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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Somatic Mutations in Cerebral Cortical Malformations.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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To the Editor: Jamuar et al. (Aug. 21 issue)(1) showed that targeted high-coverage sequencing is useful in detecting somatic mutations in etiologic genes in DNA obtained from the leukocytes of patients with cerebral cortical malformations. They observed that five of the eight mosaic mutations detected with high-coverage sequencing had been missed by Sanger sequencing because of their low prevalence. The phenotype of disease caused by a mosaic variant was typically milder than that caused by the identical variant occurring as a germline mutation. At what point does the low somatic prevalence of a mutation that has an established cause (when . . .
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Low Blood Pressure, Low Serum Cholesterol and Anemia Predict Early Necessity of Ventricular Assist Device Implantation in Patients With Advanced Heart Failure at the Time of Referral From Non-Ventricular Assist Device Institutes.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Background:The timing of ventricular assist device (VAD) implantation is always a matter of debate, especially when a patient is referred from a non-VAD institute. We focused on objective noninvasive parameters at the time of admission to a VAD implant center and analyzed the factors predicting the necessity of early VAD.Methods?and?Results:We retrospectively analyzed advanced heart failure (HF) patients referred since January 2011, including patients less than 65 years old. They all had a history of hospitalization for HF management in non-VAD institutes within 1 month before referral. We excluded patients transferred with mechanical circulatory support. We enrolled 46 patients (40 males, 39.8±13.4 years old). Among them, 26 patients had a VAD implanted or died within 120 days. By multivariable logistic analysis using admission parameters, systolic blood pressure (BP) <93 mmHg [odds ratio (OR) 13.335], hemoglobin <12.7 g/dl (OR 12.175) and serum total cholesterol <144 mg/dl (OR 8.096) were significant predictors of early VAD requirement. We constructed a scoring system according to the ORs, and the area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.913.Conclusions:Low BP, low serum cholesterol and anemia on admission predict early VAD in advanced HF patients who have been treated in non-VAD institutes. Such patients should be promptly referred to a VAD implant center.
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Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 plays protective roles in heart failure after myocardial infarction via suppression of the cytosolic JNK/p53 pathway in mice.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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Increasing evidence suggests a critical role for mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) in protection against cardiac injuries; however, the downstream cytosolic actions of this enzyme are largely undefined.
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Reduced risk of recurrent myocardial infarction in homozygous carriers of the chromosome 9p21 rs1333049 C risk allele in the contemporary percutaneous coronary intervention era: a prospective observational study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2014
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Chromosome 9p21 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) is a susceptibility variant for acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the primary prevention setting. However, it is controversial whether this SNP is also associated with recurrent myocardial infarction (ReMI) in the secondary prevention setting. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of chromosome 9p21 SNP on ReMI in patients receiving secondary prevention programmes after AMI.
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In-stent restenosis exacerbated by drug-induced severe eosinophilia after second-generation drug-eluting stent implantation.
Am J Case Rep
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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In-stent restenosis (ISR) is still a recognized clinical problem in the era of drug-eluting stent (DES). Some previous studies have suggested that circulating eosinophils play an important role in both restenosis and thrombosis after DES implantation. However, the contribution of eosinophils to the pathogenesis of ISR has not yet been concisely clarified.
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Effects of methylglyoxal on human cardiac fibroblast: roles of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Cardiac fibroblasts contribute to the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling. Methylglyoxal (MG) is an endogenous carbonyl compound produced under hyperglycemic conditions, which may play a role in the development of pathophysiological conditions including diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, the mechanism by which this occurs and the molecular targets of MG are unclear. We investigated the effects of MG on Ca(2+) signals, its underlying mechanism, and cell cycle progression/cell differentiation in human cardiac fibroblasts. The conventional and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blot, immunocytochemical analysis, and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration [Ca(2+)]i measurement were applied. Cell cycle progression was assessed using the fluorescence activated cell sorting. MG induced Ca(2+) entry concentration dependently. Ruthenium red (RR), a general cation channel blocker, and HC030031, a selective transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) antagonist, inhibited MG-induced Ca(2+) entry. Treatment with aminoguanidine, a MG scavenger, also inhibited it. Allyl isothiocyanate, a selective TRPA1 agonist, increased Ca(2+) entry. The use of small interfering RNA to knock down TRPA1 reduced the MG-induced Ca(2+) entry as well as TRPA1 mRNA expression. The quantitative real-time RT-PCR analysis showed the prominent existence of TRPA1 mRNA. Expression of TRPA1 protein was confirmed by Western blotting and immunocytochemical analyses. MG promoted cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S/G2/M, which was suppressed by HC030031 or RR. MG also enhanced ?-smooth muscle actin expression. The present results suggest that methylglyoxal activates TRPA1 and promotes cell cycle progression and differentiation in human cardiac fibroblasts. MG might participate the development of pathophysiological conditions including diabetic cardiomyopathy via activation of TRPA1.
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Glucocorticoids Induce Cardiac Fibrosis via Mineralocorticoid Receptor in Oxidative Stress: Contribution of Elongation Factor Eleven-Nineteen Lysine-Rich Leukemia (ELL).
