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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biological Correlates of Blood Pressure Variability in Elderly at High Risk of Cardiovascular Disease.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. This study investigates biological correlates of intra-individual variability in blood pressure in older persons.
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HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials.
Daniel I Swerdlow, David Preiss, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Michael V Holmes, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Reecha Sofat, Stefan Stender, Paul C D Johnson, Robert A Scott, Maarten Leusink, Niek Verweij, Stephen J Sharp, Yiran Guo, Claudia Giambartolomei, Christina Chung, Anne Peasey, Antoinette Amuzu, KaWah Li, Jutta Palmen, Philip Howard, Jackie A Cooper, Fotios Drenos, Yun R Li, Gordon Lowe, John Gallacher, Marlene C W Stewart, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Sarah G Buxbaum, Daphne L van der A, Nita G Forouhi, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Renate B Schnabel, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Růžena Kubinova, Miglė Bacevičienė, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Andrzej Pająk, Romanvan Topor-Madry, Urszula Stepaniak, Sofia Malyutina, Damiano Baldassarre, Bengt Sennblad, Elena Tremoli, Ulf de Faire, Fabrizio Veglia, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gert Jan de Borst, Pim A de Jong, Ale Algra, Wilko Spiering, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Olaf H Klungel, Anthonius de Boer, Pieter A Doevendans, Charles B Eaton, Jennifer G Robinson, David Duggan, , John Kjekshus, John R Downs, Antonio M Gotto, Anthony C Keech, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Peter S Sever, Neil R Poulter, David D Waters, Terje R Pedersen, Pierre Amarenco, Haruo Nakamura, John J V McMurray, James D Lewsey, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Kausik K Ray, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai, JoAnn E Manson, Jackie F Price, Peter H Whincup, Richard W Morris, Debbie A Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Pamela J Schreiner, Myriam Fornage, David S Siscovick, Mary Cushman, Meena Kumari, Nick J Wareham, W M Monique Verschuren, Susan Redline, Sanjay R Patel, John C Whittaker, Anders Hamsten, Joseph A Delaney, Caroline Dale, Tom R Gaunt, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Sekar Kathiresan, Berta A Castillo, Pim van der Harst, Eric J Brunner, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Michael G Marmot, Ronald M Krauss, Michael Tsai, Josef Coresh, Ronald C Hoogeveen, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie A Lange, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank Dudbridge, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Mika Kivimäki, Nicholas J Timpson, Claudia Langenberg, Folkert W Asselbergs, Mikhail Voevoda, Martin Bobak, Hynek Pikhart, James G Wilson, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Aroon D Hingorani, Naveed Sattar.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target.
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Ivabradine in stable coronary artery disease without clinical heart failure.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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An elevated heart rate is an established marker of cardiovascular risk. Previous analyses have suggested that ivabradine, a heart-rate-reducing agent, may improve outcomes in patients with stable coronary artery disease, left ventricular dysfunction, and a heart rate of 70 beats per minute or more.
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Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
Andrew R Wood, Tonu Esko, Jian Yang, Sailaja Vedantam, Tune H Pers, Stefan Gustafsson, Audrey Y Chu, Karol Estrada, Jian'an Luan, Zoltan Kutalik, Najaf Amin, Martin L Buchkovich, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Yanan Duan, Tove Fall, Rudolf Fehrmann, Teresa Ferreira, Anne U Jackson, Juha Karjalainen, Ken Sin Lo, Adam E Locke, Reedik Mägi, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Joshua C Randall, André Scherag, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Thomas W Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jing Hua Zhao, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Denise Anderson, Jeffrey Baron, Marian Beekman, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Ross M Fraser, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne E Justice, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Julian C Lui, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Michael A Nalls, Dale R Nyholt, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Uzma Afzal, Johan Arnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Jennifer L Bolton, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Brendan M Buckley, Steven Buyske, Ida H Caspersen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Matthew Cooper, E Warwick Daw, Pim A de Jong, Joris Deelen, Graciela Delgado, Josh C Denny, Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Marcus Dörr, Niina Eklund, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Alan S Go, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Christopher J Groves, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Göran Hallmans, Anke Hannemann, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Gibran Hemani, Anjali K Henders, Hans L Hillege, Mark A Hlatky, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir Holmen, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Alan L James, Janina Jeff, Berit Johansen, Asa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Juhani Junttila, Abel N Kho, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Thomas Kocher, Wolfgang Kratzer, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, Yingchang Lu, Valeriya Lyssenko, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Marc Maillard, Wendy L McArdle, Colin A McKenzie, Stela McLachlan, Paul J McLaren, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Narisu Narisu, Matthias Nauck, Ilja M Nolte, Markus M Nöthen, Laticia Oozageer, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Ronan Roussel, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, Heribert Schunkert, Robert A Scott, Joban Sehmi, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Karri Silventoinen, Johannes H Smit, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen Stirrups, David J Stott, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O Tayo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Suzanne van Dijk, Natasja M van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Diana van Heemst, Floor V A van Oort, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Melanie Waldenberger, Roman Wennauer, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Reiner Biffar, John Blangero, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Paolo Brambilla, Morris J Brown, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rory Collins, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Alain Golay, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, David W Haas, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Manfred Kayser, Frank Kee, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Sara Lupoli, Pamela A F Madden, Satu Mannisto, Paolo Manunta, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Frans L Moll, Grant W Montgomery, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Gerard Pasterkamp, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Marylyn Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Peter E H Schwarz, Sylvain Sebert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P Stolk, Jean-Claude Tardif, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, , Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, M Geoffrey Hayes, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, J Wouter Jukema, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimäki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Joseph E Powell, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Eva Reinmaa, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Henry Völzke, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Panos Deloukas, Iris M Heid, Cecilia M Lindgren, Karen L Mohlke, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Inês Barroso, Caroline S Fox, Kari E North, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Sonja I Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Mark I McCarthy, Andres Metspalu, Kari Stefansson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lude Franke, Cristen J Willer, Alkes L Price, Guillaume Lettre, Ruth J F Loos, Michael N Weedon, Erik Ingelsson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Daniel I Chasman, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Joel N Hirschhorn, Timothy M Frayling.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ?2,000, ?3,700 and ?9,500 SNPs explained ?21%, ?24% and ?29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/?-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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Geographical variations in the prevalence and management of cardiovascular risk factors in outpatients with CAD: data from the contemporary CLARIFY registry.
Eur J Prev Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To determine the current prevalence and control of major cardiovascular risk factors in stable CAD outpatients worldwide.
