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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Genome Sequence of Vibrio cholerae Strain O1 Ogawa El Tor, Isolated in Mexico, 2013.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
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We present the draft genome sequence of Vibrio cholerae InDRE 3140 recovered in 2013 during a cholera outbreak in Mexico. The genome showed the Vibrio 7th pandemic islands VSP1 and VSP2, the pathogenic islands VPI-1 and VPI-2, the integrative and conjugative element SXT/R391 (ICE-SXT), and both prophages CTX? and RS1?.
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A Dominant Mutation in Hexokinase 1 (HK1) Causes Retinitis Pigmentosa.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2014
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To identify the cause of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) in UTAD003, a large, six-generation Louisiana family with autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa (adRP).
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A strong interferon response correlates with a milder dengue clinical condition.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
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Type 1 interferon (IFN?/?) has a significant role in establishing protection against virus infections. It has been well documented by in vitro studies that dengue virus (DENV) activates a robust IFN?/? response. However, DENV also induces a down-regulation of the JAK/STAT pathway, inhibiting the induction of interferon regulated genes. As a consequence, the role played by the IFN type 1 response in the protection of dengue patients is not fully understood.
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Molecular epidemiology of influenza A/H3N2 viruses circulating in Mexico from 2003 to 2012.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this work, nineteen influenza A/H3N2 viruses isolated in Mexico between 2003 and 2012 were studied. Our findings show that different human A/H3N2 viral lineages co-circulate within a same season and can also persist locally in between different influenza seasons, increasing the chance for genetic reassortment events. A novel minor cluster was also identified, named here as Korea, that circulated worldwide during 2003. Frequently, phylogenetic characterization did not correlate with the determined antigenic identity, supporting the need for the use of molecular evolutionary tools additionally to antigenic data for the surveillance and characterization of viral diversity during each flu season. This work represents the first long-term molecular epidemiology study of influenza A/H3N2 viruses in Mexico based on the complete genomic sequences and contributes to the monitoring of evolutionary trends of A/H3N2 influenza viruses within North and Central America.
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PhyloFlu, a DNA microarray to determine the phylogenetic origin of influenza A gene segments and the genomic fingerprint of viral strains.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
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Recent evidence suggests that most influenza A gene segments can contribute to the pathogenicity of the virus. In this regard the HA subtype of the circulating strains is closely surveyed, but the reassortment of internal gene segments as a potential source of an increased pathogenicity is usually not monitored. In this work, an oligonucleotide DNA microarray (PhyloFlu) designed to determine the phylogenetic origin of the eight segments of the influenza genome was constructed and validated. Clades were defined for each segment and also for the 16 HA and 9 NA subtypes. Viral genetic material was amplified by RT-PCR with primers specific to the conserved 5 - and 3 -ends of the influenza A virus genes, followed by PCR amplification with random primers and Cy3-labeling. The microarray unambiguously determined in 74% of the samples (28/38) the clades for all eight influenza genes. The microarray was validated with reference strains from different animal origin, as well as from human, swine and avian viruses from field or clinical samples. In most cases, the phylogenetic clade of each segment defined its animal host of origin. The genomic fingerprint deduced by the combined information of the individual clades allowed the determination of the time and place strains with the same genomic pattern were previously reported. PhyloFlu is useful to characterize and survey the genetic diversity and variation of animal viruses circulating in different environmental niches, as well as for a more detailed surveillance and follow-up of reassortant events that could potentially modify virus pathogenicity.
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Highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) virus in poultry workers, Mexico, 2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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We identified 2 poultry workers with conjunctivitis caused by highly pathogenic avian influenza A(H7N3) viruses in Jalisco, Mexico. Genomic and antigenic analyses of 1 isolate indicated relatedness to poultry and wild bird subtype H7N3 viruses from North America. This isolate had a multibasic cleavage site that might have been derived from recombination with host rRNA.
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Comprehensive molecular diagnosis of 179 Leber congenital amaurosis and juvenile retinitis pigmentosa patients by targeted next generation sequencing.
J. Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are inherited retinal diseases that cause early onset severe visual impairment. An accurate molecular diagnosis can refine the clinical diagnosis and allow gene specific treatments.
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Next generation sequencing-based molecular diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa: identification of a novel genotype-phenotype correlation and clinical refinements.
Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a devastating form of retinal degeneration, with significant social and professional consequences. Molecular genetic information is invaluable for an accurate clinical diagnosis of RP due to its high genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Using a gene capture panel that covers 163 of the currently known retinal disease genes, including 48 RP genes, we performed a comprehensive molecular screening in a collection of 123 RP unsettled probands from a wide variety of ethnic backgrounds, including 113 unrelated simplex and 10 autosomal recessive RP (arRP) cases. As a result, 61 mutations were identified in 45 probands, including 38 novel pathogenic alleles. Interestingly, we observed that phenotype and genotype were not in full agreement in 21 probands. Among them, eight probands were clinically reassessed, resulting in refinement of clinical diagnoses for six of these patients. Finally, recessive mutations in CLN3 were identified in five retinal degeneration patients, including four RP probands and one cone-rod dystrophy patient, suggesting that CLN3 is a novel non-syndromic retinal disease gene. Collectively, our results underscore that, due to the high molecular and clinical heterogeneity of RP, comprehensive screening of all retinal disease genes is effective in identifying novel pathogenic mutations and provides an opportunity to discover new genotype-phenotype correlations. Information gained from this genetic screening will directly aid in patient diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, as well as allowing appropriate family planning and counseling.
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Next-generation sequencing-based molecular diagnosis of a Chinese patient cohort with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is a highly heterogeneous genetic disease; therefore, an accurate molecular diagnosis is essential for appropriate disease treatment and family planning. The prevalence of RP in China had been reported at 1 in 3800, resulting in an estimated total of 340,000 Chinese RP patients. However, genetic studies of Chinese RP patients have been very limited. To date, no comprehensive molecular diagnosis has been done for Chinese RP patients. With the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS), comprehensive molecular diagnosis of RP is now within reach. The purpose of this study was to perform the first NGS-based comprehensive molecular diagnosis for Chinese RP patients.
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Viral load in patients infected with dengue is modulated by the presence of anti-dengue IgM antibodies.
J. Clin. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The measurement and detection of viremia and antigenemia in sera have been used as a marker of risk for dengue disease severity and diagnosis. However, evidence exists suggesting that levels of viremia and antigenemia are affected by the presence of specific antibodies.
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Screening of a large cohort of leber congenital amaurosis and retinitis pigmentosa patients identifies novel LCA5 mutations and new genotype-phenotype correlations.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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This study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of sequence variants in LCA5 in patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), early-onset retinal dystrophy (EORD), and autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (arRP); to delineate the ocular phenotypes; and to provide an overview of all published LCA5 variants in an online database. Patients underwent standard ophthalmic evaluations after providing informed consent. In selected patients, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and fundus autofluorescence imaging were possible. DNA samples from 797 unrelated patients with LCA and 211 with the various types of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) were screened by Sanger sequence analysis of all LCA5 exons and intron/exon junctions. Some LCA patients were prescreened by APEX technology or selected based on homozygosity mapping. In silico analyses were performed to assess the pathogenicity of the variants. Segregation analysis was performed where possible. Published and novel LCA5 variants were collected, amended for their correct nomenclature, and listed in a Leiden Open Variation Database (LOVD). Sequence analysis identified 18 new probands with 19 different LCA5 variants. Seventeen of the 19 LCA5 variants were novel. Except for two missense variants and one splice site variant, all variants were protein-truncating mutations. Most patients expressed a severe phenotype, typical of LCA. However, some LCA subjects had better vision and intact inner segment/outer segment (IS/OS) junctions on OCT imaging. In two families with LCA5 variants, the phenotype was more compatible with EORD with affected individuals displaying preserved islands of retinal pigment epithelium. One of the families with a milder phenotype harbored a homozygous splice site mutation; a second family was found to have a combination of a stop mutation and a missense mutation. This is the largest LCA5 study to date. We sequenced 1,008 patients (797 with LCA, 211 with arRP) and identified 18 probands with LCA5 mutations. Mutations in LCA5 are a rare cause of childhood retinal dystrophy accounting for ?2% of disease in this cohort, and the majority of LCA5 mutations are likely null. The LCA5 protein truncating mutations are predominantly associated with LCA. However, in two families with the milder EORD, the LCA5 gene analysis revealed a homozygous splice site mutation in one and a stop mutation in combination with a missense mutation in a second family, suggesting that this milder phenotype is due to residual function of lebercilin and expanding the currently known phenotypic spectrum to include the milder early onset RP. Some patients have remaining foveal cone structures (intact IS/OS junctions on OCT imaging) and remaining visual acuities, which may bode well for upcoming treatment trials.
