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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
NF?B2/p100 is a key factor for endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes: a demonstration using primary human monocytes from patients with sepsis.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Endotoxin tolerance (ET) is a state of reduced responsiveness to endotoxin stimulation after a primary bacterial insult. This phenomenon has been described in several pathologies, including sepsis, in which an endotoxin challenge results in reduced cytokine production. In this study, we show that the NF? L chain enhancer of activated B cells 2 (NF?B2)/p100 was overexpressed and accumulated in a well-established in vitro human monocyte model of ET. The p100 accumulation in these cells inversely correlated with the inflammatory response after LPS stimulation. Knocking down NF?B2/p100 using small interfering RNA in human monocytes further indicated that p100 expression is a crucial factor in the progression of ET. The monocytes derived from patients with sepsis had high levels of p100, and a downregulation of NF?B2/p100 in these septic monocytes reversed their ET status.
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The CRC orthologue from Pisum sativum shows conserved functions in carpel morphogenesis and vascular development.
Ann. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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CRABS CLAW (CRC) is a member of the YABBY family of transcription factors involved in carpel morphogenesis, floral determinacy and nectary specification in arabidopsis. CRC orthologues have been functionally characterized across angiosperms, revealing additional roles in leaf vascular development and carpel identity specification in Poaceae. These studies support an ancestral role of CRC orthologues in carpel development, while roles in vascular development and nectary specification appear to be derived. This study aimed to expand research on CRC functional conservation to the legume family in order to better understand the evolutionary history of CRC orthologues in angiosperms.
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Sequential action of FRUITFULL as a modulator of the activity of the floral regulators SVP and SOC1.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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The role in flowering time of the MADS-box transcription factor fruitfulL (FUL) has been proposed in many works. FUL has been connected to several flowering pathways as a target of the photoperiod, ambient temperature, and age pathways and it is has been shown to promote flowering in a partially redundant manner with suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 (SOC1). However, the position of FUL in these genetic networks, as well as the functional output of FUL activity during floral transition, remains unclear. In this work, a genetic approach has been undertaken to understand better the functional hierarchies involving FUL and other MADS-box factors with well established roles as floral integrators such as SOC1, short vegetative phase (svp) or flowering locus C (FLC). Our results suggest a prominent role of FUL in promoting reproductive transition when photoinductive signalling is suppressed by short-day conditions or by high levels of FLC expression, as in non-vernalized winter ecotypes. A model is proposed where the sequential formation of FUL-SVP and FUL-SOC1 heterodimers may mediate the vegetative and meristem identity transitions, counteracting the repressive effect of FLC and SVP on flowering.
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Effectiveness of ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy in the clinical setting: same results as in clinical trials? The PIMOCS Study Group.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (PIMT) is a maintenance strategy that prevents nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor toxicity and reduces costs. Some trials compare PIMT with combined antiretroviral therapy, but restricted selection criteria and low sample size hamper data extrapolation to routine practice. Here, we analyse the effectiveness and safety of PIMT in clinical practice.
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Genetic and phenotypic analyses of carpel development in Arabidopsis.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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Carpels are the female reproductive organs of the flower, organized in a gynoecium, which is arguably the most complex organ of a plant. The gynoecium provides protection for the ovules, helps to discriminate between male gametophytes, and facilitates successful pollination. After fertilization, it develops into a fruit, a specialized organ for seed protection and dispersal. To carry out all these functions, coordinated patterning and tissue specification within the developing gynoecium have to be achieved. In this chapter, we describe different methods to characterize defects in carpel patterning and morphogenesis associated with developmental mutations as well as a list of reporter lines that can be used to facilitate genetic analyses.
