A readily available chromionophore 5,11,17,23-tetra-tert-butyl-25,27-bis(hydrazidecarbonylmethoxy)-26,28-dihydroxycalixarene (HCC4) was employed as a chromogenic sensing probe selective for Pb(II) and Cr2O7(2-) ions among a series of various ions such as Li(I), Na(I), K(I), Rb(I), Ba(II), Sr(II), Al(III), Cd(II), Co(II), Cu(II), Hg(II), Ni(II), Pb(II) and Zn(II) as well as Cr2O7(2-), CH3CO2(-), Br(-), Cl(-), F(-), I(-), ClO4(-) and NO3(-) that have been examined by UV-visible and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques. The HCC4 in DCM-MeCN system forms 2:1 (ligand-metal) complex with Pb(II). It also shows 2:1 stoichiometry with Cr2O7(2-). The complexation phenomenon has been confirmed by FTIR spectroscopy that favors the selective nature of HCC4 with Pb(II) and Cr2O7(2-). Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) also supports its utility in drastic conditions.
The present study describes synthesis of a new resin through immobilization of p-tert-butylcalixarene onto silica and its application for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous media as well as from textile effluents. The newly synthesized material 4 is characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Reactive Black-5 (RB-5) and Reactive Red-45 (RR-45) azo dyes were used as sorbate. Batch wise sorption experiments were conducted to optimize various experimental parameters such as the effect of sorbent dosage, electrolyte, pH, dye concentration, and contact time. The optimized pH for the effective removal of RB-5 and RR-45 dyes was 9 and 3, respectively. The increase in material 4 dosage increased the percent sorption. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and Langmuir isotherm model found to be best fit. The results revealed that material 4 was potentially more effective sorbent for the sorption of selected azo dyes as compared to pure silica and p-tert-butylcalixarene. The field studies also supported the effectiveness of material 4, which could be useful for the removal of both the dyes and also for the normalization of pH, TDS, conductivity and salinity near to the drinking water.
The article describes a convenient method for the modification of Amberlite XAD-4 resin by introducing thio-urea binding sites onto the aromatic rings. The modified (ATU) resin has been employed for the quantitative sorption of fluoride ions in batch as well as column experiments. The parameters (i.e. pH, contact time, etc.) were optimized and desorption of fluoride ions was fulfilled by using 0.01 M HCl solution. The equation isotherms such as Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) and Temkin were also successfully applied to model the experimental data. The sorption capacity of the ATU resin was found as 3.286 mmol g(-1). From the D-R isotherm parameters, it has been calculated that the uptake of fluoride ion by ATU resin occurs through ion exchange sorption mechanism. The study will contribute toward the remediation of fluoride polluted areas as well as in the various fields of materials science.
The present study describes a novel synthetic method for the immobilization of calixarene (II) onto the surface of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin (4), which does not require the derivatization of calixarene moiety. The novel calixarene based resin (C4 resin) 5 was used as sorbent for the removal of azo dyes. Batch-wise sorption study was carried out and observed that the C4 resin (5) is more effective as compared to compound II as well as pure Amberlite XAD-4 resin (1) to remove the selected dyes [i.e. Reactive Black-5 (RB-5), Reactive Red-45 (RR-45) and Congo Red (CR)]. The effect of sorbent dosage and pH on % sorption was studied. During the extraction process, various kinds of interactions such as electrostatic repulsion, deprotonation of the hydroxyl groups of C4 resin, dissociation of reactive dyes into anions/cations and structural variations were monitored and found that they are highly pH dependent.
The present study describes the Pb(2+) sorption potential of newly synthesized tetraester calixarene (TC4) based resin from aqueous media. The TC4 resin was synthesized through diazotization reaction of TC4 with Amberlite XAD-4 in the presence of sodium nitrite in acidic medium. The TC4 resin was characterized by using different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, elemental analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The Pb(2+) removal ability of the resin from the aqueous environment has been evaluated by both batch adsorption as well as column studies. The experiments have been conducted involving the determination of effect of pH, adsorbate concentration, adsorbent dosage, contact time and temperature. Moreover, on the basis of kinetic studies, the pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order adsorption kinetics were calculated. The thermodynamic parameters of lead adsorption were also calculated. Equation isotherms such as Langmuir (L), Freundlich (F), and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were successfully used to model the experimental data. From the D-R isotherm parameters, it was considered that the uptake of Pb(2+) by TC4 resin is ion exchange mechanism. From the results it has been found that the TC4 resin is a versatile adsorbent for the removal of Pb(2+) from the aqueous environment. The study also confers its impact on human health, reinstate of polluted sites and other fields of material science.
Fluoride in drinking water above permissible level is responsible for human being affected by skeletal fluorosis. In this study, Amberlite XAD-4 has been modified by introducing amino group onto the aromatic ring for its application in fluoride remediation. Characterization of the modified resin was made by, FT-IR and elemental analysis (CHNS) techniques. The pH 9 was optimum value for quantitative sorption of fluoride in both batch and column experiments. The desorption of fluoride was achieved by using 10% HCl. The batch and column sorption studies of fluoride with modified resin were carried out to evaluate sorption isotherms too. Thus equation isotherms such as Langmuir, Freundlich, and Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) were successfully used to model the experimental data. The sorption capacity of modified Amberlite XAD-4 resin was found as 5.04 x 10(-3) mol g(-1). From the D-R isotherm parameters, it has been evaluated that the uptake of fluoride by modified resin occurs through ion exchange adsorption mechanism. The study will contribute toward the removal of fluoride from the aqueous environment as well as in the field of analytical and environmental chemistry.
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