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Pathogenesis, transmissibility, and ocular tropism of a highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H7N3) virus associated with human conjunctivitis.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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H7 subtype influenza A viruses, responsible for numerous outbreaks in land-based poultry in Europe and the Americas, have caused over 100 cases of confirmed or presumed human infection over the last decade. The emergence of a highly pathogenic avian influenza H7N3 virus in poultry throughout the state of Jalisco, Mexico, resulting in two cases of human infection, prompted us to examine the virulence of this virus (A/Mexico/InDRE7218/2012 [MX/7218]) and related avian H7 subtype viruses in mouse and ferret models. Several high- and low-pathogenicity H7N3 and H7N9 viruses replicated efficiently in the respiratory tract of mice without prior adaptation following intranasal inoculation, but only MX/7218 virus caused lethal disease in this species. H7N3 and H7N9 viruses were also detected in the mouse eye following ocular inoculation. Virus from both H7N3 and H7N9 subtypes replicated efficiently in the upper and lower respiratory tracts of ferrets; however, only MX/7218 virus infection caused clinical signs and symptoms and was capable of transmission to naive ferrets in a direct-contact model. Similar to other highly pathogenic H7 viruses, MX/7218 replicated to high titers in human bronchial epithelial cells, yet it downregulated numerous genes related to NF-?B-mediated signaling transduction. These findings indicate that the recently isolated North American lineage H7 subtype virus associated with human conjunctivitis is capable of causing severe disease in mice and spreading to naive-contact ferrets, while concurrently retaining the ability to replicate within ocular tissue and allowing the eye to serve as a portal of entry.
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A (H1N1) pdm09 HA D222 variants associated with severity and mortality in patients during a second wave in Mexico.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Pandemic type A (H1N1) influenza arose in early 2009, probably in Mexico and the United States, and reappeared in North America in September for seven more months. An amino acid substitution in the hemagglutinin (HA), D222G, has been reported in a significant proportion of patients with a severe and fatal outcome. We studied the prevalence of HA222 substitutions in patients in Mexico during the second wave and its association with clinical outcome and pathogenicity in a mouse model.
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Determination of viremia and concentration of circulating nonstructural protein 1 in patients infected with dengue virus in Mexico.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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Higher levels of viremia and circulating nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) have been associated with dengue disease severity. In this study, viremia and circulating NS1 levels were determined in 225 serum samples collected from patients in Mexico infected with dengue virus serotypes 1 and 2 (DENV-1 and DENV-2). Patients with dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) who were infected with DENV-1 showed higher levels of circulating NS1 than patients with dengue fever (DF) (P = 0.0175). Moreover, NS1 levels were higher in patients with primary infections with DENV-1 than in patient infected with DENV-2 (P < 0.0001) and in patients with primary infections with DENV-2 than in patients with secondary infections with DENV-2 (P = 0.0051). Unexpectedly, viremia levels were higher in patients with DF than in those with DHF infected with either DENV-1 or DENV-2 (P = 0.0019 and P = 0.001, respectively) and in patients with primary infections than those with secondary DENV-2 infections (P < 0.0001). Results indicate that levels of circulating NS1 vary according to the infecting serotype, immunologic status (primary or secondary infection), and dengue disease severity.
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Contribution of growth differentiation factor 6-dependent cell survival to early-onset retinal dystrophies.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Retinal dystrophies are predominantly caused by mutations affecting the visual phototransduction system and cilia, with few genes identified that function to maintain photoreceptor survival. We reasoned that growth factors involved with early embryonic retinal development would represent excellent candidates for such diseases. Here we show that mutations in the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) ligand Growth Differentiation Factor 6, which specifies the dorso-ventral retinal axis, contribute to Leber congenital amaurosis. Furthermore, deficiency of gdf6 results in photoreceptor degeneration, so demonstrating a connection between Gdf6 signaling and photoreceptor survival. In addition, in both murine and zebrafish mutant models, we observe retinal apoptosis, a characteristic feature of human retinal dystrophies. Treatment of gdf6-deficient zebrafish embryos with a novel aminopropyl carbazole, P7C3, rescued the retinal apoptosis without evidence of toxicity. These findings implicate for the first time perturbed TGF-? signaling in the genesis of retinal dystrophies, support the study of related morphogenetic genes for comparable roles in retinal disease and may offer additional therapeutic opportunities for genetically heterogeneous disorders presently only treatable with gene therapy.