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Prevalence of Anginal Symptoms and Myocardial Ischemia and Their Effect on Clinical Outcomes in Outpatients With Stable Coronary Artery Disease: Data From the International Observational CLARIFY Registry.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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In the era of widespread revascularization and effective antianginals, the prevalence and prognostic effect of anginal symptoms and myocardial ischemia among patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD) are unknown.
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Protocol of the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined Trial (FAST): a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint study comparing the cardiovascular safety of allopurinol and febuxostat in the management of symptomatic hyperuricaemia.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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Gout affects 2.5% of the UK's adult population and is now the most common type of inflammatory arthritis. The long-term management of gout requires reduction of serum urate levels and this is most often achieved with use of xanthine oxidase inhibitors, such as allopurinol. Febuxostat is the first new xanthine oxidase inhibitor since allopurinol and was licensed for use in 2008. The European Medicines Agency requested a postlicensing cardiovascular safety study of febuxostat versus allopurinol, which has been named the Febuxostat versus Allopurinol Streamlined trial (FAST).
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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Thromboxane prostaglandin receptor antagonist and carotid atherosclerosis progression in patients with cerebrovascular disease of ischemic origin: a randomized controlled trial.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Thromboxane prostaglandin receptors have been implicated to be involved in the atherosclerotic process. We assessed whether Terutroban, a thromboxane prostaglandin receptor antagonist, affects the progression of atherosclerosis, as measured by common carotid intima-media thickness and carotid plaques.
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Contrasting associations of insulin resistance with diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in the elderly: PROSPER long-term follow-up.
Diabetologia
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Insulin resistance is commonly proposed as a precursor to both type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet few studies have directly compared insulin resistance with both outcomes simultaneously and determined whether associations with each outcome differ in strength or are comparable. We assessed the association of fasting insulin and HOMA-IR with incident CVD and diabetes in older people.
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The importance of patient-reported outcomes: a call for their comprehensive integration in cardiovascular clinical trials.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Patient-reported outcomes (PROs), such as symptoms, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), or patient perceived health status, are reported directly by the patient and are powerful tools to inform patients, clinicians, and policy-makers about morbidity and 'patient suffering', especially in chronic diseases. Patient-reported outcomes provide information on the patient experience and can be the target of therapeutic intervention. Patient-reported outcomes can improve the quality of patient care by creating a holistic approach to clinical decision-making; however, PROs are not routinely used as key outcome measures in major cardiovascular clinical trials. Thus, limited information is available on the impact of cardiovascular therapeutics on PROs to guide patient-level clinical decision-making or policy-level decision-making. Cardiovascular clinical research should shift its focus to include PROs when evaluating the efficacy of therapeutic interventions, and PRO assessments should be scientifically rigorous. The European Society of Cardiology and other professional societies can take action to influence the uptake of PRO data in the research and clinical communities. This process of integrating PRO data into comprehensive efficacy evaluations will ultimately improve the quality of care for patients across the spectrum of cardiovascular disease.
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Effect of vitamin D supplementation on orthostatic hypotension: data from the vitamin D in isolated systolic hypertension randomized controlled trial.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
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Orthostatic hypotension commonly accompanies supine hypertension, and is associated with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels. We tested whether high-dose intermittent oral vitamin D therapy could ameliorate orthostatic hypotension in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension.
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Annotation of loci from genome-wide association studies using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of loci associated with complex traits, but it is challenging to pinpoint causal genes in these loci and to exploit subtle association signals. We used tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics to map a network of five genes involved in the Mendelian disorder long QT syndrome (LQTS). We integrated the LQTS network with GWAS loci from the corresponding common complex trait, QT-interval variation, to identify candidate genes that were subsequently confirmed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and zebrafish. We used the LQTS protein network to filter weak GWAS signals by identifying single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in proximity to genes in the network supported by strong proteomic evidence. Three SNPs passing this filter reached genome-wide significance after replication genotyping. Overall, we present a general strategy to propose candidates in GWAS loci for functional studies and to systematically filter subtle association signals using tissue-specific quantitative interaction proteomics.
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Assessing methods to specify the target difference for a randomised controlled trial: DELTA (Difference ELicitation in TriAls) review.
Health Technol Assess
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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The randomised controlled trial (RCT) is widely considered to be the gold standard study for comparing the effectiveness of health interventions. Central to the design and validity of a RCT is a calculation of the number of participants needed (the sample size). The value used to determine the sample size can be considered the 'target difference'. From both a scientific and an ethical standpoint, selecting an appropriate target difference is of crucial importance. Determination of the target difference, as opposed to statistical approaches to calculating the sample size, has been greatly neglected though a variety of approaches have been proposed the current state of the evidence is unclear.
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Inadequate heart rate control despite widespread use of beta-blockers in outpatients with stable CAD: findings from the international prospective CLARIFY registry.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To use CLARIFY, a prospective registry of patients with stable CAD (45 countries), to explore heart rate (HR) control and beta-blocker use.
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Genome-wide association meta-analysis of human longevity identifies a novel locus conferring survival beyond 90 years of age.
Joris Deelen, Marian Beekman, Hae-Won Uh, Linda Broer, Kristin L Ayers, Qihua Tan, Yoichiro Kamatani, Anna M Bennet, Riin Tamm, Stella Trompet, Daníel F Guðbjartsson, Friederike Flachsbart, Giuseppina Rose, Alexander Viktorin, Krista Fischer, Marianne Nygaard, Heather J Cordell, Paolina Crocco, Erik B van den Akker, Stefan Böhringer, Quinta Helmer, Christopher P Nelson, Gary I Saunders, Maris Alver, Karen Andersen-Ranberg, Marie E Breen, Ruud van der Breggen, Amke Caliebe, Miriam Capri, Elisa Cevenini, Joanna C Collerton, Serena Dato, Karen Davies, Ian Ford, Jutta Gampe, Paolo Garagnani, Eco J C de Geus, Jennifer Harrow, Diana van Heemst, Bastiaan T Heijmans, Femke-Anouska Heinsen, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Albert Hofman, Bernard Jeune, Palmi V Jonsson, Mark Lathrop, Doris Lechner, Carmen Martin-Ruiz, Susan E McNerlan, Evelin Mihailov, Alberto Montesanto, Simon P Mooijaart, Anne Murphy, Ellen A Nohr, Lavinia Paternoster, Iris Postmus, Fernando Rivadeneira, Owen A Ross, Stefano Salvioli, Naveed Sattar, Stefan Schreiber, Hreinn Stefansson, David J Stott, Henning Tiemeier, André G Uitterlinden, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gonneke Willemsen, Nilesh J Samani, Pilar Galán, Thorkild I A Sørensen, Dorret I Boomsma, J Wouter Jukema, Irene Maeve Rea, Giuseppe Passarino, Anton J M de Craen, Kaare Christensen, Almut Nebel, Kari Stefansson, Andres Metspalu, Patrik Magnusson, Hélène Blanché, Lene Christiansen, Thomas B L Kirkwood, Cornelia M van Duijn, Claudio Franceschi, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, P Eline Slagboom.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The genetic contribution to the variation in human lifespan is ? 25%. Despite the large number of identified disease-susceptibility loci, it is not known which loci influence population mortality. We performed a genome-wide association meta-analysis of 7729 long-lived individuals of European descent (? 85 years) and 16 121 younger controls (<65 years) followed by replication in an additional set of 13 060 long-lived individuals and 61 156 controls. In addition, we performed a subset analysis in cases aged ? 90 years. We observed genome-wide significant association with longevity, as reflected by survival to ages beyond 90 years, at a novel locus, rs2149954, on chromosome 5q33.3 (OR = 1.10, P = 1.74 × 10(-8)). We also confirmed association of rs4420638 on chromosome 19q13.32 (OR = 0.72, P = 3.40 × 10(-36)), representing the TOMM40/APOE/APOC1 locus. In a prospective meta-analysis (n = 34 103), the minor allele of rs2149954 (T) on chromosome 5q33.3 associates with increased survival (HR = 0.95, P = 0.003). This allele has previously been reported to associate with low blood pressure in middle age. Interestingly, the minor allele (T) associates with decreased cardiovascular mortality risk, independent of blood pressure. We report on the first GWAS-identified longevity locus on chromosome 5q33.3 influencing survival in the general European population. The minor allele of this locus associates with low blood pressure in middle age, although the contribution of this allele to survival may be less dependent on blood pressure. Hence, the pleiotropic mechanisms by which this intragenic variation contributes to lifespan regulation have to be elucidated.
