IL-18 is known to play a key role limiting Cryptosporidium parvum infection. In this study, we show that IL-18 depletion in SCID mice significantly exacerbates C. parvum infection, whereas, treatment with recombinant IL-18 (rIL-18), significantly decreases the parasite load, as compared to controls. Increases in serum IFN-? levels as well as the up-regulation of the antimicrobial peptides, cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide and beta defensin 3 (Defb3) were observed in the intestinal mucosa of mice treated with rIL-18. In addition, C. parvum infection significantly increased mRNA expression levels (> 50 fold) of the alpha defensins, Defa3 and 5, respectively. Interestingly, we also found a decrease in mRNA expression of IL-33 (a recently identified cytokine in the same family as IL-18) in the small intestinal tissue from mice treated with rIL-18. In comparison, the respective genes were induced by IL-18 depletion. Our findings suggest that IL-18 can mediate its protective effects via different routes such as IFN-? induction or by directly stimulating intestinal epithelial cells to increase antimicrobial activity.
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) regulates the toxic effects of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The AHR repressor (AHRR) is an AHR target gene and functions as a ligand-induced repressor of AHR; however, its mechanism of inhibition is controversial. Recently, we reported that TCDD-inducible poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (TiPARP; ARTD14) also acts as a repressor of AHR, representing a new player in the mechanism of AHR action. Here we compared the ability of AHRR- and TiPARP-mediated inhibition of AHR activity. TCDD increased AHRR mRNA levels and recruitment of AHRR to cytochrome P450 1A1 (CYP1A1) in MCF7 cells. Knockdown of TiPARP, but not AHRR, increased TCDD-induced CYP1A1 mRNA and AHR protein levels. Similarly, immortalized TiPARP(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and AHRR(-/-) MEFs exhibited enhanced AHR transactivation. However, unlike TiPARP(-/-) MEFs, AHRR(-/-) MEFs did not exhibit increased AHR protein levels. Overexpression of TiPARP in AHRR(-/-) MEFs or AHRR?8, the active isoform of AHRR, in TiPARP(-/-) MEFs reduced TCDD-induced CYP1A1 mRNA levels, suggesting that they independently repress AHR. GFP-AHRR?8 and GFP-TiPARP expressed as small diffuse nuclear foci in MCF7 and HuH7 cells. GFP-AHRR?8_?1-49, which lacks its putative nuclear localization signal, localized to both the nucleus and the cytoplasm, while the GFP-AHRR?8_?1-100 mutant localized predominantly in large cytoplasmic foci. Neither GFP-AHRR?8_?1-49 nor GFP-AHRR?8_?1-100 repressed AHR. Taken together, AHRR and TiPARP repress AHR transactivation by similar, but also different mechanisms.
Intermittent intense ultraviolet (UV) exposure represents an important aetiological factor in the development of malignant melanoma. The ability of UV radiation to cause tumour-initiating DNA mutations in melanocytes is now firmly established, but how the microenvironmental effects of UV radiation influence melanoma pathogenesis is not fully understood. Here we report that repetitive UV exposure of primary cutaneous melanomas in a genetically engineered mouse model promotes metastatic progression, independent of its tumour-initiating effects. UV irradiation enhanced the expansion of tumour cells along abluminal blood vessel surfaces and increased the number of lung metastases. This effect depended on the recruitment and activation of neutrophils, initiated by the release of high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) from UV-damaged epidermal keratinocytes and driven by Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). The UV-induced neutrophilic inflammatory response stimulated angiogenesis and promoted the ability of melanoma cells to migrate towards endothelial cells and use selective motility cues on their surfaces. Our results not only reveal how UV irradiation of epidermal keratinocytes is sensed by the innate immune system, but also show that the resulting inflammatory response catalyses reciprocal melanoma-endothelial cell interactions leading to perivascular invasion, a phenomenon originally described as angiotropism in human melanomas by histopathologists. Angiotropism represents a hitherto underappreciated mechanism of metastasis that also increases the likelihood of intravasation and haematogenous dissemination. Consistent with our findings, ulcerated primary human melanomas with abundant neutrophils and reactive angiogenesis frequently show angiotropism and a high risk for metastases. Our work indicates that targeting the inflammation-induced phenotypic plasticity of melanoma cells and their association with endothelial cells represent rational strategies to specifically interfere with metastatic progression.
