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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hepatitis mouse models: from acute-to-chronic autoimmune hepatitis.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) is a chronic inflammatory liver disease associated with interface hepatitis, raised plasma liver enzymes, the presence of autoantibodies and regulatory T-cell (Tregs) dysfunction. The clinical course is heterogeneous, manifested by a fulminant or indolent course. Although genetic predisposition is well accepted, the combination with currently undefined environmental factors is crucial for the development of the disease. Progress in the development of reliable animal models provides added understanding of the pathophysiology of AIH, and these will be very useful in evaluating potential therapeutics. It appears that artificially breaking tolerance in the liver is easy. However, maintaining this state of tolerance breakdown, to get chronic hepatitis, is difficult because liver immune homeostasis is strongly regulated by several immune response inhibitory mechanisms. For example, Tregs are crucial regulators in acute and chronic hepatitis, and C57BL/6 mice are most prone to experimental AIH. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with liver (AIH) autoantigens (CYP2D6/FTCD or IL-4R) and the disturbance of liver regulatory mechanism(s), leading to experimental AIH, are likely to be most representative of human AIH pathology.
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Prevalence and outcome of diastolic dysfunction in liver transplantation recipients.
Acta Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (CCMP) denotes a chronic cardiac dysfunction in cirrhotic patients. It is characterized by systolic (SD) and diastolic dysfunction (DD), and electromechanical abnormalities, in the absence of other cardiac diseases. Liver transplantation (LTx) has a favourable effect on CCMP, but CCMP is in itself a risk factor. Aims of the study were (1) to estimate the prevalence of DD among LTx candidates, (2) to compare outcome between patients with and without DD, and (3) to determine if tricuspid regurgitation (TR) is a predictor of post-transplantation outcome.
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Therapeutic effects of artesunate in hepatocellular carcinoma: repurposing an ancient antimalarial agent.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Artemisinins are antimalarial drugs that exert potent anticancer activity. We evaluated the effects of artesunate, a semisynthetic derivative of artemisinin, on tumor growth, angiogenesis, the unfolded protein response, and chemoresistance in hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Role of angiogenic factors/cell adhesion markers in serum of cirrhotic patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Hepatopulmonary syndrome is a complication of chronic liver disease resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. It is caused by intrapulmonary vascular dilations and arteriovenous connections with devastating influence on gas exchange. The pathogenesis is not completely understood but evidence mounts for angiogenesis. Aims of this study were to identify angiogenic factors in serum of patients with hepatopulmonary syndrome and to study the possibility to predict its presence by these factors.
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress and angiogenesis: is there an interaction between them?
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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When cells are subjected to stress by changes in their extracellular environment, unfolded proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), causing ER stress. This initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signal transduction cascade aiming at restoring cellular homeostasis. The UPR and angiogenesis are involved in the pathogenesis of many diseases such as cancer, pulmonary diseases and chronic liver diseases (CLDs) including alcoholic liver disease, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis and hepatitis B. This review summarizes the upcoming knowledge of the interaction between the UPR and angiogenesis in physiological angiogenesis and in different CLDs and other diseases.
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Liver transplantation for alcoholic liver disease: a retrospective analysis of recidivism, survival and risk factors predisposing to alcohol relapse.
Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2013
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Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is the second most common indication for liver transplantation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the alcohol relapse rate and long-term survival after liver transplantation for ALD and to identify risk factors predisposing to alcohol relapse.
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Oral vasodilator therapy in patients with moderate to severe portopulmonary hypertension as a bridge to liver transplantation.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH) is a part of group 1 pulmonary hypertension (pulmonary hypertension associated with portal hypertension). Liver transplantation (LTx) may be curative, but is usually restricted to patients with mild-to-moderate POPH. The presence of severe POPH may be a contraindication to transplantation because of the elevated risk of peritransplantation and post-transplantation morbidity and mortality. This report describes a series of seven patients with onset of moderate (two patients) or severe (five patients) POPH before LTx, of whom six were treated with oral vasodilator therapy for POPH. Although previous studies recommend aggressive parenteral prostacyclin therapy (epoprostenol), we describe the opportunity to treat cases of severe POPH with an oral phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (sildenafil) and/or an endothelin receptor antagonist (bosentan/ambrisentan) as a bridge to successful LTx in selected patients.