Yonago Acta Med
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Cardiac fibrosis is considered to be a crucial factor in the development of heart failure. Blockade of the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) attenuated cardiac fibrosis and improved the prognosis of patients with chronic heart failure but the ligand for MR and the regulatory mechanism of MR pathway in the diseased heart are unclear. Here, we investigated whether glucocorticoids can promote cardiac fibrosis through MR in oxidative stress and the involvement of elongation factor eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia (ELL), a co-activator of MR, in this pathway.
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Low cardiac output stimulates vasopressin release in patients with stage d heart failure.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
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Depressed hemodynamics stimulates arginine vasopressin (AVP) release, but the relationship between plasma AVP levels (P-AVP) and cardiac parameters, especially in patients with stage D heart failure (HF) receiving guideline-directed medical therapy, has not examined. METHODS?AND?RESULTS: Data including P-AVP were obtained from 162 in-hospital patients with stage D HF and from 80 patients receiving ventricular assist device (VAD, n=46) or heart transplantation (HTx, n=34) at 3 months after surgery. In the HF group, considerably high P-AVP (5.9±6.1 pg/ml) negatively correlated with serum sodium concentration (S-Na, 135.3±5.8 mEq/L, r=-0.548 [P<0.01]) and cardiac index (CI, 2.2±0.5 L·min(-1)·m(-2), r=-0.458 [P<0.01]). After VAD/HTx treatment, improvement in the CI (2.7±0.5 L·min(-1)·m(-2)[P<0.01] vs. HF) was accompanied by normalization of serum sodium concentration (S-Na; 138.2±2.0 mEq/L [P<0.01] vs. HF) and suppressed release of AVP (1.7±3.4 pg/ml [P<0.01] vs. HF). P-AVP positively correlated with only S-Na (r=0.454 [P<0.01]), whereas no correlation was observed with CI after VAD/HTx treatment. P-AVP ?5.3 pg/ml well predicted poor 2-year survival in HF group (60% [P<0.01] vs. 90%).
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Myocardium-derived angiopoietin-1 is essential for coronary vein formation in the developing heart.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The origin and developmental mechanisms underlying coronary vessels are not fully elucidated. Here we show that myocardium-derived angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) is essential for coronary vein formation in the developing heart. Cardiomyocyte-specific Ang1 deletion results in defective formation of the subepicardial coronary veins, but had no significant effect on the formation of intramyocardial coronary arteries. The endothelial cells (ECs) of the sinus venosus (SV) are heterogeneous population, composed of APJ-positive and APJ-negative ECs. Among these, the APJ-negative ECs migrate from the SV into the atrial and ventricular myocardium in Ang1-dependent manner. In addition, Ang1 may positively regulate venous differentiation of the subepicardial APJ-negative ECs in the heart. Consistently, in vitro experiments show that Ang1 indeed promotes venous differentiation of the immature ECs. Collectively, our results indicate that myocardial Ang1 positively regulates coronary vein formation presumably by promoting the proliferation, migration and differentiation of immature ECs derived from the SV.
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ENPP2 Contributes to Adipose Tissue Expansion and Insulin Resistance in Diet-Induced Obesity.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Body weight is tightly regulated by food intake and energy dissipation, and obesity is related to decreased energy expenditure (EE). Herein, we show that nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2, autotaxin) is an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that controls adipose expansion, brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, and EE. In mice, Enpp2 was highly expressed in visceral white adipose tissue and BAT and is downregulated in hypertrophied adipocytes/adipose tissue. Enpp2(+/-) mice and adipocyte-specific Enpp2 knockout mice fed a high-fat diet showed smaller body weight gains and less insulin resistance than control mice fed the same diet. BAT was functionally more active and EE was increased in Enpp2-deficient mice. In humans, ENPP2 expression in subcutaneous fat and ENPP2 levels in serum were reduced in obese subjects. Taken together, our results establish ENPP2 as an adipose-derived, secreted enzyme that regulates adipose obesity and systemic metabolism. They also suggest ENPP2 could be a useful therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disease.
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Increased urine aquaporin-2 relative to plasma arginine vasopressin is a novel marker of response to tolvaptan in patients with decompensated heart failure.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Preserved function of the renal collecting duct may be essential for response to the vasopressin V2receptor antagonist, tolvaptan (TLV), but the predictors of response to TLV are unknown. METHODS?AND?RESULTS: Sixty consecutive patients with stage D decompensated heart failure (HF) who had received TLV on a de novo basis were retrospectively enrolled (TLV(+) group). Among them, 41 patients were responders defined according to urine volume (UV) increase after TLV initiation. In the UV-defined responders, plasma arginine vasopressin (P-AVP) had a close correlation with urine aquaporin-2 (U-AQP2; 5.42±3.54 ng/ml; r=0.843, P<0.001). In contrast, 19 were UV-defined non-responders, and they had extremely low U-AQP2 (0.76±0.59 ng/ml, P<0.001 vs. responders) regardless of P-AVP level. On receiver operating characteristic analysis, U-AQP2/P-AVP ?0.5×10(3)clearly separated the UV-defined responders from the non-responders. We then identified AQP-defined responders as having U-AQP2/P-AVP ?0.5×10(3). Sixty propensity score-matched HF patients without TLV treatment were examined, and exactly the same number of patients as that of the AQP-defined responders (n=41) was selected. These patients had a poorer survival without TLV than the TLV-treated responders during a 2-year observation period (73.8% vs. 94.8%, P=0.034).