The inflammasome is a signaling platform that is central to the innate immune responses to bacterial infections. Francisella tularensis is a bacterium replicating within the host cytosol. During F. tularensis subspecies novicida infection, AIM2, an inflammasome receptor sensing cytosolic DNA, activates caspase-1 in an ASC-dependent manner, leading to both pyroptosis and release of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Activation of this canonical inflammasome pathway is key to limit F. novicida infection. In this study, by comparing the immune responses of AIM2 knockout (KO), ASC(KO), and Casp1(KO) mice in response to F. novicida infection, we observed that IFN-? levels in the serum of Casp1(KO) mice were much higher than the levels observed in AIM2(KO) and ASC(KO) mice. This difference in IFN-? production was due to a large production of IFN-? by NK cells in Casp1(KO) mice that was not observed in ASC(KO) mice. The deficit in IFN-? production observed in ASC(KO) mice was not due to a reduced Dock2 expression or to an intrinsic defect of ASC(KO) NK cells. We demonstrate that in infected Casp1(KO) mice, IFN-? production is due to an ASC-dependent caspase-1-independent pathway generating IL-18. Furthermore, we present in vitro data suggesting that the recently described AIM2/ASC/caspase-8 noncanonical pathway is responsible for the caspase-1-independent IL-18 releasing activity. To our knowledge, this study is the first in vivo evidence of an alternative pathway able to generate in a caspase-1-independent pathway bioactive IL-18 to boost the production of IFN-?, a cytokine critical for the host antibacterial response.
The DC-derived chemokine CCL17, a ligand of CCR4, has been shown to promote various inflammatory diseases such as atopic dermatitis, atherosclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Under steady-state conditions, and even after systemic stimulation with LPS, CCL17 is not expressed in resident splenic DCs as opposed to CD8?(-) CD11b(+) LN DCs, which produce large amounts of CCL17 in particular after maturation. Upon systemic NKT cell activation through ?-galactosylceramide stimulation however, CCL17 can be upregulated in both CD8?(-) and CD8?(+) splenic DC subsets and enhances cross-presentation of exogenous antigens. Based on genome-wide expression profiling, we now show that splenic CD11b(+) DCs are susceptible to IFN-?-mediated suppression of CCL17, whereas LN CD11b(+) CCL17(+) DCs downregulate the IFN-?R and are much less responsive to IFN-?. Under inflammatory conditions, particularly in the absence of IFN-? signaling in IFN-?RKO mice, CCL17 expression is strongly induced in a major proportion of splenic DCs by the action of GM-CSF in concert with IL-4. Our findings demonstrate that the local cytokine milieu and differential cytokine responsiveness of DC subsets regulate lymphoid organ specific immune responses at the level of chemokine expression.
Members of the PRDM protein family have been shown to play important roles during embryonic development. Previous in vitro and in situ analyses indicated a function of Prdm6 in cells of the vascular system. To reveal physiological functions of Prdm6, we generated conditional Prdm6-deficient mice. Complete deletion of Prdm6 results in embryonic lethality due to cardiovascular defects associated with aberrations in vascular patterning. However, smooth muscle cells could be regularly differentiated from Prdm6-deficient embryonic stem cells and vascular smooth muscle cells were present and proliferated normally in Prdm6-deficient embryos. Conditional deletion of Prdm6 in the smooth muscle cell lineage using a SM22-Cre driver line resulted in perinatal lethality due to hemorrhage in the lungs. We thus identified Prdm6 as a factor that is essential for the physiological control of cardiovascular development.
Priming of T cells by dendritic cells (DCs) in the intestinal mucosa and associated lymphoid tissues helps maintain mucosal tolerance but also contributes to the development of chronic intestinal inflammation. Chemokines regulate the intestinal immune response and can contribute to pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases. We investigated the role of the chemokine CCL17, which is expressed by conventional DCs in the intestine and is up-regulated during colitis.
Immune mechanisms are known to control the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. However, the exact role of DCs, which are essential for priming of immune responses, remains elusive. We have shown here that the DC-derived chemokine CCL17 is present in advanced human and mouse atherosclerosis and that CCL17+ DCs accumulate in atherosclerotic lesions. In atherosclerosis-prone mice, Ccl17 deficiency entailed a reduction of atherosclerosis, which was dependent on Tregs. Expression of CCL17 by DCs limited the expansion of Tregs by restricting their maintenance and precipitated atherosclerosis in a mechanism conferred by T cells. Conversely, a blocking antibody specific for CCL17 expanded Tregs and reduced atheroprogression. Our data identify DC-derived CCL17 as a central regulator of Treg homeostasis, implicate DCs and their effector functions in atherogenesis, and suggest that CCL17 might be a target for vascular therapy.
