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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Survival effect of first- and second-line treatments for patients with primary glioblastoma: a cohort study from a prospective registry, 1997-2010.
Neuro-oncology
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Prospective follow-up studies of large cohorts of patients with glioblastoma (GBM) are needed to assess the effectiveness of conventional treatments in clinical practice. We report GBM survival data from the Brain Cancer Register of the Fondazione Istituto Neurologico Carlo Besta (INCB) in Milan, Italy, which collected longitudinal data for all consecutive patients with GBM from 1997 to 2010.
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Azathioprine versus Beta Interferons for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentre Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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For almost three decades in many countries azathioprine has been used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However its efficacy was usually considered marginal and following approval of ? interferons for this indication it was no longer recommended as first line treatment, even if presently no conclusive direct ? interferon-azathioprine comparison exists. To compare azathioprine efficacy versus the currently available ? interferons in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial was conducted in 30 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. Eligible patients (relapsing-remitting course; ?2 relapses in the last 2 years) were randomly assigned to azathioprine or ? interferons. The primary outcome was annualized relapse rate ratio (RR) over 2 years. Key secondary outcome was number of new brain MRI lesions. Patients (n?=?150) were randomized in 2 groups (77 azathioprine, 73 ? interferons). At 2 years, clinical evaluation was completed in 127 patients (62 azathioprine, 65 ? interferons). Annualized relapse rate was 0.26 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.19-0.37) in the azathioprine and 0.39 (95% CI 0.30-0.51) in the interferon group. Non-inferiority analysis showed that azathioprine was at least as effective as ? interferons (relapse RRAZA/IFN 0.67, one-sided 95% CI 0.96; p<0.01). MRI outcomes were analyzed in 97 patients (50 azathioprine and 47 ? interferons). Annualized new T2 lesion rate was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61-0.95) in the azathioprine and 0.69 (95% CI 0.54-0.88) in the interferon group. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were higher (20.3% vs. 7.8%, p?=?0.03) in the azathioprine than in the interferon group, and concentrated within the first months of treatment, whereas in the interferon group discontinuations occurred mainly during the second year. The results of this study indicate that efficacy of azathioprine is not inferior to that of ? interferons for patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Considering also the convenience of the oral administration, and the low cost for health service providers, azathioprine may represent an alternative to interferon treatment, while the different side effect profiles of both medications have to be taken into account.
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Smoking in young and adult population, Italy 2009.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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To monitor smoking prevalence and trends of young and adult populations in Italy. METHOD AND STUDY DESIGN: A survey on smoking was conducted during March-April 2009 on a sample of 3213 participants (1546 men and 1667 women), representative of the Italian population aged 15 years or over. Data from a simplified questionnaire were collected in an over-sample of 1010 young individuals, reaching a total of 1390 participants aged 15-24 years (713 males and 677 females).
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Alcohol consumption and cancer risk.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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This review focuses on selected aspects of the relation between alcohol consumption and cancer risk. Heavy alcohol consumption (i.e., ?4 drinks/day) is significantly associated with an increased risk of about 5-fold for oral and pharyngeal cancer and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, 2.5-fold for laryngeal cancer, 50% for colorectal and breast cancers, and 30% for pancreatic cancer. These estimates are based on a large number of epidemiological studies and are generally consistent across strata of several covariates. The evidence suggests that at low doses of alcohol consumption (i.e., ?1 drink/day) the risk is also increased by about 20% for oral and pharyngeal cancer and 30% for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, for these sites there is little evidence of a threshold effect. While consumption of fewer than 3 alcoholic drinks/wk is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, an intake of 3 to 6 drinks/wk might already yield a (small) increase in risk. On the other hand, intakes up to 1 drink/day are not associated to the risk of laryngeal, colorectal, and pancreatic cancer. The positive association between alcohol consumption and the risk of head and neck cancers is independent from tobacco exposure.