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The effect of NGATHA altered activity on auxin signaling pathways within the Arabidopsis gynoecium.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The four NGATHA genes (NGA) form a small subfamily within the large family of B3-domain transcription factors of Arabidopsis thaliana. NGA genes act redundantly to direct the development of the apical tissues of the gynoecium, the style, and the stigma. Previous studies indicate that NGA genes could exert this function at least partially by directing the synthesis of auxin at the distal end of the developing gynoecium through the upregulation of two different YUCCA genes, which encode flavin monooxygenases involved in auxin biosynthesis. We have compared three developing pistil transcriptome data sets from wildtype, nga quadruple mutants, and a 35S::NGA3 line. The differentially expressed genes showed a significant enrichment for auxin-related genes, supporting the idea of NGA genes as major regulators of auxin accumulation and distribution within the developing gynoecium. We have introduced reporter lines for several of these differentially expressed genes involved in synthesis, transport and response to auxin in NGA gain- and loss-of-function backgrounds. We present here a detailed map of the response of these reporters to NGA misregulation that could help to clarify the role of NGA in auxin-mediated gynoecium morphogenesis. Our data point to a very reduced auxin synthesis in the developing apical gynoecium of nga mutants, likely responsible for the lack of DR5rev::GFP reporter activity observed in these mutants. In addition, NGA altered activity affects the expression of protein kinases that regulate the cellular localization of auxin efflux regulators, and thus likely impact auxin transport. Finally, protein accumulation in pistils of several ARFs was differentially affected by nga mutations or NGA overexpression, suggesting that these accumulation patterns depend not only on auxin distribution but could be also regulated by transcriptional networks involving NGA factors.
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Mitochondrial DAMPs induce endotoxin tolerance in human monocytes: an observation in patients with myocardial infarction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Monocyte exposure to mitochondrial Danger Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs), including mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further endotoxin stimulation. In this context, IRAK-M up-regulation and impaired p65 activity were observed. This phenomenon, termed endotoxin tolerance (ET), is characterized by decreased production of cytokines in response to the pro-inflammatory stimulus. We also show that monocytes isolated from patients with myocardial infarction (MI) exhibited high levels of circulating mtDNA, which correlated with ET status. Moreover, a significant incidence of infection was observed in those patients with a strong tolerant phenotype. The present data extend our current understanding of the implications of endotoxin tolerance. Furthermore, our data suggest that the levels of mitochondrial antigens in plasma, such as plasma mtDNA, should be useful as a marker of increased risk of susceptibility to nosocomial infections in MI and in other pathologies involving tissue damage.
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Calcimimetics increase CaSR expression and reduce mineralization in vascular smooth muscle cells: mechanisms of action.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Vascular calcification (VC) contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Allosteric modulators of the calcium (Ca)-sensing receptor (CaSR) may slow the progression of VC in CKD patients either by reducing serum parathyroid hormone (PTH), Ca, and phosphate levels or by a direct effect on the vessel wall. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of calcimimetics on CaSR expression, cell phenotype, and mineral deposition in human vascular smooth muscle cells (h-VSMCs).
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Reduction of clarithromycin and sulfamethoxazole-resistant Enterococcus by pilot-scale solar-driven Fenton oxidation.
Sci. Total Environ.
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria in aquatic environments has become a health threat in the last few years. Their presence has increased due to the presence of antibiotics in wastewater effluents, which are not efficiently removed by conventional wastewater treatments. As a result there is a need to study the possible ways of removal of the mixtures of antibiotics present in wastewater effluents and the antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which may also spread the antibiotic resistance genes to other bacterial populations. In this study the degradation of a mixture of antibiotics i.e. sulfamethoxazole and clarithromycin, the disinfection of total enterococci and the removal of those resistant to: a) sulfamethoxazole, b) clarithromycin and c) to both antibiotics have been examined, along with the toxicity of the whole effluent mixture after treatment to the luminescent aquatic bacterium Vibrio fischeri. Solar Fenton treatment (natural solar driven oxidation) using Fenton reagent doses of 50mgL(-1) of hydrogen peroxide and 5mgL(-1) of Fe(3+) in a pilot-scale compound parabolic collector plant was used to examine the disinfection and antibiotic resistance removal efficiency in different aqueous matrices, namely distilled water, simulated and real wastewater effluents. There was a faster complete removal of enterococci and of antibiotics in all aqueous matrices by applying solar Fenton when compared to photolytic treatment of the matrices. Sulfamethoxazole was more efficiently degraded than clarithromycin in all three aqueous matrices (95% removal of sulfamethoxazole and 70% removal of clarithromycin in real wastewater). The antibiotic resistance of enterococci towards both antibiotics exhibited a 5-log reduction with solar Fenton in real wastewater effluent. Also after solar Fenton treatment, there were 10 times more antibiotic-resistant enterococci in the presence of sulfamethoxazole than in the presence of clarithromycin. Finally, the toxicity of the treated wastewater to V. fischeri remained very low throughout the treatment time.
