Young Lee, Norihiro Kato, Xiao-Ou Shu, Toshihiro Tanaka.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2014
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Recent genetic association studies have identified 55 genetic loci associated with obesity or body mass index (BMI). The vast majority, 51 loci, however, were identified in European-ancestry populations. We conducted a meta-analysis of associations between BMI and ?2.5 million genotyped or imputed single nucleotide polymorphisms among 86 757 individuals of Asian ancestry, followed by in silico and de novo replication among 7488-47 352 additional Asian-ancestry individuals. We identified four novel BMI-associated loci near the KCNQ1 (rs2237892, P = 9.29 × 10(-13)), ALDH2/MYL2 (rs671, P = 3.40 × 10(-11); rs12229654, P = 4.56 × 10(-9)), ITIH4 (rs2535633, P = 1.77 × 10(-10)) and NT5C2 (rs11191580, P = 3.83 × 10(-8)) genes. The association of BMI with rs2237892, rs671 and rs12229654 was significantly stronger among men than among women. Of the 51 BMI-associated loci initially identified in European-ancestry populations, we confirmed eight loci at the genome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)) and an additional 14 at P < 1.0 × 10(-3) with the same direction of effect as reported previously. Findings from this analysis expand our knowledge of the genetic basis of obesity.
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Sengstaken-Blakemore tube for non-variceal distal esophageal bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment: a case report & review of the literature.
Gastroenterol Rep (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Non-variceal upper-gastrointestinal bleeding (NVUGIB) refractory to therapeutic endoscopy is a challenging situation. The following details a novel use for the Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in a case of severe ulcerative esophagitis after failure of conventional medical and endoscopic treatment. A 77-year-old man with a history of peptic ulcer disease developed massive hematemesis during a hospital admission. Initial gastroscopy revealed an adherent blood clot occupying the distal esophagus, extending to the gastric cardia and proximal fundus. Epinephrine was injected into and surrounding the clot; however, following the endoscopy the patient was hemodynamically unstable, requiring aggressive resuscitation. Repeat gastroscopy, following saline lavage, revealed active bleeding within severely ulcerated esophageal mucosa, immediately proximal to the gastro-esophageal (GE) junction. Despite apparent hemostasis following injection of epinephrine and electrocautery, the patient displayed clinical signs of continued bleeding. Furthermore, surgical and radiological interventions were precluded by the patient's hemodynamic instability. In an attempt to tamponade blood supply to the GE junction, a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube was inserted and placed under tension. Successful hemostasis was subsequently achieved and the patient remained stable. This is the first case to describe use of a Sengstaken-Blakemore tube in severe ulcerative esophagitis refractory to standard endoscopic management.
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Estimated public health impact of nationwide vaccination of infants with 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive analysis of the potential health impact of universal vaccination of infants with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) in China.
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Multiple nonglycemic genomic loci are newly associated with blood level of glycated hemoglobin in East Asians.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) is used as a measure of glycemic control and also as a diagnostic criterion for diabetes. To discover novel loci harboring common variants associated with HbA1c in East Asians, we conducted a meta-analysis of 13 genome-wide association studies (GWAS; N = 21,026). We replicated our findings in three additional studies comprising 11,576 individuals of East Asian ancestry. Ten variants showed associations that reached genome-wide significance in the discovery data set, of which nine (four novel variants at TMEM79 [P value = 1.3 × 10(-23)], HBS1L/MYB [8.5 × 10(-15)], MYO9B [9.0 × 10(-12)], and CYBA [1.1 × 10(-8)] as well as five variants at loci that had been previously identified [CDKAL1, G6PC2/ABCB11, GCK, ANK1, and FN3KI]) showed consistent evidence of association in replication data sets. These variants explained 1.76% of the variance in HbA1c. Several of these variants (TMEM79, HBS1L/MYB, CYBA, MYO9B, ANK1, and FN3K) showed no association with either blood glucose or type 2 diabetes. Among individuals with nondiabetic levels of fasting glucose (<7.0 mmol/L) but elevated HbA1c (?6.5%), 36.1% had HbA1c <6.5% after adjustment for these six variants. Our East Asian GWAS meta-analysis has identified novel variants associated with HbA1c as well as demonstrated that the effects of known variants are largely transferable across ethnic groups. Variants affecting erythrocyte parameters rather than glucose metabolism may be relevant to the use of HbA1c for diagnosing diabetes in these populations.
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Economic burden of urge urinary incontinence in the workplace.
