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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Alignathon: a competitive assessment of whole-genome alignment methods.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Multiple sequence alignments (MSAs) are a prerequisite for a wide variety of evolutionary analyses. Published assessments and benchmark data sets for protein and, to a lesser extent, global nucleotide MSAs are available, but less effort has been made to establish benchmarks in the more general problem of whole-genome alignment (WGA). Using the same model as the successful Assemblathon competitions, we organized a competitive evaluation in which teams submitted their alignments and then assessments were performed collectively after all the submissions were received. Three data sets were used: Two were simulated and based on primate and mammalian phylogenies, and one was comprised of 20 real fly genomes. In total, 35 submissions were assessed, submitted by 10 teams using 12 different alignment pipelines. We found agreement between independent simulation-based and statistical assessments, indicating that there are substantial accuracy differences between contemporary alignment tools. We saw considerable differences in the alignment quality of differently annotated regions and found that few tools aligned the duplications analyzed. We found that many tools worked well at shorter evolutionary distances, but fewer performed competitively at longer distances. We provide all data sets, submissions, and assessment programs for further study and provide, as a resource for future benchmarking, a convenient repository of code and data for reproducing the simulation assessments.
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GenomeVISTA--an integrated software package for whole-genome alignment and visualization.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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With the ubiquitous generation of complete genome assemblies for a variety of species, efficient tools for whole-genome alignment along with user-friendly visualization are critically important. Our VISTA family of tools for comparative genomics, based on algorithms for pairwise and multiple alignments of genomic sequences and whole-genome assemblies, has become one of the standard techniques for comparative analysis. Most of the VISTA programs have been implemented as Web-accessible servers and are extensively used by the biomedical community. In this manuscript, we introduce GenomeVISTA: a novel implementation that incorporates most features of the VISTA family--fast and accurate alignment, visualization capabilities, GUI and analytical tools within a stand-alone software package. GenomeVISTA thus provides flexibility and security for users who need to conduct whole-genome comparisons on their own computers.
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High-throughput translational medicine: challenges and solutions.
Adv. Exp. Med. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2014
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Recent technological advances in genomics now allow producing biological data at unprecedented tera- and petabyte scales. Yet, the extraction of useful knowledge from this voluminous data presents a significant challenge to a scientific community. Efficient mining of vast and complex data sets for the needs of biomedical research critically depends on seamless integration of clinical, genomic, and experimental information with prior knowledge about genotype-phenotype relationships accumulated in a plethora of publicly available databases. Furthermore, such experimental data should be accessible to a variety of algorithms and analytical pipelines that drive computational analysis and data mining. Translational projects require sophisticated approaches that coordinate and perform various analytical steps involved in the extraction of useful knowledge from accumulated clinical and experimental data in an orderly semiautomated manner. It presents a number of challenges such as (1) high-throughput data management involving data transfer, data storage, and access control; (2) scalable computational infrastructure; and (3) analysis of large-scale multidimensional data for the extraction of actionable knowledge.We present a scalable computational platform based on crosscutting requirements from multiple scientific groups for data integration, management, and analysis. The goal of this integrated platform is to address the challenges and to support the end-to-end analytical needs of various translational projects.
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The genome of Eucalyptus grandis.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Eucalypts are the world's most widely planted hardwood trees. Their outstanding diversity, adaptability and growth have made them a global renewable resource of fibre and energy. We sequenced and assembled >94% of the 640-megabase genome of Eucalyptus grandis. Of 36,376 predicted protein-coding genes, 34% occur in tandem duplications, the largest proportion thus far in plant genomes. Eucalyptus also shows the highest diversity of genes for specialized metabolites such as terpenes that act as chemical defence and provide unique pharmaceutical oils. Genome sequencing of the E. grandis sister species E. globulus and a set of inbred E. grandis tree genomes reveals dynamic genome evolution and hotspots of inbreeding depression. The E. grandis genome is the first reference for the eudicot order Myrtales and is placed here sister to the eurosids. This resource expands our understanding of the unique biology of large woody perennials and provides a powerful tool to accelerate comparative biology, breeding and biotechnology.