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Union makes strength: a worldwide collaborative genetic and clinical study to provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and delineate the associated phenotype.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is the earliest and most severe retinal degeneration (RD), and the most common cause of incurable blindness diagnosed in children. It is occasionally the presenting symptom of multisystemic ciliopathies which diagnosis will require a specific care of patients. Nineteen LCA genes are currently identified and three of them account for both non-syndromic and syndromic forms of the disease. RD3 (LCA12) was implicated as a LCA gene based on the identification of homozygous truncating mutations in two LCA families despite the screening of large cohorts of patients. Here we provide a comprehensive survey of RD3 mutations and of their clinical expression through the screening of a cohort of 852 patients originating worldwide affected with LCA or early-onset and severe RD. We identified three RD3 mutations in seven unrelated consanguineous LCA families - i.e., a 2 bp deletion and two nonsense mutations - predicted to cause complete loss of function. Five families originating from the Southern Shores of the Mediterranean segregated a similar mutation (c.112C>T, p.R38*) suggesting that this change may have resulted from an ancient founder effect. Considering the low frequency of RD3 carriers, the recurrence risk for LCA in non-consanguineous unions is negligible for both heterozygote and homozygote RD3 individuals. The LCA12 phenotype in our patients is highly similar to those of patients with mutant photoreceptor-specific guanylate cyclase (GUCY2D/LCA1). This observation is consistent with the report of the role of RD3 in trafficking of GUCYs and gives further support to a common mechanism of photoreceptor degeneration in LCA12 and LCA1, i.e., inability to increase cytoplasmic cGMP concentration in outer segments and thus to recover the dark-state. Similar to LCA1, LCA12 patients have no extraocular symptoms despite complete inactivation of both RD3 alleles, supporting the view that extraocular investigations in LCA infants with RD3 mutations should be avoided.
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Phenotypic characteristics of isolates of Aspergillus section Fumigati from different geographic origins and their relationships with genotypic characteristics.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Epidemiological studies worldwide have shown that A. fumigatus exhibits important phenotypic and genotypic diversity, and these findings have been of great importance in improving the diagnosis and treatment of diseases caused by this fungus. However, few studies have been carried out related to the epidemiology of this fungus in Latin America. This studys aim is to report on the epidemiology of the fungus by analyzing the phenotypic variability of Aspergillus section Fumigati isolates from different Latin American countries and the relationship between this variability, the geographical origin and genotypic characteristics.
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Oseltamivir-resistant pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus, Mexico.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2011
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During May 2009-April 2010, we analyzed 692 samples of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus from patients in Mexico. We detected the H275Y substitution of the neuraminidase gene in a specimen from an infant with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 who was treated with oseltamivir. This virus was susceptible to zanamivir and resistant to adamantanes and oseltamivir.
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Tio2-dopamine complex implanted unilaterally in the caudate nucleus improves motor activity and behavior function of rats with induced hemiparkinsonism.
Proc. West. Pharmacol. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is characterized by malfunction of dopaminergic systems, and the current symptomatic treatment is to replace lost dopamine. For investigating mechanisms of pathogenesis and alternative treatments to compensate lack of dopamine (DA) activity in PD, the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rat model of PD has been useful, these animals display apomorphine-induced contralateral rotational behavior, when they are examined after lesion. The purpose of this study was to assess Titania-dopamine (TiO2-DA) complexes implanted on the caudate nucleus for diminishing motor behavior alterations of the 6-OHDA rat model. Rats with 6-OHDA unilateral lesions received TiO2 alone or TiO2-DA implants, and were tested for open field (OF) gross motor crossing and rearing behaviors, and apomorphine-induced rotation (G) behavior. TiO2 complex have no effects on rearing OF and G behaviors, and a significant reducing effect on crossing motor behavior of normal rats compared to control non-treated rats throughout 56 days of observation. Interestingly, TiO2-DA treatment significant recovered motor crossing and rearing behaviors in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, and diminished the G behaviors during 56 days of examination. Additionally, in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rats TiO2 treatment had a moderate recovering effect only on crossing behavior compared to lesioned non treated rats. Our results suggest that continuous release of dopamine in the caudate nucleus from TiO2-DA complex is capable of reversing gross motor deficits observed in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of PD. Thistype of delivery system of DA represents a promising therapy for PD in humans.
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IQCB1 mutations in patients with leber congenital amaurosis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is genetically heterogeneous, with 15 genes identified thus far, accounting for ?70% of LCA patients. The aim of the present study was to identify new genetic causes of LCA.
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TOPORS, implicated in retinal degeneration, is a cilia-centrosomal protein.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2010
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We recently reported that mutations in the widely expressed nuclear protein TOPORS (topoisomerase I-binding arginine/serine rich) are associated with autosomal dominant retinal degeneration. However, the precise localization and a functional role of TOPORS in the retina remain unknown. Here, we demonstrate that TOPORS is a novel component of the photoreceptor sensory cilium, which is a modified primary cilium involved with polarized trafficking of proteins. In photoreceptors, TOPORS localizes primarily to the basal bodies of connecting cilium and in the centrosomes of cultured cells. Morpholino-mediated silencing of topors in zebrafish embryos demonstrates in another species a comparable retinal problem as seen in humans, resulting in defective retinal development and failure to form outer segments. These defects can be rescued by mRNA encoding human TOPORS. Taken together, our data suggest that TOPORS may play a key role in regulating primary cilia-dependent photoreceptor development and function. Additionally, it is well known that mutations in other ciliary proteins cause retinal degeneration, which may explain why mutations in TOPORS result in the same phenotype.
