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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Non-anaplastic peripheral T-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents - a retrospective analysis of the NHL-BFM study group.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Mature (peripheral) T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) other than anaplastic large cell lymphoma is a heterogeneous group of diseases and exceedingly rare in children and adolescents. Survival rates range between 46% and 85%. This study reports the disease characteristics, treatment and outcome of all patients with the diagnosis of mature TCL registered in the Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster non-Hodgkin lymphoma database between 1986 and 2012. All diagnoses were centrally reviewed and revised by clinico-pathological correlation according to the criteria of the current World Health Organization classification. Of the 69 patients originally registered as having PTCL, the diagnosis was confirmed in 38 of them. Most patients were treated with an anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL)-like therapy regimen. Patients with PTCL-not otherwise specified comprised the largest group and showed a 5-year event-free survival rate of 61 ± 11%. Patients suffering from Natural Killer/T-cell- and hepatosplenic TCL had the poorest outcome. Our results suggest that the outcomes of children with mature TCL other than ALCL depend on the subtype and are worse than in all other paediatric lymphomas. The clinical experience presented in this largest study on paediatric mature TCL may serve as basis for future collaborative international prospective clinical trials.
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Recurrent RHOA mutations in pediatric Burkitt lymphoma treated according to the NHL-BFM protocols.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the most frequent B-cell lymphoma in childhood. Genetically, it is characterized by the presence of an IG-MYC translocation which is supposed to be an initiating but not sufficient event in Burkitt lymphomagenesis. In a recent whole-genome sequencing study of four cases, we showed that the gene encoding the ras homolog family member A (RHOA) is recurrently mutated in pediatric BL. Here, we analyzed RHOA by Sanger sequencing in a cohort of 101 pediatric B-cell lymphoma patients treated according to Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster (NHL-BFM) study protocols. Among the 78 BLs in this series, an additional five had RHOA mutations resulting in a total incidence of 7/82 (8.5%) with c.14G>A (p.R5Q) being present in three cases. Modeling the mutational effect suggests that most of them inactivate the RHOA protein. Thus, deregulation of RHOA by mutation is a recurrent event in Burkitt lymphomagenesis in children.
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Primary EBV-positive Hodgkin's lymphoma of the CNS under azathioprine treatment: case report and review of the literature.
Strahlenther Onkol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Retrospective and prospective cohort studies suggest that central nervous system involvement occurs in approximately 0.5% of patients with advanced Hodgkin's lymphoma. The isolated primary intracranial manifestation of Hodgkin's lymphoma is an extremely rare finding, with few cases reported in the literature. Little is known about the optimal treatment and prognosis of these tumors. Here, we present a case report with a review of the literature.
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A recurrent 11q aberration pattern characterizes a subset of MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants leading to activation of the MYC oncogene. It is a matter of debate whether true BL without MYC translocation exists. Here, we identified 59 lymphomas concordantly called BL by 2 gene expression classifiers among 753 B-cell lymphomas. Only 2 (3%) of these 59 molecular BL lacked a MYC translocation, which both shared a peculiar pattern of chromosome 11q aberration characterized by interstitial gains including 11q23.2-q23.3 and telomeric losses of 11q24.1-qter. We extended our analysis to 17 MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas with a similar 11q aberration and showed this aberration to be recurrently associated with morphologic and clinical features of BL. The minimal region of gain was defined by high-level amplifications in 11q23.3 and associated with overexpression of genes including PAFAH1B2 on a transcriptional and protein level. The recurrent region of loss contained a focal homozygous deletion in 11q24.2-q24.3 including the ETS1 gene, which was shown to be mutated in 4 of 16 investigated cases. These findings indicate the existence of a molecularly distinct subset of B-cell lymphomas reminiscent of BL, which is characterized by deregulation of genes in 11q.