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Association of lifestyle-related factors with circadian onset patterns of acute myocardial infarction: a prospective observational study in Japan.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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The onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) shows characteristic circadian variations involving a definite morning peak and a less-defined night-time peak. However, the factors influencing the circadian patterns of AMI onset and their influence on morning and night-time peaks have not been fully elucidated.
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Calpain-dependent cleavage of N-cadherin is involved in the progression of post-myocardial infarction remodeling.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Enzymatic proteolysis by calpains, Ca(2+)-dependent intracellular cysteine proteases, has been implicated in pathological processes such as cellular degeneration or death. Here, we investigated the role of calpain activation in the hearts subjected to myocardial infarction. We produced myocardial infarction in Cast(-/-) mice deficient for calpastatin, the specific endogenous inhibitory protein for calpains, and Cast(+/+) mice. The activity of cardiac calpains in Cast(+/+) mice was not elevated within 1 day but showed a gradual elevation after 7 days following myocardial infarction, which was further pronounced in Cast(-/-) mice. Although the prevalence of cardiomyocyte death was indistinguishable between Cast(-/-) and Cast(+/+) mice, Cast(-/-) mice exhibited profound contractile dysfunction and chamber dilatation and showed a significant reduction in survival rate after myocardial infarction as compared with Cast(+/+) mice. Notably, immunofluorescence revealed that at 28 days after myocardial infarction, calpains were activated in cardiomyocytes exclusively at the border zone and that Cast(-/-) mice showed higher intensity and a broader extent of calpain activation at the border zone than Cast(+/+) mice. In the border zone of Cast(-/-) mice, pronounced activation of calpains was associated with a decrease in N-cadherin expression and up-regulation of molecular markers for cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes, calpain activation by treatment with ionomycin induced cleavage of N-cadherin and decreased expression levels of ?-catenin and connexin 43, which was attenuated by calpain inhibitor. These results thus demonstrate that activation of calpains disassembles cell-cell adhesion at intercalated discs by degrading N-cadherin and thereby promotes left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction.
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Excitation propagation in three-dimensional engineered hearts using decellularized extracellular matrix.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Engineering of three-dimensional (3D) cardiac tissues using decellularized extracellular matrix could be a new technique to create an "organ-like" structure of the heart. To engineer artificial hearts functionally comparable to native hearts, however, much remain to be solved including stable excitation-propagation. To elucidate the points, we examined conduction properties of engineered tissues. We repopulated the decellularized hearts with neonatal rat cardiac cells and then, we observed excitation-propagation of spontaneous beatings using high resolution cameras. We also conducted immunofluorescence staining to examine morphological aspects. Live tissue imaging revealed that GFP-labeled-isolated cardiac cells were migrated into interstitial spaces through extravasation from coronary arteries. Engineered hearts repopulated with Ca(2+)-indicating protein (GCaMP2)-expressing cardiac cells were subjected to optical imaging experiments. Although the engineered hearts generally showed well-organized stable excitation-propagation, the hearts also demonstrated arrhythmogenic propensity such as disorganized propagation. Immunofluorescence study revealed randomly-mixed alignment of cardiomyocytes, endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells. The recellularized hearts also showed disarray of cardiomyocytes and markedly decreased expression of connexin43. In conclusion, we successfully demonstrated that the recellularized hearts showed dynamic excitation-propagation as a "whole organ". Our strategy could provide prerequisite information to construct a 3D-engineered heart, functionally comparable to the native heart.
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High incidence of periodontitis in Japanese patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Periodontitis is known to be a risk factor for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). However, the influence of periodontitis on AAA in Japanese patients has not yet been elucidated. The aim of this clinical investigation was to assess the relationship between periodontal bacterial burden in AAA patients.We studied 12 AAA patients and 24 age- and sex-matched non-AAA cardiovascular patients. We examined periodontitis and the presence of the periodontal pathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Prevotella intermedia in oral samples using polymerase chain reaction assays.We found that the AAA patients had deeper pocket depth compared to the non-AAA patients (3.53 ± 0.38 mm versus 2.67 ± 0.17 mm, P < 0.05). However, the populations of periodontal bacteria were comparable between the two groups. Periodontitis may have a greater effect on aneurysm progression compared to other cardiovascular diseases.
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Assessment of quality of life during long-term treatment of tolvaptan in refractory heart failure: design and rationale of the AQUA-TLV study.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The vasopressin type 2 receptor antagonist tolvaptan (TLV) has recently become available to treat congestion in in-hospital patients with heart failure (HF). However, there is no evidence confirming the long-term efficacy of TLV. The Assessment of Quality of life during long-term treatment of TLV in refractory heart failure (AQUA-TLV) study is a multicenter, open-labeled, randomized, controlled clinical trial that will enroll 100 patients from 18 hospitals in Japan. Patients with HF assigned to New York Heart Association class III or IV, who had a previous history of hospitalization due to congestive HF during the past 1 year and ongoing symptomatic congestion with baseline urine osmolality > 350 mOsm/L regardless of being prescribed daily furosemide ? 60 mg are randomized to the conventional diuretics group (50 patients) and TLV add-on group (50 patients), and their quality of life will be assessed using the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire after 6 months of treatment. This study is the first multicenter prospective randomized study in Japan to evaluate the long-term clinical effectiveness of TLV compared with conventional treatment in patients with congestive HF (UMIN Clinical Trial Registry Number: UMIN 000009604).