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Loss of lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase 1 leads to photoreceptor degeneration in rd11 mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Retinal degenerative diseases, such as retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis, are a leading cause of untreatable blindness with substantive impact on the quality of life of affected individuals and their families. Mouse mutants with retinal dystrophies have provided a valuable resource to discover human disease genes and helped uncover pathways critical for photoreceptor function. Here we show that the rd11 mouse mutant and its allelic strain, B6-JR2845, exhibit rapid photoreceptor dysfunction, followed by degeneration of both rods and cones. Using linkage analysis, we mapped the rd11 locus to mouse chromosome 13. We then identified a one-nucleotide insertion (c.420-421insG) in exon 3 of the Lpcat1 gene. Subsequent screening of this gene in the B6-JR2845 strain revealed a seven-nucleotide deletion (c.14-20delGCCGCGG) in exon 1. Both sequence changes are predicted to result in a frame-shift, leading to premature truncation of the lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase-1 (LPCAT1) protein. LPCAT1 (also called AYTL2) is a phospholipid biosynthesis/remodeling enzyme that facilitates the conversion of palmitoyl-lysophosphatidylcholine to dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC). The analysis of retinal lipids from rd11 and B6-JR2845 mice showed substantially reduced DPPC levels compared with C57BL/6J control mice, suggesting a causal link to photoreceptor dysfunction. A follow-up screening of LPCAT1 in retinitis pigmentosa and Leber congenital amaurosis patients did not reveal any obvious disease-causing mutations. Previously, LPCAT1 has been suggested to be critical for the production of lung surfactant phospholipids and biosynthesis of platelet-activating factor in noninflammatory remodeling pathway. Our studies add another dimension to an essential role for LPCAT1 in retinal photoreceptor homeostasis.
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Candidate exome capture identifies mutation of SDCCAG8 as the cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-19-2010
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Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are recessive disorders that feature dysplasia or degeneration occurring preferentially in the kidney, retina and cerebellum. Here we combined homozygosity mapping with candidate gene analysis by performing ciliopathy candidate exome capture followed by massively parallel sequencing. We identified 12 different truncating mutations of SDCCAG8 (serologically defined colon cancer antigen 8, also known as CCCAP) in 10 families affected by NPHP-RC. We show that SDCCAG8 is localized at both centrioles and interacts directly with OFD1 (oral-facial-digital syndrome 1), which is associated with NPHP-RC. Depletion of sdccag8 causes kidney cysts and a body axis defect in zebrafish and induces cell polarity defects in three-dimensional renal cell cultures. This work identifies loss of SDCCAG8 function as a cause of a retinal-renal ciliopathy and validates exome capture analysis for broadly heterogeneous single-gene disorders.
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PDZD7 is a modifier of retinal disease and a contributor to digenic Usher syndrome.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2010
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Usher syndrome is a genetically heterogeneous recessive disease characterized by hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa (RP). It frequently presents with unexplained, often intrafamilial, variability of the visual phenotype. Although 9 genes have been linked with Usher syndrome, many patients do not have mutations in any of these genes, suggesting that there are still unidentified genes involved in the syndrome. Here, we have determined that mutations in PDZ domain-containing 7 (PDZD7), which encodes a homolog of proteins mutated in Usher syndrome subtype 1C (USH1C) and USH2D, contribute to Usher syndrome. Mutations in PDZD7 were identified only in patients with mutations in other known Usher genes. In a set of sisters, each with a homozygous mutation in USH2A, a frame-shift mutation in PDZD7 was present in the sister with more severe RP and earlier disease onset. Further, heterozygous PDZD7 mutations were present in patients with truncating mutations in USH2A, G protein-coupled receptor 98 (GPR98; also known as USH2C), and an unidentified locus. We validated the human genotypes using zebrafish, and our findings were consistent with digenic inheritance of PDZD7 and GPR98, and with PDZD7 as a retinal disease modifier in patients with USH2A. Pdzd7 knockdown produced an Usher-like phenotype in zebrafish, exacerbated retinal cell death in combination with ush2a or gpr98, and reduced Gpr98 localization in the region of the photoreceptor connecting cilium. Our data challenge the view of Usher syndrome as a traditional Mendelian disorder and support the reclassification of Usher syndrome as an oligogenic disease.