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Early assessment of minimal residual disease identifies patients at very high relapse risk in NPM-ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Detection of minimal disseminated disease (MDD) at diagnosis correlates with relapse risk in children with ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL). We investigated whether minimal residual disease (MRD) positivity by qualitative RT-PCR for NPM-ALK during treatment identifies patients at highest relapse risk. Blood and/or bone marrow of 180 patients with NPM-ALK-positive ALCL treated with BFM-type protocols was screened for NPM-ALK transcripts at diagnosis. 103 were MDD-positive. MRD before therapy course two could be evaluated in 52 MDD-positive patients. MRD-positivity correlated with non-common histology. The cumulative incidence of relapses (CIR) of 26 MDD-positive/MRD-positive patients (81±8%) was significantly higher than CIR of 26 MDD-positive/MRD-negative (31±9%) and 77 MDD-negative patients (15±5%) (p<.001). Five-year survival of MDD-negative and MDD-positive/MRD-negative patients was 91±3% and 92±5%, respectively, compared to 65±9% of MDD-positive/MRD-positive patients (p<.001). Early evaluation of MRD in NPM-ALK positive ALCL identifies patients with a very high relapse risk and inferior survival.
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Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma in a 12-year-old girl.
Pediatr Dermatol
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Primary cutaneous CD4+ small to medium-size pleomorphic T-cell lymphoma (PCSM-TCL) is a rare disease that has been added as a provisional entity to the World Health Organization European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (WHO-EORTC) classification of lymphomas with primary cutaneous manifestations. Patients commonly present with a solitary nodule or plaque on the head or upper trunk, but are usually otherwise in good health. The prognosis is favorable, but the optimal treatment has not been defined. Recent publications have described the expression of programmed death-1 in PCSM-TCL and T-cell pseudolymphoma, suggesting a diagnostic value of this marker in the differential diagnosis of PCSM-TCL in contrast to other types of cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. We present the case of a 12-year-old girl with a tumor of the right supraorbital area. She was treated as an outpatient four times with intralesional triamcinolone acetonide at intervals of 3 to 4 weeks. In addition to the case history, this report includes the clinical and histologic findings and a review of the current literature.
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Expression of CD8 is associated with non-common type morphology and outcome in pediatric anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large T-cell lymphoma is characterized by morphological variability. Morphological variants (non-common subtype) are associated with a poor outcome. They display abundant reactive bystander cells admixed with the lymphoma cells. So far, the difficulty in distinguishing lymphoma cells from bystander cells by visual inspection has prevented detailed and reliable immunophenotypic analysis using conventional immunohistochemistry. To overcome these limitations, we analyzed 124 cases of pediatric anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma treated within clinical trials using immunofluorescence multi-staining and digital image analysis combining antibodies against anaplastic lymphoma kinase to specifically identify lymphoma cells with antibodies against CD30, CD3, CD5, CD8, Ki67 and phosphorylated STAT3. Non-common type anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas express CD8 more frequently than common type anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive anaplastic large cell lymphomas (35.4% and 5.6%, respectively; P=0.0002). CD8 expression was associated with a poorer outcome. Importantly, in a multivariate analysis including clinical risk factors, histological subtype and CD8 expression, CD8-positivity proved to be an independent prognostic predictor of worse outcome (hazard ratio for survival 3.38, P=0.042).
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EBV-specific T-cell immunity in pediatric solid organ graft recipients with posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD) is an often Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated mainly malignant complication after transplantation. We present data on EBV-specific T cells in children treated with rituximab with or without chemotherapy on the pediatric PTLD Pilot 2005 protocol.
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Recurrent loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 associated with TNFRSF14 mutations in IRF4 translocation negative pediatric follicular lymphomas.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Pediatric follicular lymphoma is a rare disease that differs genetically and clinically from its adult counterpart. With the exception of pediatric follicular lymphoma with IRF4-translocation, the genetic events associated with these lymphomas have not yet been defined. We applied array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe assay analyses to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues from 18 patients aged 18 years and under with IRF4 translocation negative follicular lymphoma. All evaluable cases lacked t(14;18). Only 6 of 16 evaluable cases displayed chromosomal imbalances with gains or amplifications of 6pter-p24.3 (including IRF4) and deletion and copy number neutral-loss of heterozygosity in 1p36 (including TNFRSF14) being most frequent. Sequencing of TNFRSF14 located in the minimal region of loss in 1p36.32 showed nine mutations in 7 cases from our series. Two subsets of pediatric follicular lymphoma were delineated according to the presence of molecular alterations, one with genomic aberrations associated with higher grade and/or diffuse large B-cell lymphoma component and more widespread disease, and another one lacking genetic alterations associated with more limited disease.