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Living related liver transplantation in an adult patient with hepatocellular adenoma and carcinoma 13 years after bone marrow transplantation for Fanconi anemia: A case report.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Fanconi anemia (FA) is an inherited bone marrow failure syndrome due to defective DNA inter-strand cross-link repair. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is curative for pancytopenia, but may not prevent the development of non-hematological malignancies. We describe a 26-year-old male patient with FA and Marfan syndrome who in 1994 underwent successful HSCT with bone marrow stem cells from his human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical sister. In 2006, three lesions in the liver were detected and resected. The three lesions all showed activation of the ?-catenin pathway and were histologically characterized by a highly differentiated steatotic hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with remnants of the underlying adenoma from which it arose, a hepatocellular adenoma with foci of well-differentiated HCC, and a cholestatic adenoma. Risk factors for the emergence of HCC included FA itself, the use of androgens for a period of 3 years preceding HSCT and toxicity of the conditioning regimen. Because of the danger of developing additional HCC, liver transplantation was proposed, taking into consideration that immunosuppression would increase the risk of other malignancies. By using part of the liver of the sister, who already acted as bone marrow donor 13 years earlier, immunosuppression could be avoided. Liver transplantation was performed in 2007 without complication. Five years after liver transplantation the patient is doing well. This case is twofold special being the first case reporting FA co-occurring with Marfan syndrome and being the first reported case of FA treated for HCC by liver transplantation from a HLA-identical sibling donor without the use of immunosuppression.
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Role of vascular endothelial growth factor in the pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in two rodent models.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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The pathophysiology of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) should be approached as a multifactorial process. In several stages of NASH, a link between disease progression and hepatic microvasculature changes can be made. In this study we investigated the role of angiogenesis in two mouse models for NASH, and the effect of a preventive and therapeutic antiangiogenic treatment in a diet-induced mouse model for NASH. Protein and RNA levels of angiogenic and inflammatory factors were significantly up-regulated in the liver of C56BL/6 and db/db mice with NASH at different timepoints. To examine the effect of angiogenic factors on the disease progression of NASH, a prevention and treatment study was set up, blocking the placental growth factor (PlGF) or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2). Our study showed that treatment prevents the progression of NASH by attenuating steatosis and inflammation, both in a preventive and therapeutic setting, thereby confirming the hypothesis that angiogenic factors play an early role in the disease progression from steatosis to NASH. Anti-PlGF (?PlGF) did not significantly improve liver histology. Vascular corrosion casting showed a more disrupted liver vasculature in mice with NASH compared to controls. Treatment with ?VEGFR2 showed an improvement of the liver vasculature. Moreover, fat-laden primary hepatocytes treated with ?VEGFR2 stored significantly less lipids. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that there is an increased expression of angiogenic factors in the liver in different mouse models for NASH. We found that VEGFR2 blockage attenuates steatosis and inflammation in a diet-induced mouse model for NASH in a preventive and therapeutic setting. Our findings warrant further investigation of the role of angiogenesis in the pathophysiology in NASH.
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Echocardiography for the detection of portopulmonary hypertension in liver transplant candidates: an analysis of cutoff values.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Portopulmonary hypertension (POPH), a complication of chronic liver disease, may be a contraindication to liver transplantation (LT) because of the elevated risk of peritransplant and posttransplant morbidity and mortality. Because POPH is frequently asymptomatic, screening with echocardiography is recommended. The only reliable technique, however, for diagnosing POPH is right heart catheterization (RHC). The aims of this study were to evaluate the current estimated systolic pulmonary artery pressure (sPAP) cutoff value of 30 mm Hg and to determine a better cutoff value. One hundred fifty-two patients underwent pretransplant echocardiography between January 2005 and December 2010. These echocardiographic results were compared with pulmonary artery pressures measured during the pretransplant workup or at the beginning of the transplantation procedure (both by catheterization). With a cutoff value of 30 mm Hg, 74 of the 152 patients met the criteria for POPH on echocardiography, although the diagnosis was confirmed in only 7 patients during catheterization; this resulted in a specificity of 54%. It would have been more accurate to use a cutoff value of 38 mm Hg, which had a maximal specificity of 82% and, at the same time, guaranteed a sensitivity and negative predictive value of 100%. With the incorporation of the presence or absence of right ventricular dilatation, the specificity even increased to 93% for this new cutoff value. In conclusion, the prevalence of POPH was 4.6% among LT candidates in this study. We can recommend that LT candidates with an sPAP?>?38 mm Hg should be referred for RHC. With the cutoff value increased from 30 to 38 mm Hg, the number of patients undergoing invasive RHC during their evaluation could be safely reduced.