J. Occup. Environ. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Quantify incremental employee medical, pharmacy, sick leave, short- and long-term disability, and workers' compensation costs, absence days, and turnover associated with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) in employees.
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Intensified chemotherapy without SCT in infant ALL: Results from COG P9407 (Cohort 3).
Pediatr Blood Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Infants with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) present with aggressive disease and a poor prognosis. Early relapse within 6-9 months of diagnosis is common. Approximately 75% of infants have MLL-rearranged (MLL-R) ALL with event free survival (EFS) ranging from 20% to 30%. Children's Oncology Group (COG) P9407 used shortened (46 weeks), intensified therapy to address early relapse and poor EFS.
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SC-2001 overcomes STAT3-mediated sorafenib resistance through RFX-1/SHP-1 activation in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Neoplasia
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is the fifth most common solid cancer worldwide. Sorafenib, a small multikinase inhibitor, is the only approved therapy for advanced HCC. The clinical benefit of sorafenib is offset by the acquisition of sorafenib resistance. Understanding of the molecular mechanism of STAT3 overexpression in sorafenib resistance is critical if the clinical benefits of this drug are to be improved. In this study, we explored our hypothesis that loss of RFX-1/SHP-1 and further increase of p-STAT3 as a result of sorafenib treatment induces sorafenib resistance as a cytoprotective response effect, thereby, limiting sorafenib sensitivity and efficiency. We found that knockdown of RFX-1 protected HCC cells against sorafenib-induced cell apoptosis and SHP-1 activity was required for the process. SC-2001, a molecule with similar structure to obatoclax, synergistically suppressed tumor growth when used in combination with sorafenib in vitro and overcame sorafenib resistance through up-regulating RFX-1 and SHP-1 resulting in tumor suppression and mediation of dephosphorylation of STAT3. In addition, sustained sorafenib treatment in HCC led to increased p-STAT3 which was a key mediator of sorafenib sensitivity. The combination of SC-2001 and sorafenib strongly inhibited tumor growth in both wild-type and sorafenib-resistant HCC cell bearing xenograft models. These results demonstrate that inactivation of RFX/SHP-1 induced by sustained sorafenib treatment confers sorafenib resistance to HCC through p-STAT3 up-regulation. These effects can be overcome by SC-2001 through RFX-1/SHP-1 dependent p-STAT3 suppression. In conclusion, the use of SC-2001 in combination with sorafenib may constitute a new strategy for HCC therapy.
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Leptin-mediated increases in catecholamine signaling reduce adipose tissue inflammation via activation of macrophage HDAC4.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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Obesity promotes systemic insulin resistance through inflammatory changes that lead to the release of cytokines from activated macrophages. Although the mechanism is unclear, the second messenger cAMP has been found to attenuate macrophage activity in response to a variety of hormonal signals. We show that, in the setting of acute overnutrition, leptin triggers catecholamine-dependent increases in cAMP signaling that reduce inflammatory gene expression via the activation of the histone deacetylase HDAC4. cAMP stimulates HDAC4 activity through the PKA-dependent inhibition of the salt-inducible kinases (SIKs), which otherwise phosphorylate and sequester HDAC4 in the cytoplasm. Following its dephosphorylation, HDAC4 shuttles to the nucleus where it inhibits NF-?B activity over proinflammatory genes. As variants in the Hdac4 gene are associated with obesity in humans, our results indicate that the cAMP-HDAC4 pathway functions importantly in maintaining insulin sensitivity and energy balance via its effects on the innate immune system.
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Relationship between interpregnancy interval and congenital anomalies.
Am. J. Obstet. Gynecol.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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To assess the association between interpregnancy intervals and congenital anomalies.
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Impact on outcomes by measuring tortuosity with reporting standards for thoracic endovascular aortic repair.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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In this study, we assessed the association between the tortuosity of the thoracic aorta as measured by the reporting standards for thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR), described by the Society for Vascular Surgery, and midterm outcomes after TEVAR for atherosclerotic aneurysms.
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Economic burden of urgency urinary incontinence in the United States: a systematic review.
J Manag Care Pharm
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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The International Continence Society (ICS) identifies several urinary incontinence (UI) subtypes: urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), stress UI (SUI), and mixed UI (MUI). UUI is a common symptom of overactive bladder (OAB) syndrome. Based on the current ICS definition of OAB, all patients with UUI have OAB, whereas not all patients with OAB have UUI. Because UUI is a chronic condition that is expected to increase in prevalence as the population of elderly individuals grows, it is important to understand its economic burden on society and patients and its cost components. 