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MycoCosm portal: gearing up for 1000 fungal genomes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2013
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MycoCosm is a fungal genomics portal (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi), developed by the US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute to support integration, analysis and dissemination of fungal genome sequences and other omics data by providing interactive web-based tools. MycoCosm also promotes and facilitates user community participation through the nomination of new species of fungi for sequencing, and the annotation and analysis of resulting data. By efficiently filling gaps in the Fungal Tree of Life, MycoCosm will help address important problems associated with energy and the environment, taking advantage of growing fungal genomics resources.
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The genome portal of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute: 2014 updates.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2013
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The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI), a national user facility, serves the diverse scientific community by providing integrated high-throughput sequencing and computational analysis to enable system-based scientific approaches in support of DOE missions related to clean energy generation and environmental characterization. The JGI Genome Portal (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov) provides unified access to all JGI genomic databases and analytical tools. The JGI maintains extensive data management systems and specialized analytical capabilities to manage and interpret complex genomic data. A user can search, download and explore multiple data sets available for all DOE JGI sequencing projects including their status, assemblies and annotations of sequenced genomes. Here we describe major updates of the Genome Portal in the past 2 years with a specific emphasis on efficient handling of the rapidly growing amount of diverse genomic data accumulated in JGI.
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New family of tungstate-responsive transcriptional regulators in sulfate-reducing bacteria.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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The trace elements molybdenum and tungsten are essential components of cofactors of many metalloenzymes. However, in sulfate-reducing bacteria, high concentrations of molybdate and tungstate oxyanions inhibit growth, thus requiring the tight regulation of their homeostasis. By a combination of bioinformatic and experimental techniques, we identified a novel regulator family, tungstate-responsive regulator (TunR), controlling the homeostasis of tungstate and molybdate in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. The effector-sensing domains of these regulators are similar to those of the known molybdate-responsive regulator ModE, while their DNA-binding domains are homologous to XerC/XerD site-specific recombinases. Using a comparative genomics approach, we identified DNA motifs and reconstructed regulons for 40 TunR family members. Positional analysis of TunR sites and putative promoters allowed us to classify most TunR proteins into two groups: (i) activators of modABC genes encoding a high-affinity molybdenum and tungsten transporting system and (ii) repressors of genes for toluene sulfonate uptake (TSUP) family transporters. The activation of modA and modBC genes by TunR in Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough was confirmed in vivo, and we discovered that the activation was diminished in the presence of tungstate. A predicted 30-bp TunR-binding motif was confirmed by in vitro binding assays. A novel TunR family of bacterial transcriptional factors controls tungstate and molybdate homeostasis in sulfate-reducing deltaproteobacteria. We proposed that TunR proteins participate in protection of the cells from the inhibition by these oxyanions. To our knowledge, this is a unique case of a family of bacterial transcriptional factors evolved from site-specific recombinases.
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RegPrecise 3.0 -- A resource for genome-scale exploration of transcriptional regulation in bacteria.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in prokaryotes is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. Bacteria from different taxonomic groups, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different, possess highly diverged transcriptional regulatory networks. The comparative genomics approaches are useful for in silico reconstruction of bacterial regulons and networks operated by both transcription factors (TFs) and RNA regulatory elements (riboswitches).DescriptionRegPrecise (http://regprecise.lbl.gov) is a web resource for collection, visualization and analysis of transcriptional regulons reconstructed by comparative genomics. We significantly expanded a reference collection of manually curated regulons we introduced earlier. RegPrecise 3.0 provides access to inferred regulatory interactions organized by phylogenetic, structural and functional properties. Taxonomy-specific collections include 781 TF regulogs inferred in more than 160 genomes representing 14 taxonomic groups of Bacteria. TF-specific collections include regulogs for a selected subset of 40 TFs reconstructed across more than 30 taxonomic lineages. Novel collections of regulons operated by RNA regulatory elements (riboswitches) include near 400 regulogs inferred in 24 bacterial lineages. RegPrecise 3.0 provides four classifications of the reference regulons implemented as controlled vocabularies: 55 TF protein families; 43 RNA motif families; ~150 biological processes or metabolic pathways; and ~200 effectors or environmental signals. Genome-wide visualization of regulatory networks and metabolic pathways covered by the reference regulons are available for all studied genomes. A separate section of RegPrecise 3.0 contains draft regulatory networks in 640 genomes obtained by an conservative propagation of the reference regulons to closely related genomes.