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Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system polymorphisms and 5-year mortality in survivors of acute myocardial infarction: a report from the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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This study sought to evaluate whether genetic variants in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) have an impact on long-term mortality after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in the percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) era. We investigated the impacts of individual and combinations of 4 major RAAS genetic variants, angiotensinogen (AGT) T1311C, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion (I/D), angiotensin 2 type 1 receptor A1166C, and aldosterone synthase T4660C on 5-year mortality in 3149 post-AMI patients using multivariate Cox regression analysis. The predictive accuracy of all possible RAAS genetic combinations was evaluated using Cox regression analysis, and the best combination that affected prognosis was determined based on the minimal Akaike Information Criterion. There were 220 deaths during a median follow-up of 4.9 years. Independent analyses of any single RAAS variant did not show significant impacts on 5-year mortality. However, analyses in combination revealed that absence of both AGT CC genotype and ACE D allele was associated with lower 5-year mortality (log-rank P = 0.005). Patients with at least either of the AGT CC or ACE D allele had increased mortality with adjusted hazard ratios of 2.07 (95% confidence interval 1.18-3.65, P = 0.012), compared with those with neither the AGT CC nor ACE D allele. Among the 4 RAAS genetic variants examined, a combination of AGT and ACE polymorphisms was associated with 5-year mortality after AMI.
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A genome-wide association study identifies PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for myocardial infarction in Japanese.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Despite considerable progress in preventive and therapeutic strategies, myocardial infarction (MI) is one of the leading causes of death throughout the world. A total of 55 susceptibility genes have been identified mostly in European genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Nevertheless, large-scale GWAS from other population could possibly find additional susceptibility loci. To identify as many MI susceptibility loci as possible, we performed a large-scale genomic analysis in Japanese population. To identify MI susceptibility loci in Japanese, we conducted a GWAS using 1666 cases and 3198 controls using the Illumina Human610-Quad BeadChip and HumanHap550v3 Genotyping BeadChip. We performed replication studies using a total of 11?412 cases and 28?397 controls in the Japanese population. Our study identified two novel susceptibility loci for MI: PLCL2 on chromosome 3p24.3 (rs4618210:A>G, P=2.60 × 10(-9), odds ratio (OR)=0.91) and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 on chromosome 19p13.3 (rs3803915:A>C, P=3.84 × 10(-9), OR=0.89). Besides, a total of 14 previously reported MI susceptibility loci were replicated in our study. In particular, we validated a strong association on chromosome 12q24 (rs3782886:A>G: P=1.14 × 10(-14), OR=1.46). Following pathway analysis using 265 genes related to MI or coronary artery disease, we found that these loci might be involved in the pathogenesis of MI via the promotion of atherosclerosis. In the present large-scale genomic analysis, we identified PLCL2 and AP3D1-DOT1L-SF3A2 as new susceptibility loci for MI in the Japanese population. Our findings will add novel findings for MI susceptibility loci.European Journal of Human Genetics advance online publication, 11 June 2014; doi:10.1038/ejhg.2014.110.
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The Relationship between Vascular Function and the Autonomic Nervous System.
Ann Vasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Endothelial dysfunction and autonomic nervous system dysfunction are both risk factors for atherosclerosis. There is evidence demonstrating that there is a close interrelationship between these two systems. In hypertension, endothelial dysfunction affects the pathologic process through autonomic nervous pathways, and the pathophysiological process of autonomic neuropathy in diabetes mellitus is closely related with vascular function. However, detailed mechanisms of this interrelationship have not been clearly explained. In this review, we summarize findings concerning the interrelationship between vascular function and the autonomic nervous system from both experimental and clinical studies. The clarification of this interrelationship may provide more comprehensive risk stratification and a new effective therapeutic strategy against atherosclerosis.
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Introduction of point-of-care testing in Japanese outpatient clinics is associated with improvement in time in therapeutic range in anticoagulant-treated patients.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Warfarin reduces the risk of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation, but requires a moderate-to-high time in therapeutic range (TTR). We hypothesized that point-of-care (POC) testing for prothrombin time-internationalized normalized ratio (PT-INR) could improve the TTR in patients receiving warfarin.
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Status 2 patients had poor prognosis without mechanical circulatory support.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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Indication for mechanical circulatory support (MCS) has been a matter of debate in less sick status 2 patients.
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Incidence of periodontitis in Japanese patients with cardiovascular diseases: a comparison between abdominal aortic aneurysm and arrhythmia.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Although there is a link between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease (CVD), the influence of periodontitis on CVD is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between periodontal bacterial burden and CVD. We studied 142 patients with tachyarrhythmia (TA) and 25 patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). We examined periodontitis and the presence of Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Prevotella intermedia in the patients' saliva and subgingival plaque using PCR. We also measured serum antibody titers against the pathogens using ELISA. We found that the patients with AAA had fewer remaining teeth (14.6 ± 2.0 vs. 20.9 ± 0.7, P < 0.05) and deeper pocket depth (3.01 ± 0.26 vs. 2.52 ± 0.05 mm, P < 0.05) compared to the TA patients. The existence of each periodontal bacterium in their saliva or subgingival plaque and serum antibody titers was comparable between the two groups. Periodontitis may have a larger affect on aneurysm progression compared to arrhythmia.
