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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Combinations of immunostimulatory antibodies with synergistic effects against spontaneous cancer.
Oncoimmunology
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies can be given in combinations, hence modulating the activity of 2 or more receptors of the immune system. Some of these combinations have been shown to synergize at the elicitation of therapeutically relevant immune responses in transgenic mice developing spontaneous, oncogene-driven tumors, including multifocal hepatocellular carcinomas expressing ovalbumin as a surrogate tumor-associated antigen.
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Combined immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies extend survival in an aggressive transgenic hepatocellular carcinoma mouse model.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies (ISmAb) that unleash antitumor immune responses are showing efficacy in cancer clinical trials. Anti-B7-H1 (PD-L1) monoclonal antibodies (mAb) block a critical inhibitory pathway in T cells, whereas anti-CD137 and OX40 mAbs provide T-cell costimulation. A combination of these ISmAbs (anti-CD137 + anti-OX40 + anti-B7-H1) was tested using a transgenic mouse model of multifocal and rapidly progressing hepatocellular carcinoma, in which c-myc drives transformation and cytosolic ovalbumin (OVA) is expressed in tumor cells as a model antigen.
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Increased circulating levels of neurotrophins and elevated expression of their high-affinity receptors on skin and gut mast cells in mastocytosis.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Mastocytosis is a rare heterogeneous disease characterized by increase of mast cells (MCs) in different organs. Neurotrophins (NTs) have been shown to promote differentiation and survival of MCs, which in turn represent a major source of NTs. Thus, a contribution of NTs to mastocytosis seems highly conceivable but has not yet been investigated. We could demonstrate expression of high-affinity NT receptors tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) for nerve growth factor (NGF)-?, TrkB for brain-derived neurotrophic factor, and NT-4 and TrkC for NT-3 on skin MCs; and of TrkA and TrkC on intestinal MCs of patients with mastocytosis. Moreover, increased expression of NGF-?; NT-3; TrkA, TrkB, and TrkC; and isoforms truncated TrkB-T1 and truncated TrkC were observed on skin MCs. Patients with mastocytosis featured elevated serum levels of NGF, NT-3, and NT-4. Levels of NGF-? and NT-4 correlated with tryptase levels, suggesting a link between MC load and blood levels of NGF and NT-4. Migration of CD117+ progenitor cells from the blood was enhanced toward NGF-? gradient in both mastocytosis and controls. Together with enhanced NT levels, the elevated expression of modified Trk receptors on skin and gut MCs might contribute to the pathophysiology of mastocytosis in autocrine and paracrine loops.
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Sorafenib in patients with refractory or recurrent multiple myeloma.
Hematol Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2013
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Sorafenib is a small molecular inhibitor of several tyrosine protein kinases, including vascular endothelial growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptor and rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma kinases, targeting signal transduction and angiogenic pathways. It is approved for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma. The objectives of this prospective phase II trial were to assess the activity and tolerability of sorafenib in patients with recurrent or refractory myeloma. In total, 11 patients were enrolled. Patients received 2?×?200?mg of sorafenib orally twice daily until completing 13 full cycles or disease progression. Of the side effects, 8.8% grade 3 and 1.1% grade 4 occurred. Sorafenib treatment was effective in two patients who achieved a partial response and a continuous stable disease with duration of 24.4?months and 6.9?month, respectively. Further clinical investigations are recommended to investigate sorafenib single agent activity in myeloma subgroups with ras-/BRAF-/vascular endothelial growth factor receptor pathway activation and combination therapy approaches. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 gene amplification in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs) are chemoresistant, resulting in extremely poor survival of patients; therefore, novel molecular targets, even in small subsets of genetically characterized tumours, are urgently needed. Tyrosine kinase receptor inhibitors (TKIs) are already in clinical use. The aims of this study were to examine the gene copy number and expression of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in 155 patients with PDAC, and investigate the effects of the FGFR-specific inhibitor BGJ398 on FGFR1-amplified pancreatic tumour cells in vitro.
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Global histone H3K27 methylation levels are different in localized and metastatic prostate cancer.