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Dienogest for the treatment of deep endometriosis: Case report and literature review.
J. Obstet. Gynaecol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A 38-year-old woman was found to have a deep 3.3-cm endometriotic nodule of the bladder, confirmed by cystoscopic resection and imaging. Ultrasound also confirmed a 2.6-cm vaginal fornix implant with similar appearance to the bladder mass. The patient's primary symptoms were mild dysmenorrhea, catamenial dysuria and hematuria. The patient conceived shortly after referral and 3 months post-delivery was offered surgical management but declined in favor of medical management. Dienogest 2?mg once a day was started and after 16 months of treatment, more than 50% reduction in the size of the bladder nodule was seen (pretreatment: 3.3?×?3.0?×?2.7?cm, volume: 13.9?cm(3) ; post-treatment: 2.8?×?2.3?×?1.0?cm, volume: 6.4?cm(3) ). The vaginal mass also decreased in size from a pretreatment value of 2.0?×?2.6?×?1.4?cm (3.8?cm(3) ) to 1.1?×?1.4?×?0.5?mm (0.40?cm(3) ) after the treatment. The patient remained asymptomatic with no significant adverse drug reaction during management. Dienogest may be one of the options for medical management of deep endometriosis in young women especially when surgical intervention is declined.
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Elevated plasma free fatty acids are associated with sudden death: a prospective community-based evaluation at the time of cardiac arrest.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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In cohort studies, elevated levels of plasma nonesterified free fatty acids (NEFAs) have been associated with increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in men, but blood samples were drawn several years before SCD.
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Celiac plexus neurolysis in the management of unresectable pancreatic cancer: when and how?
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Pancreatic cancer is the second most common abdominal cancer in North America with an estimated 20% resectability at diagnosis, and overall 5-year survival of 5%. Pain is common in pancreatic cancer patients with 70%-80% suffering substantial pain. Celiac plexus neurolysis (CPN) is a technique that can potentially improve pain control in pancreatic cancer while preventing further escalation of opioid consumption. CPN is performed by injecting absolute alcohol into the celiac plexus neural network of ganglia. This review sets out to explore the current status of CPN in non-resectable pancreatic cancer. We will examine: (1) the efficacy and safety of percutaneous-CPN and endoscopic ultrasound guided-CPN; (2) specific technique modifications including bilateral (vs central) injections and celiac ganglia neurolysis; and (3) the issue of CPN timing, early at pancreatic cancer diagnosis vs traditional late use as salvage therapy.
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Comparative performance of a panel of commercially available antimicrobial nanocoatings in Europe.
Nanotechnol Sci Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Bacterial resistance against the classic antibiotics is posing an increasing challenge for the prevention and treatment of infections in health care environments. The introduction of antimicrobial nanocoatings with active ingredients provides alternative measures for active killing of microorganisms, through a preventive hygiene approach.
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Profiling the microRNA Expression in Human iPS and iPS-derived Retinal Pigment Epithelium.
Cancer Inform
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The purpose of this study is to characterize the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE). MiRNAs have been demonstrated to play critical roles in both maintaining pluripotency and facilitating differentiation. Gene expression networks accountable for maintenance and induction of pluripotency are linked and share components with those networks implicated in oncogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that miRNA expression profiling will distinguish iPS cells from their iPS-RPE progeny. To identify and analyze differentially expressed miRNAs, RPE was derived from iPS using a spontaneous differentiation method. MiRNA microarray analysis identified 155 probes that were statistically differentially expressed between iPS and iPS-RPE cells. Up-regulated miRNAs including miR-181c and miR-129-5p may play a role in promoting differentiation, while down-regulated miRNAs such as miR-367, miR-18b, and miR-20b are implicated in cell proliferation. Subsequent miRNA-target and network analysis revealed that these miRNAs are involved in cellular development, cell cycle progression, cell death, and survival. A systematic interrogation of temporal and spatial expression of iPS-RPE miRNAs and their associated target mRNAs will provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis, eye differentiation and development.
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Correlation between reduction of superior interventricular groove epicardial fat thickness and improvement of insulin resistance after weight loss in obese men.
Diabetol Metab Syndr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been recognized that reduction of abdominal visceral fat and subcutaneous fat are associated with improvement in insulin-resistance (IR) after weight loss. However, few studies have investigated the correlation of reduction in epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) with improvement of IR index after weight loss in obese non-diabetic men with metabolic syndrome (MetS).