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Composite lymphoma of nodular lymphocyte-predominant and classical Hodgkin lymphoma-Epstein-Barr virus association suggests divergent pathogenesis despite clonal relatedness.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2013
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Nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma are considered 2 distinct entities whose co-occurrence in 1 patient is extremely rare. We report a case of nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma concurrently affecting the same lymph nodes in a 48-year-old male patient. Amplification and sequencing of the rearranged immunoglobulin heavy chain genes in tumor cells isolated by laser-assisted microdissection revealed identical variable, diverse and joining segment rearrangements and somatic hypermutation events, demonstrating a clonal relationship between the 2 lymphomas. The Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNA and latent membrane protein 1 were present in the Hodgkin/Reed-Sternberg cells of the classical Hodgkin lymphoma but not in the tumor cells of the nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma, pointing to a common precursor cell but differences in the early steps of pathogenesis.
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Incidence and prognostic relevance of genetic variations in T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma in childhood and adolescence.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Probability of event-free survival (pEFS) in pediatric T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma is about 80%, whereas survival in relapsed patients is very poor. No stratification criteria have been established so far. Recently, activating NOTCH1 mutations were reported to be associated with favorable prognosis, and loss of heterozygosity at chromosome 6q (LOH6q) was reported to be associated with increased relapse risk. The current project was intended to evaluate the prognostic effect of these markers. Mutations in hot spots of NOTCH1 and FBXW7 were analyzed in 116 patients. Concerning LOH6q status, 118 patients were investigated, using microsatellite marker analysis, in addition to an earlier reported cohort of 99 available patients. Ninety-two cases were evaluable for both analyses. All patients were treated with T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma-Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster group (BFM)-type treatment. LOH6q was observed in 12% of patients (25/217) and associated with unfavorable prognosis (pEFS 27% ± 9% vs 86% ± 3%; P < .0001). In 60% (70/116) of the patients, NOTCH1 mutations were detected and associated with favorable prognosis (pEFS 84% ± 5% vs 66% ± 7%; P = .021). Interestingly, NOTCH1 mutations were rarely observed in patients with LOH in 6q16. Both prognostic markers will be used as stratification criteria in coming Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma-BFM trials.
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Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica is caused by a postzygotic HRAS mutation in a multipotent progenitor cell.
J. Invest. Dermatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Phacomatosis pigmentokeratotica (PPK) is a rare epidermal nevus syndrome characterized by the co-occurrence of a sebaceous nevus and a speckled lentiginous nevus. The coexistence of an epidermal and a melanocytic nevus has been explained by two homozygous recessive mutations, according to the twin spot hypothesis, of which PPK has become a putative paradigm in humans. However, the underlying gene mutations remained unknown. Multiple tissues of six patients with PPK were analyzed for the presence of RAS, FGFR3, PIK3CA, and BRAF mutations using SNaPshot assays and Sanger sequencing. We identified a heterozygous HRAS c.37G>C (p.Gly13Arg) mutation in four patients and a heterozygous HRAS c.182A>G (p.Gln61Arg) mutation in two patients. In each case, the mutations were present in both the sebaceous and the melanocytic nevus. In the latter lesion, melanocytes were identified to carry the HRAS mutation. Analysis of various nonlesional tissues showed a wild-type sequence of HRAS, consistent with mosaicism. Our data provide no genetic evidence for the previously proposed twin spot hypothesis. In contrast, PPK is best explained by a postzygotic-activating HRAS mutation in a multipotent progenitor cell that gives rise to both a sebaceous and a melanocytic nevus. Therefore, PPK is a mosaic RASopathy.
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Prognostic impact of morphologic and phenotypic features of childhood ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphoma: results of the ALCL99 study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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The prognostic value of pathologic characteristics of childhood ALK-positive anaplastic large-cell lymphomas (ALCL), such as histologic subtypes, immunophenotype, and presence of the t(2;5) translocation or its variants, was assessed.