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Role of IRAK-M in alcohol induced liver injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Increasing evidence suggests that innate immunity plays an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury and most studies have focused on positive regulation of innate immunity. The main objective of this study was to investigate the negative regulator of innate immunity, IL-1/Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathways and interleukin receptor-associated kinase-M (IRAK-M) in alcoholic liver injury. We established an alcohol-induced liver injury model using wild type and IRAK-M deficient B6 mice and investigated the possible mechanisms. We found that in the absence of IRAK-M, liver damage by alcohol was worse with higher alanine transaminase (ALT), more immune cell infiltration and increased numbers of IFN? producing cells. We also found enhanced phagocytic activity in CD68(+) cells. Moreover, our results revealed altered gut bacteria after alcohol consumption and this was more striking in the absence of IRAK-M. Our study provides evidence that IRAK-M plays an important role in alcohol-induced liver injury and IRAK-M negatively regulates the innate and possibly the adaptive immune response in the liver reacting to acute insult by alcohol. In the absence of IRAK-M, the hosts developed worse liver injury, enhanced gut permeability and altered gut microbiota.
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Should chronic hepatitis B be treated as early as possible?
Int J Technol Assess Health Care
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
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We studied the cost-effectiveness of tenofovir and entecavir in e antigen positive (CHBe+) and negative (CHBe-) chronic hepatitis B.
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IL28B polymorphism and the control of hepatitis C virus infection: ready for clinical use?
Acta Gastroenterol. Belg.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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Polymorphisms in the region of the interleukin-28B (IL28B) gene have recently been associated with spontaneous and treatment induced clearance of hepatitis C virus infection. The specific mechanisms of how IL28B polymorphisms affect HCV suppression remain unknown. It is a matter of ongoing debate how to incorporate the IL28B data into the current treatment algorithms with pegylated interferon-alpha and ribavirin. The eventual role of the IL28B genotype in new therapeutic regimes with direct antiviral agents needs to be explored in the ongoing and future clinical studies with these agents.
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Usefulness of a novel serum proteome-derived index FI-PRO (fibrosis-protein) in the prediction of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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Liver biopsy is an imperfect standard for the assessment of chronic hepatitis C liver fibrosis. In this study, the diagnostic role of proteome-derived protein markers and the usefulness of a protein-based index were assessed.
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N-glycan based biomarker distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis from steatosis independently of fibrosis.
Dig Liver Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2011
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Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of disorders ranging from steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Steatosis of the liver is benign, whereas NASH can progress to cirrhosis or even hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, a liver biopsy is the only validated method to distinct NASH from steatosis.
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Inhibition of placental growth factor activity reduces the severity of fibrosis, inflammation, and portal hypertension in cirrhotic mice.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Placental growth factor (PlGF) is associated selectively with pathological angiogenesis, and PlGF blockade does not affect the healthy vasculature. Anti-PlGF is therefore currently being clinically evaluated for the treatment of cancer patients. In cirrhosis, hepatic fibrogenesis is accompanied by extensive angiogenesis. In this paper, we evaluated the pathophysiological role of PlGF and the therapeutic potential of anti-PlGF in liver cirrhosis. PlGF was significantly up-regulated in the CCl(4) -induced rodent model of liver cirrhosis as well as in cirrhotic patients. Compared with wild-type animals, cirrhotic PlGF(-/-) mice showed a significant reduction in angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, inflammation, fibrosis, and portal hypertension. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition with anti-PlGF antibodies yielded similar results as genetic loss of PlGF. Notably, PlGF treatment of activated hepatic stellate cells induced sustained extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 phosphorylation, as well as chemotaxis and proliferation, indicating a previously unrecognized profibrogenic role of PlGF.
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Expression of placental growth factor in regenerating livers after partial hepatectomy in the rat.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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Placental growth factor (PlGF) is known for its role in pathological conditions to protect parenchymal cells of different organs from injury, whereas its presence in the liver and its potential importance in stimulating liver regeneration has never been described. This was investigated in this study using a rat model of partial hepatectomy (PH).
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FibroSURE and FibroScan in relation to treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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To compare histological endpoint assessment using noninvasive alternatives to biopsy during treatment in a chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) cohort.