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The use of google trends in health care research: a systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Google Trends is a novel, freely accessible tool that allows users to interact with Internet search data, which may provide deep insights into population behavior and health-related phenomena. However, there is limited knowledge about its potential uses and limitations. We therefore systematically reviewed health care literature using Google Trends to classify articles by topic and study aim; evaluate the methodology and validation of the tool; and address limitations for its use in research.
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Cell Migration Is Regulated by AGE-RAGE Interaction in Human Oral Cancer Cells In Vitro.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are produced in an irreversible non-enzymatic reaction of carbohydrates and proteins. Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) are known to have elevated AGE levels, which is viewed as a risk factor of diabetes-related complications. In a clinical setting, it has been shown that patients with oral cancer in conjunction with DM have a higher likelihood of cancer metastasis and lower cancer survival rates. AGE-RAGE (a receptor of AGEs) is also correlated with metastasis and angiogenesis. Recent studies have suggested that the malignancy of cancer may be enhanced by glyceraldehyde-derived AGEs; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. This study examined the apparently close correlation between AGE-RAGE and the malignancy of SAS oral cancer cell line. In this study, AGEs increased ERK phosphorylation, enhanced cell migration, and promoted the expression of RAGE, MMP2, and MMP9. Using PD98059, RAGE antibody, and RAGE RNAi to block RAGE pathway resulted in the inhibition of ERK phosphorylation. Cell migration, MMP2 and MMP9 expression were also reduced by this treatment. Our findings demonstrate the importance of AGE-RAGE with regard to the malignancy of oral cancer, and help to explain the poor prognosis of DM subjects with oral cancer.
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One-year results of transcatheter aortic valve implantation as an alternative treatment for severe aortic stenosis in high-risk patients.
J Chin Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Aortic valve replacement (AVR) remains the gold standard treatment for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis (AS). For the past 10 years, transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) has been applied in patients with high surgical mortality and morbidity risks. The preliminary results of our TAVI patients are presented in this study.
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Surgeon elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair volume and outcomes of ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm repair: a 12-year nationwide study.
World J Surg
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of surgeon elective abdominal aortic aneurysm repair volume on outcomes after ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysm (rAAA) repair.
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Role of QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay for active and latent tuberculosis infection in investigation of tuberculosis outbreak in a university.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Identification and monitoring of active tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) are the key steps to prevent transmission during a TB outbreak. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of QuantiFERON-TB-Gold In Tube assay (QFT-GIT) in the investigation of active TB and LTBI cases during a TB outbreak in a university.
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Inherited GATA3 variants are associated with Ph-like childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia and risk of relapse.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2013
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Recent genomic profiling of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) identified a high-risk subtype with an expression signature resembling that of Philadelphia chromosome-positive ALL and poor prognosis (Ph-like ALL). However, the role of inherited genetic variation in Ph-like ALL pathogenesis remains unknown. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 511 ALL cases and 6,661 non-ALL controls, we identified a susceptibility locus for Ph-like ALL (GATA3, rs3824662; P = 2.17 × 10(-14), odds ratio (OR) = 3.85 for Ph-like ALL versus non-ALL; P = 1.05 × 10(-8), OR = 3.25 for Ph-like ALL versus non-Ph-like ALL), with independent validation. The rs3824662 risk allele was associated with somatic lesions underlying Ph-like ALL (CRLF2 rearrangement, JAK gene mutation and IKZF1 deletion) and with variation in GATA3 expression. Finally, genotype at the GATA3 SNP was also associated with early treatment response and risk of ALL relapse. Our results provide insights into interactions between inherited and somatic variants and their role in ALL pathogenesis and prognosis.
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Cardiac damage induced by immunization with heat-killed Trypanosoma cruzi is not antibody mediated.
Parasite Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Cardiac inflammation that develops during infection with Trypanosoma cruzi may result in part from autoimmunity, which may occur after bystander activation, after parasite-induced cardiomyocyte damage, or molecular mimicry. A/J mice infected with T. cruzi or immunized with heat-killed T. cruzi (HKTC) develop strong autoimmunity accompanied by cardiac damage. To determine whether this cardiac damage occurs via an antibody-dependent mechanism, we analysed T. cruzi-infected and HKTC-immunized mice for the presence of autoantibodies, cardiac antibody deposition, and serum cardiac troponin I as a measure of cardiac damage. We also performed a serum transfer experiment in which sera from T. cruzi-infected and T. cruzi-immunized mice (and controls) were transferred into naïve recipients, which were then analysed for the presence of antibodies and serum troponin. Unlike T. cruzi-infected mice, T. cruzi-immunized mice did not show significant antibody deposition in the myocardium. These results indicate that antibody deposition does not precede cardiac damage and inflammation in mice immunized with or infected with T. cruzi. Serum adoptive transfer did not induce cardiac damage in any recipients. Based on these findings, we conclude that the cardiac damage induced by immunization with HKTC is not mediated by antibodies.