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Mef2A, a homologue of animal Mef2 transcription factors, regulates cell differentiation in Dictyostelium discoideum.
BMC Dev. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Transcription factors from the MADS-box family play a relevant role in cell differentiation and development and include the animal SRF (serum response factor) and MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor 2) proteins. The social amoeba Dictyostelium discoideum contains four genes coding for MADS-box transcription factors, two of these genes code for proteins that are more similar to SRF, and the other two code for proteins that are more similar to MEF2 animal factors.
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Reading time data for evaluating broad-coverage models of English sentence processing.
Behav Res Methods
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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We make available word-by-word self-paced reading times and eye-tracking data over a sample of English sentences from narrative sources. These data are intended to form a gold standard for the evaluation of computational psycholinguistic models of sentence comprehension in English. We describe stimuli selection and data collection and present descriptive statistics, as well as comparisons between the two sets of reading times.
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Interplay of LRRK2 with chaperone-mediated autophagy.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are the most common cause of familial Parkinsons disease. We found LRRK2 to be degraded in lysosomes by chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA), whereas the most common pathogenic mutant form of LRRK2, G2019S, was poorly degraded by this pathway. In contrast to the behavior of typical CMA substrates, lysosomal binding of both wild-type and several pathogenic mutant LRRK2 proteins was enhanced in the presence of other CMA substrates, which interfered with the organization of the CMA translocation complex, resulting in defective CMA. Cells responded to such LRRK2-mediated CMA compromise by increasing levels of the CMA lysosomal receptor, as seen in neuronal cultures and brains of LRRK2 transgenic mice, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived dopaminergic neurons and brains of Parkinsons disease patients with LRRK2 mutations. This newly described LRRK2 self-perpetuating inhibitory effect on CMA could underlie toxicity in Parkinsons disease by compromising the degradation of ?-synuclein, another Parkinsons disease-related protein degraded by this pathway.
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Association of thymidylate synthase polymorphisms with acute pancreatitis and/or peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected patients on stavudine-based therapy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Low expression thymidylate synthase (TS) polymorphism has been associated with increased stavudine triphosphate intracellular (d4T-TP) levels and the lipodystrophy syndrome. The use of d4T has been associated with acute pancreatitis and peripheral neuropathy. However, no relationship has ever been proved between TS polymorphisms and pancreatitis and/or peripheral neuropathy.
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Polymorphisms of Pyrimidine Pathway Enzymes Encoding Genes and HLA-B*40?01 Carriage in Stavudine-Associated Lipodystrophy in HIV-Infected Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To assess in a cohort of Caucasian patients exposed to stavudine (d4T) the association of polymorphisms in pyrimidine pathway enzymes and HLA-B*40?01 carriage with HIV/Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS).
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Translocated LPS might cause endotoxin tolerance in circulating monocytes of cystic fibrosis patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2011
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Cystic Fibrosis (CF) is an inherited pleiotropic disease that results from abnormalities in the gene codes of a chloride channel. The lungs of CF patients are chronically infected by several pathogens but bacteraemia have rarely been reported in this pathology. Besides that, circulating monocytes in CF patients exhibit a patent Endotoxin Tolerance (ET) state since they show a significant reduction of the inflammatory response to bacterial stimulus. Despite a previous description of this phenomenon, the direct cause of ET in CF patients remains unknown. In this study we have researched the possible role of microbial/endotoxin translocation from a localized infection to the bloodstream as a potential cause of ET induction in CF patients. Plasma analysis of fourteen CF patients revealed high levels of LPS compared to healthy volunteers and patients who suffer from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Experiments in vitro showed that endotoxin concentrations found in plasma of CF patients were enough to induce an ET phenotype in monocytes from healthy controls. In agreement with clinical data, we failed to detect bacterial DNA in CF plasma. Our results suggest that soluble endotoxin present in bloodstream of CF patients causes endotoxin tolerance in their circulating monocytes.