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Moyamoya disease as a possible cause of neurological impairment following liver transplantation for Wilsons disease.
Hepatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In Wilsons disease, liver transplantation can constitute the only option for patients presenting with fulminant hepatic failure or decompensated liver disease unresponsive to drug therapy. We report the case of a 29-year-old woman receiving a liver transplant for end-stage Wilsons disease who developed neurological complications after transplantation. After an accurate evaluation of possible differential causes of neurological complications developing as the result of liver transplantation, moyamoya disease was diagnosed. Moyamoya disease is a rare cerebrovascular disease of unknown etiology. However, data exist supporting a possible role for some immunosuppressive regimens in determining the peculiar vascular alterations observed in moyamoya disease. To the best of our knowledge, the association with post-transplantation state for Wilsons disease has not been previously described.
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Angiogenesis in chronic liver disease and its complications.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2010
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Nowadays, liver cancer, cirrhosis and other liver-related diseases are the fifth most common cause of mortality in the UK. Furthermore, chronic liver diseases (CLDs) are one of the major causes of death, which are still increasing year-on-year. Therefore, knowledge about the pathophysiology of CLDs and its complications is of uttermost importance. The goal of this review is to clarify the role of angiogenesis in the disease progression of various liver diseases. Looking closer at the pathophysiology of portal hypertension (PH), fibrosis, cirrhosis, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), we find that angiogenesis is a recurring factor in the disease progression. In PH, several factors involved in its pathogenesis, such as hypoxia, oxidative stress, inflammation and shear stress are potential mediators for the angiogenic response. The progression from fibrosis to cirrhosis, the end-point of CLDs, is distinguished by a prolonged inflammatory and fibrogenic process that leads to an abnormal angioarchitecture distinctive for cirrhosis. In several stages of NASH, a link might be made between the disease progression and hepatic microvasculature changes. HCC is one of the most vascular solid tumours in which angiogenesis plays an important role in its development, progression and metastasis. The close relationship between the progression of CLDs and angiogenesis emphasises the need for anti-angiogenic therapy as a tool for blocking or slowing down the disease progression. The fact that angiogenesis plays a pivotal role in CLDs gives rise to new opportunities for treating CLDs and its complications.
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Hypomagnesemia and the risk of new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation.
Liver Transpl.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2010
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New-onset diabetes after transplantation (NODAT) is a frequent complication after liver transplantation and has a negative impact on both patient and graft survival. In analogy with the previous finding of an association between posttransplant hypomagnesemia and NODAT in renal transplant recipients, the relation between both pretransplant and posttransplant hypomagnesemia and NODAT was studied in liver transplant recipients (LTRs). One hundred sixty-nine adult LTRs (>18 years old) without diabetes who underwent transplantation between 2004 and 2009 were studied (mean age = 52.11 ± 12.6 years, proportion of LTRs who were male = 67.5%, body mass index = 25.5 ± 4.4 kg/m², proportion receiving tacrolimus = 90.0%). NODAT was defined according to the American Diabetes Association criteria. The association of NODAT with both pretransplant and posttransplant serum magnesium (Mg) was examined. Overall, 52 of 169 patients (30.8%) developed NODAT, and 57.7% of these (30 patients) were treated with antidiabetic drugs. Both pretransplant Mg levels and Mg levels in the first month after transplantation were lower in patients developing NODAT (P = 0.008 and P = 0.001, respectively). A multivariate regression model (adjusted for weight, pretransplant glucose levels, hyperglycemia in the first week after transplantation, gender, hepatitis C, and corticosteroid dosing) demonstrated both pretransplant Mg levels (hazard ratio = 0.844 per 0.1 mg/dL increase, 95% confidence interval = 0.764-0.932, P = 0.001) and posttransplant Mg levels (hazard ratio = 0.659, 95% confidence interval = 0.518-0.838, P = 0.001) to be independent predictors of NODAT together with age, biopsy-proven acute rejection, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection in the first year after transplantation. In conclusion, pretransplant hypomagnesemia and early posttransplant hypomagnesemia are independent predictors of new-onset diabetes after liver transplantation. Other risk factors are age, biopsy-proven acute rejection, and CMV infection.
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Kinetics of angiogenic changes in a new mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The increasing incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma in Western countries has led to an expanding interest of scientific research in this field. Therefore, a vast need of experimental models that mimic the natural pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in a short time period is present. The goal of our study was (1) to develop an efficient mouse model for HCC research, in which tumours develop in a natural background of fibrosis and (2) to assess the time-dependent angiogenic changes in the pathogenesis of HCC.
