The combination of the obesity epidemic and an aging population presents growing challenges for the healthcare system. Obesity and aging are major risk factors for a diverse number of diseases and it is of importance to understand their interaction and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Herein the authors examined the methylation levels of 27578 CpG sites in 46 samples from adult peripheral blood. The effect of obesity and aging was ascertained with general linear models. More than one hundred probes were correlated to aging, nine of which belonged to the KEGG group map04080. Additionally, 10 CpG sites had diverse methylation profiles in obese and lean individuals, one of which was the telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT). In eight of ten cases the methylation change was reverted between obese and lean individuals. One region proved to be differentially methylated with obesity (LINC00304) independent of age. This study provides evidence that obesity influences age driven epigenetic changes, which provides a molecular link between aging and obesity. This link and the identified markers may prove to be valuable biomarkers for the understanding of the molecular basis of aging, obesity and associated diseases.
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) is an important regulator of food intake and number of studies report genetic variations influencing the risk of obesity. Here we explored the role of common genetic variation from MC4R locus comparing with SNPs from gene FTO locus, as well as the frequency and functionality of rare MC4R mutations in cohort of 380 severely obese individuals (BMI > 39 kg/m(2)) and 380 lean subjects from the Genome Database of Latvian Population (LGDB). We found correlation for two SNPs--rs11642015 and rs62048402 in the fat mass and obesity-associated protein (FTO) with obesity but no association was detected for rs17782313 located in the MC4R locus in these severely obese individuals. We sequenced the whole gene MC4R coding region in all study subjects and found five previously known heterozygous non-synonymous substitutions V103I, I121T, S127L, V166I and I251L. Expression in mammalian cells showed that the S127L, V166I and double V103I/S127L mutant receptors had significantly decreased quantity at the cell surface compared to the wild type MC4R. We carried out detailed functional analysis of V166I that demonstrated that, despite low abundance in plasma membrane, the V166I variant has lower EC50 value upon ?MSH activation than the wild type receptor, while the level of AGRP inhibition was decreased, implying that V166I cause hyperactive satiety signalling. Overall, this study suggest that S127L may be the most frequent functional MC4R mutation leading to the severe obesity in general population and provides new insight into the functionality of population based variants of the MC4R.
Variations in the FTO gene and near the TMEM18 gene are risk factors for common form of obesity, but have also been linked with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Our aim was to investigate the contribution of these variants to risk of T2D in a population in Latvia. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in the first and fourth intronic regions of FTO and one close to TMEM18 were genotyped in 987 patients with T2D and 1080 controls selected from the Latvian Genome Data Base (LGDB). We confirmed association of SNPs in the first intron (rs11642015, rs62048402 and rs9939609) of FTO and rs7561317 representing the TMEM18 locus with T2D. Association between SNP in FTO and T2D remained significant after correction for body mass index (BMI). The rs57103849 located in the fourth intron of FTO and rs7561317 in TMEM18 showed BMI independent association with younger age at diagnosis of T2D. Our results add to the evidence that BMI related variants in and near FTO and TMEM18 may increase the risk for T2D not only through secondary effects of obesity. The influence of variants in the fourth intron of the FTO gene on development of T2D may be mediated by mechanisms other than those manifested by SNPs in the first intron of the same gene.
The adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) receptor has highly specific membrane expression that is limited to adrenal cells; in other cell types the polypeptide fails to be transported to the cell surface. Unlike other evolutionarily related members of the melanocortin receptor family (MC1R-MC5R) that recognize different melanocortin peptides, ACTHR (MC2R) binds only ACTH. We used a mutagenesis approach involving systematic construction of chimeric ACTHR/MC4R receptors to identify the domains determining the selectivity of ACTHR membrane transport and ACTH binding. In total 15 chimeric receptors were created by replacement of selected domains of human ACTHR with the corresponding regions of human MC4R. We developed an analytical method to accurately quantify cell-membrane localization of recombinant receptors fused with enhanced green fluorescent protein by confocal fluorescence microscopy. The chimeric receptors were also tested for their ability to bind ACTH (1-24) and the melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) analog, Nle4, DPhe7-alpha-MSH, and to induce a cAMP response. Our results indicate that substitution of the MC4R N-terminal segment with the homologous segment of ACTHR significantly decreased membrane transport. We also identified another signal localized in the third and fourth transmembrane regions as the main determinant of ACTHR intracellular retention. In addition, we found that the fourth and fifth transmembrane domains of the ACTHR are involved in ACTH binding selectivity. We discuss the mechanisms involved in bypassing these arrest signals via an interaction with melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP) and the possible mechanisms that determine the high ligand-binding specificity of ACTHR.
The agouti related protein (AGRP) is an endogenous antagonist of the melanocortin 4 receptor and is one of the most potent orexigenic factors. The aim of the present study was to assess the genetic variability of AGRP gene and investigate whether the previously reported SNP rs5030980 and the rs11575892, a SNP that so far has not been studied with respect to obesity is associated with increased body mass index (BMI).
Metformin is the most widely used oral antidiabetic drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2D). So far, the number of polymorphisms in SLC22A1, SLC22A2, and SLC47A1 genes coding for organic cation transporter 1 (OCT1), OCT2, and multidrug and toxin extrusion transporter 1 (MATE1) metformin transporters have been described in association with the efficacy of metformin. However, there is no information on the influence of genetic variations within these genes on the side effects of metformin. In this study, we assessed whether five single-nucleotide polymorphisms and two indel polymorphisms are associated with the side effects of metformin in patients with T2D.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.