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Relapsed or refractory anaplastic large-cell lymphoma in children and adolescents after Berlin-Frankfurt-Muenster (BFM)-type first-line therapy: a BFM-group study.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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To evaluate risk factors for outcome in children and adolescents with relapse of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma (ALCL) after comparable first-line therapy.
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Translocations activating IRF4 identify a subtype of germinal center-derived B-cell lymphoma affecting predominantly children and young adults.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2011
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The prognosis of germinal center-derived B-cell (GCB) lymphomas, including follicular lymphoma and diffuse large-B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), strongly depends on age. Children have a more favorable outcome than adults. It is not known whether this is because of differences in host characteristics, treatment protocols, or tumor biology, including the presence of chromosomal alterations. By screening for novel IGH translocation partners in pediatric and adult lymphomas, we identified chromosomal translocations juxtaposing the IRF4 oncogene next to one of the immunoglobulin (IG) loci as a novel recurrent aberration in mature B-cell lymphoma. FISH revealed 20 of 427 lymphomas to carry an IG/IRF4-fusion. Those were predominantly GCB-type DLBCL or follicular lymphoma grade 3, shared strong expression of IRF4/MUM1 and BCL6, and lacked PRDM1/BLIMP1 expression and t(14;18)/BCL2 breaks. BCL6 aberrations were common. The gene expression profile of IG/IRF4-positive lymphomas differed from other subtypes of DLBCL. A classifier for IG/IRF4 positivity containing 27 genes allowed accurate prediction. IG/IRF4 positivity was associated with young age and a favorable outcome. Our results suggest IRF4 translocations to be primary alterations in a molecularly defined subset of GCB-derived lymphomas. The probability for this subtype of lymphoma significantly decreases with age, suggesting that diversity in tumor biology might contribute to the age-dependent differences in prognosis of lymphoma.
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Diagnosis and immunophenotype of 188 pediatric lymphoblastic lymphomas treated within a randomized prospective trial: experiences and preliminary recommendations from the European childhood lymphoma pathology panel.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The majority of lymphoblastic (precursor cell) neoplasms presents as leukemias. Consequently, the guidelines for lineage determination and subtyping of precursor cell neoplasms were primarily established for flow cytometry methods. Large-scale studies of nonleukemic lymphoblastic lymphomas are lacking so far. We analyzed a large series of pediatric patients with lymphoblastic lymphoma treated within a prospective randomized trial (the Euro-LB 02 study). Among 193 lymphomas, in which a detailed immunohistochemical analysis was carried out, there were several unusual and diagnostically challenging morphologic and immunophenotypical variants. These included 11 lymphomas with mixed phenotypes expressing markers of at least 2 hematopoietic lineages, 7 terminal deoxynucleotide transferase-negative lymphoblastic lymphomas, and 3 undifferentiated hematopoietic neoplasms that could not be assigned to any lineage with certainty. Our data indicate that World Health Organization guidelines for lineage determination and subtyping of precursor cell leukemia need to be adapted before they can be applied to immunohistochemical diagnosis of lymphoma. Using the experience from this cohort we suggest a resource-saving diagnostic staining panel for the immunohistochemical analysis of precursor cell neoplasms in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue.
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Clinical, pathological and genetic features of primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphomas and mediastinal gray zone lymphomas in children.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2010
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Background Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma is a rare lymphoma accounting for no more than 3% of all B-cell lymphomas in children and adolescents. However, patients in this young age group with this lymphoma have the shortest event-free survival of patients with any B-cell lymphoma under current standard chemotherapy protocols. Lymphomas with features intermediate between primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkins lymphoma (mediastinal gray zone lymphomas) have been acknowledged in the latest World Health Organization classification. Recent studies suggest that mediastinal gray zone lymphomas have an aggressive clinical course whereas patients, at least adult ones, with primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma might respond very well to chemotherapy in combination with anti-CD20 antibody.
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Primary bilateral Burkitt lymphoma of the lactating breast: a case report and review of the literature.