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Whole-Genome rVISTA: a tool to determine enrichment of transcription factor binding sites in gene promoters from transcriptomic data.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
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We have developed a web-based query tool, Whole-Genome rVISTA (WGRV), that determines enrichment of transcription factors (TFs) and associated target genes in sets of co-regulated genes. WGRV enables users to query databases containing pre-computed genome coordinates of evolutionarily conserved transcription factor binding sites in the proximal promoters (from 100 bp to 5 kb upstream) of human, mouse and Drosophila genomes. TF binding sites are based on position-weight matrices from the TRANSFAC Professional database. For a given set of co-regulated genes, WGRV returns statistically enriched and evolutionarily conserved binding sites, mapped by the regulatory VISTA (rVISTA) algorithm. Users can then retrieve a list of genes from the query set containing the enriched TF binding sites and their location in the query set promoters. Results are exported in a BED format for rapid visualization in the UCSC genome browser. Flat files of mapped conserved sites and their genomic coordinates are also available for analysis with stand-alone software.
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RegTransBase--a database of regulatory sequences and interactions based on literature: a resource for investigating transcriptional regulation in prokaryotes.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Due to the constantly growing number of sequenced microbial genomes, comparative genomics has been playing a major role in the investigation of regulatory interactions in bacteria. Regulon inference mostly remains a field of semi-manual examination since absence of a knowledgebase and informatics platform for automated and systematic investigation restricts opportunities for computational prediction. Additionally, confirming computationally inferred regulons by experimental data is critically important.
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The genome portal of the Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-22-2011
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The Department of Energy (DOE) Joint Genome Institute (JGI) is a national user facility with massive-scale DNA sequencing and analysis capabilities dedicated to advancing genomics for bioenergy and environmental applications. Beyond generating tens of trillions of DNA bases annually, the Institute develops and maintains data management systems and specialized analytical capabilities to manage and interpret complex genomic data sets, and to enable an expanding community of users around the world to analyze these data in different contexts over the web. The JGI Genome Portal (http://genome.jgi.doe.gov) provides a unified access point to all JGI genomic databases and analytical tools. A user can find all DOE JGI sequencing projects and their status, search for and download assemblies and annotations of sequenced genomes, and interactively explore those genomes and compare them with other sequenced microbes, fungi, plants or metagenomes using specialized systems tailored to each particular class of organisms. We describe here the general organization of the Genome Portal and the most recent addition, MycoCosm (http://jgi.doe.gov/fungi), a new integrated fungal genomics resource.
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VISTA Region Viewer (RViewer)--a computational system for prioritizing genomic intervals for biomedical studies.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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Current genome browsers are designed for linear browsing of individual genomic regions, but the high-throughput nature of experiments aiming to elucidate the genetic component of human disease makes it very important to develop user-friendly tools for comparing several genomic regions in parallel and prioritizing them based on their functional content. We introduce VISTA Region Viewer (RViewer), an interactive online tool that allows for efficient screening and prioritization of regions of the human genome for follow-up studies. The tool takes as input genetic variation data from different biomedical studies, determines a number of various functional parameters for both coding and non-coding sequences in each region and allows for sorting and searching the results of the analysis in multiple ways.
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Comparative genomic reconstruction of transcriptional networks controlling central metabolism in the Shewanella genus.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Genome-scale prediction of gene regulation and reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria is one of the critical tasks of modern genomics. The Shewanella genus is comprised of metabolically versatile gamma-proteobacteria, whose lifestyles and natural environments are substantially different from Escherichia coli and other model bacterial species. The comparative genomics approaches and computational identification of regulatory sites are useful for the in silico reconstruction of transcriptional regulatory networks in bacteria.