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Association of thymidylate synthase gene polymorphisms with stavudine triphosphate intracellular levels and lipodystrophy.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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The antiviral activity and toxicity of stavudine (d4T) depend on its triphosphate metabolite, stavudine triphosphate (d4T-TP). Therefore, modifications in intracellular levels of d4T-TP may change the toxicity profile of stavudine. d4T-TP intracellular levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were determined with a prominence liquid chromatograph connected to a triple-quadruple mass spectrometer. Polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase (TS), methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), reduced folate carrier 1 (RFC1; SLC19A1), and cyclin D1 (CCND1) genes were determined by direct sequencing using an ABI Prism 3100 genetic analyzer or Fluidigms Biomark system. The Mann-Whitney test, rank analysis of variance (with Bonferronis adjusted post hoc comparisons), and logistic regression were used for the inferential analyses. Thirty-three stavudine-treated patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. d4T-TP intracellular levels were 11.50 fmol/10(6) cells (interquartile range [IQR] = 8.12 to 13.87 fmol/10(6) cells) in patients with a high-expression TS genotype (2/3G, 3C/3G, and 3G/3G), whereas in those with a low-expression TS genotype (2/2, 2/3C, and 3C/3C), they were 21.40 fmol/10(6) cells (IQR = 18.90 to 27.0 fmol/10(6) cells) (P < 0.0001). Polymorphisms in the MTHFR, DHFR, RFC1, and CCND1 genes did not influence the intracellular concentration of d4T-TP. d4T-TP levels were independently associated with the TS genotype (low versus high expression; odds ratio [OR] = 86.22; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 8.48 to nonestimable; P = 0.0023). The low-expression TS genotype was associated with the development of HIV/highly active antiretroviral therapy-associated lypodystrophy syndrome (HALS) (OR = 14.0; 95% CI = 2.09 to 108.0; P = 0.0032). Our preliminary data show that polymorphisms in the thymidylate synthase gene are strongly associated with d4T-TP intracellular levels and with development of HALS.
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Serum FGF21 levels are elevated in association with lipodystrophy, insulin resistance and biomarkers of liver injury in HIV-1-infected patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2010
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HIV-1-infected patients with lipodystrophy show insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and other signs of metabolic syndrome. Fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF21) is a novel metabolic regulator that has been suggested to exert beneficial effects on metabolic homeostasis and insulin sensitivity. Our goal was to determine the relationship between FGF21 levels and metabolic alterations in these patients.
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Pseudoverrucous irritant peristomal dermatitis with an histological pattern of nutritional deficiency dermatitis.
Dermatol. Online J.
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
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Pseudoverrucous papules and nodules (PPN) is an uncommon complication, mainly reported in the diaper area. It is thought to be a manifestation of chronic irritant contact dermatitis that develops as a result of prolonged exposure to liquid stool and/or urine. We report a case of a peristomal PPN with a histolopathology simulating a nutritional deficiency dermatitis.
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Putative one-pot prebiotic polypeptides with ribonucleolytic activity.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2010
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KIA7, a peptide with a highly restricted set of amino acids (Lys, Ile, Ala, Gly and Tyr), adopts a specifically folded structure. Some amino acids, including Lys, Ile, Ala, Gly and His, form under the same putative prebiotic conditions, whereas different conditions are needed for producing Tyr, Phe and Trp. Herein, we report the 3D structure and conformational stability of the peptide KIA7H, which is composed of only Lys, Ile, Ala, Gly and His. When the imidazole group is neutral, this 20-mer peptide adopts a four-helix bundle with a specifically packed hydrophobic core. Therefore, one-pot prebiotic proteins with well-defined structures might have arisen early in chemical evolution. The Trp variant, KIA7W, was also studied. It adopts a 3D structure similar to that of KIA7H and its previously studied Tyr and Phe variants, but is remarkably more stable. When tested for ribonucleolytic activity, KIA7H, KIA7W and even short, unstructured peptides rich in His and Lys, in combination with Mg(++), Mn(++) or Ni(++) (but not Cu(++), Zn(++) or EDTA) specifically cleave the single-stranded region in an RNA stem-loop. This suggests that prebiotic peptide-divalent cation complexes with ribonucleolytic activity might have co-inhabited the RNA world.