Mol Diagn Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which frequently affects the ileocecal region in the sporadic form and the jaw in the endemic form; however, the breast is a rare primary site of this tumor. Here we describe a case of primary bilateral breast BL presenting during lactation in a 23-year-old woman. Excisional biopsy of breast masses demonstrated a B-cell lymphoma with a characteristic starry sky pattern highly suggestive of BL. The neoplastic cells strongly expressed CD20 and CD10, and showed proliferative activity as measured by Ki-67. An IGH-MYC gene fusion indicating the presence of a typical Burkitt translocation t(8;14)(q24;q32) in the tumor tissue was detected by fluorescent in situ hybridization. The present case, along with a comprehensive review of the literature, demonstrates that BL of the breast should be considered in the differential diagnosis of lesions of the breast during lactation. Whether hormonal or antigenic factors trigger Burkitt lymphomagenesis in the lactating breast warrants further investigation.
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Pediatric follicular lymphoma--a clinico-pathological study of a population-based series of patients treated within the Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma--Berlin-Frankfurt-Munster (NHL-BFM) multicenter trials.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
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Background Pediatric follicular lymphoma has recently been recognized as a novel variant of follicular lymphoma in the World Health Organization classification of lymphomas. Given the rarity of the disease, histopathological and genetic data on this type of lymphoma are still scarce.
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Frequency and clinical relevance of DNA microsatellite alterations of the CDKN2A/B, ATM and p53 gene loci: a comparison between pediatric precursor T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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Although deletions of cell cycle regulatory gene loci have long been reported in various malignancies, little is known regarding their relevance in pediatric T-cell lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LBL) and T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (TALL). The current study focused on loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analyses of the CDKN2A/B (chromosome 9p), ATM (chromosome 11q) and p53 (chromosome 17p) gene loci. Frequencies of LOH were compared in 113 pediatric T-LBL and 125 T-ALL who were treated uniformly according to ALL-BFM strategies. Furthermore, LOH findings were correlated with clinical characteristics and tested for their prognostic relevance. LOH at 9p was detected in 47% of T-LBL and 51% of T-ALL, and was associated with male gender in both. In T-ALL, LOH at 9p was associated with favorable initial treatment response. A tendency for favorable event-free-survival was observed in LOH 9p positive T-LBL. The frequency of LOH at chromosomes 11q and 17p was 5% or less for both diseases.
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Distribution of NPM1-ALK and X-ALK fusion transcripts in paediatric anaplastic large cell lymphoma: a molecular-histological correlation.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Anaplastic large cell lymphomas (ALCL) in children express anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) fusion genes, most commonly NPM1-ALK. The distribution of X-ALK among 66 childhood ALCLs was analysed. One ALCL was ALK-negative. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction detected NPM1-ALK in 58 tumours, all showing nuclear and cytoplasmic ALK staining. The remaining seven ALCL stained for ALK in the cytoplasm only: two expressed TPM3-ALK, one ATIC-ALK, one MYH9-ALK; three no TPM3-, TFG-, ATIC-, CLTC- or MYH9-ALK. Almost 90% of paediatric ALK-positive ALCLs express NPM1-ALK. There was complete concordance between ALK staining pattern and the presence of a typical/variant ALK fusion partner.
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Ki-67 as a prognostic marker in mantle cell lymphoma-consensus guidelines of the pathology panel of the European MCL Network.
J Hematop
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2009
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Mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) has a heterogeneous clinical course and is mainly an aggressive B cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma; however, there are some indolent cases The Ki-67 index, defined by the percentage of Ki-67-positive lymphoma cells on histopathological slides, has been shown to be a very powerful prognostic biomarker. The pathology panel of the European MCL Network evaluated methods to assess the Ki-67 index including stringent counting, digital image analysis, and estimation by eyeballing. Counting of 2?×?500 lymphoma cells is the gold standard to assess the Ki-67 index since this value has been shown to predict survival in prospective randomized trials of the European MCL Network. Estimation by eyeballing and digital image analysis showed a poor concordance with the gold standard (concordance correlation coefficients [CCC] between 0.29 and 0.61 for eyeballing and CCC of 0.24 and 0.37 for two methods of digital image analysis, respectively). Counting a reduced number of lymphoma cells (2?×?100 cells) showed high interobserver agreement (CCC?=?0.74). Pitfalls of the Ki-67 index are discussed and guidelines and recommendations for assessing the Ki-67 index in MCL are given.