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Alcohol drinking and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma with focus on light-drinkers and never-smokers: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2011
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Quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) is an open issue, particularly among light alcohol drinkers, never-smokers, and Asian populations, in which some high-risk polymorphisms in alcohol metabolizing genes are more prevalent. To address these issues, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis using 40 case-control and 13 cohort studies that reported on the risk associated with alcohol drinking for at least three levels of consumption. In studies adjusted for age, sex, and tobacco smoking, the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the association between light alcohol drinking (? 12.5 g/d) and risk of ESCC was 1.38 (1.14-1.67). The association was slightly stronger in Asian countries than in other populations. The adjusted RRs (95% CIs) were 2.62 (2.07-3.31) for moderate drinking (>12.5-<50 g/d) and 5.54 (3.92-7.28) for high alcohol intake (?50 g/d); the RRs were slightly higher in non-Asian populations. In prospective studies, the RR (95% CI) was 1.35 (0.92-1.98) for light, 2.15 (1.55-2.98) for moderate, and 3.35 (2.06-5.46) for high alcohol intakes; light drinking showed an association with ESCC in Asia (five studies) but not in other regions (three studies). Among never-smokers (nine studies), the RR (95% CI) was 0.74 (0.47-1.16) for light, 1.54 (1.09-2.17) for moderate, and 3.09 (1.75-5.46) for high intakes. This meta-analysis further corroborates the association of moderate and high alcohol intake with risk of ESCC and provides risk estimates based on multiple prospective studies. Light alcohol intake appears to be associated to ESCC mainly in studies in Asia, which suggests a possible role of genetic susceptibility factors.
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Tobacco smoking and esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma: a meta-analysis.
Epidemiology
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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Smoking has been related to esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma, but the magnitude of the association is uncertain.
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Temporal changes of under-reporting of cigarette consumption in population-based studies.
Tob Control
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2010
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To monitor trends in under-reporting of smoking in Italy over the last two decades.
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Random-effects meta-regression models for studying nonlinear dose-response relationship, with an application to alcohol and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2010
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A fundamental challenge in meta-analyses of published epidemiological dose-response data is the estimate of the function describing how the risk of disease varies across different levels of a given exposure. Issues in trend estimate include within studies variability, between studies heterogeneity, and nonlinear trend components. We present a method, based on a two-step process, that addresses simultaneously these issues. First, two-term fractional polynomial models are fitted within each study included in the meta-analysis, taking into account the correlation between the reported estimates for different exposure levels. Second, the pooled dose-response relationship is estimated considering the between studies heterogeneity, using a bivariate random-effects model. This method is illustrated by a meta-analysis aimed to estimate the shape of the dose-response curve between alcohol consumption and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Overall, 14 case-control studies and one cohort study, including 3000 cases of esophageal SCC, were included. The meta-analysis provided evidence that ethanol intake was related to esophageal SCC risk in a nonlinear fashion. High levels of alcohol consumption resulted in a substantial risk of esophageal SCC as compared to nondrinkers. However, a statistically significant excess risk for moderate and intermediate doses of alcohol was also observed, with no evidence of a threshold effect.
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A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 2: results by subsites.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2010
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Oral and pharyngeal cancers are strongly related to alcohol drinking. We combined findings from all case-control and cohort studies published up to September 2009 and presented analyses by subsites, using a meta-analytic approach. Summary measures were obtained using random-effects models, and taking into account the correlation between estimates from the same study. We also performed a dose-risk analysis, using a random-effects meta-regression model. Compared to non- or occasional drinkers, the overall relative risks (RR) for light drinkers were 1.17 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.01-1.35) for oral (nine studies) and 1.23 (95% CI, 0.87-1.73) for pharyngeal (five studies) cancer, with no significant heterogeneity between the two sites (p=0.793). RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.64 (95% CI, 3.78-5.70) for oral (17 studies) and 6.62 (95% CI, 4.72-9.29) for pharyngeal (17 studies) cancer (p of heterogeneity between the two sites=0.075). The summary RRs for heavy drinkers were 4.11 (95% CI, 2.46-6.87) for tongue (five studies), 7.76 (95% CI, 4.77-12.62) for oropharyngeal (four studies), and 9.03 (95% CI, 4.46-18.27) for hypopharyngeal (four studies) cancer. In conclusion, the alcohol-related RRs are higher for pharyngeal than for oral cancer, particularly at higher doses, while the association with cancer of the tongue was similar to that for oral cancer.