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Midterm outcome of implantable left ventricular assist devices as a bridge to transplantation: Single-center experience in Japan.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Two implantable continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), DuraHeart (Terumo Heart, Ann Arbor, MI, USA) and EVAHEART (Sun Medical, Nagano, Japan), were approved in Japan in April 2011. We analyzed the midterm outcome of patients implanted with these implantable LVADs at the University of Tokyo Hospital.
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Cardiac allograft vasculopathy can be distinguished from donor-transmitted coronary atherosclerosis by optical coherence tomography imaging in a heart transplantation recipient: double layered intimal thickness.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Although survival after heart transplantation (HTx) has improved in recent years, cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) is still the leading cause of remote morbidity and mortality in HTx recipients, partly because of difficulty with its diagnosis. In general, routine surveillance for CAV is advocated with coronary angiography accompanied by intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) if necessary. However, these modalities have limitations with respect to low spatial resolution, and sufficient qualitative/quantitative assessment of coronary intima has not been accomplished. Recently, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has emerged as a novel intracoronary imaging technique using an optical analogue of ultrasound with a spatial resolution of 10-20 µm, which is 10 times greater than IVUS. We here experienced a 49-year-old male who received a HTx 3 years ago, and OCT was executed during low molecular weight dextran injection. OCT demonstrated distinct double intimal layers probably consisting of a donor-transmitted atherosclerotic layer and an inner intimal proliferation due to CAV, which was indistinguishable by IVUS and virtual histological analyses. We believe that OCT imaging is not only a new loadstar during treatment of CAV but also a new generation modality for screening for early CAV in HTx recipients.
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Urine sodium excretion after tolvaptan administration is dependent upon baseline serum sodium levels: a possible explanation for the improvement of hyponatremia with scarce chance of hypernatremia by a vasopressin receptor antagonist.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Several studies have demonstrated that tolvaptan (TLV) can improve hyponatremia in advanced heart failure (HF) patients with rare chance of hypernatremia. However, changes in serum sodium concentrations (S-Na) in patients with or without hyponatremia during TLV treatment have not been analyzed.Ninety-seven in-hospital patients with decompensated HF who had received TLV at 3.75-15 mg/day for 1 week were enrolled. Among 68 "responders", who had achieved any increases in urine volume (UV) during the fi rst day, urinary sodium excretion during 24 hours (U-NaEx(24)) increased significantly during one week of TLV treatment along with higher baseline S-Na (P < 0.05 and r = 0.325). Considering a cut-off value (S-Na, 132 mEq/L; AUC, 0.711) for any increases in U-NaEx(24), we defined "hyponatremia" as S-Na < 132 mEq/L. In hyponatremic responders (n = 25), S-Na increased significantly, although 1 week was not sufficient for normalization (125.8 ± 5.0 versus 128.9 ± 4.3 mEq/L, P < 0.05), along with unchanged U-NaEx(24) (2767 ± 2703 versus 2972 ± 2950 mg/day, NS). In contrast, in normonatremic responders (n = 43), S-Na remained unchanged (136.6 ± 3.1 versus 137.4 ± 2.9 mEq/L, NS) along with increased U-NaEx(24) (2201 ± 1644 versus 4198 ± 3550 mg/day, P < 0.05). TLV increased S-Na only in hyponatremic responders by way of pure aquaresis, but increased U-NaEx(24) only in normonatremic responders, which explains the scarcity of hypernatremia. Epithelial Na-channels in the distal nephrons, whose repression by TLV increases urinary sodium excretion, may be attenuated by reduced ATP-supply in worse hemodynamics under hyponatremia.
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Angiopoietin-1 suppresses choroidal neovascularization and vascular leakage.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To investigate the role of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) in choroidal neovascularization (CNV) and vascular leakage.
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Pathophysiology and Japanese clinical characteristics in Marfan syndrome.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Marfan syndrome is an autosomal dominant heritable disorder of the connective tissue, caused by mutations of the gene FBN1, which encodes fibrillin-1, a major component of the microfibrils of the extracellular matrix. Fibrillin-1 interacts with transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?), and dysregulated TGF-? signaling plays a major role in the development of connective tissue disease and familial aortic aneurysm and dissection, including Marfan syndrome. Losartan, an angiotensin II blocker, has the potential to reduce TGF-? signaling and is expected to be an additional therapeutic option. Clinical diagnosis is made using the Ghent nosology, which requires comprehensive patient assessment and has been proven to work well, but evaluation of some of the diagnostic criteria by a single physician is difficult and time-consuming. A Marfan clinic was established at the University of Tokyo Hospital in 2005, together with cardiologists, cardiac surgeons, pediatricians, orthopedists, and ophthalmologists in one place, for the purpose of speedy and accurate evaluation and diagnosis of Marfan syndrome. In this review, we discuss the recent progress in diagnosis and treatment of Marfan syndrome, and the characteristics of Japanese patients with Marfan syndrome.