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Glycated hemoglobin measurement and prediction of cardiovascular disease.
JAMA
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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The value of measuring levels of glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) for the prediction of first cardiovascular events is uncertain.
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Metformin for non-diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (the CAMERA study): a randomised controlled trial.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Metformin reduces cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes seemingly independent of lowering blood glucose concentration. We assessed the cardiovascular effects of metformin in individuals without type 2 diabetes.
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Pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies of LDL cholesterol response to statins.
Iris Postmus, Stella Trompet, Harshal A Deshmukh, Michael R Barnes, Xiaohui Li, Helen R Warren, Daniel I Chasman, Kaixin Zhou, Benoit J Arsenault, Louise A Donnelly, Kerri L Wiggins, Christy L Avery, Paula Griffin, QiPing Feng, Kent D Taylor, Guo Li, Daniel S Evans, Albert V Smith, Catherine E de Keyser, Andrew D Johnson, Anton J M de Craen, David J Stott, Brendan M Buckley, Ian Ford, Rudi G J Westendorp, P Eline Slagboom, Naveed Sattar, Patricia B Munroe, Peter Sever, Neil Poulter, Alice Stanton, Denis C Shields, Eoin O'Brien, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Y-D Ida Chen, Deborah A Nickerson, Joshua D Smith, Marie Pierre Dubé, S Matthijs Boekholdt, G Kees Hovingh, John J P Kastelein, Paul M McKeigue, John Betteridge, Andrew Neil, Paul N Durrington, Alex Doney, Fiona Carr, Andrew Morris, Mark I McCarthy, Leif Groop, Emma Ahlqvist, , Joshua C Bis, Kenneth Rice, Nicholas L Smith, Thomas Lumley, Eric A Whitsel, Til Stürmer, Eric Boerwinkle, Julius S Ngwa, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ramachandran S Vasan, Wei-Qi Wei, Russell A Wilke, Ching-Ti Liu, Fangui Sun, Xiuqing Guo, Susan R Heckbert, Wendy Post, Nona Sotoodehnia, Alice M Arnold, Jeanette M Stafford, Jingzhong Ding, David M Herrington, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Leonore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Audrey Y Chu, Franco Giulianini, Jean G MacFadyen, Bryan J Barratt, Fredrik Nyberg, Bruno H Stricker, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, Fernando Rivadeneira, Valur Emilsson, Oscar H Franco, Paul M Ridker, Vilmundur Gudnason, Yongmei Liu, Joshua C Denny, Christie M Ballantyne, Jerome I Rotter, L Adrienne Cupples, Bruce M Psaty, Colin N A Palmer, Jean-Claude Tardif, Helen M Colhoun, Graham Hitman, Ronald M Krauss, J Wouter Jukema, Mark J Caulfield.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Statins effectively lower LDL cholesterol levels in large studies and the observed interindividual response variability may be partially explained by genetic variation. Here we perform a pharmacogenetic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in studies addressing the LDL cholesterol response to statins, including up to 18,596 statin-treated subjects. We validate the most promising signals in a further 22,318 statin recipients and identify two loci, SORT1/CELSR2/PSRC1 and SLCO1B1, not previously identified in GWAS. Moreover, we confirm the previously described associations with APOE and LPA. Our findings advance the understanding of the pharmacogenetic architecture of statin response.
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Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
Jie Huang, Jennifer E Huffman, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Munekazu Yamkauchi, Stella Trompet, Folkert W Asselbergs, Maria Sabater-Lleal, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Wei-Min Chen, Nicholas L Smith, Marcus E Kleber, So-Youn Shin, Diane M Becker, Weihong Tang, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Vinh Truong, Lasse Folkersen, Qiong Yang, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellkah, Brendan M Buckley, Jason H Moore, Frances M K Williams, Harry Campbell, Günther Silbernagel, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Geoffrey H Tofler, Gerjan J Navis, Anita DeStefano, Alan F Wright, Ming-Huei Chen, Anton J M de Craen, Bradford B Worrall, Alicja R Rudnicka, Ann Rumley, Ebony B Bookman, Bruce M Psaty, Fang Chen, Keith L Keene, Oscar H Franco, Bernhard O Böhm, André G Uitterlinden, Angela M Carter, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Joshua C Bis, Mohammad A Ikram, , Michèle M Sale, Barbara McKnight, Myriam Fornage, Ian Ford, Kent Taylor, P Eline Slagboom, Wendy L McArdle, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Alison H Goodall, Lisa R Yanek, Karen L Furie, Mary Cushman, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aaron R Folsom, Saonli Basu, Nena Matijevic, Wiek H van Gilst, James F Wilson, Rudi G J Westendorp, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Russell P Tracy, Ozren Polašek, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Peter J Grant, Hans L Hillege, Francois Cambien, David J Stott, Gordon D Lowe, Timothy D Spector, James B Meigs, Winfried März, Per Eriksson, Lewis C Becker, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Nicole Soranzo, Scott M Williams, Caroline Hayward, Pim van der Harst, Anders Hamsten, Charles J Lowenstein, David P Strachan, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA.
