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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
A familial disorder of altered DNA-methylation.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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In a subset of imprinting disorders caused by epimutations, multiple imprinted loci are affected. Familial occurrence of multilocus imprinting disorders is rare.
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Identifying molecular markers for the sensitive detection of residual atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor cells.
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare and highly malignant tumor entity of the central nervous system that presents in early childhood, has a poor prognosis. AT/RTs are characterized by biallelic inactivating mutations of the gene SMARCB1 in 98% of patients; these mutations may serve as molecular markers for residual tumor cell detection in liquid biopsies. We developed a marker-specific method to detect residual AT/RT cells. Seven of 150 patient samples were selected, each with a histological and genetically ascertained diagnosis of AT/RT. Tumor tissue was either formalin fixed or fresh frozen. DNA was extracted from the patients' peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, DNA sequencing, and fluorescence in situ hybridization were used to characterize the tumors' mutations. Residual tumor cell detection used mutation-specific primers and real-time PCR. The detection limit for the residual tumor cell search was 1-18%, depending on the quality of the template provided. The residual tumor cell search in PBL and CSF was negative for all seven patients. The SMARCB1 region of chromosome 22 is prone to DNA double-strand breaks. The individual breakpoints and breakpoint-specific PCR offer the option to detect minimal residual tumor cells in CSF or blood. Even if we did not detect minimal residual tumor cells in the investigated material, proof of principle for this method was confirmed.
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Germline and somatic SMARCA4 mutations characterize small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Small cell carcinoma of the ovary, hypercalcemic type (SCCOHT) is the most common undifferentiated ovarian malignancy in women under 40 years of age. We sequenced the exomes of six individuals from three families with SCCOHT. After discovering segregating deleterious germline mutations in SMARCA4 in all three families, we tested DNA from a fourth affected family, which also carried a segregating SMARCA4 germline mutation. All the familial tumors sequenced harbored either a somatic mutation or loss of the wild-type allele. Immunohistochemical analysis of these cases and additional familial and non-familial cases showed loss of SMARCA4 (BRG1) protein in 38 of 40 tumors overall. Sequencing of cases with available DNA identified at least one germline or somatic deleterious SMARCA4 mutation in 30 of 32 cases. Additionally, the SCCOHT cell line BIN-67 had biallelic deleterious mutations in SMARCA4. Our findings identify alterations in SMARCA4 as the major cause of SCCOHT, which could lead to improvements in genetic counseling and new treatment approaches.
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Mutations in STX1B, encoding a presynaptic protein, cause fever-associated epilepsy syndromes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2014
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Febrile seizures affect 2-4% of all children and have a strong genetic component. Recurrent mutations in three main genes (SCN1A, SCN1B and GABRG2) have been identified that cause febrile seizures with or without epilepsy. Here we report the identification of mutations in STX1B, encoding syntaxin-1B, that are associated with both febrile seizures and epilepsy. Whole-exome sequencing in independent large pedigrees identified cosegregating STX1B mutations predicted to cause an early truncation or an in-frame insertion or deletion. Three additional nonsense or missense mutations and a de novo microdeletion encompassing STX1B were then identified in 449 familial or sporadic cases. Video and local field potential analyses of zebrafish larvae with antisense knockdown of stx1b showed seizure-like behavior and epileptiform discharges that were highly sensitive to increased temperature. Wild-type human syntaxin-1B but not a mutated protein rescued the effects of stx1b knockdown in zebrafish. Our results thus implicate STX1B and the presynaptic release machinery in fever-associated epilepsy syndromes.
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A recurrent 11q aberration pattern characterizes a subset of MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas resembling Burkitt lymphoma.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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The genetic hallmark of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is the t(8;14)(q24;q32) and its variants leading to activation of the MYC oncogene. It is a matter of debate whether true BL without MYC translocation exists. Here, we identified 59 lymphomas concordantly called BL by 2 gene expression classifiers among 753 B-cell lymphomas. Only 2 (3%) of these 59 molecular BL lacked a MYC translocation, which both shared a peculiar pattern of chromosome 11q aberration characterized by interstitial gains including 11q23.2-q23.3 and telomeric losses of 11q24.1-qter. We extended our analysis to 17 MYC-negative high-grade B-cell lymphomas with a similar 11q aberration and showed this aberration to be recurrently associated with morphologic and clinical features of BL. The minimal region of gain was defined by high-level amplifications in 11q23.3 and associated with overexpression of genes including PAFAH1B2 on a transcriptional and protein level. The recurrent region of loss contained a focal homozygous deletion in 11q24.2-q24.3 including the ETS1 gene, which was shown to be mutated in 4 of 16 investigated cases. These findings indicate the existence of a molecularly distinct subset of B-cell lymphomas reminiscent of BL, which is characterized by deregulation of genes in 11q.