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A statin-dependent QTL for GATM expression is associated with statin-induced myopathy.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Statins are prescribed widely to lower plasma low-density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations and cardiovascular disease risk and have been shown to have beneficial effects in a broad range of patients. However, statins are associated with an increased risk, albeit small, of clinical myopathy and type 2 diabetes. Despite evidence for substantial genetic influence on LDL concentrations, pharmacogenomic trials have failed to identify genetic variations with large effects on either statin efficacy or toxicity, and have produced little information regarding mechanisms that modulate statin response. Here we identify a downstream target of statin treatment by screening for the effects of in vitro statin exposure on genetic associations with gene expression levels in lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from 480 participants of a clinical trial of simvastatin treatment. This analysis identified six expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) that interacted with simvastatin exposure, including rs9806699, a cis-eQTL for the gene glycine amidinotransferase (GATM) that encodes the rate-limiting enzyme in creatine synthesis. We found this locus to be associated with incidence of statin-induced myotoxicity in two separate populations (meta-analysis odds ratio = 0.60). Furthermore, we found that GATM knockdown in hepatocyte-derived cell lines attenuated transcriptional response to sterol depletion, demonstrating that GATM may act as a functional link between statin-mediated lowering of cholesterol and susceptibility to statin-induced myopathy.
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Diastereoselective synthesis of vicinal cis-dihydroxyheterospirocycles by one-pot epoxidation/spirocyclization of C(3)-functionalized cyclohex-2-en-1-ols.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Spirolactones, spirotetrahydrofurans, and spiropyrrolidines containing a vicinal cis-diol adjacent to the spiro-carbon center are prepared by one-pot epoxidation/spirocyclization of cyclohex-2-en-1-ols bearing an ester, alcohol, or amide functional side chain at the C(3) position of the ring.
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Genome-wide association study in a Chinese population with diabetic retinopathy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a leading cause of preventable blindness in adults. To identify genetic contributions in DR, we studied 2071 type 2 diabetics. We first conducted a genome-wide association study of 1007 individuals, comparing 570 subjects with ?8 years duration without DR (controls) with 437 PDR (cases) in the Chinese discovery cohort. Cases and controls were similar for HbA1c, diabetes duration and body mass index. Association analysis with imputed data identified three novel loci: TBC1D4-COMMD6-UCHL3 (rs9565164, P = 1.3 × 10(-7)), LRP2-BBS5 (rs1399634, P = 2.0 × 10(-6)) and ARL4C-SH3BP4 (rs2380261, P = 2.1 × 10(-6)). Analysis of an independent cohort of 585 Hispanics diabetics with or without DR though did not confirm these signals. These genes are still of particular interest because they are involved in insulin regulation, inflammation, lipid signaling and apoptosis pathways, all of which are possibly involved with DR. Our finding nominates possible novel loci as potential DR susceptibility genes in the Chinese that are independent of the level of HbA1c and duration of diabetes and may provide insight into the pathophysiology of DR.
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A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry.