Interleukin(IL)-18 is a pleiotrophic cytokine with functions in immune modulation, angiogenesis and bone metabolism. In this study, the potential of IL-18 as an immunotherapy for prostate cancer (PCa) was examined using the murine model of prostate carcinoma, RM1 and a bone metastatic variant RM1(BM)/B4H7-luc. RM1 and RM1(BM)/B4H7-luc cells were stably transfected to express bioactive IL-18. These cells were implanted into syngeneic immunocompetent mice, with or without an IL-18-neutralising antibody (?IL-18, SK113AE4). IL-18 significantly inhibited the growth of both subcutaneous and orthotopic RM1 tumors and the IL-18 neutralizing antibody abrogated the tumor growth-inhibition. In vivo neutralization of interferon-gamma (IFN-?) completely eliminated the anti-tumor effects of IL-18 confirming an essential role of IFN-? as a down-stream mediator of the anti-tumor activity of IL-18. Tumors from mice in which IL-18 and/or IFN-? was neutralized contained significantly fewer CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells than those with functional IL-18. The essential role of adaptive immunity was demonstrated as tumors grew more rapidly in RAG1(-/-) mice or in mice depleted of CD4(+) and/or CD8(+) cells than in normal mice. The tumors in RAG1(-/-) mice were also significantly smaller when IL-18 was present, indicating that innate immune mechanisms are involved. IL-18 also induced an increase in tumor infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils but not NK cells. In other experiments, direct injection of recombinant IL-18 into established tumors also inhibited tumor growth, which was associated with an increase in intratumoral macrophages, but not T cells. These results suggest that local IL-18 in the tumor environment can significantly potentiate anti-tumor immunity in the prostate and clearly demonstrate that this effect is mediated by innate and adaptive immune mechanisms.
Filarial parasites have to trespass many barriers to successfully settle within their mammalian host, which is equipped with mechanical borders and complex weaponry of an evolved immune system. However, little is known about mechanisms of early local events in filarial infections. In this study, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells not only upregulated activation markers CD40 and CD80 upon in vitro stimulation with filarial extracts, but also secreted CCL17, a chemokine known to be produced upon microbial challenge. Mice deficient for CCL17 had an up to 4-fold higher worm burden compared with controls by day 10 of infection with the murine filaria Litomosoides sigmodontis. Also, numbers of mast cells (MCs) invading the skin and degranulation were significantly increased, which was associated with enhanced vascular permeability and larval establishment. This phenotype was reverted by inhibition of MC degranulation with disodium cromoglycate or by blockade of histamine. In addition, we showed that CCL17-mediated vascular permeability was dependent on the presence of Wolbachia endosymbionts and TLR2. Our findings reveal that CCL17 controls filarial larval entry by limiting MC-dependent vascular permeability.
Type I interferon (IFN) is a common therapy for autoimmune and inflammatory disorders, yet the mechanisms of action are largely unknown. Here we showed that type I IFN inhibited interleukin-1 (IL-1) production through two distinct mechanisms. Type I IFN signaling, via the STAT1 transcription factor, repressed the activity of the NLRP1 and NLRP3 inflammasomes, thereby suppressing caspase-1-dependent IL-1? maturation. In addition, type I IFN induced IL-10 in a STAT1-dependent manner; autocrine IL-10 then signaled via STAT3 to reduce the abundance of pro-IL-1? and pro-IL-1?. In vivo, poly(I:C)-induced type I IFN diminished IL-1? production in response to alum and Candida albicans, thus increasing susceptibility to this fungal pathogen. Importantly, monocytes from multiple sclerosis patients undergoing IFN-? treatment produced substantially less IL-1? than monocytes derived from healthy donors. Our findings may thus explain the effectiveness of type I IFN in the treatment of inflammatory diseases but also the observed "weakening" of the immune system after viral infection.