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N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and cognitive decline in older adults at high cardiovascular risk.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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Elevated levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated with cognitive impairment, which might be explained by cardiovascular diseases or risk factors. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of NT-proBNP with cognitive function and decline in older adults at high risk of cardiovascular disease.
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In search for genetic determinants of clinically meaningful differential cardiovascular event reduction by pravastatin in the PHArmacogenetic study of Statins in the Elderly at risk (PHASE)/PROSPER study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Statin therapy is widely used in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular events and is associated with significant risk reductions. However, there is considerable variation in response to statin therapy both in terms of LDL cholesterol reduction and clinical outcomes. It has been hypothesized that genetic variation contributes importantly to this individual drug response.
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The effect of heart rate reduction with ivabradine on renal function in patients with chronic heart failure: an analysis from SHIFT.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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We studied the relationship between heart rate and renal function and the effects of heart rate reduction with ivabradine in heart failure patients with and without renal dysfunction.
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A randomized trial of deferred stenting versus immediate stenting to prevent no- or slow-reflow in acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (DEFER-STEMI).
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The aim of this study was to assess whether deferred stenting might reduce no-reflow and salvage myocardium in primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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Efficacy and safety of ivabradine in patients with chronic systolic heart failure according to blood pressure level in SHIFT.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Low systolic blood pressure (SBP) is associated with poor outcomes in heart failure and complicates management. In a post hoc analysis, we investigated the efficacy and safety of ivabradine in the SHIFT population divided by tertiles of baseline SBP.
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Homocysteine levels and treatment effect in the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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To assess the effect of preventive pravastatin treatment on coronary heart disease (CHD) morbidity and mortality in older persons at risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), stratified according to plasma levels of homocysteine.
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Investigating the significance of zero-point motion in small molecular clusters of sulphuric acid and water.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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The nucleation of particles from trace gases in the atmosphere is an important source of cloud condensation nuclei, and these are vital for the formation of clouds in view of the high supersaturations required for homogeneous water droplet nucleation. The methods of quantum chemistry have increasingly been employed to model nucleation due to their high accuracy and efficiency in calculating configurational energies; and nucleation rates can be obtained from the associated free energies of particle formation. However, even in such advanced approaches, it is typically assumed that the nuclei have a classical nature, which is questionable for some systems. The importance of zero-point motion (also known as quantum nuclear dynamics) in modelling small clusters of sulphuric acid and water is tested here using the path integral molecular dynamics method at the density functional level of theory. The general effect of zero-point motion is to distort the mean structure slightly, and to promote the extent of proton transfer with respect to classical behaviour. In a particular configuration of one sulphuric acid molecule with three waters, the range of positions explored by a proton between a sulphuric acid and a water molecule at 300 K (a broad range in contrast to the confinement suggested by geometry optimisation at 0 K) is clearly affected by the inclusion of zero point motion, and similar effects are observed for other configurations.
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ABCA1 gene variation and heart disease risk reduction in the elderly during pravastatin treatment.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Our goals were to examine the relationships of a specific ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) variant, rs2230806 (R219K), on baseline lipids, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) lowering due to pravastatin, baseline heart disease, and cardiac endpoints on trial.
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Up-titration of allopurinol in patients with gout.
Semin. Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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European League against Rheumatism (EULAR) gout management guidelines recommend achieving a target urate level <6.0 mg/dL (<357 µmol/L). Allopurinol is the most widely used urate-lowering therapy; however, many gout patients who are prescribed allopurinol do not have urate levels optimally controlled. The objective of this analysis was to review the efficacy and tolerability of allopurinol up-titration in achieving the EULAR target levels.
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Impact of chronic kidney disease on use of evidence-based therapy in stable coronary artery disease: a prospective analysis of 22,272 patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To assess the frequency of chronic kidney disease (CKD), define the associated demographics, and evaluate its association with use of evidence-based drug therapy in a contemporary global study of patients with stable coronary artery disease.
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Rationale and design of the PRognostic Importance of MIcrovascular Dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with Aortic Stenosis (PRIMID-AS): a multicentre observational study with blinded investigations.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2013
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Aortic stenosis (AS) is the commonest valve disorder in the developed world requiring surgery. Surgery in patients with severe asymptomatic AS remains controversial. Exercise testing can identify asymptomatic patients at increased risk of death and symptom development, but with limited specificity, especially in older adults. Cardiac MRI (CMR), including myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR) may be a novel imaging biomarker in AS.
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A genome-wide copy number association study of osteoporotic fractures points to the 6p25.1 locus.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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Osteoporosis is a systemic skeletal disease characterised by reduced bone mineral density and increased susceptibility to fracture; these traits are highly heritable. Both common and rare copy number variants (CNVs) potentially affect the function of genes and may influence disease risk.
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Subclinical Thyroid Dysfunction and Functional Capacity Among Elderly.
Thyroid
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Background: Subclinical thyroid dysfunction is common among older people and has been associated with decreased functional capacity but with conflicting data. The aim of this study was to assess the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and functional capacity in an elderly population. Methods: We included 5182 participants with a mean age of 75.2 years from the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Self-reported functional capacity was assessed using the Barthel Index (BI) and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL) scores at baseline and during follow-up. Participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism (n=65) and subclinical hypothyroidism (n=173) were compared to euthyroid participants (n=4944). The association between persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and functional capacity and decline was also investigated. Results: At baseline, compared to euthyroid participants (BI 19.73±SE 0.06; IADL 13.52±0.02), there was no difference in functional capacity for participants with subclinical hyperthyroidism (BI 19.60±0.09; IADL 13.51±0.12, p>0.05) or subclinical hypothyroidism (BI 19.82±0.06; IADL 13.55±0.08, p>0.05). Over a mean 3.2-year follow-up period, there was no association between thyroid function and annual decline of either BI or IADL (p>0.05). No association was found between persistent subclinical thyroid dysfunction and functional capacity at baseline or during follow-up (p>0.05). Results were similar after excluding participants with a maximum BI and/or IADL score at baseline. Conclusion: Among well-functioning community-dwelling elderly, we found no evidence that subclinical thyroid dysfunction contributes to decreased functional capacity.
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Total cerebral blood flow and mortality in old age: A 12-year follow-up study.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To examine the association of total cerebral blood flow (CBF) with all-cause, noncardiovascular, and cardiovascular mortality in older subjects at risk of cardiovascular disease.
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[Coronary artery disease in Russia: todays reality evidenced by the international CLARIFY registry].
