The kidney is one of the major loci for the expression of cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine ?-lyase (CTH). While CBS-deficient (Cbs(-/-)) mice display homocysteinemia/methioninemia and severe growth retardation, and rarely survive beyond the first 4 wk, CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice show homocysteinemia/cystathioninemia but develop with no apparent abnormality. This study examined renal amino acid reabsorption in those mice. Although both 2-wk-old Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice had normal renal architecture, their serum/urinary amino acid profiles largely differed from wild-type mice. The most striking feature was marked accumulation of Met and cystathionine in serum/urine/kidney samples of Cbs(-/-) and Cth(-/-) mice, respectively. Levels of some neutral amino acids (Val, Leu, Ile, and Tyr) that were not elevated in Cbs(-/-) serum were highly elevated in Cbs(-/-) urine, and urinary excretion of other neutral amino acids (except Met) was much higher than expected from their serum levels, demonstrating neutral aminoaciduria in Cbs(-/-) (not Cth(-/-)) mice. Because the bulk of neutral amino acids is absorbed via a B(0)AT1 transporter and Met has the highest substrate affinity for B(0)AT1 than other neutral amino acids, hypermethioninemia may cause hyperexcretion of neutral amino acids.
Dietary deprivation of essential amino acids (EAAs) in mammals is known to cause reductions in food intake and body weight. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how mice respond to deprivation of individual EAA species.
Chronic exposure to high glucose induces the expression of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CSE), a hydrogen sulfide-producing enzyme, in pancreatic beta-cells, thereby suppressing apoptosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of hydrogen sulfide on the onset and development of type 2 diabetes. Middle-aged (6-month-old) wild-type (WT) and CSE knockout (CSE-KO) mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 8weeks. We determined the effects of CSE knockout on beta-cell function and mass in islets from these mice. We also analyzed changes in gene expression in the islets. After 8weeks of HFD, blood glucose levels were markedly increased in middle-aged CSE-KO mice, insulin responses were significantly reduced, and DNA fragmentation of the islet cells was increased. Moreover, expression of thioredoxin binding protein-2 (TBP-2, also known as Txnip) was increased. Administration of NaHS, a hydrogen sulfide donor, reduced TBP-2 gene levels in isolated islets from CSE-KO mice. Gene levels were elevated when islets were treated with the CSE inhibitor dl-propargylglycine (PPG). These results provide evidence that CSE-produced hydrogen sulfide protects beta-cells from glucotoxicity via regulation of TBP-2 expression levels and thus prevents the onset/development of type 2 diabetes.
Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to be involved in the signaling of the inflammatory response; however, there are differing views as to whether it is pro- or anti-inflammatory. In this study, we sought to determine whether endogenously synthesized H2S via cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE) plays a pro- or anti-inflammatory role in caerulein-induced pancreatitis. To investigate this, we used mice genetically deficient in CSE to elucidate the function of CSE in caerulein-induced acute pancreatitis. We compared the inflammatory response and tissue damage of wild-type (WT) and CSE knockout (KO) mice following 10 hourly administrations of 50 ?g/kg caerulein or saline control. From this, we found that the CSE KO mice showed significantly less local pancreatic damage as well as acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury compared with the WT mice. There were also lower levels of pancreatic eicosanoid and cytokines, as well as reduced acinar cell NF-?B activation in the CSE KO mice compared with WT mice. Additionally, in WT mice, there was a greater level of pancreatic CSE expression and sulfide-synthesizing activity in caerulein-induced pancreatitis compared with the saline control. When comparing the two saline-treated control groups, we noted that the CSE KO mice showed significantly less pancreatic H2S-synthesizing activity relative to the WT mice. These results indicate that endogenous H2S generated by CSE plays a key proinflammatory role via NF-?B activation in caerulein-induced pancreatitis, and its genetic deletion affords significant protection against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury.
Pyrvinium pamoate (PP), a classical anthelminthic, potently inhibited proliferation and STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation of human myeloma (U266B1 and PCM6)/erythroleukemia (HEL 92.1.7) cells. PCM6 cell proliferation was markedly impaired by STAT3 siRNA knockdown. PP inhibited ATP production/O(2) consumption in those three cells and mitochondrial respiratory complex (I+III, but not II+III) activity in mouse kidney mitochondrial fractions. PP inhibition of ATP production, STAT3 Tyr705 phosphorylation, and proliferation was absent in mitochondrial DNA-deficient HEL 92.1.7-?(0) cells. Moreover, PP acted synergistically with dexamethasone to inhibit PCM6 cell proliferation. In conclusion, we identified PP as a potential anticancer drug directed against mitochondrial respiratory complex I/STAT3.