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Evolution of dengue virus in Mexico is characterized by frequent lineage replacement.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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Both dengue fever and its more serious clinical manifestation, dengue hemorrhagic fever, represent major public health concerns in the Americas. To understand the patterns and dynamics of virus transmission in Mexico, a country characterized by a marked increase in dengue incidence in recent years, we undertook a molecular evolutionary analysis of the largest sample of Mexican strains of dengue virus compiled to date. Our E gene data set comprises sequences sampled over a period of 27 years and representing all of the Mexican states that are endemic for dengue. Our phylogenetic analysis reveals that, for each of the four dengue viruses (DENV-1 to DENV-4), there have been multiple introductions of viral lineages in Mexico, with viruses similar to those observed throughout the Americas, but there has been strikingly little co-circulation. Rather, dengue virus evolution in Mexico is typified by frequent lineage replacement, such that only a single viral lineage dominates in a specific serotype at a specific time point. Most lineage replacement events involve members of the same viral genotype, although a replacement event involving different genotypes was observed with DENV-2, and viral lineages that are new to Mexico are described for DENV-1, DENV-3 and DENV-4.
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AHI1 is required for photoreceptor outer segment development and is a modifier for retinal degeneration in nephronophthisis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2010
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Degeneration of photoreceptors is a common feature of ciliopathies, owing to the importance of the specialized ciliary structure of these cells. Mutations in AHI1, which encodes a cilium-localized protein, have been shown to cause a form of Joubert syndrome that is highly penetrant for retinal degeneration. We show that Ahi1-null mice fail to form retinal outer segments and have abnormal distribution of opsin throughout their photoreceptors. Apoptotic cell death of photoreceptors occurs rapidly between 2 and 4 weeks of age in these mice and is significantly (P = 0.00175 and 0.00613) delayed by a reduced dosage of opsin. This phenotype also shows dosage-sensitive genetic interactions with Nphp1, another ciliopathy-related gene. Although it is not a primary cause of retinal blindness in humans, we show that an allele of AHI1 is associated with a more than sevenfold increase in relative risk of retinal degeneration within a cohort of individuals with the hereditary kidney disease nephronophthisis. Our data support context-specific roles for AHI1 as a contributor to retinopathy and show that AHI1 may explain a proportion of the variability in retinal phenotypes observed in nephronophthisis.
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[Post-traumatic cholesteatoma with posterior fossa invasion].
Acta Otorrinolaringol Esp
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
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Post-traumatic cholesteatomas are an extremely rare variety of secondary cholesteatomas. We present a case of a 51-year-old male with post-traumatic cholesteatoma with posterior fossa invasion of 30-year evolution that initially manifested as acute otomastoiditis and headache. Its physiopathology and clinical manifestations are discussed.
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Differential macular morphology in patients with RPE65-, CEP290-, GUCY2D-, and AIPL1-related Leber congenital amaurosis.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2009
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To evaluate genotypic and macular morphologic correlations in patients with RPE65-, CEP290-, GUCY2D-, or AIPL1-related Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT).
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The safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Mexico.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2009
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The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza is substantial in children with asthma. There are no available data on the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccine in children with asthma in Latin America. Furthermore, it is unclear if influenza vaccination may cause asthma exacerbations.
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Antigenic and genetic characteristics of swine-origin 2009 A(H1N1) influenza viruses circulating in humans.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Since its identification in April 2009, an A(H1N1) virus containing a unique combination of gene segments from both North American and Eurasian swine lineages has continued to circulate in humans. The lack of similarity between the 2009 A(H1N1) virus and its nearest relatives indicates that its gene segments have been circulating undetected for an extended period. Its low genetic diversity suggests that the introduction into humans was a single event or multiple events of similar viruses. Molecular markers predictive of adaptation to humans are not currently present in 2009 A(H1N1) viruses, suggesting that previously unrecognized molecular determinants could be responsible for the transmission among humans. Antigenically the viruses are homogeneous and similar to North American swine A(H1N1) viruses but distinct from seasonal human A(H1N1).
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Outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis caused by adenovirus in medical residents.
Mol. Vis.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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The present work documents an outbreak of epidemic keratoconjunctivitis among ophthalmology residents, its influence in the presentation of the community cases, the use of molecular techniques for its diagnosis, and the implementation of successful control measures for its containment.