Kardiologiia
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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This paper presents the specific features of clinical manifestation and treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) in the Russian Federation and compares them to the data from other countries participating in the international CLARIFY (ProspeCtive observational LongitudinAl RegIstry oF patients with stable coronary arterY disease) Registry. In accordance with the exclusion and inclusion criteria, 2249 patients from 43 Russian regions were included in the Registry. Russian patients were younger and had a higher prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities, compared to patients from other countries. In particular, the former more often had cardiovascular disease in family history, smoked (20.9% vs 11.8%; p<0.0001), and had dyslipidemia (77.8% vs 74.6%; p<0.0001) or hypertension (79.6% vs 70.3%; p<0.0001).They also had a higher heart rate (p<0.0001). ). While the incidence of myocardial infarction, based on medical history, was significantly higher than in patients from other countries (78.3% vs 58.4%; p<0.0001), percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed 2.5 times less often. Particularly striking differences were observed for the prevalence of stable angina and heart failure, which was, respectively, 4.0 and 7.8 times higher in Russian patients, despite the fact that the prescription frequency was similar in the Russian Federation and other countries. These findings should focus Russian doctors attention on the potential ways to solve the problem of "national features" in the treatment of stable CHD.
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Common variants in mendelian kidney disease genes and their association with renal function.
Afshin Parsa, Christian Fuchsberger, Anna Köttgen, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Mariza de Andrade, Daniel I Chasman, Alexander Teumer, Karlhans Endlich, Matthias Olden, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Young J Kim, Daniel Taliun, Man Li, Mary Feitosa, Mathias Gorski, Qiong Yang, Claudia Hundertmark, Meredith C Foster, Nicole Glazer, Aaron Isaacs, Madhumathi Rao, Albert V Smith, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Maksim Struchalin, Toshiko Tanaka, Guo Li, Shih-Jen Hwang, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Kurt Lohman, Marilyn C Cornelis, Asa Johansson, Anke Tönjes, Abbas Dehghan, Vincent Couraki, Elizabeth G Holliday, Rossella Sorice, Zoltan Kutalik, Terho Lehtimäki, Tonu Esko, Harshal Deshmukh, Sheila Ulivi, Audrey Y Chu, Federico Murgia, Stella Trompet, Medea Imboden, Barbara Kollerits, Giorgio Pistis, Tamara B Harris, Lenore J Launer, Thor Aspelund, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Braxton D Mitchell, Eric Boerwinkle, Helena Schmidt, Edith Hofer, Frank Hu, Ayse Demirkan, Ben A Oostra, Stephen T Turner, Jingzhong Ding, Jeanette S Andrews, Barry I Freedman, Franco Giulianini, Wolfgang Koenig, Thomas Illig, Angela Döring, H-Erich Wichmann, Lina Zgaga, Tatijana Zemunik, Mladen Boban, Cosetta Minelli, Heather E Wheeler, Wilmar Igl, Ghazal Zaboli, Sarah H Wild, Alan F Wright, Harry Campbell, David Ellinghaus, Ute Nöthlings, Gunnar Jacobs, Reiner Biffar, Florian Ernst, Georg Homuth, Heyo K Kroemer, Matthias Nauck, Sylvia Stracke, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Peter Kovacs, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Fernando Rivadeneira, Yurii S Aulchenko, Ozren Polašek, Nick Hastie, Veronique Vitart, Catherine Helmer, Jie Jin Wang, Bénédicte Stengel, Daniela Ruggiero, Sven Bergmann, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Tiit Nikopensius, Michael Province, Helen Colhoun, Alex Doney, Antonietta Robino, Bernhard K Krämer, Laura Portas, Ian Ford, Brendan M Buckley, Martin Adam, Gian-Andri Thun, Bernhard Paulweber, Margot Haun, Cinzia Sala, Paul Mitchell, Marina Ciullo, Peter Vollenweider, Olli Raitakari, Andres Metspalu, Colin Palmer, Paolo Gasparini, Mario Pirastu, J Wouter Jukema, Nicole M Probst-Hensch, Florian Kronenberg, Daniela Toniolo, Vilmundur Gudnason, Alan R Shuldiner, Josef Coresh, Reinhold Schmidt, Luigi Ferrucci, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ingrid Borecki, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Gary C Curhan, Igor Rudan, Ulf Gyllensten, James F Wilson, Andre Franke, Peter P Pramstaller, Rainer Rettig, Inga Prokopenko, Jacqueline Witteman, Caroline Hayward, Paul M Ridker, Murielle Bochud, Iris M Heid, David S Siscovick, Caroline S Fox, W Linda Kao, Carsten A Böger.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Many common genetic variants identified by genome-wide association studies for complex traits map to genes previously linked to rare inherited Mendelian disorders. A systematic analysis of common single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes responsible for Mendelian diseases with kidney phenotypes has not been performed. We thus developed a comprehensive database of genes for Mendelian kidney conditions and evaluated the association between common genetic variants within these genes and kidney function in the general population. Using the Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man database, we identified 731 unique disease entries related to specific renal search terms and confirmed a kidney phenotype in 218 of these entries, corresponding to mutations in 258 genes. We interrogated common SNPs (minor allele frequency >5%) within these genes for association with the estimated GFR in 74,354 European-ancestry participants from the CKDGen Consortium. However, the top four candidate SNPs (rs6433115 at LRP2, rs1050700 at TSC1, rs249942 at PALB2, and rs9827843 at ROBO2) did not achieve significance in a stage 2 meta-analysis performed in 56,246 additional independent individuals, indicating that these common SNPs are not associated with estimated GFR. The effect of less common or rare variants in these genes on kidney function in the general population and disease-specific cohorts requires further research.
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Cardiac-resynchronization therapy in heart failure with a narrow QRS complex.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2013
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Cardiac-resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduces morbidity and mortality in chronic systolic heart failure with a wide QRS complex. Mechanical dyssynchrony also occurs in patients with a narrow QRS complex, which suggests the potential usefulness of CRT in such patients.
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Socioeconomic deprivation and cortical morphology: psychological, social, and biological determinants of ill health study.
Psychosom Med
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2013
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Neighborhood-level socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with poor cognitive function pertaining to language and the executive control. Few studies have explored the cortical morphology of regions most commonly associated with these functions. The aim of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood-level deprivation and the morphology of cortical regions associated with language and executive control in adults.
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Cholecalciferol treatment to reduce blood pressure in older patients with isolated systolic hypertension: the VitDISH randomized controlled trial.
JAMA Intern Med
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Observational data link low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to both prevalent blood pressure and incident hypertension. No clinical trial has yet examined the effect of vitamin D supplementation in isolated systolic hypertension, the most common pattern of hypertension in older people.
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Efficacy and Safety of Ivabradine in Patients With Severe Chronic Systolic Heart Failure (from the SHIFT Study).