Keri L Monda, Gary K Chen, Kira C Taylor, Cameron Palmer, Todd L Edwards, Leslie A Lange, Maggie C Y Ng, Adebowale A Adeyemo, Matthew A Allison, Lawrence F Bielak, Guanjie Chen, Mariaelisa Graff, Marguerite R Irvin, Suhn K Rhie, Guo Li, Yongmei Liu, Youfang Liu, Yingchang Lu, Michael A Nalls, Yan V Sun, Mary K Wojczynski, Lisa R Yanek, Melinda C Aldrich, Adeyinka Ademola, Christopher I Amos, Elisa V Bandera, Cathryn H Bock, Angela Britton, Ulrich Broeckel, Quiyin Cai, Neil E Caporaso, Chris S Carlson, John Carpten, Graham Casey, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Yii-Der I Chen, Charleston W K Chiang, Gerhard A Coetzee, Ellen Demerath, Sandra L Deming-Halverson, Ryan W Driver, Patricia Dubbert, Mary F Feitosa, Ye Feng, Barry I Freedman, Elizabeth M Gillanders, Omri Gottesman, Xiuqing Guo, Talin Haritunians, Tamara Harris, Curtis C Harris, Anselm J M Hennis, Dena G Hernandez, Lorna H McNeill, Timothy D Howard, Barbara V Howard, Virginia J Howard, Karen C Johnson, Sun J Kang, Brendan J Keating, Suzanne Kolb, Lewis H Kuller, Abdullah Kutlar, Carl D Langefeld, Guillaume Lettre, Kurt Lohman, Vaneet Lotay, Helen Lyon, JoAnn E Manson, William Maixner, Yan A Meng, Kristine R Monroe, Imran Morhason-Bello, Adam B Murphy, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Rajiv Nadukuru, Katherine L Nathanson, Uma Nayak, Amidou N'Diaye, Barbara Nemesure, Suh-Yuh Wu, M Cristina Leske, Christine Neslund-Dudas, Marian Neuhouser, Sarah Nyante, Heather Ochs-Balcom, Adesola Ogunniyi, Temidayo O Ogundiran, Oladosu Ojengbede, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Julie R Palmer, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Nicholette D Palmer, Michael F Press, Evandine Rampersaud, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Jorge L Rodriguez-Gil, Babatunde Salako, Eric E Schadt, Ann G Schwartz, Daniel A Shriner, David Siscovick, Shad B Smith, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Margaret R Spitz, Lara Sucheston, Herman Taylor, Bamidele O Tayo, Margaret A Tucker, David J Van Den Berg, Digna R Velez Edwards, Zhaoming Wang, John K Wiencke, Thomas W Winkler, John S Witte, Margaret Wrensch, Xifeng Wu, James J Yang, Albert M Levin, Taylor R Young, Neil A Zakai, Mary Cushman, Krista A Zanetti, Jing Hua Zhao, Wei Zhao, Yonglan Zheng, Jie Zhou, Regina G Ziegler, Joseph M Zmuda, Jyotika K Fernandes, Gary S Gilkeson, Diane L Kamen, Kelly J Hunt, Ida J Spruill, Christine B Ambrosone, Stefan Ambs, Donna K Arnett, Larry Atwood, Diane M Becker, Sonja I Berndt, Leslie Bernstein, William J Blot, Ingrid B Borecki, Erwin P Bottinger, Donald W Bowden, Gregory Burke, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Jingzhong Ding, David Duggan, Michele K Evans, Caroline Fox, W Timothy Garvey, Jonathan P Bradfield, Hakon Hakonarson, Struan F A Grant, Ann Hsing, Lisa Chu, Jennifer J Hu, Dezheng Huo, Sue A Ingles, Esther M John, Joanne M Jordan, Edmond K Kabagambe, Sharon L R Kardia, Rick A Kittles, Phyllis J Goodman, Eric A Klein, Laurence N Kolonel, Loic Le Marchand, Simin Liu, Barbara McKnight, Robert C Millikan, Thomas H Mosley, Badri Padhukasahasram, L Keoki Williams, Sanjay R Patel, Ulrike Peters, Curtis A Pettaway, Patricia A Peyser, Bruce M Psaty, Susan Redline, Charles N Rotimi, Benjamin A Rybicki, Michèle M Sale, Pamela J Schreiner, Lisa B Signorello, Andrew B Singleton, Janet L Stanford, Sara S Strom, Michael J Thun, Mara Vitolins, Wei Zheng, Jason H Moore, Scott M Williams, Shamika Ketkar, Xiaofeng Zhu, Alan B Zonderman, , Charles Kooperberg, George J Papanicolaou, Brian E Henderson, Alex P Reiner, Joel N Hirschhorn, Ruth J F Loos, Kari E North, Christopher A Haiman.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one new locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, P = 3.4 × 10(-11)) and another at 7p15 when we included data from the GIANT consortium (MIR148A-NFE2L3, rs10261878, P = 1.2 × 10(-10)). We also found suggestive evidence of an association at a third locus at 6q16 in the African-ancestry sample (KLHL32, rs974417, P = 6.9 × 10(-8)). Thirty-two of the 36 previously established BMI variants showed directionally consistent effect estimates in our GWAS (binomial P = 9.7 × 10(-7)), five of which reached genome-wide significance. These findings provide strong support for shared BMI loci across populations, as well as for the utility of studying ancestrally diverse populations.
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A genome-wide association study of central corneal thickness in Latinos.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2013
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Central corneal thickness (CCT) is a clinically important risk factor for primary open-angle glaucoma and keratoconus. Genetic factors controlling CCT in Latinos, the most populous minority population in the United States, are unclear. Here we describe the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) report of CCT in Latinos.