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Comparison of 5-year survival after acute myocardial infarction using angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor versus angiotensin II receptor blocker.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Few studies have investigated whether angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) is a practical alternative to angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) for long-term use after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in real-world practice in the percutaneous coronary intervention era. We compared 5-year survival benefits of ACEI and ARB in patients with AMI registered in the Osaka Acute Coronary Insufficiency Study. Study subjects were divided into 3 groups: ACEI (n = 4,425), ARB (n = 2,158), or patients without either drug (n = 2,442). A total of 661 deaths were recorded. Cox regression analysis revealed that treatment with either ACEI or ARB was associated with reduced 5-year mortality (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.70, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.58 to 0.83, p <0.001 and HR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64 to 0.98, p = 0.03, respectively). However, Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox regression analyses based on propensity score revealed that ACEI was associated with better survival than ARB from 2 to 5 years after survival discharge (adjusted HR 0.53, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.74, p <0.001). These findings were confirmed in a propensity score-matched population. In conclusion, treatment with ACEI was associated with better 5-year survival after AMI.
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Effect of purified eicosapentaenoic acid on red cell distribution width in patients with ischemic heart disease.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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A recent study showed eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) is a promising treatment for prevention of coronary events in hypercholesterolemic patients. Meanwhile, a high red blood cell distribution width (RDW) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular events. However, few studies have addressed the association between EPA levels and RDW. We examined whether EPA administration reduced the levels of RDW in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We retrospectively analyzed the data of 66 EPA-treated IHD patients, and these EPA-treated patients were compared with control IHD patients. The median follow-up period was 189 days in EPA-treated patients. All patients were not associated with anemia. In the follow-up period, the ratio of EPA levels to arachidonic acid levels (EPA/AA) was significantly increased. A significant decrease was observed in RDW at follow-up [?RDW (%); EPA vs. control = -0.34 ± 0.84 (SD) vs. 0.08 ± 0.86, P < 0.01]. These RDW changes were more marked in diabetic patients with high serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) [?RDW (%); EPA vs. control = -0.53 ± 0.69 vs. 0.56 ± 0.85, P < 0.01]. There was no correlation between the amount of change in EPA/AA and RDW (R = 0.037, P = 0.32), but a significant negative correlation was observed in diabetic patients with high hs-CRP levels (N = 14, R = -0.506, P = 0.046). In conclusion, EPA has the potential to reduce RDW in IHD patients. This effect was intensified especially among diabetic patients with high hs-CRP levels. IHD patients with high RDW levels may be suitable for treatment with purified EPA.
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Knockdown of nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 induces mesoderm formation and cardiomyogenesis via notch signaling in murine-induced pluripotent stem cells.
Stem Cells
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Low efficiency of cardiomyocyte differentiation from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) hinders the clinical application of iPSC technology for cardiac repair strategy. Recently, we screened out nucleosome assembly protein 1-like 1 (Nap1l1), which was downregulated during the differentiation of P19CL6 cells into cardiomyocytes. Here, we attempted to study the role of Nap1l1 in cardiomyogenesis of iPSC. Nap1l1 was downregulated during the differentiation of iPSC. Knockdown of Nap1l1 dramatically enhanced the differentiation of iPSC into functional cardiomyocytes while overexpression of Nap1l1 sharply lowered the differentiation. Moreover, although Nap1l1-knockdown had little effect on endoderm differentiation, the Nap1l1 modulation significantly accelerated mesoderm development. Re-expressing Nap1l1 in Nap1l1-knockdown-iPSC rescued the effects of Nap1l1. Inducibly overexpressing Nap1l1 at early stage of differentiation greatly inhibited mesoderm induction and cardiogenesis of iPSC. However, mesoderm stem cells (Flk-1-positive cells) originated from Nap1l1-knockdown- or -overexpression-iPSC showed no difference in further cardiomyocyte differentiation compared with that of control-iPSC. Further study revealed that Nap1l1-overexpression increased ?-secretase activity and the expression of Notch intracellular domain (NICD) and downstream genes during the differentiation of iPSC. ?-Secretase inhibitor DAPT (N-[N-(3,5-difluorophenacetyl)-L-alanyl]-S-phenylglycinet-butyl ester) greatly suppressed the production of NICD and abolished the inhibitory effects of Nap1l1-overexpression on mesoderm induction and cardiogenesis. These findings demonstrate that downregulation of Nap1l1 significantly enhances mesodermal induction and subsequent cardiogenesis of murine iPSC via inhibition of ?-secretase-regulated Notch signaling, which would facilitate the application of iPSC in heart diseases.
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Laparoscopic resection of a gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the lower rectum in a patient with coronary artery disease following long-term neoadjuvant imatinib treatment and anticoagulation therapy.
World J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Surgery is the mainstay of treatment for gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). However, complete resection of rectal GISTs is sometimes difficult because of bulkiness and/or anatomical reasons. Neoadjuvant imatinib therapy has gained attention as an alternative treatment to increase the chance of en bloc resection of rectal GISTs, although it usually takes several months. In this case report, we first demonstrated that neoadjuvant imatinib therapy can be performed safely not only to downsize tumors, but also to allow adequate time for the effective treatment of major comorbid illnesses. A 74-year-old man was diagnosed with a 45 mm GIST of the lower rectum. He also had severe stenosis in the proximal segment of the left anterior descending coronary artery. Following the implantation of a drug-eluting stent, the patient received imatinib together with dual anti-platelet therapy for 12 months without obvious side effects. Follow-up image studies revealed tumor shrinkage as well as stent patency. En bloc resection of the GIST was performed laparoscopically, which preserved the anus. The patient is currently alive without any evidence of relapse for 12 months after surgery.