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Bilateral ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve in an 83-year-old man.
Neuropathology
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Gangliogliomas are well-differentiated, mixed glio-neuronal tumors of the CNS that are most frequently localized within the temporal lobe. In a minority of cases, gangliogliomas have been described in the brain stem where they may critically impinge anatomical structures. Rarely, ganglioglioma develop in cranial nerves, almost exclusively in the optic pathway, where they usually present as singular space-occupying masses. Here, we report on an 83-year-old patient who presented with unusual symmetrical, bilateral gangliogliomas of the trigeminal nerves. These tumors showed an exophytic growth within the subarachnoid space toward the Gasserian ganglion and surprisingly appeared as isointense masses on T1- and T2-weighted MRI. Due to their bilateral appearance, we performed array-comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) on the gangliogliomas to address the possibility of an underlying tumor syndrome in this patient. To our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral ganglioglioma of the trigeminal nerve described so far.
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Microdeletion 5q14.3 and anomalies of brain development.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2013
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5q14.3 deletions spanning and flanking MEF2C as well as intragenic MEF2C mutations have recently been described as a cause of severe intellectual disability, epilepsy, and muscular hypotonia, with variable brain and other anomalies. With an increasing number of patients described, the clinical presentation of the patients appears to be relatively uniform, however the structural brain phenotypes described are variable. We describe two unrelated patients with overlapping de novo interstitial deletions of 4.1 and 1.9 Mb, including MEF2C in 5q14.3, one of whom had a complex brain malformation which could be best described as microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern (MSG). Expression analysis in both patients confirmed haploinsufficiency for MEF2C, decreased MECP2 expression and increased C3ORF58 (DIA1) expression, which is a new finding. A detailed analysis of brain and white matter abnormalities reported in patients with 5q14.3 deletion syndrome to date revealed a greater number of reported abnormalities in patients with deletions not including MEF2C than those with deletions or mutations directly affecting MEF2C. Screening an additional 43 patients with malformations of cerebral cortical development (MCD) for mutations in MEF2C and/or deletions in 5q14.3q15, did not detect any additional mutations, allowing us to conclude that 5q14.3 deletion syndrome is a rare cause of microcephaly with simplified gyral pattern.
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X-linked Dystonia-Parkinsonism manifesting in a female patient due to atypical turner syndrome.
Mov. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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Recessive X-linked dystonia-parkinsonism almost exclusively affects men. We investigated the genetic mechanisms causing this disorder in a female patient.
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A 1 Mb-sized microdeletion Xq26.2 encompassing the GPC3 gene in a fetus with Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome Report, antenatal findings and review.
Eur J Med Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2011
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Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) is a rare X-linked recessive disorder encompassing pre- and postnatal overgrowth and a variety of additional anomalies including craniofacial dysmorphism, macrocephaly, congenital heart defects and genitourinary anomalies. There is little published information regarding the prenatal presentation of SGBS in pregnancy. In the present report we describe the antenatal features of an affected fetus from 12 gestational weeks onwards, subsequently diagnosed with SGBS by molecular testing positive for GPC3 gene mutation.
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Conflicting results of prenatal FISH with different probes for Downs Syndrome critical regions associated with mosaicism for a de novo del(21)(q22) characterised by molecular karyotyping: Case report.
Mol Cytogenet
PUBLISHED: 08-10-2010
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For the rapid detection of common aneuploidies either PCR or Fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) on uncultured amniotic fluid cells are widely used. There are different commercial suppliers providing FISH assays for the detection of trisomies affecting the Downs syndrome critical regions (DSCR) in 21q22. We present a case in which rapid FISH screening with different commercial probes for the DSCR yielded conflicting results. Chromosome analysis revealed a deletion of one chromosome 21 in q22 which explained the findings. Prenatally an additional small supernumerary marker chromosome (sSMC) was discovered as well, which could not be characterised. Postnatal chromosome analysis in lymphocytes of the infant revealed complex mosaicism with four cell lines. By arrayCGH the sSMC was provisionally described as derivative chromosome 21 which was confirmed by targeted FISH experiments.