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Vascular corrosion casting: analyzing wall shear stress in the portal vein and vascular abnormalities in portal hypertensive and cirrhotic rodents.
Lab. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2010
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Vascular corrosion casting is an established method of anatomical preparation that has recently been revived and has proven to be an excellent tool for detailed three-dimensional (3D) morphological examination of normal and pathological microcirculation. In addition, the geometry provided by vascular casts can be further used to calculate wall shear stress (WSS) in a vascular bed using computational techniques. In the first part of this study, the microvascular morphological changes associated with portal hypertension (PHT) and cirrhosis in vascular casts are described. The second part of this study consists of a quantitative analysis of the WSS in the portal vein in casts of different animal models of PHT and cirrhosis using computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Microvascular changes in the splanchnic, hepatic and pulmonary territory of portal hypertensive and cirrhotic mice are described in detail with stereomicroscopic examination and scanning electron microscopy. To our knowledge, our results are the first to report the vascular changes in the common bile duct ligation cirrhotic model. Calculating WSS using CFD methods is a feasible technique in PHT and cirrhosis, enabling the differentiation between different animal models. First, a dimensional analysis was performed, followed by a CFD calculation describing the spatial and temporal WSS distributions in the portal vein. WSS was significantly different between sham/cirrhotic/pure PHT animals with the highest values in the latter. Up till now, no techniques have been developed to quantify WSS in the portal vein in laboratory animals. This study showed for the first time that vascular casting has an important role not only in the morphological evaluation of animal models of PHT and cirrhosis, but also in defining the biological response of the portal vein wall to hemodynamic changes. CFD in 3D geometries can be used to describe the spatial and temporal variations in WSS in the portal vein and to better understand the forces affecting mechanotransduction in the endothelium.
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Measurement of porto-systemic shunting in mice by novel three-dimensional micro-single photon emission computed tomography imaging enabling longitudinal follow-up.
Liver Int.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2010
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The reference method for diagnosing porto-systemic shunting (PSS) in experimental portal hypertension involves measuring (51)Chrome ((51)Cr)-labelled microspheres. Unfortunately, this technique necessitates the sacrifice of animals. Alternatively, (99m)technetium-macroaggregated albumin ((99m)Tc-MAA) has been used; however, planar scintigraphy imaging techniques are not quantitatively accurate and adequate spatial information is not attained. Here, we describe a reliable, minimally invasive and rapid in vivo imaging technique, using three-dimensional single photon emission computed tomography (3D SPECT) modus, that allows more accurate quantification, serial measurements and spatial discrimination.
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Subfulminant hepatitis B during treatment with adalimumab in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis and chronic hepatitis B.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2010
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We report a case of reactivation of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection with subacute liver failure during administration of adalimumab, followed by a literature review of all 19 published cases, with a focus on the effect of antiviral prophylaxis. Eight patients were given prophylaxis and had a good outcome. Of the 11 patients without prophylaxis, six patients developed a reactivation and needed to stop anti-TNFalpha therapy (P = 0.017). One patient developed an acute liver failure, necessitating urgent liver transplantation. One patient died. Administration of anti-TNFalpha therapy can lead to HBV reactivation, with a possible lethal outcome. High-risk patients and possibly all patients should be screened for hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBV core antibody before starting anti-TNFalpha therapy. Administration of antiviral prophylaxis proves beneficial in prevention of reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen positive patients.
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Galectin-3-binding protein: a serological and histological assessment in accordance with hepatitis C-related liver fibrosis.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2010
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Invasive liver biopsy is the current method for the assessment of liver fibrosis. In search of noninvasive alternatives, galectin-3-binding protein (G3BP) was introduced as a candidate-marker of hepatitis C-related fibrosis based on serum proteomics. We investigated the role of G3BP as a single-marker of significant fibrosis and cirrhosis by serology and histology and studied the effect of glycosylation on antibody-affinity in hepatitis C and alcoholic cirrhosis.