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Comparative genomics of the dormancy regulons in mycobacteria.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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In response to stresses, Mycobacterium cells become dormant. This process is regulated by the DosR transcription factor. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the dormancy regulon is well characterized and contains the dosR gene itself and dosS and dosT genes encoding DosR kinases, nitroreductases (acg; Rv3131), diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) (Rv3130c), and many universal stress proteins (USPs). In this study, we apply comparative genomic analysis to characterize the DosR regulons in nine Mycobacterium genomes, Rhodococcus sp. RHA1, Nocardia farcinica, and Saccharopolyspora erythraea. The regulons are highly labile, containing eight core gene groups (regulators, kinases, USPs, DGATs, nitroreductases, ferredoxins, heat shock proteins, and the orthologs of the predicted kinase [Rv2004c] from M. tuberculosis) and 10 additional genes with more restricted taxonomic distribution that are mostly involved in anaerobic respiration. The largest regulon is observed in M. marinum and the smallest in M. abscessus. Analysis of large gene families encoding USPs, nitroreductases, and DGATs demonstrates a mosaic distribution of regulated and nonregulated members, suggesting frequent acquisition and loss of DosR-binding sites.
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Tandem termination signal in plant mRNAs.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2011
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It was proposed that if some mRNA characteristics resulted in a low efficiency of termination signal, an additional closely located stop codon (tandem stop codons) could be used to prevent the harmful readthrough. However, the role of tandem terminators in higher eukaryotes was not verified and remains hypothetical. In this work the sequence features of Arabidopsis thaliana and Oryza sativa mRNAs were analyzed. It was found that plant mRNAs with UGA terminator were characterized by a higher frequency of nonsense codons in the first triplet position of 3-UTR that could result from a weak natural selection for "reserve" stop signal. Interestingly, the presence of tandem stop codons positively correlated with a specific amino acid composition in the C-terminal position of the encoded proteins. In particular, C-terminal glycine positively correlated with significantly higher frequencies of reserve terminators at the beginning positions of 3-UTR in UGA-containing mRNAs. This finding coincides with some earlier observations concerning the role of glycine and its codons in inefficient termination of translation and recoding (e.g., 2A oligopeptide).
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RegPredict: an integrated system for regulon inference in prokaryotes by comparative genomics approach.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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RegPredict web server is designed to provide comparative genomics tools for reconstruction and analysis of microbial regulons using comparative genomics approach. The server allows the user to rapidly generate reference sets of regulons and regulatory motif profiles in a group of prokaryotic genomes. The new concept of a cluster of co-regulated orthologous operons allows the user to distribute the analysis of large regulons and to perform the comparative analysis of multiple clusters independently. Two major workflows currently implemented in RegPredict are: (i) regulon reconstruction for a known regulatory motif and (ii) ab initio inference of a novel regulon using several scenarios for the generation of starting gene sets. RegPredict provides a comprehensive collection of manually curated positional weight matrices of regulatory motifs. It is based on genomic sequences, ortholog and operon predictions from the MicrobesOnline. An interactive web interface of RegPredict integrates and presents diverse genomic and functional information about the candidate regulon members from several web resources. RegPredict is freely accessible at http://regpredict.lbl.gov.
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The genome of the Western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2010
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The western clawed frog Xenopus tropicalis is an important model for vertebrate development that combines experimental advantages of the African clawed frog Xenopus laevis with more tractable genetics. Here we present a draft genome sequence assembly of X. tropicalis. This genome encodes more than 20,000 protein-coding genes, including orthologs of at least 1700 human disease genes. Over 1 million expressed sequence tags validated the annotation. More than one-third of the genome consists of transposable elements, with unusually prevalent DNA transposons. Like that of other tetrapods, the genome of X. tropicalis contains gene deserts enriched for conserved noncoding elements. The genome exhibits substantial shared synteny with human and chicken over major parts of large chromosomes, broken by lineage-specific chromosome fusions and fissions, mainly in the mammalian lineage.
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Visualizing genomes: techniques and challenges.
Nat. Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2010
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As our ability to generate sequencing data continues to increase, data analysis is replacing data generation as the rate-limiting step in genomics studies. Here we provide a guide to genomic data visualization tools that facilitate analysis tasks by enabling researchers to explore, interpret and manipulate their data, and in some cases perform on-the-fly computations. We will discuss graphical methods designed for the analysis of de novo sequencing assemblies and read alignments, genome browsing, and comparative genomics, highlighting the strengths and limitations of these approaches and the challenges ahead.
