Osteopetrosis due to lack of acid secretion by osteoclasts is characterized by abolished bone resorption, increased osteoclast numbers, but normal or even increased bone formation. In contrast, osteoclast-poor osteopetrosis appears to have less osteoblasts and reduced bone formation, indicating that osteoclasts are important for regulating osteoblast activity. To illuminate the role of the osteoclast in controlling bone remodeling, we transplanted irradiated skeletally mature 3-month old wild-type mice with hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) to generate either an osteoclast-rich or osteoclast-poor adult osteopetrosis model. We used fetal liver HSCs from (1) oc/oc mice, (2) RANK KO mice, and (3) compared these to wt control cells. TRAP5b activity, a marker of osteoclast number and size, was increased in the oc/oc recipients, while a significant reduction was seen in the RANK KO recipients. In contrast, the bone resorption marker CTX-I was similarly decreased in both groups. Both oc/oc and Rank KO recipients developed a mild osteopetrotic phenotype. However, the osteoclast-rich oc/oc recipients showed higher trabecular bone volume (40 %), increased bone strength (66 %), and increased bone formation rate (54 %) in trabecular bone, while RANK KO recipients showed only minor trends compared to control recipients. We here show that maintaining non-resorbing osteoclasts, as opposed to reducing the osteoclasts, leads to increased bone formation, bone volume, and ultimately higher bone strength in vivo, which indicates that osteoclasts are sources of anabolic molecules for the osteoblasts.
Sortilin, a member of the Vps10p-domain receptor family, has been demonstrated a key regulator in mediating cellular response to pro-neurotrophins. In the present study, we investigated the role of sortilin in the apoptotic pathway of vascular smooth muscle cells.
The osteoclast is vital for establishment of normal hematopoiesis in the developing animal. However, its role for maintenance of hematopoiesis in adulthood is more controversial. To shed more light on this process, we transplanted hematopoietic stem cells from two osteopetrotic mouse models, with lack of osteoclasts or defective osteoclast function, to normal adult mice and examined the bone phenotype and hematopoiesis in the recipients. B6SJL mice were lethally irradiated and subsequently transplanted with oc/oc, Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B knockout or control fetal liver cells. Osteoclasts derived from the recipient animals were tested in vitro for osteoclastogenesis and resorptive function. Bone remodeling changes were assessed using biomarkers of bone turnover and micro-CT. Hematopoiesis was assessed by flow cytometry and colony formation, and hematopoietic stem cell function by secondary competitive transplantations and cell cycle analysis. After transplantation, a donor chimerism of 97-98% was obtained, and by 15 weeks mild osteopetrosis had developed in recipients of cells from osteopetrotic mice. There were no alterations in the number of bone marrow cells. Colony formation was slightly reduced in Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa B knockout recipients but unchanged in oc/oc recipients. Phenotypically, stem cells were marginally reduced in recipients of cells from osteopetrotic mice, but no significant difference was seen in cell cycle status and in competitive secondary transplantations all three groups performed equally well. Our results indicate that osteoclast function is not crucial for hematopoietic stem cell maintenance in adult mice.
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is a rare, lethal, autosomal recessive disorder characterized by non-functional osteoclasts. More than 50% of the patients have mutations in the TCIRG1 gene, encoding for a subunit of the osteoclast proton pump. The aim of this study was to restore the resorptive function of IMO osteoclasts by lentiviral mediated gene transfer of the TCIRG1 cDNA. CD34(+) cells from peripheral blood of five IMO patients and from normal cord blood were transduced with lentiviral vectors expressing TCIRG1 and GFP under a SFFV promoter, expanded in culture and differentiated on bone slices to mature osteoclasts. qPCR analysis and western blot revealed increased mRNA and protein levels of TCIRG1, comparable to controls. Vector corrected IMO osteoclasts generated increased release of Ca(2+) and bone degradation product CTX-I into the media as well as increased formation of resorption pits in the bone slices, while non-corrected IMO osteoclasts failed to resorb bone. Resorption was approximately 70-80% of that of osteoclasts generated from cord blood. Furthermore, transduced CD34(+) cells successfully engrafted in NSG-mice. In conclusion we provide the first evidence of lentiviral-mediated correction of a human genetic disease affecting the osteoclastic lineage.