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Relationship between HIV/Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome and stavudine-triphosphate intracellular levels in patients with stavudine-based antiretroviral regimens.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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The link between human immunodeficiency virus/highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-associated lipodystrophy syndrome (HALS) and the use of thymidine analogues has been well established. However, to our knowledge, no relationship has been proven between intracellular levels of stavudine (d4T) and HALS.
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Potent phagocytic activity with impaired antigen presentation identifying lipopolysaccharide-tolerant human monocytes: demonstration in isolated monocytes from cystic fibrosis patients.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
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Monocyte exposure to LPS induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further endotoxin stimulation. This phenomenon, termed endotoxin tolerance (ET), is characterized by a decreased production of cytokines in response to the proinflammatory stimulus. We have established a robust model of ET and have determined the time frame and features of LPS unresponsiveness in cultured human monocytes. A large number of genes transcribed in tolerant monocytes were classified as either "tolerizable" or "nontolerizable" depending on their expression levels during the ET phase. Tolerant monocytes exhibit rapid IL-1R-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) overexpression, high levels of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) and CD64, and a marked down-regulation of MHC molecules and NF-kappaB2. These cells combine potent phagocytic activity with impaired capability for Ag presentation. We also show that circulating monocytes isolated from cystic fibrosis patients share all the determinants that characterize cells locked in an ET state. These findings identify a new mechanism that contributes to impaired inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients despite a high frequency of infections. Our results indicate that a tolerant phenotype interferes with timing, efficiency, and outcome of the innate immune responses against bacterial infections.
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Measuring general dispositions to feeling empathy and distress.
Psicothema
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
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The Vicarious Experience Scale (VES) is a new measure aimed at measuring the disposition to feeling empathy and personal distress. In Study 1, participants completed the VES along with the classic measure of Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). In Studies 2 and 3, participants observed the case of a person in need and subsequently reported the elicited emotions of empathy and personal distress; participants filled in the VES either a few minutes later (Study 2) or three months before the presentation of the case (Study 3). The results supported both the convergent validity of the VES and its capacity in a specific situation.
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Persistent competition among stem cells and their daughters in the Drosophila ovary germline niche.
Development
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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Cell competition is a short-range cell-cell interaction leading to the proliferation of winner cells at the expense of losers, although either cell type shows normal growth in homotypic environments. Drosophila Myc (dMyc; Dm-FlyBase) is a potent inducer of cell competition in wing epithelia, but its role in the ovary germline stem cell niche is unknown. Here, we show that germline stem cells (GSCs) with relative lower levels of dMyc are replaced by GSCs with higher levels of dMyc. By contrast, dMyc-overexpressing GSCs outcompete wild-type stem cells without affecting total stem cell numbers. We also provide evidence for a naturally occurring cell competition border formed by high dMyc-expressing stem cells and low dMyc-expressing progeny, which may facilitate the concentration of the niche-provided self-renewal factor BMP/Dpp in metabolically active high dMyc stem cells. Genetic manipulations that impose uniform dMyc levels across the germline produce an extended Dpp signaling domain and cause uncoordinated differentiation events. We propose that dMyc-induced competition plays a dual role in regulating optimal stem cell pools and sharp differentiation boundaries, but is potentially harmful in the case of emerging dmyc duplications that facilitate niche occupancy by pre-cancerous stem cells. Moreover, competitive interactions among stem cells may be relevant for the successful application of stem cell therapies in humans.