Nanomaterials are increasingly used in various food applications. In particular, nanoparticulate amorphous SiO2 is already contained, e.g., in spices. Since intestinal dendritic cells (DC) could be critical targets for ingested particles, we compared the in vitro effects of amorphous silica nanoparticles with fine crystalline silica, and micron-sized with nano-sized TiO2 particles on DC. TiO2- and SiO2-nanoparticles, as well as crystalline silica led to an upregulation of MHC-II, CD80, and CD86 on DC. Furthermore, these particles activated the inflammasome, leading to significant IL-1?-secretion in wild-type (WT) but not Caspase-1- or NLRP3-deficient mice. Silica nanoparticles and crystalline silica induced apoptosis, while TiO2 nanoparticles led to enhanced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since amorphous silica and TiO2 nanoparticles had strong effects on the activation-status of DC, we suggest that nanoparticles, used as food additives, should be intensively studied in vitro and in vivo, to ensure their safety for the consumer.
gp130 is a common receptor chain for cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-27 and IL-6. During experimental tuberculosis (TB), IL-27 prevents optimal antimycobacterial protection and limits the pathological sequelae of chronic inflammation. The anti-inflammatory properties of IL-27 have been attributed mainly to its suppressive effect on T helper (TH) cells. However, because gp130 cytokines also suppress the inflammatory immune response of macrophages, IL-27 may also regulate inflammation by limiting the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. To specifically address the role of gp130 cytokines on macrophages, the outcome of experimental TB was analysed in macrophage/neutrophil-specific gp130-deficient (LysM(cre) gp130(loxP/loxP)) mice. In these mice, the enhanced induction of inflammatory cytokines and increased expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) and LRG47 was linked to a greatly augmented TH17 immune response and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 expression. However, this amplified inflammatory immune response in Mtb-infected LysM(cre) gp130(loxP/loxP) mice was not associated with reduced bacterial loads and/or accelerated pathology. Our study revealed an immunoregulatory function of gp130 cytokines on macrophages/granulocytes, which is, however, not critical for modulating the outcome of TB.
Chemokines are known to regulate the steady-state and inflammatory migration of cutaneous dendritic cells (DCs). The beta-chemokine CCL17, a ligand of CCR4, is inducibly expressed in a subset of DCs and is strongly up-regulated in atopic diseases. Using an atopic dermatitis model, we show that CCL17-deficient mice develop acanthosis as WT mice, whereas dermal inflammation, T helper 2-type cytokine production, and the allergen-specific humoral immune response are significantly decreased. Notably, CCL17-deficient mice retained Langerhans cells (LCs) in the lesional skin after chronic allergen exposure, whereas most LCs emigrated from the epidermis of allergen-treated WT controls into draining lymph nodes (LNs). Moreover, CCL17-deficient LCs showed impaired emigration from the skin after exposure to a contact sensitizer. In contrast, the absence of CCR4 had no effect on cutaneous DC migration and development of atopic dermatitis symptoms. As an explanation for the major migratory defect of CCL17-deficient DCs in vivo, we demonstrate impaired mobility of CCL17-deficient DCs to CCL19/21 in 3D in vitro migration assays and a blockade of intracellular calcium release in response to CCR7 ligands. In addition, responsiveness of CCL17-deficient DCs to CXCL12 was impaired as well. We demonstrate that the inducible chemokine CCL17 sensitizes DCs for CCR7- and CXCR4-dependent migration to LN-associated homeostatic chemokines under inflammatory conditions and thus plays an important role in cutaneous DC migration.
In vivo evaluation of CD8 T cell effector (cytotoxic T lymphocyte [CTL]) function in peripheral organs such as the liver is currently not possible but would greatly improve our understanding of local immune regulation, because simple determination of antigen-specific CTL numbers does not predict the outcome of immune responses. In particular, measurement of alanine aminotransferase serum levels is not sensitive enough to detect T cell immunity against low numbers of target hepatocytes. We developed a procedure that detects virus-specific effector function of CTLs in the liver after simultaneous adenoviral transfer of reporter and immune target genes into hepatocytes, followed by bioluminescence imaging of reporter genes. Bioluminescence imaging enabled detection of as few as 10,000 infected hepatocytes in vivo, and even more importantly, quantification of antiviral effector function of as few as 50,000 CTLs. Conclusion: Our results provide evidence that low numbers of antigen-specific CTLs are sufficient to control viral gene expression and eliminate viral infection from hepatocytes. The experimental system established here is a highly sensitive method to simultaneously detect viral infection of hepatocytes and to quantify antiviral CTL function in the liver in vivo and will help in characterizing principles of hepatic immune regulation.