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Further pharmacological and genetic evidence for the efficacy of PlGF inhibition in cancer and eye disease.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Our findings that PlGF is a cancer target and anti-PlGF is useful for anticancer treatment have been challenged by Bais et al. Here we take advantage of carcinogen-induced and transgenic tumor models as well as ocular neovascularization to report further evidence in support of our original findings of PlGF as a promising target for anticancer therapies. We present evidence for the efficacy of additional anti-PlGF antibodies and their ability to phenocopy genetic deficiency or silencing of PlGF in cancer and ocular disease but also show that not all anti-PlGF antibodies are effective. We also provide additional evidence for the specificity of our anti-PlGF antibody and experiments to suggest that anti-PlGF treatment will not be effective for all tumors and why. Further, we show that PlGF blockage inhibits vessel abnormalization rather than density in certain tumors while enhancing VEGF-targeted inhibition in ocular disease. Our findings warrant further testing of anti-PlGF therapies.
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Enteral nutrition with or without N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of severe acute alcoholic hepatitis: a randomized multicenter controlled trial.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2010
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Severe acute alcoholic hepatitis is associated with a high mortality rate. Oxidative stress is involved in the pathogenesis of acute alcoholic hepatitis. Previous findings had also suggested that enteral nutritional support might increase survival in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of N-acetylcysteine in combination with adequate nutritional support in patients with severe acute alcoholic hepatitis.
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Impact of elevation of total bilirubin level and etiology of the liver disease on serum N-glycosylation patterns in mice and humans.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2010
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The GlycoFibroTest and GlycoCirrhoTest are noninvasive alternatives for liver biopsy that can be used as a follow-up tool for fibrosis patients and to diagnose cirrhotic patients, respectively. These tests are based on the altered N-glycosylation of total serum protein. Our aim was to investigate the impact of etiology on the alteration of N-glycosylation and whether other characteristics of liver patients could have an influence on N-glycosylation. In human liver patients, no specific alteration could be found to make a distinction according to etiological factor, although alcoholic patients had a significant higher mean value for the GlycoCirrhoTest. Undergalactosylation did not show a significantly different quantitative alteration in the cirrhotic and noncirrhotic population of all etiologies. Importantly, patients with an elevation of total bilirubin level (>2 mg/dl) had a strong increase of glycans modified with alpha1-6 fucose. The fucosylation index was therefore significantly higher in fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma patients with elevated total bilirubin levels irrespective of etiology. Furthermore, in a multiple linear regression analysis, only markers for cholestasis significantly correlated with the fucosylation index. In mouse models of chronic liver disease, the fucosylation index was uniquely significantly increased in mice that were induced with a common bile duct ligation. Mice that were chronically injected with CCl(4) did not show this increase. Apart from this difference, common changes characteristic to fibrosis development in mice were observed. Finally, mice induced with a partial portal vein ligation did not show biological relevant changes indicating that portal hypertension does not contribute to the alteration of N-glycosylation.
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Experimental mouse models for hepatocellular carcinoma research.
Int J Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2009
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Every year almost 500,000 new patients are diagnosed with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a primary malignancy of the liver that is associated with a poor prognosis. Numerous experimental models have been developed to define the pathogenesis of HCC and to test novel drug candidates. This review analyses several mouse models useful for HCC research and points out their advantages and weaknesses. Chemically induced HCC mice models mimic the injury-fibrosis-malignancy cycle by administration of a genotoxic compound alone or, if necessary, followed by a promoting agent. Xenograft models develop HCC by implanting hepatoma cell lines in mice, either ectopically or orthotopically; these models are suitable for drug screening, although extrapolation should be considered with caution as multiple cell lines must always be used. The hollow fibre assay offers a solution for limiting the number of test animals in xenograft research because of the ability for implanting multiple cell lines in one mouse. There is also a broad range of genetically modified mice engineered to investigate the pathophysiology of HCC. Transgenic mice expressing viral genes, oncogenes and/or growth factors allow the identification of pathways involved in hepatocarcinogenesis.