In vivo imaging of reactive small molecule metabolites with high spatial resolution and specificity could give clues to understanding pathophysiology of various diseases. We herein applied time of flight-secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) to newly developed silver-deposited plates that were stamped on mouse tissues, and succeeded in visualization of halide (Cl(-), Br(-), and I(-)) and pseudohalide thiocyanate (SCN(-)) anions, a class of substrates for neutrophils/eosinophil peroxidases to produce hypohalous acids (HOX/OX(-) mixture; X: (pseudo)halides), as well as hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S). Forty-micrometer frozen mouse kidney sections on cover glasses were attached to 37 °C preheated silver-deposited plates and incubated at -10 °C for 1 h. After sputter cleaning to remove surface contaminants, the plates were analyzed by TOF-SIMS to identify distribution of Br(-), AgBr(2)(-), I(-), AgI(2)(-), SCN(-), as well as S(2-) and AgS(-) as products of tissue-derived H(2)S. Br(-), AgBr(2)(-), I(-), and SCN(-) anions were mainly distributed in core regions including the inner medulla and inner stripe of the outer medulla (except for I(-)), rather than outer regions such as the cortex and outer stripe of the outer medulla. AgI(2)(-) anion was spread over the whole kidney, although its levels were relatively low. In contrast, S(2-) and AgS(-) anions were mainly present in the outer regions. To our knowledge, this is the first imaging study to reveal the distribution of (pseudo)halides and H(2)S in animal tissue sections.
The diverse physiological effects of sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) are mostly mediated by its five cognate G protein-coupled receptors, S1P(1)-S1P(5), which have attracted much attention as future drug targets. To gain insight into S1P(2)-mediated signaling, we analyzed frequent spontaneous seizures in S1P(2)-deficient (S1P(2)(-/-)) mice obtained after several backcrosses onto a C57BL/6N background. Full-time video recording of 120 S1P(2)(-/-) mice identified 420 seizures both day and night between postnatal days 25 and 45, which were accompanied by high-voltage synchronized cortical discharges and a series of typical episodes: wild run, tonic-clonic convulsion, freezing, and, occasionally, death. Nearly 40% of 224 S1P(2)(-/-) mice died after such seizures, while the remaining 60% of the mice survived to adulthood; however, approximately half of the deliveries from S1P(2)(-/-) pregnant mice resulted in neonatal death. In situ hybridization revealed exclusive s1p(2) expression in the hippocampal pyramidal/granular neurons of wild-type mice, and immunohistochemistry/microarray analyses identified enhanced gliosis in the whole hippocampus and its neighboring neocortex in seizure-prone adult S1P(2)(-/-) mice. Seizure-prone adult S1P(2)(-/-) mice displayed impaired spatial working memory in the eight-arm radial maze test and increased anxiety in the elevated plus maze test, whereas their passive avoidance learning memory performance in the step-through test and hippocampal long-term potentiation was indistinguishable from that of wild-type mice. Our findings suggest that blockade of S1P(2) signaling may cause seizures/hippocampal insults and impair some specific central nervous system functions.
Cystathionine ?-lyase (CSE) is one of the major enzymes for the production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S), a multifunctional gasotransmitter in the pancreatic ?-cell. We examined the mechanisms by which glucose induces CSE expression in mouse pancreatic islets and the insulin-secreting cell line MIN6. CSE expression was increased by anti-diabetic sulphonylureas, and decreased by the ATP-sensitive K(+)-channel opener diazoxide and the voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channel blocker nitrendipine. Application of the synthetic inhibitors of protein kinases revealed the involvement of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) II and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) in glucose- and thapsigargin-induced CSE expression. The CaMK II? knockdown also suppressed CSE expression. Knockdown of the transcription factors Sp1 and Elk1, both of which can be phosphorylated by ERK, blunted CSE expression. By a reporter assay, we found Sp1 may directly and Elk1 may indirectly regulate CSE expression. These findings suggest Ca(2+)-dependent CSE expression may be mediated via protein phosphorylation of Sp1 and Elk1 in pancreatic ?-cells.