Infantile malignant osteopetrosis (IMO) is caused by lack of functional osteoclasts leading to skeletal abnormalities, blindness owing to compression of the optic nerves, bone marrow (BM) failure, and early death. In most patients, TCIRG1, a proton pump subunit essential for bone resorption, is mutated. oc/oc mice represent a model for IMO owing to a deletion in Tcirg1 and die around 4 weeks of age. To determine if hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without prior conditioning can reverse osteopetrosis, neonatal mice were transplanted intravenously with lineage-depleted BM cells. More than 85% of oc/oc mice transplanted with 5?×?10(6) cells survived long term with an engraftment of 3% to 5% in peripheral blood (PB). At 3 weeks, engraftment in the BM was 1% to 2%, but the cellularity had increased 60-fold compared with untreated oc/oc mice, and RANKL and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) expression in the BM was normalized. Histopathology and micro-computed tomography revealed almost complete reversal of osteopetrosis after 4 weeks. In vitro studies showed that bone resorption by osteoclasts from transplanted oc/oc mice was 14% of transplanted controls, and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that resorption was mainly associated with osteoclasts of donor origin. Lineage analysis of BM, PB, and spleen did not provide any evidence for selective recruitment of cells to the osteoclastic lineage. The vision also was preserved in transplanted oc/oc mice, as determined by a visual tracking drum test. In summary, nonablative neonatal transplantation leading to engraftment of only a small fraction of normal cells rapidly reverses severe osteopetrosis in the oc/oc mouse model.
Neurotrophins and their receptors are known to play a role in the proliferation and survival of many different cell types of neuronal and non-neuronal lineages. In addition, there is much evidence in the literature showing that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75(NTR)), alone or in association with members of the family of Trk receptors, is expressed in a wide variety of stem cells, although its role in such cells has not been completely elucidated. In the present work we have investigated the expression of p75(NTR) and Trks in totipotent and pluripotent cells, the mouse pre-implantation embryo and embryonic stem and germ cells (ES and EG cells). p75(NTR) and TrkA can be first detected in the blastocyst from which ES cell lines are derived. Mouse ES cells retain p75(NTR)/TrkA expression. Nerve growth factor is the only neurotrophin able to stimulate ES cell growth in culture, without affecting the expression of stem cell markers, alkaline phosphatase, Oct4 and Nanog. Such proliferation effect was blocked by antagonizing either p75(NTR) or TrkA. Interestingly, immunoreactivity to anti-p75(NTR) antibodies is lost upon ES cell differentiation. The expression pattern of neurotrophin receptors in murine ES cells differs from human ES cells, that only express TrkB and C, and do not respond to NGF. In this paper we also show that, while primordial germ cells (PGC) do not express p75(NTR), when they are made to revert to an ES-like phenotype, becoming EG cells, expression of p75(NTR) is turned on.
Leptin is an adipocytokine that reduces ischemic damage in several organs including brain and heart. STAT3 activation is a key step for the attainment of leptin effects in various tissues. We evaluated the possible effect of leptin on liver viability and STAT3 activation, in a rat model of ischemia-reperfusion injury. Rat livers, flushed and stored with Belzer solution (4°?C for 24?h), were warmly reperfused (3.5?ml/min/g liver for 1?h at 37°?C with O(2) ) with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate. Treatment group underwent an identical protocol with the adjunct of Leptin (10?ng/ml). Liver effluent was harvested to assess LDH and AST output. Liver tissue was used for pSTAT3 expression (western blot and immunostaining), optical microscopy, TUNEL, and Cell Death Detection assays. The pSTAT3 expression was enhanced by administration of leptin. In parallel, LDH and AST output were reduced (P?=?0.04 and P?=?0.02 for LDH and AST, respectively). Optical microscopy, TUNEL, and Cell Death Detection assay results demonstrated increased viability in livers treated with leptin in comparison with others (Optical microscopy P?=?0.02; TUNEL P?=?0.01; Cell death Detection assay P?=?0.003). In conclusion, cold storage and reperfusion with leptin reduce liver ischemia-reperfusion injury. This effect is associated with an increased expression of pSTAT-3.
Osteoclasts are known to be important for the coupling process between bone resorption and formation. The aim of this study was to address when osteoclasts are anabolically active. Human monocytes were differentiated into mature osteoclasts by treatment with M-CSF and RANKL. Conditioned medium was collected from macrophages, pre-osteoclasts, and mature functional or non-resorbing osteopetrotic osteoclasts on either bone, plastic, decalcified bone or dentine with or without diphyllin, E64 or GM6001. Osteoclasts numbers were measured by TRACP activity. Bone resorption was evaluated by CTX-I and calcium release. The osteoblastic cell line 2T3 was treated with 50% of CM or non-CM for 12days. Bone formation was assessed by Alizarin Red extraction. CM from mature osteoclasts induced bone formation, while CM from macrophages did not. Non-resorbing osteoclasts generated from osteopetrosis patients showed little resorption, but still an induction of bone formation by osteoblasts. Mimicking the reduction in bone resorption using the V-ATPase inhibitor Diphyllin, the cysteine proteinase inhibitor E64 and the MMP-inhibitor GM6001 showed that CM from diphyllin and E64 treated osteoclasts showed reduced ability to induce bone formation compared to CM from vehicle treated osteoclasts, while CM from GM6001 treated osteoclasts equaled vehicle CM. Osteoclasts on either dentine or decalcified bone showed strongly attenuated anabolic capacities. In conclusion, we present evidence that osteoclasts, both dependent and independent of their resorptive activity, secrete factors stimulating osteoblastic bone formation.
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