Selenoprotein P (SeP), serving as selenium transporter and extracellular antioxidant, is assumed to have a protective role in the gastrointestinal tract, which is particularly susceptible to oxidative damage. Decreased SeP mRNA levels have been found in colon cancer; however, information on the control of intestinal SeP biosynthesis is scarce. We analyzed SeP biosynthesis in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells subject to differentiation from crypt- to villous-like enterocytes. In the course of Caco-2 cell differentiation, SeP mRNA expression and secretion increased concomitant with three regulators of SeP transcription: hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha, forkhead box class O1a, and peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1alpha. Treatment of differentiated Caco-2 cells with the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma caused a down-regulation of SeP biosynthesis, resulting from induction of nitric oxide synthase 2. These observations were corroborated by decreased SeP mRNA levels in the colon of dextran sodium sulfate-treated mice, an animal model of experimental colitis. We conclude that inflammation of the intestinal mucosa causes a decline in locally produced selenoprotein P in the colon that eventually may contribute to the emergence of inflammatory bowel disease-related colorectal cancer.
Cross-priming allows dendritic cells (DCs) to induce cytotoxic T cell (CTL) responses to extracellular antigens. DCs require cognate licensing for cross-priming, classically by helper T cells. Here we demonstrate an alternative mechanism for cognate licensing by natural killer T (NKT) cells recognizing microbial or synthetic glycolipid antigens. Such licensing caused cross-priming CD8alpha(+) DCs to produce the chemokine CCL17, which attracted naive CTLs expressing the chemokine receptor CCR4. In contrast, DCs licensed by helper T cells recruited CTLs using CCR5 ligands. Thus, depending on the type of antigen they encounter, DCs can be licensed for cross-priming by NKT cells or helper T cells and use at least two independent chemokine pathways to attract naive CTLs. Because these chemokines acted synergistically, this can potentially be exploited to improve vaccinations.
Cryptosporidium parvum is an intracellular parasite causing enteritis which can become life-threatening in the immunocompromised host. CD4+ T cells and interferon (IFN)-gamma play dominant roles in host immune response to infection. However, effector mechanisms that are responsible for recovery from infection are poorly understood. In the present study we analyzed mice deficient in IFN-gamma or interleukin (IL)-12 in parallel to C57BL/6 wild type mice as models for murine cryptosporidiosis. Our results identified IFN-gamma as the key cytokine in the innate as well as adaptive immunity during primary and also challenge C. parvum infection. Furthermore, both Th1 and Th2 cytokines appear to contribute to the resolution of a primary infection, the former being dominant over the latter. Dramatic changes in the expression of cytokine genes were seen in the ileum (the site of infection) but not in the mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. During re-challenge, a significant increase of IFN-gamma was recorded in IL-12 deficient mice (IL-12KO). Additionally, we present data suggesting a contribution of IL-18 in resistance of C. parvum infection even in the absence of IFN-gamma. Anti-IL-18 antibody treatment led to increased susceptibility to infection in both strains of immunodeficient mice. Besides its function in inducing IFN-gamma in IL-12 knock out mice, IL-18 appears to be involved in the regulation of the Th1/Th2 responses in C. parvum. Neutralization resulted in a cytokine imbalance with up regulation of systemic (spleen) Th2 cytokine genes, notably IL-4 and IL-13. These data demonstrate that susceptibility or resistance to C. parvum infection depends on a delicate balance between the production of Th1 cytokines, needed to control parasite growth, and Th2 cytokines, to limit pathology.
The skin reacts to environmental noxae by inducing cytochrome P450 (CYP)-catalyzed reactions via activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). A drawback of this response is the generation of oxidative stress, which is especially dangerous for postreplicative cells such as dermal fibroblasts, in which damage may accumulate over time. Accordingly, in dermal fibroblasts, CYP1 expression is repressed and it has been proposed that this is due to the AhR repressor (AhRR), which is supposedly overexpressed in fibroblasts as compared with other skin cells. Here, we revisited this "AhRR hypothesis", which has been mainly based on ectopic overexpression studies and correlation analyses of high AhRR gene expression with CYP1A1 repression in certain cell types. In primary human skin fibroblasts (NHDFs) of 25 individuals, we found that (i) the AhRR was expressed only at moderate RNA copy numbers and that, against the common view, (ii) in some fibroblast strains, CYP1A1 mRNA expression could be induced by AhR activators. However, even the highest induction did not translate into measurable CYP1 enzyme activity, and neither basal expression nor mRNA inducibility correlated with AhRR expression. In addition, enhancement of CYP1A1 mRNA expression by trichostatin A, which inhibits AhRR-recruited histone deacetylases at the CYP1A1 promoter, failed to induce measurable CYP1 activity. Finally, AhRR-deficient ((-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts were not induced to biologically relevant CYP1 enzyme activity despite impressive mRNA induction. These data clearly indicate that repressed CYP1 activity in NHDFs is not causally related to AhRR expression, which may serve a different, yet unknown, biological function.