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An USH2A founder mutation is the major cause of Usher syndrome type 2 in Canadians of French origin and confirms common roots of Quebecois and Acadians.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Congenital hearing loss affects approximately one child in 1000. About 10% of the deaf population have Usher syndrome (USH). In USH, hearing loss is complicated by retinal degeneration with onset in the first (USH1) or second (USH2) decade. In most populations, diagnostic testing is hampered by a multitude of mutations in nine genes. We have recently shown that in French Canadians from Quebec, USH1 largely results from a single USH1C founder mutation, c.216G>A (Acadian allele). The genetic basis of USH2 in Canadians of French descent, however, has remained elusive. Here, we have investigated nine USH2 families from Quebec and New Brunswick (the former Acadia) by haplotype analyses of the USH2A locus and sequencing of the three known USH2 genes. Seven USH2A mutations were identified in eight patients. One of them, c.4338_4339delCT, accounts for 10 out of 18 disease alleles (55.6%). This mutation has previously been reported in an Acadian USH2 family, and it was found in homozygous state in the three Acadians of our sample. As in the case of c.216G>A (USH1C), a common haplotype is associated with c.4338_4339delCT. With a limited number of molecular tests, it will now be possible in these populations to estimate whether children with congenital hearing impairment of different degrees will develop retinal disease - with important clinical and therapeutic implications. USH2 is the second example that reveals a significant genetic overlap between Quebecois and Acadians: in contrast to current understanding, other genetic disorders present in both populations are likely based on common founder mutations as well.
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Mutations in SPATA7 cause Leber congenital amaurosis and juvenile retinitis pigmentosa.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2009
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) and juvenile retinitis pigmentosa (RP) are the most common hereditary causes of visual impairment in infants and children. Using homozygosity mapping, we narrowed down the critical region of the LCA3 locus to 3.8 Mb between markers D14S1022 and D14S1005. By direct Sanger sequencing of all genes within this region, we found a homozygous nonsense mutation in the SPATA7 gene in Saudi Arabian family KKESH-060. Three other loss-of-function mutations were subsequently discovered in patients with LCA or juvenile RP from distinct populations. Furthermore, we determined that Spata7 is expressed in the mature mouse retina. Our findings reveal another human visual-disease gene that causes LCA and juvenile RP.
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A common allele in RPGRIP1L is a modifier of retinal degeneration in ciliopathies.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Despite rapid advances in the identification of genes involved in disease, the predictive power of the genotype remains limited, in part owing to poorly understood effects of second-site modifiers. Here we demonstrate that a polymorphic coding variant of RPGRIP1L (retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator-interacting protein-1 like), a ciliary gene mutated in Meckel-Gruber (MKS) and Joubert (JBTS) syndromes, is associated with the development of retinal degeneration in individuals with ciliopathies caused by mutations in other genes. As part of our resequencing efforts of the ciliary proteome, we identified several putative loss-of-function RPGRIP1L mutations, including one common variant, A229T. Multiple genetic lines of evidence showed this allele to be associated with photoreceptor loss in ciliopathies. Moreover, we show that RPGRIP1L interacts biochemically with RPGR, loss of which causes retinal degeneration, and that the Thr229-encoded protein significantly compromises this interaction. Our data represent an example of modification of a discrete phenotype of syndromic disease and highlight the importance of a multifaceted approach for the discovery of modifier alleles of intermediate frequency and effect.
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Exome capture reveals ZNF423 and CEP164 mutations, linking renal ciliopathies to DNA damage response signaling.
Cell
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Nephronophthisis-related ciliopathies (NPHP-RC) are degenerative recessive diseases that affect kidney, retina, and brain. Genetic defects in NPHP gene products that localize to cilia and centrosomes defined them as "ciliopathies." However, disease mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we identify by whole-exome resequencing, mutations of MRE11, ZNF423, and CEP164 as causing NPHP-RC. All three genes function within the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway. We demonstrate that, upon induced DNA damage, the NPHP-RC proteins ZNF423, CEP164, and NPHP10 colocalize to nuclear foci positive for TIP60, known to activate ATM at sites of DNA damage. We show that knockdown of CEP164 or ZNF423 causes sensitivity to DNA damaging agents and that cep164 knockdown in zebrafish results in dysregulated DDR and an NPHP-RC phenotype. Our findings link degenerative diseases of the kidney and retina, disorders of increasing prevalence, to mechanisms of DDR.
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Mutations in NMNAT1 cause Leber congenital amaurosis and identify a new disease pathway for retinal degeneration.
Nat. Genet.