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A cis-regulatory signature in ascidians and flies, independent of transcription factor binding sites.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2010
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Transcription initiation is controlled by cis-regulatory modules. Although these modules are usually made of clusters of short transcription factor binding sites, a small minority of such clusters in the genome have cis-regulatory activity. This paradox is currently unsolved.
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MicrobesOnline: an integrated portal for comparative and functional genomics.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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Since 2003, MicrobesOnline (http://www.microbesonline.org) has been providing a community resource for comparative and functional genome analysis. The portal includes over 1000 complete genomes of bacteria, archaea and fungi and thousands of expression microarrays from diverse organisms ranging from model organisms such as Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae to environmental microbes such as Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Shewanella oneidensis. To assist in annotating genes and in reconstructing their evolutionary history, MicrobesOnline includes a comparative genome browser based on phylogenetic trees for every gene family as well as a species tree. To identify co-regulated genes, MicrobesOnline can search for genes based on their expression profile, and provides tools for identifying regulatory motifs and seeing if they are conserved. MicrobesOnline also includes fast phylogenetic profile searches, comparative views of metabolic pathways, operon predictions, a workbench for sequence analysis and integration with RegTransBase and other microbial genome resources. The next update of MicrobesOnline will contain significant new functionality, including comparative analysis of metagenomic sequence data. Programmatic access to the database, along with source code and documentation, is available at http://microbesonline.org/programmers.html.
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RegPrecise: a database of curated genomic inferences of transcriptional regulatory interactions in prokaryotes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2009
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The RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov) was developed for capturing, visualization and analysis of predicted transcription factor regulons in prokaryotes that were reconstructed and manually curated by utilizing the comparative genomic approach. A significant number of high-quality inferences of transcriptional regulatory interactions have been already accumulated for diverse taxonomic groups of bacteria. The reconstructed regulons include transcription factors, their cognate DNA motifs and regulated genes/operons linked to the candidate transcription factor binding sites. The RegPrecise allows for browsing the regulon collections for: (i) conservation of DNA binding sites and regulated genes for a particular regulon across diverse taxonomic lineages; (ii) sets of regulons for a family of transcription factors; (iii) repertoire of regulons in a particular taxonomic group of species; (iv) regulons associated with a metabolic pathway or a biological process in various genomes. The initial release of the database includes approximately 11,500 candidate binding sites for approximately 400 orthologous groups of transcription factors from over 350 prokaryotic genomes. Majority of these data are represented by genome-wide regulon reconstructions in Shewanella and Streptococcus genera and a large-scale prediction of regulons for the LacI family of transcription factors. Another section in the database represents the results of accurate regulon propagation to the closely related genomes.
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Obtaining comparative genomic data with the VISTA family of computational tools.
Curr Protoc Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2009
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Comparison of DNA sequences from different species is a fundamental method for identifying functional elements, such as exons or enhancers, as they tend to exhibit significant sequence similarity due to purifying selection. Availability of whole-genome sequences for a constantly growing number of organisms makes identification of such elements within these genomes possible. There are two distinct phases in comparisons of genomic sequences: in the first, the sequences are aligned, and in the second, the resulting alignments are analyzed to find conservation signals that may be indicative of functional regions. Due to the considerable length of alignments, good visual representation techniques are a necessity for effective isolation of regions of interest. The VISTA family of tools provides biomedical investigators with a unified framework for the alignment of long genomic sequences and whole-genome assemblies, interactive visual analysis of alignments along with functional annotation, and many other comparative genomics capabilities.