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Association between serum IgG4 concentrations and the morphology of the aorta in patients who undergo cardiac computed tomography.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4)-related disease has been suggested to be involved in cardiovascular disorders such as chronic periaortitis. However, it remains unclear whether IgG4-related immuno-inflammation affects the subclinical stages of aortic remodeling. Here, we analyzed the relationship between serum IgG4 concentrations and the morphology of the ascending aorta.
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Influence of Municipality-Level Mean Income on Access to Aortic Valve Surgery: A Cross-Sectional Observational Study under Japan's Universal Health-Care Coverage.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Universal health-care coverage has attracted the interest of policy makers as a way of achieving health equity. However, previous reports have shown that despite universal coverage, socioeconomic disparity persists in access to high-tech invasive care, such as cardiac treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between socioeconomic status and care of aortic stenosis in the context of Japan's health-care system, which is mainly publicly funded.
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Elevated C-Reactive Protein Levels and Enhanced High Frequency Vasomotion in Patients with Ischemic Heart Disease during Brachial Flow-Mediated Dilation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The physiological role of vasomotion, rhythmic oscillations in vascular tone or diameter, and its underlying mechanisms are unknown. We investigated the characteristics of brachial artery vasomotion in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD).
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Telmisartan activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase via Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Because endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) has anti-inflammatory and anti-arteriosclerotic functions, it has been recognized as one of the key molecules essential for the homeostatic control of blood vessels other than relaxation of vascular tone. Here, we examined whether telmisartan modulates eNOS function through its pleiotropic effect. Administration of telmisartan to mice significantly increased the phosphorylation level of eNOS (Ser1177) in the aortic endothelium, but administration of valsartan had no effect. Similarly, telmisartan treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells significantly increased the phosphorylation levels of AMP-activated protein kinase (Thr172) and eNOS and the concentration of intracellular guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, pretreatment with a p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) inhibitor suppressed the increased phosphorylation level of eNOS and intracellular cGMP concentration. These data show that telmisartan increases eNOS activity through Ser1177 phosphorylation in vascular endothelial cells mainly via p38 MAPK signaling.
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The ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, attenuates abdominal aortic aneurysm development via suppression of tissue remodeling.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a prevalent vascular disease that can progressively enlarge and rupture with a high rate of mortality. Inflammation and active remodeling of the aortic wall have been suggested to be critical in its pathogenesis. Meanwhile, ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) are known to reduce cardiovascular events, but its role in AAA management remains unclear. Here, we show that EPA can attenuate murine CaCl2-induced AAA formation. Aortas from BALB/c mice fed an EPA-diet appeared less inflamed, were significantly smaller in diameter compared to those from control-diet-fed mice, and had relative preservation of aortic elastic lamina. Interestingly, CT imaging also revealed markedly reduced calcification of the aortas after EPA treatment. Mechanistically, MMP2, MMP9, and TNFSF11 levels in the aortas were reduced after EPA treatment. Consistent with this finding, RAW264.7 macrophages treated with EPA showed attenuated Mmp9 levels after TNF-? simulation. These results demonstrate a novel role of EPA in attenuating AAA formation via the suppression of critical remodeling pathways in the pathogenesis of AAAs, and raise the possibility of using EPA for AAA prevention in the clinical setting.
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Periodontitis in cardiovascular disease patients with or without Marfan syndrome--a possible role of Prevotella intermedia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Although periodontitis is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), the influence of periodontitis on Marfan syndrome (MFS) with CVD is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between periodontal bacterial burden and MSF with CVD.
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Src is required for mechanical stretch-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through angiotensin II type 1 receptor-dependent ?-arrestin2 pathways.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 receptor (AT1-R) can be activated by mechanical stress (MS) without the involvement of AngII during the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, in which G protein-independent pathways are critically involved. Although ?-arrestin2-biased signaling has been speculated, little is known about how AT1-R/?-arrestin2 leads to ERK1/2 activation. Here, we present a novel mechanism by which Src kinase mediates AT1-R/?-arrestin2-dependent ERK1/2 phosphorylation in response to MS. Differing from stimulation by AngII, MS-triggered ERK1/2 phosphorylation is neither suppressed by overexpression of RGS4 (the negative regulator of the G-protein coupling signal) nor by inhibition of G?q downstream protein kinase C (PKC) with GF109203X. The release of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) is increased by AngII but not by MS. These results collectively suggest that MS-induced ERK1/2 activation through AT1-R might be independent of G-protein coupling. Moreover, either knockdown of ?-arrestin2 or overexpression of a dominant negative mutant of ?-arrestin2 prevents MS-induced activation of ERK1/2. We further identifies a relationship between Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase and ?-arrestin2 using analyses of co-immunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence after MS stimulation. Furthermore, MS-, but not AngII-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation is attenuated by Src inhibition, which also significantly improves pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction in mice lacking AngII. Finally, MS-induced Src activation and hypertrophic response are abolished by candesartan but not by valsartan whereas AngII-induced responses can be abrogated by both blockers. Our results suggest that Src plays a critical role in MS-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through ?-arrestin2-associated angiotensin II type 1 receptor signaling.