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Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA) is a blinding retinal disease that presents within the first year after birth. Using exome sequencing, we identified mutations in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) synthase gene NMNAT1 encoding nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase 1 in eight families with LCA, including the family in which LCA was originally linked to the LCA9 locus. Notably, all individuals with NMNAT1 mutations also have macular colobomas, which are severe degenerative entities of the central retina (fovea) devoid of tissue and photoreceptors. Functional assays of the proteins encoded by the mutant alleles identified in our study showed that the mutations reduce the enzymatic activity of NMNAT1 in NAD biosynthesis and affect protein folding. Of note, recent characterization of the slow Wallerian degeneration (Wld(s)) mouse model, in which prolonged axonal survival after injury is observed, identified NMNAT1 as a neuroprotective protein when ectopically expressed. Our findings identify a new disease mechanism underlying LCA and provide the first link between endogenous NMNAT1 dysfunction and a human nervous system disorder.
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Combining Cep290 and Mkks ciliopathy alleles in mice rescues sensory defects and restores ciliogenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
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Cilia are highly specialized microtubule-based organelles that have pivotal roles in numerous biological processes, including transducing sensory signals. Defects in cilia biogenesis and transport cause pleiotropic human ciliopathies. Mutations in over 30 different genes can lead to cilia defects, and complex interactions exist among ciliopathy-associated proteins. Mutations of the centrosomal protein 290 kDa (CEP290) lead to distinct clinical manifestations, including Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA), a hereditary cause of blindness due to photoreceptor degeneration. Mice homozygous for a mutant Cep290 allele (Cep290rd16 mice) exhibit LCA-like early-onset retinal degeneration that is caused by an in-frame deletion in the CEP290 protein. Here, we show that the domain deleted in the protein encoded by the Cep290rd16 allele directly interacts with another ciliopathy protein, MKKS. MKKS mutations identified in patients with the ciliopathy Bardet-Biedl syndrome disrupted this interaction. In zebrafish embryos, combined subminimal knockdown of mkks and cep290 produced sensory defects in the eye and inner ear. Intriguingly, combinations of Cep290rd16 and Mkksko alleles in mice led to improved ciliogenesis and sensory functions compared with those of either mutant alone. We propose that altered association of CEP290 and MKKS affects the integrity of multiprotein complexes at the cilia transition zone and basal body. Amelioration of the sensory phenotypes caused by specific mutations in one protein by removal of an interacting domain/protein suggests a possible novel approach for treating human ciliopathies.
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Ocular and extra-ocular features of patients with Leber congenital amaurosis and mutations in CEP290.
Mol. Vis.
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This study investigated the centrosomal protein, 290-KD (CEP290) associated genotype and ocular and extra-ocular phenotype in 18 patients with Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA).
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GPR179 is required for depolarizing bipolar cell function and is mutated in autosomal-recessive complete congenital stationary night blindness.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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Complete congenital stationary night blindness (cCSNB) is a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of retinal disorders characterized by nonprogressive impairment of night vision, absence of the electroretinogram (ERG) b-wave, and variable degrees of involvement of other visual functions. We report here that mutations in GPR179, encoding an orphan G protein receptor, underlie a form of autosomal-recessive cCSNB. The Gpr179(nob5/nob5) mouse model was initially discovered by the absence of the ERG b-wave, a component that reflects depolarizing bipolar cell (DBC) function. We performed genetic mapping, followed by next-generation sequencing of the critical region and detected a large transposon-like DNA insertion in Gpr179. The involvement of GPR179 in DBC function was confirmed in zebrafish and humans. Functional knockdown of gpr179 in zebrafish led to a marked reduction in the amplitude of the ERG b-wave. Candidate gene analysis of GPR179 in DNA extracted from patients with cCSNB identified GPR179-inactivating mutations in two patients. We developed an antibody against mouse GPR179, which robustly labeled DBC dendritic terminals in wild-type mice. This labeling colocalized with the expression of GRM6 and was absent in Gpr179(nob5/nob5) mutant mice. Our results demonstrate that GPR179 plays a critical role in DBC signal transduction and expands our understanding of the mechanisms that mediate normal rod vision.
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Evaluation of a novel commercial rapid test for dengue diagnosis based on specific IgA detection.
Diagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
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The performance of the novel commercial test ASSURE® Dengue IgA Rapid test (MP Diagnostics) was evaluated using a panel of 172 sera collected from dengue patients and 47 sera from healthy blood donors. The overall specificity and sensitivity were 61.0% and 85.1%, respectively. However, the positivity rate for IgA went from 33.3% for sera collected the same day of fever onset to 81.2% for sera collected 5 days after fever onset. Infections with serotype 2 viruses were detected more efficiently than those with serotype 1 viruses, and no sera from infections with serotypes 3 and 4 were available. In addition, the kit was twice more efficient at detecting secondary infections than at detecting primary infections. Finally, the ASSURE® test showed good repeatability and reproducibility. The results of this study suggest that the ASSURE® Dengue IgA Rapid test may become a useful and easy-to-use test for early dengue diagnosis.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.