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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A post hoc analysis of Systolic Heart failure treatment with the If inhibitor ivabradine Trial (SHIFT) explored the efficacy and safety of ivabradine in severe heart failure (HF) as denoted by left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ?20% and/or New York Heart Association (NYHA) class IV. The SHIFT population (LVEF ?35%, heart rate ?70 beats/min, and sinus rhythm) comprised 712 patients with severe (defined previously) and 5,973 with less severe (NYHA classes II or III and LVEF >20%) HF, all randomized to ivabradine or placebo on a background of guideline-defined standard care. The rate of primary composite end point of cardiovascular death or HF hospitalization with placebo was higher in severe (42%) than less severe (27%) HF (p <0.001). Treatment with ivabradine in severe HF was associated with relative risk reductions indistinguishable from those of less severe disease for the primary end point (16% reduction), all-cause death (22%), cardiovascular death (22%), HF death (37%), and HF hospitalization (17%; all p values for interaction: NS). NYHA class improved in 38% (n = 129) ivabradine-treated patients with severe HF versus 29% (n = 104) placebo-treated patients (p = 0.009). In the 272 patients with severe HF and baseline heart rate ?75 beats/min (the indication approved by the European Medicines Agency), ivabradine reduced the primary end point by 25% (p = 0.045), HF hospitalization by 30% (p = 0.042), and cardiovascular death by 32% (p = 0.034). Ivabradines safety profile in severe HF was indistinguishable from less severe. In conclusion, our analysis confirms that heart rate reduction with ivabradine can be safely used in severe HF and may improve clinical outcomes independently of disease severity.
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Long-term impact on healthcare resource utilization of statin treatment, and its cost effectiveness in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease: a record linkage study.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To assess the impact on healthcare resource utilization, costs, and quality of life over 15 years from 5 years of statin use in men without a history of myocardial infarction in the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study (WOSCOPS).
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Model inspired by nuclear pore complex suggests possible roles for nuclear transport receptors in determining its structure.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Nuclear transport receptors (NTRs) mediate nucleocytoplasmic transport via their affinity for unstructured proteins (polymers) in the nuclear pore complex (NPC). Here, we have modeled the effect of NTRs on polymeric structure in the nanopore confinement of the NPC central conduit. The model explicitly takes into account inter- and intramolecular interactions, as well as the finite size of the NTRs (?20% of the NPC channel diameter). It reproduces various proposed scenarios for the channel structure, ranging from a central polymer condensate (selective phase) to brushlike polymer arrangements localized at the channel wall (virtual gate, reduction of dimensionality), with the transport receptors lining the polymer surface. In addition, it predicts a new structure in which NTRs become an integral part of the transport barrier by forming a cross-linked network with the unstructured proteins stretching across the pore. The model provides specific and distinctive predictions for the equilibrium spatial distributions of NTRs for these different scenarios that can be experimentally verified by, e.g., superresolution fluorescence microscopy. Moreover, it suggests mechanisms by which globular macromolecules (colloidal particles) can cause polymer-coated nanopores to switch between open and closed configurations, a possible explanation of the biological function of the NPC, and suggests potential technological applications for filtration and single-molecule sensing.
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Efficacy and safety of ivabradine in chronic heart failure across the age spectrum: insights from the SHIFT study.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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To test whether the efficacy and safety of the selective heart rate-reducing agent ivabradine changes according to age in chronic heart failure (HF) patients.
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Socioeconomic status and the cerebellar grey matter volume. Data from a well-characterised population sample.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
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The cerebellum is highly sensitive to adverse environmental factors throughout the life span. Socioeconomic deprivation has been associated with greater inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk, and poor neurocognitive function. Given the increasing awareness of the association between early-life adversities on cerebellar structure, we aimed to explore the relationship between early life (ESES) and current socioeconomic status (CSES) and cerebellar volume. T1-weighted MRI was used to create models of cerebellar grey matter volumes in 42 adult neurologically healthy males selected from the Psychological, Social and Biological Determinants of Ill Health study. The relationship between potential risk factors, including ESES, CSES and cerebellar grey matter volumes were examined using multiple regression techniques. We also examined if greater multisystem physiological risk index-derived from inflammatory and cardiometabolic risk markers-mediated the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and cerebellar grey matter volume. Both ESES and CSES explained the greatest variance in cerebellar grey matter volume, with age and alcohol use as a covariate in the model. Low CSES explained additional significant variance to low ESES on grey matter decrease. The multisystem physiological risk index mediated the relationship between both early life and current SES and grey matter volume in cerebellum. In a randomly selected sample of neurologically healthy males, poorer socioeconomic status was associated with a smaller cerebellar volume. Early and current socioeconomic status and the multisystem physiological risk index also apparently influence cerebellar volume. These findings provide data on the relationship between socioeconomic deprivation and a brain region highly sensitive to environmental factors.
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Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in iron-deficient chronic heart failure patients with and without anaemia: a subanalysis of the FAIR-HF trial.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Therapy with i.v. iron in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) and iron deficiency (ID) improves symptoms, functional capacity, and quality of life. We sought to investigate whether these beneficial outcomes are independent of anaemia.
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Spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing has no prognostic value in patients recently hospitalized with decompensated heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies beat-to-beat fluctuations in T-wave morphology, which have been linked to ventricular arrhythmias. However, clinical studies have produced conflicting results and data in heart failure (HF) have been limited. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and incremental prognostic value of spectral MTWA testing in an unselected cohort of patients recently hospitalized with HF.
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Impact of left bundle branch block on heart rate and its relationship to treatment with ivabradine in chronic heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Left bundle branch block (LBBB) increases morbidity and mortality in heart failure (HF). Heart rate reduction with ivabradine improves outcomes in patients with systolic HF. Therefore, we aimed to analyse the impact of LBBB on outcomes in patients with systolic HF as a function of heart rate, and the relationship between LBBB and the effect of treatment with ivabradine.
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Selective heart rate reduction with ivabradine unloads the left ventricle in heart failure patients.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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The study aimed to determine whether isolated heart rate (HR) reduction with ivabradine reduces afterload of patients with systolic heart failure.
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Secretory Phospholipase A2-IIA and Cardiovascular Disease: A Mendelian Randomization Study.