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Trans-ethnic fine mapping identifies a novel independent locus at the 3 end of CDKAL1 and novel variants of several susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes in a Han Chinese population.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Candidate gene and genome-wide association studies have identified ?60 susceptibility loci for type 2 diabetes. A majority of these loci have been discovered and tested only in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and extent of trans-ethnic effects of these loci in an East Asian population.
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Comorbidities and personal burden of urgency urinary incontinence: a systematic review.
Int. J. Clin. Pract.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Studies on the burden and comorbidities associated with urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) are difficult to compare, partly because of the evolution of definitions for lower urinary tract symptoms and the various instruments used to assess health-related quality of life (HRQL). This article summarises published evidence on comorbidities and the personal burden associated specifically with UUI to provide clinicians with a clear perspective on the impact of UUI on patients.
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Global prevalence and economic burden of urgency urinary incontinence: a systematic review.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The prevalence and economic burden of urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) are difficult to ascertain because of overlap with data on overactive bladder and other types of incontinence.
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Rapid and intermediate N-acetylators are less susceptible to oxidative damage among 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed workers.
Int J Hyg Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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In this study, we explored the association between a marker of oxidative stress, 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and genetic polymorphism of the carcinogen-metabolizing enzyme N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) among 4,4-methylenebis(2-chloroaniline) (MBOCA)-exposed workers.
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Functional roles of the non-catalytic calcium-binding sites in the N-terminal domain of human peptidylarginine deiminase 4.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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This study investigated the functional roles of the N-terminal Ca(2+) ion-binding sites, in terms of enzyme catalysis and stability, of peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4). Amino acid residues located in the N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding site of PAD4 were mutated to disrupt the binding of Ca(2+) ions. Kinetic data suggest that Asp155, Asp157 and Asp179, which directly coordinate Ca3 and Ca4, are essential for catalysis in PAD4. For D155A, D157A and D179A, the k(cat)/K(m,BAEE) values were 0.02, 0.63 and 0.01 s(-1)mM(-1) (20.8 s(-1)mM(-1) for WT), respectively. Asn153 and Asp176 are directly coordinated with Ca3 and indirectly coordinated with Ca5 via a water molecule. However, N153A displayed low enzymatic activity with a k(cat) value of 0.3 s(-1) (13.3 s(-1) for wild-type), whereas D176A retained some catalytic power with a k(cat) of 9.7 s(-1). Asp168 is the direct ligand for Ca5, and Ca5 coordination by Glu252 is mediated by two water molecules. However, mutation of these two residues to Ala did not cause a reduction in the k(cat)/K(m,BAEE) values, which indicates that the binding of Ca5 may not be required for PAD4 enzymatic activity. The possible conformational changes of these PAD4 mutants were examined. Thermal stability analysis of the PAD4 mutants in the absence or presence of Ca(2+) indicated that the conformational stability of the enzyme is highly dependent on Ca(2+) ions. In addition, the results of urea-induced denaturation for the N153, D155, D157 and D179 series mutants further suggest that the binding of Ca(2+) ions in the N-terminal Ca(2+)-binding site stabilizes the overall conformational stability of PAD4. Therefore, our data strongly suggest that the N-terminal Ca(2+) ions play critical roles in the full activation of the PAD4 enzyme.
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Genome-wide association study identifies novel loci associated with concentrations of four plasma phospholipid fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway: results from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) consortiu
Circ Cardiovasc Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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BACKGROUND- Palmitic acid (16:0), stearic acid (18:0), palmitoleic acid (16:1n-7), and oleic acid (18:1n-9) are major saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids that affect cellular signaling and metabolic pathways. They are synthesized via de novo lipogenesis and are the main saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids in the diet. Levels of these fatty acids have been linked to diseases including type 2 diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. METHODS AND RESULTS- Genome-wide association studies were conducted in 5 population-based cohorts comprising 8961 participants of European ancestry to investigate the association of common genetic variation with plasma levels of these 4 fatty acids. We identified polymorphisms in 7 novel loci associated with circulating levels of ?1 of these fatty acids. ALG14 (asparagine-linked glycosylation 14 homolog) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:0 (P=2.7×10(-11)) and lower 18:0 (P=2.2×10(-18)). FADS1 and FADS2 (desaturases) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7 (P=6.6×10(-13)) and 18:1n-9 (P=2.2×10(-32)) and lower 18:0 (P=1.3×10(-20)). LPGAT1 (lysophosphatidylglycerol acyltransferase) polymorphisms were associated with lower 18:0 (P=2.8×10(-9)). GCKR (glucokinase regulator; P=9.8×10(-10)) and HIF1AN (factor inhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor-1; P=5.7×10(-9)) polymorphisms were associated with higher 16:1n-7, whereas PKD2L1 (polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1; P=5.7×10(-15)) and a locus on chromosome 2 (not near known genes) were associated with lower 16:1n-7 (P=4.1×10(-8)). CONCLUSIONS- Our findings provide novel evidence that common variations in genes with diverse functions, including protein-glycosylation, polyunsaturated fatty acid metabolism, phospholipid modeling, and glucose- and oxygen-sensing pathways, are associated with circulating levels of 4 fatty acids in the de novo lipogenesis pathway. These results expand our knowledge of genetic factors relevant to de novo lipogenesis and fatty acid biology.