Dendritic cells(DCs) are important sentinels of the immune system and frequently reside in areas of low oxygen availability, in particular in the course of inflammatory processes. Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF)1? is responsible for major alterations in gene expression as part of the cellular adaptation to low oxygen concentration. In this study, we generated mice with a conditional deletion of HIF1? in DCs. Bone marrow-derived DCs from WT and conditional mutant mice expressed elevated levels of major histocompatibility complex class II and CD86 when grown in a hypoxic environment, whereas production of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-12p70, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-?, IL-1?, and IL-23 was reduced, both independent of HIF1? expression. In contrast, secretion of IL-22 was strongly enhanced under hypoxic conditions in an HIF1?-dependent manner. The chemokine receptor CCR7 was expressed at higher levels in wild-type DCs compared with HIF1?-deficient DCs, whereas the production of CCL17 and CCL22 was increased in conditions of low oxygen. Using in vitro as well as in vivo migration assays, we observed an enhanced migratory capability of DCs generated under hypoxia, which was HIF1?-dependent. Taken together, our data indicate that HIF1? plays an important role for DC differentiation and migration in a low oxygen environment.
Novel aspects of engineered nanoparticles offer many advantages for optimising food products and packaging. However, their potential hazards in the gastrointestinal tract require further investigation. We evaluated the toxic and inflammatory potential of two types of particles that might become increasingly relevant to the food industry, namely SiO? and ZnO. The materials were characterised for their morphology, oxidant generation and hydrodynamic behaviour. Cytotoxicity and interleukin-8 mRNA and protein expression were evaluated in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Particle pretreatment under simulated gastric and intestinal pH conditions resulted in reduced acellular ROS formation but did not influence cytotoxicity (WST-1 assay) or IL-8 expression. However, the differentiation status of the cells markedly determined the cytotoxic potency of the particles. Further research is needed to determine the in vivo relevance of our current observations regarding the role of particle aggregation and the stage of intestinal epithelial cell differentiation in determining the hazards of ingested particles.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are pivotal for the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). However, the mechanisms by which they control disease remain to be determined. This study demonstrates that expression of CC chemokine receptor 4 (CCR4) by DCs is required for EAE induction. CCR4(-/-) mice presented enhanced resistance to EAE associated with a reduction in IL-23 and GM-CSF expression in the CNS. Restoring CCR4 on myeloid cells in bone marrow chimeras or intracerebral microinjection of CCR4-competent DCs, but not macrophages, restored EAE in CCR4(-/-) mice, indicating that CCR4(+) DCs are cellular mediators of EAE development. Mechanistically, CCR4(-/-) DCs were less efficient in GM-CSF and IL-23 production and also T(H)-17 maintenance. Intraspinal IL-23 reconstitution restored EAE in CCR4(-/-) mice, whereas intracerebral inoculation using IL-23(-/-) DCs or GM-CSF(-/-) DCs failed to induce disease. Thus, CCR4-dependent GM-CSF production in DCs required for IL-23 release in these cells is a major component in the development of EAE. Our study identified a unique role for CCR4 in regulating DC function in EAE, harboring therapeutic potential for the treatment of CNS autoimmunity by targeting CCR4 on this specific cell type.
Titanium dioxide has a long-standing use as a food additive. Micrometric powders are, e.g., applied as whiteners in confectionary or dairy products. Possible hazards of ingested nanometric TiO(2) particles for humans and the potential influence of varying specific surface area (SSA) are currently under discussion. Five TiO(2)-samples were analyzed for purity, crystallinity, primary particle size, SSA, ? potential, and aggregation/agglomeration. Their potential to induce cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage was evaluated in human intestinal Caco-2 cells. Only anatase-rutile containing samples, in contrast to the pure anatase samples, induced significant LDH leakage or mild DNA damage (Fpg-comet assay). Evaluation of the metabolic competence of the cells (WST-1 assay) revealed a highly significant correlation between the SSA of the anatase samples and cytotoxicity. The anatase/rutile samples showed higher toxicity per unit surface area than the pure anatase powders. However, none of the samples affected cellular markers of oxidative stress. Our findings suggest that both SSA and crystallinity are critical determinants of TiO(2)-toxicity toward intestinal cells.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.