Michael V Holmes, Tabassome Simon, Holly J Exeter, Lasse Folkersen, Folkert W Asselbergs, Montse Guardiola, Jackie A Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Kathryn F Carruthers, Benjamin D Horne, Kimberly D Brunisholz, Jessica L Mega, Erik P A van Iperen, Mingyao Li, Maarten Leusink, Stella Trompet, Jeffrey J W Verschuren, G Kees Hovingh, Abbas Dehghan, Christopher P Nelson, Salma Kotti, Nicolas Danchin, Markus Scholz, Christiane L Haase, Dietrich Rothenbacher, Daniel I Swerdlow, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Eleonora Staines-Urias, Anuj Goel, Ferdinand van 't Hooft, Karl Gertow, Ulf de Faire, Andrie G Panayiotou, Elena Tremoli, Damiano Baldassarre, Fabrizio Veglia, Lesca M Holdt, Frank Beutner, Ron T Gansevoort, Gerjan J Navis, Irene Mateo Leach, Lutz P Breitling, Hermann Brenner, Joachim Thiery, Dhayana Dallmeier, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Jolanda M A Boer, Jeffrey W Stephens, Marten H Hofker, Alain Tedgui, Albert Hofman, André G Uitterlinden, Vera Adamkova, Jan Piťha, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Maarten J Cramer, Hendrik M Nathoe, Wilko Spiering, Olaf H Klungel, Meena Kumari, Peter H Whincup, David A Morrow, Peter S Braund, Alistair S Hall, Anders G Olsson, Pieter A Doevendans, Mieke D Trip, Martin D Tobin, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Wolfgang Koenig, Andrew N Nicolaides, Daniel Teupser, Ian N M Day, John F Carlquist, Tom R Gaunt, Ian Ford, Naveed Sattar, Sotirios Tsimikas, Gregory G Schwartz, Debbie A Lawlor, Richard W Morris, Manjinder S Sandhu, Rudolf Poledne, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Kay-Tee Khaw, Brendan J Keating, Pim van der Harst, Jackie F Price, Shamir R Mehta, Salim Yusuf, Jaqueline C M Witteman, Oscar H Franco, J Wouter Jukema, Peter de Knijff, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Daniel J Rader, Martin Farrall, Nilesh J Samani, Mika Kivimäki, Keith A A Fox, Steve E Humphries, Jeffrey L Anderson, S Matthijs Boekholdt, Tom M Palmer, Per Eriksson, Guillaume Paré, Aroon D Hingorani, Marc S Sabatine, Ziad Mallat, Juan P Casas, Philippa J Talmud.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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This study sought to investigate the role of secretory phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-IIA in cardiovascular disease.
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Using centrally held data to validate carotid surgery outcome data.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Outcome audit data for peer group comparison must be transparent, objective, and independently reproducible. Personal data sets are difficult to maintain and often lack complete follow-up. Local coding difficulties make initial retrieval of centrally held data unreliable. However starting with a complete list of interventions, reliable identification of patients who have experienced an adverse postoperative event may be possible using record linkages.
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Fractional flow reserve versus angiography in guiding management to optimize outcomes in non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (FAMOUS-NSTEMI): rationale and design of a randomized controlled clinical trial.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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In patients with acute non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI), coronary arteriography is usually recommended; but visual interpretation of the angiogram is subjective. We hypothesized that functional assessment of coronary stenosis severity with a pressure-sensitive guide wire (fractional flow reserve [FFR]) would have additive diagnostic, clinical, and health economic utility as compared with angiography-guided standard care.
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Rationale, design, and baseline characteristics of the Study assessInG the morbidity-mortality beNefits of the If inhibitor ivabradine in patients with coronarY artery disease (SIGNIFY trial): a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ivabra
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2013
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Elevated heart rate in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) is associated with worse outcomes, particularly increased risk of myocardial infarction. Heart rate reduction with the If inhibitor ivabradine confers symptomatic benefits in angina pectoris and reduces coronary events in patients with stable CAD and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction, with a resting heart rate of ?70 beats/min. The SIGNIFY trial is testing the hypothesis that heart rate reduction using ivabradine reduces mortality and cardiovascular events in patients with stable CAD, but without clinical heart failure.
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Effect of ivabradine in patients with left-ventricular systolic dysfunction: a pooled analysis of individual patient data from the BEAUTIFUL and SHIFT trials.
Eur. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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To test the effect of ivabradine on the outcomes in a broad population with left-ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction with coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF).
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Risk following hospitalization in stable chronic systolic heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2013
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We explored the impact of being hospitalized due to worsening heart failure (WHF) or a myocardial infarction (MI) on subsequent mortality in a large contemporary data set of patients with stable chronic systolic heart failure (HF).
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Outcomes of induction of labour in women with previous caesarean delivery: a retrospective cohort study using a population database.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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There is evidence that induction of labour (IOL) around term reduces perinatal mortality and caesarean delivery rates when compared to expectant management of pregnancy (allowing the pregnancy to continue to await spontaneous labour or definitive indication for delivery). However, it is not clear whether IOL in women with a previous caesarean section confers the same benefits. The aim of this study was to describe outcomes of IOL at 39-41 weeks in women with one previous caesarean delivery and to compare outcomes of IOL or planned caesarean delivery to those of expectant management.
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A meta-analysis of thyroid-related traits reveals novel loci and gender-specific differences in the regulation of thyroid function.