Fatty liver is one of the typical manifestations in homocysteinemia/homocystinuria patients and their genetic animal model, mice lacking cystathionine ?-synthase (Cbs(-/-)). The vast majority of Cbs(-/-) die within 4 weeks after birth via yet unknown mechanisms, whereas a small portion survive to adulthood, escaping fatty degeneration of the liver during lactation periods, through regeneration. To investigate the molecular basis of such fatty changes, we analyzed lipid components in fatty livers of 2-week-old Cbs(-/-) and regenerated non-fatty livers of 8-week-old Cbs(-/-) survivors using a chip-based nanoESI (electrospray ionization)-MS system, which allows quantitative detection of triacylglycerol/phospholipid molecular species. Hepatic levels of all major triacylglycerol species were much higher in Cbs(-/-) than in wild-type mice at 2 weeks, although not at 8 weeks. Levels of some phospholipid species were either up- or downregulated in 2-week-old Cbs(-/-); e.g. saturated (16:0 and 18:0) or mono-unsaturated (16:1 and 18:1) fatty acids-containing phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylethanolamine species were upregulated, while poly-unsaturated fatty acids-containing phosphatidylcholine (18:2-18:2 and 18:2-20:5), phosphatidylethanolamine (18:1-20:4), and phosphatidylinositol (18:0-20:4) were downregulated. Capillary electrophoresis-MS analysis identified high-level accumulation of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in fatty livers of 2-week-old Cbs(-/-) but much less in non-fatty livers of 8-week-old Cbs(-/-). Although hepatic S-adenosylmethionine/S-adenosylhomocysteine ratios were comparable between 2-week-old Cbs(-/-) and wild-type, global protein arginine methylation was disturbed in fatty livers of Cbs(-/-). Our results suggest that cellular signaling mediated by altered phospholipid contents might be involved in pathogenesis of fatty liver in Cbs(-/-).
Cysteine is considered a nonessential amino acid in mammals as it is synthesized from methionine via trans-sulfuration. However, premature infants or patients with hepatic failure may require dietary cysteine due to a lack of cystathionine gamma-lyase (CTH), a key trans-sulfuration enzyme. Here, we generated CTH-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice as an animal model of cystathioninemia/cystathioninuria. Cth(-/-) mice developed normally in general but displayed hypercystathioninemia/hyperhomocysteinemia though not hypermethioninemia. When fed a low cyst(e)ine diet, Cth(-/-) mice showed acute skeletal muscle atrophy (myopathy) accompanied by enhanced gene expression of asparagine synthetase and reduced contents of glutathione in livers and skeletal muscles, and intracellular accumulation of LC3 and p62 in skeletal myofibers; they finally died of severe paralysis of the extremities. Cth(-/-) hepatocytes required cystine in a culture medium and showed greater sensitivity to oxidative stress. Cth(-/-) mice exhibited systemic vulnerability to oxidative injury, which became more prominent when they were fed the low cyst(e)ine diet. These results reveal novel roles of trans-sulfuration previously unrecognized in mice lacking another trans-sulfuration enzyme cystathionine beta-synthase (Cbs(-/-)). Because Cbs(-/-) mice display hyperhomocysteinemia and hypermethioninemia, our results raise questions against the homocysteine-based etiology of CBS deficiency and the current newborn screening for homocysteinemia using Guthries method, which detects hypermethioninemia.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a potent sphingolipid mediator that acts through five cognate G protein-coupled receptors (S1P(1)-S1P(5)) and regulates many critical biological processes. Recent studies indicated that S1P at nanomolar concentrations significantly reduces cytokine-induced apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells in which genes for S1P(1)-S1P(4) are co-expressed. However, the S1P receptor subtype(s) involved in this effect remains to be clarified. In this study, we investigated the potential role of S1P(2) in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and progression of diabetes. S1P(2)-deficient (S1P(2)(-/-)) mice displayed a greater survive ability, lower blood glucose levels, and smaller numbers of TUNEL-positive apoptotic beta-cells to administration of a high dose of STZ than wild-type (WT) mice. S1P(2)(-/-) mice showed higher insulin/glucose ratios (an index of relative insulin deficiency) and larger insulin-positive islet areas to administration of a low dose of STZ than WT mice. Moreover, administration of JTE-013, a S1P(2)-specific antagonist, to WT mice ameliorated STZ-induced blood glucose elevation and reduced the incidence of diabetes. Our findings indicate that blockade of S1P(2) signaling attenuates STZ-induced apoptosis of pancreatic beta-cells and decreases the incidence of diabetes.
Sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), its product sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), and S1P receptor subtypes have been suggested to play protective roles for cardiomyocytes in animal models of ischaemic preconditioning and cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury. To get more insight into roles for SPHK1 in vivo, we have generated SPHK1-transgenic (TG) mice and analysed the cardiac phenotype.
Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid mediator, stimulates proliferation and contractility in hepatic stellate cells, the principal matrix-producing cells in the liver, and inhibits proliferation via S1P receptor 2 (S1P(2)) in hepatocytes in rats in vitro. A potential role of S1P and S1P(2) in liver regeneration and fibrosis was examined in S1P(2)-deficient mice. Nuclear 5-bromo-2-deoxy-uridine labeling, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) staining in hepatocytes, and the ratio of liver weight to body weight were enhanced at 48 h in S1P(2)-deficient mice after a single carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)) injection. After dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) administration with a lethal dose, PCNA staining in hepatocytes was enhanced at 48 h and survival rate was higher in S1P(2)-deficient mice. Serum aminotransferase level was unaltered in those mice compared with wild-type mice in both CCl(4)- and DMN-induced liver injury, suggesting that S1P(2) inactivation accelerated regeneration not as a response to enhanced liver damage. After chronic CCl(4) administration, fibrosis was less apparent, with reduced expression of smooth-muscle alpha-actin-positive cells in the livers of S1P(2)-deficient mice, suggesting that S1P(2) inactivation ameliorated CCl(4)-induced fibrosis due to the decreased accumulation of hepatic stellate cells. Thus, S1P plays a significant role in regeneration and fibrosis after liver injury via S1P(2).
Pyrvinium pamoate (PP) is an FDA-approved classical anthelmintic, but is now attracting particular attention as an anti-cancer drug after recent findings of its potent cytotoxicity against various cancer cell lines only during glucose starvation, as well as its anti-tumor activity against hypovascular pancreatic cancer cells transplanted in mice. The molecular mechanisms by which PP promotes such preferential toxicity against cancer cells are currently under extensive investigation. PP suppressed the NADH-fumarate reductase system that mediates a reverse reaction of the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex II in anaerobic organisms such as parasitic helminthes or mammalian cells under tumor microenvironment-mimicking hypoglycemic/hypoxic conditions, thereby inhibiting efficient ATP production. PP also inhibited the unfolded protein response induced by glucose starvation, thereby inhibiting the proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. Even under normoglycemic/normoxic conditions, PP suppressed the mitochondrial electron-transport chain complex I and thereby STAT3, inhibiting the proliferation of myeloma/erythroleukemia cells. Here, we review accumulating knowledge on its working mechanisms and evaluate PP as a novel anti-cancer drug that targets mitochondrial respiration.
Physiological roles of the transsulfuration pathway have been recognized by its contribution to the synthesis of cytoprotective cysteine metabolites, such as glutathione, taurine/hypotaurine, and hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S), whereas its roles in protecting against methionine toxicity remained to be clarified. This study aimed at revealing these roles by analyzing high-methionine diet-fed transsulfuration-defective cystathionine ?-lyase-deficient (Cth(-/-)) mice. Wild-type and Cth(-/-) mice were fed a standard diet (1 × Met: 0.44%) or a high-methionine diet (3 × Met or 6 × Met), and hepatic conditions were monitored by serum biochemistry and histology. Metabolome analysis was performed for methionine derivatives using capillary electrophoresis- or liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and sulfur-detecting gas chromatography. The 6 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) (not 1 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) or 6 × Met-fed wild type) mice displayed acute hepatitis, which was characterized by markedly elevated levels of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases and serum/hepatic lipid peroxidation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and hepatocyte ballooning; thereafter, they died of gastrointestinal bleeding due to coagulation factor deficiency. After 1 week on 6 × Met, blood levels of ammonia/homocysteine and hepatic levels of methanethiol/3-methylthiopropionate (a methionine transamination product/methanethiol precursor) became significantly higher in Cth(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Although hepatic levels of methionine sulfoxide became higher in 6 × Met-fed wild-type mice and Cth(-/-) mice, those of glutathione, taurine/hypotaurine, and H(2)S became lower and serum levels of homocysteine became much higher in 6 × Met-fed Cth(-/-) mice than in wild-type mice. Thus, transsulfuration plays a critical role in the detoxification of excessive methionine by circumventing aberrant accumulation of its toxic transamination metabolites, including ammonia, methanethiol, and 3-methylthiopropionate, in addition to synthesizing cysteine-derived antioxidants to counteract accumulated pro-oxidants such as methionine sulfoxide and homocysteine.
Enhancement of cerebral blood flow by hypoxia is critical for brain function, but signaling systems underlying its regulation have been unclear. We report a pathway mediating hypoxia-induced cerebral vasodilation in studies monitoring vascular disposition in cerebellar slices and in intact mouse brains using two-photon intravital laser scanning microscopy. In this cascade, hypoxia elicits cerebral vasodilation via the coordinate actions of H(2)S formed by cystathionine ?-synthase (CBS) and CO generated by heme oxygenase (HO)-2. Hypoxia diminishes CO generation by HO-2, an oxygen sensor. The constitutive CO physiologically inhibits CBS, and hypoxia leads to increased levels of H(2)S that mediate the vasodilation of precapillary arterioles. Mice with targeted deletion of HO-2 or CBS display impaired vascular responses to hypoxia. Thus, in intact adult brain cerebral cortex of HO-2-null mice, imaging mass spectrometry reveals an impaired ability to maintain ATP levels on hypoxia.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.