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Acute liver transplant rejection upon immunosuppression withdrawal in a tolerance induction trial: potential role of IFN-gamma-secreting CD8+ T cells.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2009
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We designed a pilot trial in cadaveric liver transplantation to determine whether induction with antithymocyte globulins (ATG) and sirolimus would allow immunosuppression withdrawal. Patients received ATG 3.75 mg/kg per day from day 1 to 5 after transplantation followed by sirolimus for 4 to 6 months. We monitored interleukin (IL)-7 serum levels, interferon (IFN)-gamma, and IL-2 mRNA accumulation in mixed leukocyte reaction and intragraft IFN-gamma mRNA expression. In the first three patients, immunosuppression discontinuation was followed by reversible acute rejection occurring on days 280, 246, and 163 posttransplantation, corresponding to days 140, 40, and 39 after drug withdrawal, respectively. At the time of rejection, blood CD8+ T-cells counts had returned to or above pretransplant levels in two of three patients, whereas CD4+ T-cell count remained low. IL-7 serum levels rose in all three patients in the first months after transplantation and IFN-gamma mRNA accumulated in mixed leukocyte reaction between recipient T cells and donor spleen cells at the time of rejection. High levels of IFN-gamma mRNA were consistently detected in liver biopsy performed at the time of rejection. In conclusion, lymphopenia-induced IL-7 production after induction with ATG and sirolimus might lead to emergence of IFN-gamma-secreting CD8+ T-cells responsible for acute rejection after immunosuppression withdrawal.
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Angiogenesis in liver disease.
J. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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Angiogenesis and disruption of liver vascular architecture have been linked to progression to cirrhosis and liver cancer (HCC) in chronic liver diseases, which contributes both to increased hepatic vascular resistance and portal hypertension and to decreased hepatocyte perfusion. On the other hand, recent evidence shows that angiogenesis modulates the formation of portal-systemic collaterals and the increased splanchnic blood flow which are involved in the life threatening complications of cirrhosis. Finally, angiogenesis plays a key role in the growth of tumours, suggesting that interference with angiogenesis may prevent or delay the development of HCC. This review summarizes current knowledge on the molecular mechanisms of liver angiogenesis and on the consequences of angiogenesis in chronic liver disease. On the other hand, it presents the different strategies that have been used in experimental models to counteract excessive angiogenesis and its potential role in preventing transition to cirrhosis, development of portal hypertension and its consequences, and its application in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.
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Role of placental growth factor in mesenteric neoangiogenesis in a mouse model of portal hypertension.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Portal hypertension is responsible for the major complications associated with cirrhosis. Angiogenesis has been associated with the pathophysiology of portal hypertension. We investigated the role of placental growth factor (PlGF) and tested the effects of monoclonal antibodies against PlGF (alphaPlGF) in a mouse model of portal hypertension.
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Biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute cellular rejection in liver transplant recipients: A review.
Hepatol. Res.
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The gold standard for the diagnosis of acute cellular rejection (ACR) is a liver biopsy. The quest for an alternative non-invasive biomarkers has been long and is ongoing. However, an efficient and useful biomarker has not been developed yet. In this manuscript, we review all possible candidate biomarkers that have been studied in recent years, starting with cytokines and ending with an overview of different newly discovered "omics". Promising paths are being explored but a valid non-invasive biomarker has not been discovered yet.
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The placental growth factor as a target against hepatocellular carcinoma in a diethylnitrosamine-induced mouse model.
J. Hepatol.
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The placental growth factor (PlGF) is a member of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family known to stimulate endothelial cell growth, migration and survival, attract angiocompetent macrophages, and determine the metastatic niche. Unlike VEGF, genetic studies have shown that PlGF is specifically involved in pathologic angiogenesis, thus its inhibition would not affect healthy blood vessels, providing an attractive drug candidate with a good safety profile.
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Serum protein N-glycan alterations of diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma mice and their evolution after inhibition of the placental growth factor.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
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Placental growth factor (PlGF) inhibition produced promising results in reducing tumor burden in a diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced mouse model for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aim of this study was to non-invasively assess the improved histology by performing a serum glycomic analysis. To elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying the observed glycomic effects, we investigated the transcription and expression of E26 transformation-specific sequence 1 (Ets-1), a transcription factor essential for the glycomic and angiogenic changes in malignant transformation, including its different phosphorylated forms that result from activation of the MAP kinase and a Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. In addition, three Ets-1-dependent glycosyltransferase genes, Mgat4a, Mgat4b, and Mgat5, were also evaluated. HCC was induced in mice by weekly injections with DEN for 16, 20, 25, and 30 w. In the treatment study, mice were injected with DEN for 25 w and subsequently treated with PlGF antibodies (5D11D4) for 5 w. Finally, PlGF-/- mice were injected with DEN for 20, 25, and 30 w. Serum N-glycans were analyzed with DNA sequencer-assisted fluorophore-assisted capillary electrophoresis and compared with histology. Maximum altered N-glycan phenotype was reached after 20 w of DEN-injections, i.e., when the first neoplastic lesions started to appear. 5D11D4-treatment improved the glycomic phenotype in that 7 of the 11 altered glycans tended to normalize. The PlGF-/- mice also showed a normalization trend, although not to the same extent of the treatment group. Number of Ets1, Mgat4a, Mgat4b, and Mgat5 transcripts increased considerably in DEN-injected mice, however, a non-significant decrease was observed after 5D11D4-treatment. On the protein level, 5D11D4-treatment had a prominent effect on the MAP kinase pathway with a significant p38 activation, yet independent of Ets-1 function.