Eleonora Porcu, Marco Medici, Giorgio Pistis, Claudia B Volpato, Scott G Wilson, Anne R Cappola, Steffan D Bos, Joris Deelen, Martin den Heijer, Rachel M Freathy, Jari Lahti, Chunyu Liu, Lorna M Lopez, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Stella Trompet, Alice Arnold, Stefania Bandinelli, Marian Beekman, Stefan Böhringer, Suzanne J Brown, Brendan M Buckley, Clara Camaschella, Anton J M de Craen, Gail Davies, Marieke C H de Visser, Ian Ford, Tom Forsén, Timothy M Frayling, Laura Fugazzola, Martin Gögele, Andrew T Hattersley, Ad R Hermus, Albert Hofman, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Richard A Jensen, Eero Kajantie, Margreet Kloppenburg, Ee M Lim, Corrado Masciullo, Stefano Mariotti, Cosetta Minelli, Braxton D Mitchell, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Romana T Netea-Maier, Aarno Palotie, Luca Persani, Maria G Piras, Bruce M Psaty, Katri Räikkönen, J Brent Richards, Fernando Rivadeneira, Cinzia Sala, Mona M Sabra, Naveed Sattar, Beverley M Shields, Nicole Soranzo, John M Starr, David J Stott, Fred C G J Sweep, Gianluca Usala, Melanie M van der Klauw, Diana van Heemst, Alies van Mullem, Sita H Vermeulen, W Edward Visser, John P Walsh, Rudi G J Westendorp, Elisabeth Widén, Guangju Zhai, Francesco Cucca, Ian J Deary, Johan G Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Caroline S Fox, J Wouter Jukema, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Peter P Pramstaller, David Schlessinger, Alan R Shuldiner, Eline P Slagboom, André G Uitterlinden, Bijay Vaidya, Theo J Visser, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Ingrid Meulenbelt, Jerome I Rotter, Tim D Spector, Andrew A Hicks, Daniela Toniolo, Serena Sanna, Robin P Peeters, Silvia Naitza.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Thyroid hormone is essential for normal metabolism and development, and overt abnormalities in thyroid function lead to common endocrine disorders affecting approximately 10% of individuals over their life span. In addition, even mild alterations in thyroid function are associated with weight changes, atrial fibrillation, osteoporosis, and psychiatric disorders. To identify novel variants underlying thyroid function, we performed a large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies for serum levels of the highly heritable thyroid function markers TSH and FT4, in up to 26,420 and 17,520 euthyroid subjects, respectively. Here we report 26 independent associations, including several novel loci for TSH (PDE10A, VEGFA, IGFBP5, NFIA, SOX9, PRDM11, FGF7, INSR, ABO, MIR1179, NRG1, MBIP, ITPK1, SASH1, GLIS3) and FT4 (LHX3, FOXE1, AADAT, NETO1/FBXO15, LPCAT2/CAPNS2). Notably, only limited overlap was detected between TSH and FT4 associated signals, in spite of the feedback regulation of their circulating levels by the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Five of the reported loci (PDE8B, PDE10A, MAF/LOC440389, NETO1/FBXO15, and LPCAT2/CAPNS2) show strong gender-specific differences, which offer clues for the known sexual dimorphism in thyroid function and related pathologies. Importantly, the TSH-associated loci contribute not only to variation within the normal range, but also to TSH values outside the reference range, suggesting that they may be involved in thyroid dysfunction. Overall, our findings explain, respectively, 5.64% and 2.30% of total TSH and FT4 trait variance, and they improve the current knowledge of the regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis function and the consequences of genetic variation for hypo- or hyperthyroidism.
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Personality, socio-economic status and inflammation: cross-sectional, population-based study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Associations between socio-economic status (SES), personality and inflammation were examined to determine whether low SES subjects scoring high on neuroticism or hostility might suffer relatively higher levels of inflammation than affluent subjects.
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Heart rate is a prognostic risk factor for myocardial infarction: a post hoc analysis in the PERFORM (Prevention of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular Events of ischemic origin with teRutroban in patients with a history oF ischemic strOke or tRansient isc
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is known to be detrimental to morbidity and mortality in cardiovascular disease, though its effect in patients with ischemic stroke is unclear. We analyzed the effect of baseline resting heart rate on myocardial infarction (MI) in patients with a recent noncardioembolic cerebral ischemic event participating in PERFORM.
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PCSK9 SNP rs11591147 is associated with low cholesterol levels but not with cognitive performance or noncardiovascular clinical events in an elderly population.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Proprotein convertase subtilisin-like/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a protein involved in LDL-cholesterol metabolism. The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs11591147 has been associated with lower LDL-cholesterol and a lower risk of coronary heart disease. Because PCSK9 has high affinity to the LDL receptor, inhibiting PCSK9 is a testable therapeutic target for lipid-lowering therapy. Currently, several approaches to inhibit PCSK9 are under development, but it is unknown what the effects of those inhibitors will be on cognition or noncardiovascular clinical events. In this study, we assessed the association between rs11591147 and cognitive performance, activities of daily living (ADL), and noncardiovascular clinical events within 5,777 participants of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER). Rs11591147 was associated with 10% to 16% lower LDL cholesterol levels (P = 3.62 × 10(-12)), but was not associated with cognitive performance, ADL, or noncardiovascular clinical events in the PROSPER study. Our findings suggest that lower cholesterol levels due to genetic variation in the PCSK9 gene are not associated with cognitive performance, functional status, or noncardiovascular clinical events.
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Non-homologous end-joining pathway associated with occurrence of myocardial infarction: gene set analysis of genome-wide association study data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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DNA repair deficiencies have been postulated to play a role in the development and progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The hypothesis is that DNA damage accumulating with age may induce cell death, which promotes formation of unstable plaques. Defects in DNA repair mechanisms may therefore increase the risk of CVD events. We examined whether the joints effect of common genetic variants in 5 DNA repair pathways may influence the risk of CVD events.
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy male population: Results from the psychological, social and biological determinants of ill health (pSoBid) study.
Neuroimage Clin
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cardio-metabolic risk factors have been associated with poor physical and mental health. Epidemiological studies have shown peripheral risk markers to be associated with poor cognitive functioning in normal healthy population and in disease. The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between cardio-metabolic risk factors and cortical thickness in a neurologically healthy middle aged population-based sample.
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Are routinely collected NHS administrative records suitable for endpoint identification in clinical trials? Evidence from the West of Scotland Coronary Prevention Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Routinely collected electronic patient records are already widely used in epidemiological research. In this work we investigated the potential for using them to identify endpoints in clinical trials.
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Long-term effects of statin treatment in elderly people: extended follow-up of the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER), a placebo-controlled trial of pravastatin, demonstrated a 19% reduction in coronary outcomes (p=0.006) after a mean of 3.2 years, with no impact on stroke outcomes or all-cause mortality. However, there was a suggestion of increased cancer risk. Our aim is to determine the long-term benefits and safety of pravastatin treatment in older people using post-trial follow-up of the PROSPER participants.
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Methodology of a large prospective, randomised, open, blinded endpoint streamlined safety study of celecoxib versus traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in patients with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis: protocol of the standard care ve
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibitors have less upper gastrointestinal toxicity than traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, both COX-2 inhibitors and traditional NSAIDs may be associated with adverse cardiovascular side effects. Data from randomised and observational studies suggest that celecoxib has similar cardiovascular toxicity to traditional NSAIDs. The overall safety balance of a strategy of celecoxib therapy versus traditional NSAID therapy is unknown. The European Medicines Agency  requested studies of the cardiovascular safety of celecoxib within Europe. The Standard care versus Celecoxib Outcome Trial (SCOT) compares the cardiovascular safety of celecoxib with traditional NSAID therapy in the setting of the European Union healthcare system.
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The inverse relationship between alanine aminotransferase in the normal range and adverse cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular outcomes.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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High serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels have been associated with increased risk of diabetes and with increased mortality, but associations of variations of ALT in the normal range with outcomes have been less well studied.
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Intrathoracic impedance monitoring, audible patient alerts, and outcome in patients with heart failure.
Circulation
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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Heart failure is associated with frequent hospitalizations, often resulting from volume overload. Measurement of intrathoracic impedance with an implanted device with an audible patient alert may detect increases in pulmonary fluid retention early. We hypothesized that early intervention could prevent hospitalizations and affect outcome.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.