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Variation exists in rates of admission to intensive care units for heart failure patients across hospitals in the United States.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Despite increasing attention on reducing relatively costly hospital practices while maintaining the quality of care, few studies have examined how hospitals use the intensive care unit (ICU), a high-cost setting, for patients admitted with heart failure (HF). We characterized hospital patterns of ICU admission for patients with HF and determined their association with the use of ICU-level therapies and patient outcomes.
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Anomalous Connection of the Right Pulmonary Vein to the Coronary Sinus in a Young Infant.
Pediatr Neonatol
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection (PAPVC) is a rare congenital heart disease. Among previous cases, anomalous connection of the right pulmonary vein (RPV) to the coronary sinus (CS) was seldom reported. Here, we report an 8-month-old girl, initially presenting with congestive heart failure, who had this rare anomaly with moderate-sized secundum atrial septal defect (ASD). After confirmation by multi-detector row computed tomography (MDCT) and cardiac catheterization, the infant underwent a successful surgical repair. To our knowledge, this is the first reported infant with this kind of rare anomaly.
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Trans-ethnic fine-mapping of lipid loci identifies population-specific signals and allelic heterogeneity that increases the trait variance explained.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified ~100 loci associated with blood lipid levels, but much of the trait heritability remains unexplained, and at most loci the identities of the trait-influencing variants remain unknown. We conducted a trans-ethnic fine-mapping study at 18, 22, and 18 GWAS loci on the Metabochip for their association with triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), respectively, in individuals of African American (n = 6,832), East Asian (n = 9,449), and European (n = 10,829) ancestry. We aimed to identify the variants with strongest association at each locus, identify additional and population-specific signals, refine association signals, and assess the relative significance of previously described functional variants. Among the 58 loci, 33 exhibited evidence of association at P<1 × 10(-4) in at least one ancestry group. Sequential conditional analyses revealed that ten, nine, and four loci in African Americans, Europeans, and East Asians, respectively, exhibited two or more signals. At these loci, accounting for all signals led to a 1.3- to 1.8-fold increase in the explained phenotypic variance compared to the strongest signals. Distinct signals across ancestry groups were identified at PCSK9 and APOA5. Trans-ethnic analyses narrowed the signals to smaller sets of variants at GCKR, PPP1R3B, ABO, LCAT, and ABCA1. Of 27 variants reported previously to have functional effects, 74% exhibited the strongest association at the respective signal. In conclusion, trans-ethnic high-density genotyping and analysis confirm the presence of allelic heterogeneity, allow the identification of population-specific variants, and limit the number of candidate SNPs for functional studies.
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The impact of OAB on physical activity in the United States: results from OAB-POLL.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To provide data on physical activity among those with and without overactive bladder (OAB) in a large, ethnically diverse U.S. sample.
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Cardiac CT and MRI for congenital heart disease in Asian countries: recent trends in publication based on a scientific database.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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In the past 12 years, during the process of imaging congenital heart disease (CHD), Asian doctors have not only made every effort to adhere to established magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) protocols as in Western countries, but also have developed Computed tomography (CT) as an alternative problem-solving technique. Databases have shown that Asian doctors were more inclined to utilize CT than MRI in evaluating CHD. Articles in the literature focusing on CT have been cited more frequently than articles on MRI. Additionally, several repeatedly cited CT articles have become seminal papers in this field. The database reflects a trend suggesting that Asian doctors actively adapt to new techniques and flexibly develop unique strategies to overcome limitations caused by the relatively limited resources often available to them.
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