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Leptin-mediated reactive oxygen species production does not significantly affect primary mouse hepatocyte functions in vitro.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Direct and indirect effects of leptin on hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) have been documented in the literature, whereas little is known about leptins actions on hepatocytes. Leptin mediates its profibrogenic and proinflammatory effects on HSCs in part through the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). In this study, we focus our analysis on leptin-induced ROS production in hepatocytes.
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Resource use and cost of hepatitis C-related care.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Chronic hepatitis because of the hepatitis C virus (CHC) is a major health problem that can lead to decompensated cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and eventually death, all of which are associated with significant healthcare costs.
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Inhibition of the placental growth factor decreases burden of cholangiocarcinoma and hepatocellular carcinoma in a transgenic mouse model.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol
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Hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma form the majority of primary hepatic tumours and are the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths. These liver tumours rapidly outgrow their vascular supply and become hypoxic, resulting in the production of hypoxia inducible factors and triggering the angiogenic switch. Therefore, inhibiting angiogenesis has proven to be a valuable therapeutic strategy in hepatocellular carcinoma, yet less is known about its use in cholangiocarcinoma. In this study, we assess whether inhibiting the placental growth factor (PlGF) could offer a therapeutic option in mice with hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. PlGF is a homologue of the vascular endothelial growth factor, which is only involved in pathological angiogenesis, therefore, its inhibition does not induce adverse effects.
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Evaluation of inflammatory and angiogenic factors in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.
Cytokine
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The liver is a major target of injury in obese patients. Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is present in 60-90% of obese Americans and can range from simple steatosis to the more severe non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The onset of a chronic inflammatory reaction marks the progression from simple steatosis to NASH and the expansion of adipose tissue is strongly associated with angiogenesis. Therefore, we determined the serum concentration of inflammatory [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF?) and interleukin 6 (IL6)] and angiogenic [vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF)] cytokines and soluble VEGF receptors 1 and 2 (sVEGFR1, sVEGFR2) in the serum of an obese population with simple steatosis and NASH compared to healthy controls. Moreover, we determined the TNF?, IL6, VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 gene expression in the liver of these simple steatosis and NASH patients. The population consisted of 30 obese patients, which were diagnosed with simple steatosis and 32 patients with NASH and compared to 30 age-and-sex matched healthy controls. Mean serum TNF? levels were elevated in the serum of simple steatosis and NASH patients compared to healthy controls, reaching significance in NASH patients. IL6 was significantly increased in simple steatosis and NASH patients compared to the healthy controls. VEGF levels were significantly elevated in patients with simple steatosis and borderline significantly elevated in NASH patients compared to the serum levels of healthy control subjects. The concentration of sVEGFR1 was significantly increased in serum of simple steatosis and NASH patients compared to controls. sVEGFR2 concentration was not significantly different in the three groups. TNF? mRNA expression was higher in NASH patients compared to simple steatosis patients. Hepatic gene expression of VEGF, VEGFR1 and VEGFR2 were slightly decreased in NASH patients compared to simple steatosis patients. These data indicate the involvement of inflammatory (TNF? and IL6), angiogenic (VEGF) cytokines and sVEGFR1 in the pathophysiology of NAFLD.
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Effect of prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 haplodeficiency on the hepatocarcinogenesis in mice.
J. Hepatol.
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The two major primary liver cancers in adults are hepatocellular carcinoma and cholangiocarcinoma. These tumors rapidly outgrow their vascular supply and become hypoxic, resulting in the production of hypoxia inducible factors. Recently, interest has grown in the regulators of these factors. Several reports have been published describing the role of prolyl hydroxylase domains--the key oxygen sensor responsible for the degradation of hypoxia inducible factors--tumor progression and vascularisation. The effect of prolyl hydroxylase domain 2 on the pathogenesis of liver cancer has never been studied.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.