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Alcohol drinking and laryngeal cancer: overall and dose-risk relation--a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2010
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Alcohol drinking is a known risk factor for laryngeal cancer. However, little information is available on the risk associated with light alcohol drinking. To address this issue, we conducted a meta-analysis using two methods: (i) random-effects models with reconstruction of alcohol consumption categories and calculation of risk estimates associated with predefined consumption levels using Hamling method and (ii) random-effects meta-regression models. The PubMed database was searched for all case-control or cohort studies published in the English language on the association between alcohol consumption and risk of laryngeal cancer. Forty studies (38 case-control, 2 cohort) reporting on at least three levels of consumption were included. Overall, alcohol drinking versus non-drinking was associated with an approximately 2-fold increase in risk of laryngeal cancer (RR=1.90; 95% CI: 1.59-2.28). While light alcohol drinking (?1 drink/day) did not show any significant association with risk of laryngeal cancer (12 studies. RR=0.88; 95% CI: 0.71-1.08), moderate drinking (>1 to <4drinks/day) was associated with a 1.5-fold increase in risk (35 studies. RR=1.47; 95% CI: 1.25-1.72) and heavy drinking (?4drinks/day) was associated with a 2.5-fold increased risk (33 studies. RR=2.62; 95% CI: 2.13-3.23). Subgroup analyses for studies that adjusted for main potential confounding factors (age, sex, and tobacco use) and several further subgroup analyses showed similar results, which suggest the robustness of the results.
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Alcohol and endometrial cancer risk: a case-control study and a meta-analysis.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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To evaluate the association between alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk, we analyzed data from a hospital-based case-control study, conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2006, on 454 endometrial cancer cases and 908 controls, and performed a meta-analysis updated to October 2009. Compared to never alcohol drinkers, the odds ratio was 1.03 (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.76-1.41) for < or = 7, 1.27 (95% CI 0.86-1.87) for 8-14, and 1.19 (95% CI 0.80-1.77) for > or = 15 drinks/week, with no trend in risk. No association emerged for wine, beer, and spirit consumption analyzed separately. The meta-analysis included 20 case-control and seven cohort studies, for a total of 13,120 cases. Compared to non/low drinkers, the pooled relative risks for drinkers were 0.90 (95% CI 0.80-1.01) for case-control studies, 1.01 (95% CI 0.90-1.14) for cohort studies, and 0.95 (95% CI 0.88-1.03) overall, with no heterogeneity between study design (p = 0.156). The overall estimate for heavy versus non/low drinkers was 1.12 (95% CI 0.87-1.45). The results were consistent according to selected study characteristics, including geographic area, definition of alcohol drinkers, and type of controls in case-control studies. Our findings provide evidence that alcohol drinking is not associated with endometrial cancer risk, although a weak positive association for very high drinkers cannot be excluded.
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A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and oral and pharyngeal cancers. Part 1: overall results and dose-risk relation.
Oral Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2010
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Alcohol consumption, together with tobacco, is the best recognised risk factor for oral and pharyngeal cancers (OPC), but several important aspects of this association need to be further explored. In order to provide up to date and more precise quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and OPC risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of available data. We performed a PubMed search of articles published up to September 2009, and we identified 43 case-control and two cohort studies presenting results for at least three categories of alcohol drinking, including a total of 17,085 OPC cases. We derived meta-analytic summary estimates using random-effects models, and taking into account correlation between estimates. We also performed a dose-risk analysis using non-linear random-effects meta-regression models. The pooled relative risk (RR) was 1.21 (95% confidence interval, CI, 1.10-1.33) for or=4 drinks per day). The dose-risk analysis resulted in RR of 1.29 for 10g ethanol/day, 3.24 for 50g ethanol/day, 8.61 for 100g ethanol/day, and 13.02 for 125g ethanol/day. This meta-analysis provides more precise evidence of a gross excess of OPC risk for heavy alcohol drinkers. It also indicates an increased risk for moderate doses, i.e.,
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Tobacco sales to minors in Italy.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2009
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One of the strategies to control tobacco is to limit purchase of cigarettes to minors. To understand the attitudes of Italian adults towards regulations to prevent minors from purchasing tobacco products, we added specific questions to the annual survey on smoking in Italy.