Cancer Invest.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Global histone modification patterns have been shown to be a predictive factor of recurrence in various cancers. We analyzed global histone-3-lysine-27 (H3K27) methylation in prostate cancer (PCA) tissues. H3K27 mono-, di-, and tri-methylation patterns were different in nonmalignant prostate tissue, localized PCA, metastatic PCA, and castration-resistant PCA. H3K27 mono-methylation was correlated with pT-stage, capsular penetration, seminal vesicle infiltration, and Gleason score in localized PCA and may therefore indicate adverse prognosis.
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Deep sequencing of MYC DNA-binding sites in Burkitt lymphoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2011
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MYC is a key transcription factor involved in central cellular processes such as regulation of the cell cycle, histone acetylation and ribosomal biogenesis. It is overexpressed in the majority of human tumors including aggressive B-cell lymphoma. Especially Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a highlight example for MYC overexpression due to a chromosomal translocation involving the c-MYC gene. However, no genome-wide analysis of MYC-binding sites by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by next generation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) has been conducted in BL so far.
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Autochthonous liver tumors induce systemic T cell tolerance associated with T cell receptor down-modulation.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2009
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The reason the adaptive immune system fails in advanced liver tumors is largely unclear. To address this question, we have developed a novel murine model that combines c-myc-induced autochthonous tumorigenesis with expression of a cognate antigen, ovalbumin (OVA). When c-myc/OVA transgenic mice were crossed with liver-specific inducer mice, multifocal hepatocellular carcinomas co-expressing OVA developed in a tetracycline-dependent manner with a short latency and 100% penetrance. Transferred OVA-specific T cells, although infiltrating the tumor at high numbers, were hyporesponsive, as evidenced by a lack of in vivo cytotoxicity and interferon gamma production. This allowed the tumor to progress even in the presence of large numbers of antigen-specific T cells and even after vaccination (OVA+CpG-DNA). Interestingly, T cell receptor down-modulation was observed, which may explain antigen-specific hyporesponsiveness. This model is helpful in understanding liver cancer-specific mechanisms of T cell tolerance and dissection of antigen-specific and nonspecific mechanisms of immunotherapies in the preclinical phase.
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H3K4 dimethylation in hepatocellular carcinoma is rare compared with other hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal carcinomas and correlates with expression of the methylase Ash2 and the demethylase LSD1.
Hum. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2009
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Methylation of core histones regulates chromatin structure and gene expression. Recent studies have demonstrated that these methylation patterns have prognostic value for some tumors. Therefore, we investigated dimethylation of histone H3 at lysine 4 (H3K4diMe) and H3K4 methylating (Ash2 complex) and demethylating enzymes (LSD1) in carcinomas of the hepatic and gastrointestinal tract. High levels of H3K4diMe were rarely observed in 15.7% of hepatocellular carcinoma (8/51) unlike other carcinomas including, in ascending order, cholangiocellular carcinoma/adenocarcinoma of the extrahepatic biliary tract, gastric carcinoma, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and neuroendocrine carcinoma (P < .001). Ash2 was expressed in 84.4% of hepatocellular carcinomas (38/45) and correlated directly with H3K4diMe modification (correlation coefficient r = 0.53) and LSD1 expression (r = 0.35). In contrast to other carcinomas, 65.9% (29/44) of hepatocellular carcinomas analyzed showed no LSD1 expression (P < .001). Interestingly, hepatocellular carcinomas without LSD1 expression appeared to be frequently Ash2 and H3K4diMe weak or negative (P = .004). In summary, high H3K4diMe expression is rare in hepatocellular carcinoma compared with other carcinomas (negative predictive value 92.3%), which may aid in the differential diagnosis. Lack of H3K4diMe is possibly due to complex epigenetic regulation involving Ash2 and LSD1.
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Alterations of global histone H4K20 methylation during prostate carcinogenesis.
BMC Urol
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Global histone modifications have been implicated in the progression of various tumour entities. Our study was designed to assess global methylation levels of histone 4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1-3) at different stages of prostate cancer (PCA) carcinogenesis.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.