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Green evolution and dynamic adaptations revealed by genomes of the marine picoeukaryotes Micromonas.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2009
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Picoeukaryotes are a taxonomically diverse group of organisms less than 2 micrometers in diameter. Photosynthetic marine picoeukaryotes in the genus Micromonas thrive in ecosystems ranging from tropical to polar and could serve as sentinel organisms for biogeochemical fluxes of modern oceans during climate change. These broadly distributed primary producers belong to an anciently diverged sister clade to land plants. Although Micromonas isolates have high 18S ribosomal RNA gene identity, we found that genomes from two isolates shared only 90% of their predicted genes. Their independent evolutionary paths were emphasized by distinct riboswitch arrangements as well as the discovery of intronic repeat elements in one isolate, and in metagenomic data, but not in other genomes. Divergence appears to have been facilitated by selection and acquisition processes that actively shape the repertoire of genes that are mutually exclusive between the two isolates differently than the core genes. Analyses of the Micromonas genomes offer valuable insights into ecological differentiation and the dynamic nature of early plant evolution.
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ATGC: a database of orthologous genes from closely related prokaryotic genomes and a research platform for microevolution of prokaryotes.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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The database of Alignable Tight Genomic Clusters (ATGCs) consists of closely related genomes of archaea and bacteria, and is a resource for research into prokaryotic microevolution. Construction of a data set with appropriate characteristics is a major hurdle for this type of studies. With the current rate of genome sequencing, it is difficult to follow the progress of the field and to determine which of the available genome sets meet the requirements of a given research project, in particular, with respect to the minimum and maximum levels of similarity between the included genomes. Additionally, extraction of specific content, such as genomic alignments or families of orthologs, from a selected set of genomes is a complicated and time-consuming process. The database addresses these problems by providing an intuitive and efficient web interface to browse precomputed ATGCs, select appropriate ones and access ATGC-derived data such as multiple alignments of orthologous proteins, matrices of pairwise intergenomic distances based on genome-wide analysis of synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates and others. The ATGC database will be regularly updated following new releases of the NCBI RefSeq. The database is hosted by the Genomics Division at Lawrence Berkeley National laboratory and is publicly available at http://atgc.lbl.gov.
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The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approximately 730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approximately 98% of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approximately 75% larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approximately 70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum-rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24% of genes are grass-specific and 7% are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghums drought tolerance.
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Trends in prokaryotic evolution revealed by comparison of closely related bacterial and archaeal genomes.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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In order to explore microevolutionary trends in bacteria and archaea, we constructed a data set of 41 alignable tight genome clusters (ATGCs). We show that the ratio of the medians of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution rates (dN/dS) that is used as a measure of the purifying selection pressure on protein sequences is a stable characteristic of the ATGCs. In agreement with previous findings, parasitic bacteria, notwithstanding the sometimes dramatic genome shrinkage caused by gene loss, are typically subjected to relatively weak purifying selection, presumably owing to relatively small effective population sizes and frequent bottlenecks. However, no evidence of genome streamlining caused by strong selective pressure was found in any of the ATGCs. On the contrary, a significant positive correlation between the genome size, as well as gene size, and selective pressure was observed, although a variety of free-living prokaryotes with very close selective pressures span nearly the entire range of genome sizes. In addition, we examined the connections between the sequence evolution rate and other genomic features. Although gene order changes much faster than protein sequences during the evolution of prokaryotes, a strong positive correlation was observed between the "rearrangement distance" and the amino acid distance, suggesting that at least some of the events leading to genome rearrangement are subjected to the same type of selective constraints as the evolution of amino acid sequences.
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Comparative genomics of regulation of fatty acid and branched-chain amino acid utilization in proteobacteria.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Bacteria can use branched-chain amino acids (ILV, i.e., isoleucine, leucine, valine) and fatty acids (FAs) as sole carbon and energy sources converting ILV into acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA), propanoyl-CoA, and propionyl-CoA, respectively. In this work, we used the comparative genomic approach to identify candidate transcriptional factors and DNA motifs that control ILV and FA utilization pathways in proteobacteria. The metabolic regulons were characterized based on the identification and comparison of candidate transcription factor binding sites in groups of phylogenetically related genomes. The reconstructed ILV/FA regulatory network demonstrates considerable variability and involves six transcriptional factors from the MerR, TetR, and GntR families binding to 11 distinct DNA motifs. The ILV degradation genes in gamma- and betaproteobacteria are regulated mainly by a novel regulator from the MerR family (e.g., LiuR in Pseudomonas aeruginosa) (40 species); in addition, the TetR-type regulator LiuQ was identified in some betaproteobacteria (eight species). Besides the core set of ILV utilization genes, the LiuR regulon in some lineages is expanded to include genes from other metabolic pathways, such as the glyoxylate shunt and glutamate synthase in Shewanella species. The FA degradation genes are controlled by four regulators including FadR in gammaproteobacteria (34 species), PsrA in gamma- and betaproteobacteria (45 species), FadP in betaproteobacteria (14 species), and LiuR orthologs in alphaproteobacteria (22 species). The remarkable variability of the regulatory systems associated with the FA degradation pathway is discussed from functional and evolutionary points of view.