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High resolution copy number analysis of IRF4 translocation-positive diffuse large B-cell and follicular lymphomas.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Translocations affecting chromosome subband 6p25.3 containing the IRF4 gene have been recently described as characteristic alterations in a molecularly distinct subset of germinal center B-cell-derived lymphomas. Secondary changes have yet only been described in few of these lymphomas. Here, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization and molecular inversion probe microarray analyses on DNA from 12 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded and two fresh-frozen IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas, which together with the previously published data on nine cases allowed the extension of copy number analyses to a total of 23 of these lymphomas. All except one case carried chromosomal imbalances, most frequently gains in Xq28, 11q22.3-qter, and 7q32.1-qter and losses in 6q13-16.1, 15q14-22.31, and 17p. No recurrent copy-neutral losses of heterozygosity were observed. TP53 point mutations were detected in three of six cases with loss of 17p. Overall this study unravels a recurrent pattern of secondary genetic alterations in IRF4 translocation-positive lymphomas.
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ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma limited to the skin: clinical, histopathological and molecular analysis of 6 pediatric cases. A report from the ALCL99 study.
Haematologica
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Anaplastic large cell lymphomas are peripheral T-cell lymphomas that are characterized by a proliferation of large anaplastic blasts expressing CD30. In children, systemic anaplastic large cell lymphomas often present at advanced clinical stage and harbor translocations involving the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene leading to the expression of chimeric anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)-fusion proteins. Primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma is regarded as an ALK-negative variant confined to the skin and is part of the spectrum of primary cutaneous CD30-positive T-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. Thirty-three of 487 pediatric patients registered within the Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma-99 trial (1999 to 2006) presented with a skin limited CD30-positive lympho-proliferative disorder. In 23 of the 33 patients, material for international histopathological review was available, and the cases were studied for histopathological, immunophenotypical and clinical features as well as for breaks within the ALK gene. Five of 23 cases and one additional case (identified after closure of the trial) expressed ALK-protein. Complete staging excluded any other organ involvement in all children. Expression of ALK proteins was demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in all cases and the presence of breaks of the ALK gene was genetically confirmed in 5 evaluable cases. The histopathological and clinical picture of these skin-restricted ALK-positive lymphomas was indistinguishable from that of cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Five children presented with a single skin lesion that was completely resected in 4 and incompletely resected in one. Three of these patients received no further therapy, 2 additional local radiotherapy, and one chemotherapy. All children remain in complete remission with a median follow up of seven years (range 1-8 years). We present 6 pediatric cases of ALK-positive primary cutaneous anaplastic large cell lymphomas. After thorough exclusion of systemic involvement, therapy confined to local measures seems to be sufficient to induce cure.
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The CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is recurrently involved in IGH chromosomal translocation t(14;16)(q32;q24) in pediatric B-cell lymphoma with germinal center phenotype.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Translocations involving immunoglobulin (IG) loci are the hallmarks of several subtypes of B-cell lymphoma. Common to these translocations is that cellular proto-oncogenes come under the influence of IG regulatory elements leading to deregulated expression. In case of a breakpoint in the IGH switch region, oncogene activation can take place on both derivative chromosomes, which means that in principle one translocation can result in concurrent activation of two genes. By fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), we identified a case of leukemic B-cell lymphoma in a child with an IGH break and unknown partner. Subsequent long-distance inverse PCR revealed fusion of IGH Sl in 14q32 and the 50 region of CBFA2T3 in 16q24.3, suggesting presence of the t(14;16)(q32;q24.3). Candidate oncogenes targeted through this translocation are CBFA2T3 and ACSF3, which could be activated on der(16) and der(14), respectively. FISH screening of a population-based cohort of B-cell lymphomas from a prospective trial for the treatment of lymphoma in childhood (BFM-NHL) identified additionally a follicular lymphoma Grade 3/diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with IGH-CBFA2T3/ACSF3 juxtaposition. Both lymphomas shared expression of CD10 and CD20 in the absence of TdT, suggesting a germinal center (GC) B-cell origin. Our data indicate that the CBFA2T3/ACSF3 locus is a novel recurrent oncogenic target of IGH translocations, which might contribute to the pathogenesis of pediatric GC-derived B-cell lymphoma.
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