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Deregulation of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene by chromosomal translocations in B-cell malignancies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Sequence variants at the TERT-CLPTM1L locus in chromosome 5p have been recently associated with disposition for various cancers. Here we show that this locus including the gene encoding the telomerase reverse-transcriptase TERT at 5p13.33 is rarely but recurrently targeted by somatic chromosomal translocations to IGH and non-IG loci in B-cell neoplasms, including acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, mantle cell lymphoma and splenic marginal zone lymphoma. In addition, cases with genomic amplification of TERT locus were identified. Tumors bearing chromosomal aberrations involving TERT showed higher TERT transcriptional expression and increased telomerase activity. These data suggest that deregulation of TERT gene by chromosomal abnormalities leading to increased telomerase activity might contribute to B-cell lymphomagenesis.
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Immunoglobulin heavy chain locus chromosomal translocations in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: rare clinical curios or potent genetic drivers?
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
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Chromosomal translocations involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus define common subgroups of B-cell lymphoma but are rare in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL). Recent fluorescent in situ hybridization and molecular cloning studies have identified several novel IGH translocations involving genes that play important roles in normal hemopoiesis, including the cytokine receptor genes CRLF2 and EPOR, all members of the CCAAT enhancer-binding protein gene family, as well as genes not normally expressed in hemopoietic cells including inhibitor of DNA binding 4. IGH translocation results in deregulated target gene expression because of juxtaposition with IGH transcriptional enhancers. However, many genes targeted by IGH translocations are also more commonly deregulated in BCP-ALL as a consequence of other genetic or epigenetic mechanisms. For example, interstitial genomic deletions also result in deregulated CRLF2 expression, whereas EPOR expression is deregulated as a consequence of the ETV6-RUNX1 fusion. The possible clinical importance of many of the various IGH translocations in BCP-ALL remains to be determined from prospective studies, but CRLF2 expression is associated with a poor prognosis. Despite their rarity, IGH chromosomal translocations in BCP-ALL therefore define not only new mechanisms of B-cell transformation but also clinically important subgroups of disease and suggest new targeted therapeutic approaches.
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A comprehensive microarray-based DNA methylation study of 367 hematological neoplasms.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2009
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Alterations in the DNA methylation pattern are a hallmark of leukemias and lymphomas. However, most epigenetic studies in hematologic neoplasms (HNs) have focused either on the analysis of few candidate genes or many genes and few HN entities, and comprehensive studies are required.
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Identification of the gene encoding cyclin E1 (CCNE1) as a novel IGH translocation partner in t(14;19)(q32;q12) in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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In a subset of B-cell malignancies, the genes encoding members of the cyclin D familiy are juxtaposed to immunoglobulin loci through recurrent chromosomal translocations. Here, we identified the gene encoding cyclin E1 as novel translocation partner of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) locus involved in a t(14;19)(q32;q12) in a case of t(8;14)(q24;q32) IGH-MYC-positive leukemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. The translocation breakpoints were cloned and mapped to the switch region Salpha1 of IGH in 14q32 and approximately 60kb centromeric to CCNE1 in 19q12. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed overexpression of the cyclin E1 protein in this case, which to a comparable extent was observed in 3/41 independent DLBCL. These data indicate that cyclin E1 may act as a novel oncogene in B-cell lymphomagenesis.
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High-resolution genomic analysis suggests the absence of recurrent genomic alterations other than SMARCB1 aberrations in atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors.
Genes Chromosomes Cancer
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Atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) is a rare malignant pediatric brain tumor characterized by genetic alterations affecting the SMARCB1 (hSNF5/INI1) locus in chromosome band 22q11.2. To identify potential additional genetic alterations, high-resolution genome-wide analysis was performed using a molecular inversion probe single-nucleotide polymorphism (MIP SNP) assay (Affymetrix OncoScan formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded express) on DNA isolated from 18 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded archival samples. Alterations affecting the SMARCB1 locus could be demonstrated by MIP SNP in 15 out of 16 evaluable cases (94%). These comprised five tumors with homozygous deletions, six tumors with heterozygous deletions, and four tumors with copy number neutral loss of heterozygosity (LOH) involving chromosome band 22q11.2. Remarkably, MIB SNP analysis did not yield any further recurrent chromosomal gains, losses, or copy neutral LOH. On MIP SNP screening for somatic mutations, the presence of a SMARCB1 mutation (c.472C>T p.R158X) was confirmed, but no recurrent mutations of other cancer relevant genes could be identified. Results of fluorescence in situ hybridization, multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification, and SMARCB1 sequencing were highly congruent with that of the MIP SNP assay. In conclusion, these data further suggest the absence of recurrent genomic alterations other than SMARCB1 in AT/RT.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.