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Multiple whole-genome alignments without a reference organism.
Genome Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2009
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Multiple sequence alignments have become one of the most commonly used resources in genomics research. Most algorithms for multiple alignment of whole genomes rely either on a reference genome, against which all of the other sequences are laid out, or require a one-to-one mapping between the nucleotides of the genomes, preventing the alignment of recently duplicated regions. Both approaches have drawbacks for whole-genome comparisons. In this paper we present a novel symmetric alignment algorithm. The resulting alignments not only represent all of the genomes equally well, but also include all relevant duplications that occurred since the divergence from the last common ancestor. Our algorithm, implemented as a part of the VISTA Genome Pipeline (VGP), was used to align seven vertebrate and six Drosophila genomes. The resulting whole-genome alignments demonstrate a higher sensitivity and specificity than the pairwise alignments previously available through the VGP and have higher exon alignment accuracy than comparable public whole-genome alignments. Of the multiple alignment methods tested, ours performed the best at aligning genes from multigene families-perhaps the most challenging test for whole-genome alignments. Our whole-genome multiple alignments are available through the VISTA Browser at http://genome.lbl.gov/vista/index.shtml.
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Transcription factor family-based reconstruction of singleton regulons and study of the Crp/Fnr, ArsR, and GntR families in Desulfovibrionales genomes.
J. Bacteriol.
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Accurate detection of transcriptional regulatory elements is essential for high-quality genome annotation, metabolic reconstruction, and modeling of regulatory networks. We developed a computational approach for reconstruction of regulons operated by transcription factors (TFs) from large protein families and applied this novel approach to three TF families in 10 Desulfovibrionales genomes. Phylogenetic analyses of 125 regulators from the ArsR, Crp/Fnr, and GntR families revealed that 65% of these regulators (termed reference TFs) are well conserved in Desulfovibrionales, while the remaining 35% of regulators (termed singleton TFs) are species specific and show a mosaic distribution. For regulon reconstruction in the group of singleton TFs, the standard orthology-based approach was inefficient, and thus, we developed a novel approach based on the simultaneous study of all homologous TFs from the same family in a group of genomes. As a result, we identified binding for 21 singleton TFs and for all reference TFs in all three analyzed families. Within each TF family we observed structural similarities between DNA-binding motifs of different reference and singleton TFs. The collection of reconstructed regulons is available at the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/Desulfovibrionales.jsp).
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RegPrecise web services interface: programmatic access to the transcriptional regulatory interactions in bacteria reconstructed by comparative genomics.
Nucleic Acids Res.
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Web services application programming interface (API) was developed to provide a programmatic access to the regulatory interactions accumulated in the RegPrecise database (http://regprecise.lbl.gov), a core resource on transcriptional regulation for the microbial domain of the Department of Energy (DOE) Systems Biology Knowledgebase. RegPrecise captures and visualize regulogs, sets of genes controlled by orthologous regulators in several closely related bacterial genomes, that were reconstructed by comparative genomics. The current release of RegPrecise 2.0 includes >1400 regulogs controlled either by protein transcription factors or by conserved ribonucleic acid regulatory motifs in >250 genomes from 24 taxonomic groups of bacteria. The reference regulons accumulated in RegPrecise can serve as a basis for automatic annotation of regulatory interactions in newly sequenced genomes. The developed API provides an efficient access to the RegPrecise data by a comprehensive set of 14 web service resources. The RegPrecise web services API is freely accessible at http://regprecise.lbl.gov/RegPrecise/services.jsp with no login requirements.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.