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Impaired antigen presentation and potent phagocytic activity identifying tumor-tolerant human monocytes.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Monocyte exposure to tumor cells induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further exposure to cancer. This phenomenon, termed "tumor tolerance", is characterized by a decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to tumors. In the past, we found that this effect comprises IRAK-M up regulation and TLR4 and CD44 activation. Herein we have established a human model of tumor tolerance and have observed a marked down-regulation of MHCII molecules as well as the MHCII master regulator, CIITA, in monocytes/macrophages. These cells combine an impaired capability for antigen presentation with potent phagocytic activity and exhibit an M2-like phenotype. In addition circulating monocytes isolated from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients exhibited the same profile as tumor tolerant cells after tumor ex vivo exposition.
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Role of MMPs in orchestrating inflammatory response in human monocytes via a TREM-1-PI3K-NF-?B pathway.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
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The MMPs constitute a family of endopeptidases that can cleavage extracellular proteins. They are involved in a number of events; some of these include inflammatory processes. One of its targets is the TREM-1, which has emerged as an important modulator of innate immune responses in mammals. This transmembrane glycoprotein possesses an Ig-like ectodomain readily shed by MMPs to generate sTREM-1. Whereas membrane-anchored TREM-1 amplifies inflammatory responses, sTREM-1 exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. Here we show that sustained cell surface expression of TREM-1 in human monocytes, through metalloproteinase inhibition, counteracts the well-characterized down-regulation of several proinflammatory cytokines during the ET time-frame, also known as M2 or alternative activation. In addition to the cytokines profile, other features of the ET phenotype were underdeveloped when TREM-1 was stabilized at the cell surface. These events were mediated by the signal transducers PI3Ks and Syk. We also show that sTREM-1 counteracts the proinflammatory response obtained by membrane TREM-1 stabilization but failed to induce ET on naïve human monocytes. As the sustained TREM-1 expression at the cell surface suffices to block the progress of a refractory state in human monocytes, our data indicate that TREM-1 and MMPs orchestrate an "adaptive" form of innate immunity by modulating the human monocytes response to endotoxin.
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CD16 regulates TRIF-dependent TLR4 response in human monocytes and their subsets.
J. Immunol.
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Blood monocytes recognize Gram-negative bacteria through the TLR4, which signal via MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathway to trigger an immune-inflammatory response. However, a dysregulated inflammatory response by these cells often leads to severe pathologies such as sepsis. We investigated the role of CD16 in the regulation of human monocyte response to Gram-negative endotoxin and sepsis. Blood monocytes from sepsis patients demonstrated an upregulation of several TRIF-dependent genes as well as a selective expansion of CD16-expressing (CD16(+)) monocytes. Gene expression and biochemical studies revealed CD16 to regulate the TRIF-dependent TLR4 pathway in monocytes by activating Syk, IFN regulatory factor 3, and STAT1, which resulted in enhanced expression of IFNB, CCL5, and CXCL10. CD16 also upregulated the expression of IL-1R-associated kinase M and IL-1 receptor antagonist, which are negative regulators of the MyD88-dependent pathway. CD16 overexpression or small interfering RNA knockdown in monocytes confirmed the above findings. Interestingly, these results were mirrored in the CD16(+) monocyte subset isolated from sepsis patients, providing an in vivo confirmation to our findings. Collectively, the results from the current study demonstrate CD16 as a key regulator of the TRIF-dependent TLR4 pathway in human monocytes and their CD16-expressing subset, with implications in sepsis.
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Plasmonic V-groove waveguides with Bragg grating filters via nanoimprint lithography.
Opt Express
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We demonstrate spectral filtering with state-of-the-art Bragg gratings in plasmonic V-groove waveguides fabricated by wafer scale processing based on nanoimprint lithography. Transmission spectra of the devices having 16 grating periods exhibit spectral rejection of the channel plasmon polaritons with 8.2 dB extinction ratio and -3 dB bandwidth of ?? = 39.9 nm near telecommunications wavelengths. Near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements verify spectral reflection from the grating structures, and the oscillations of propagating modes along grating-less V-grooves correspond well with effective refractive index values calculated by finite element simulations in COMSOL. The results represent advancement towards the implementation of plasmonic V-grooves with greater functional complexity and mass-production compatibility.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.