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Long-term particulate matter exposure and mortality: a review of European epidemiological studies.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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Several studies considered the relation between long-term exposure to particulate matter (PM) and total mortality, as well as mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory diseases. Our aim was to provide a comprehensive review of European epidemiological studies on the issue.
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Coffee, black tea and risk of gastric cancer.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To provide information about the association of coffee, black tea with gastric cancer risk.
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Socio-demographic variation in smoking habits: Italy, 2008.
Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To provide updated information on smoking prevalence in Italy, with a focus on demographic and socio-economic characteristics.
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Coffee, decaffeinated coffee, tea intake, and risk of renal cell cancer.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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The relation between coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea intake and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk was analyzed in a case-control study conducted in Italy between 1992 and 2004. Cases were 767 subjects with incident histologically confirmed RCC and controls were 1,534 patients in hospital for acute non neoplastic conditions. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RCC were computed by multiple logistic regression models, conditioned on study center, sex, and age. Coffee intake (mostly espresso and mocha) was not associated with RCC risk, with an OR of 1.02 (95% CI 0.73-1.43) in drinkers of > or = 4 cups/day compared with drinkers of < 1 cup/day. The corresponding ORs were 1.34 (95% CI 0.87-2.07) in men and 0.67 (95% CI 0.38-1.18) in women, 1.91 (95% CI 0.85-4.31) in current smokers and 0.74 (95% CI 0.41-1.31) in never smokers, with no trend in risk with dose. No relation was observed with decaffeinated coffee (OR = 1.38, 95% CI 0.94-2.03 for drinkers compared with nondrinkers) and tea intake (OR = 0.78, 95% CI 0.59-1.05 for drinkers of > or = 1 cup/day compared with nondrinkers). No significant heterogeneity was found for coffee intake across strata of age, education, body mass index, and consumption of sugar. This study, based on a large dataset, provides further evidence that coffee, decaffeinated coffee, and tea consumption are not related to RCC risk.
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Systemic sclerosis (scleroderma) and cancer risk: systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
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A higher incidence of cancer in scleroderma patients compared with the general population has been suggested by several observational studies, reporting, however, different estimates. Therefore, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to definitely assess this association.
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A meta-analysis on alcohol drinking and the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma.
Eur. J. Cancer Prev.
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The role of alcohol intake in the risk of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is still largely unclear. To summarize the evidence on the issue, we carried out a meta-analysis of the available studies. We identified eight case-control and two cohort studies, including a total of 1488 cases of HL. We derived meta-analytic estimates using random-effects models, taking into account the correlation between estimates, and carried out a dose-risk analysis using nonlinear random-effects metaregression models. Compared with nondrinkers, the relative risk for alcohol consumers was 0.70 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.60-0.81] overall, 0.66 (95% CI, 0.56-0.78) among case-control, and 0.92 (95% CI, 0.63-1.33) among cohort studies. Compared with nondrinkers, the pooled relative risks were 0.71 (95% CI, 0.57-0.89) for light (i.e. ?1 drink/day) and 0.73 (95% CI, 0.60-0.87) for moderate-to-heavy (i.e. >1 drink/day) alcohol drinking. This meta-analysis suggests a favourable effect of alcohol on HL, in the absence, however, of a dose-risk relationship. The inverse association was restricted to--or greater in--case-control as compared with cohort studies. This indicates caution in the interpretation of results.
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Alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk. a systematic review and meta-analysis.
Gynecol. Oncol.
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In order to provide an updated quantification of the association between alcohol drinking and epithelial ovarian cancer risk, we conducted a meta-analysis of published observational studies.
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The Role of the Pulmonologist in Rapid On-Site Cytological Evaluation of Transbronchial Needle Aspiration: A Prospective Study.
Chest
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Rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) of cytological specimens is a useful ancillary technique in needle aspiration procedures of pulmonary/mediastinal lesions. ROSE is not a widespread technique, however, because of lack of time and resources. Our aim was to verify whether, in comparison with a board-certified cytopathologist, a pulmonologist could evaluate the adequacy of transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) specimens on-site to diagnose hilar/mediastinal adenopathies/masses after receiving training in cytopathology. Our secondary aim was to assess and compare the accuracy of ROSE as performed by both physicians.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.