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Evaluation of intramitochondrial ATP levels identifies G0/G1 switch gene 2 as a positive regulator of oxidative phosphorylation.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 12-16-2013
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The oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) system generates most of the ATP in respiring cells. ATP-depleting conditions, such as hypoxia, trigger responses that promote ATP production. However, how OXPHOS is regulated during hypoxia has yet to be elucidated. In this study, selective measurement of intramitochondrial ATP levels identified the hypoxia-inducible protein G0/G1 switch gene 2 (G0s2) as a positive regulator of OXPHOS. A mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor enabled us to assess OXPHOS activity in living cells. Mitochondria-targeted, FRET-based ATP biosensor and ATP production assay in a semiintact cell system revealed that G0s2 increases mitochondrial ATP production. The expression of G0s2 was rapidly and transiently induced by hypoxic stimuli, and G0s2 interacts with OXPHOS complex V (FoF1-ATP synthase). Furthermore, physiological enhancement of G0s2 expression prevented cells from ATP depletion and induced a cellular tolerance for hypoxic stress. These results show that G0s2 positively regulates OXPHOS activity by interacting with FoF1-ATP synthase, which causes an increase in ATP production in response to hypoxic stress and protects cells from a critical energy crisis. These findings contribute to the understanding of a unique stress response to energy depletion. Additionally, this study shows the importance of assessing intramitochondrial ATP levels to evaluate OXPHOS activity in living cells.
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The periodontal pathogen aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans affects experimental autoimmune myocarditis in mice.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Recent reports assert that dental health is linked to an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is well known that Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a.) is highly associated with heart disease. Indeed, we previously reported that A.a. affects the development of heart disease in a mouse model. However, no reports have clarified the relationship between A.a. and experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of A.a. on EAM in mice. EAM was induced via the injection of cardiac myosin into the mice. A.a. or PBS was then injected into the mice using a chamber implanted into the back of each mouse. The weight of the organs and echocardiograms were obtained and a pathological analysis and quantitative RT-PCR were performed. Echocardiography showed that no statistical difference was observed between the two groups. A histopathological analysis demonstrated that the number of areas affected by myocarditis in the A.a.-injected EAM group was significantly increased compared to that observed in the PBS-injected EAM group (P < 0.05). The hearts of the mice in the A.a.-injected EAM group exhibited signifi cantly increased expressions of MMP-9 mRNA compared to the hearts of the mice in the PBS-injected EAM group (P < 0.05). These results show that A.a. aggravated EAM via an enhanced MMP expression.
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Tocilizumab for the treatment of patients with refractory takayasu arteritis.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Treatment of refractory Takayasu arteritis (TA) remains an unresolved clinical issue. Patients usually respond to glucocorticoid (GC) therapy, but often relapse on tapering of the GC dose. The aim of the present study was to assess the safety and efficacy of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) in patients with TA refractory to conventional therapies including GC. Four patients with TA who had shown GC resistance received TCZ infusions (8 mg/kg) every 4 weeks a total of at least 24 times (range, 24 to 51). Clinical symptoms, the serum levels of acute phase proteins and IL-6, GC dosage necessary to maintain remission, and cross-sectional imaging by enhanced CT and MRI were assessed. All patients achieved good clinical response and rapid normalization of the acute phase proteins such as C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A during the therapy with TCZ. The mean dosage of prednisolone could be reduced from 21.3 mg/day to 1.5 mg/day. Although the serum IL-6 level was transiently elevated in all patients after several TCZ infusions, it gradually recovered to the initial level. Along with the decrease of serum IL-6, two patients exhibited signifi cant reduction in thickened arterial lesions. No drug-related adverse effects were noted. In this small group of patients with refractory TA, TCZ therapy was effective and well-tolerated. Further larger studies should be conducted to confirm this finding.
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Insufficient self-care is an independent risk factor for adverse clinical outcomes in Japanese patients with heart failure.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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Self-care is a cornerstone for the successful management of heart failure (HF). The purpose of this study was to examine the impacts of HF self-care on prognosis in Japanese patients with HF. A total of 283 HF outpatients (age 64 ± 14, 70% male, 52% HFrEF) were enrolled. We asked patients to answer about their adhevence to 5 self-care behaviors (medication, eating a low-sodium diet, regular exercise, daily weight check, and treatment seeking behavior). On the basis of the results, we classified patients into a good self-care group and a poor self-care group. The primary outcome was HF hospitalization and/or cardiac death. In total, 65% of patients were classifi ed into the poor self-care group. During a median follow-up of 2 years, cardiac events occurred more frequently in the poor self-care group (22% versus 9.6%, P = 0.013). Poor self-care was an independent risk factor for cardiac events in Cox regression analysis adjusted for clinical parameters (hazard ratio = 2.86, P = 0.005). Poor self-care was also associated with an increased number of HF hospitalizations as well as an extended length of hospital stay for HF. Poor knowledge about HF was an independent determinant for poor self-care in multivariate logistic regression analysis (odds ratio = 0.92, P = 0.019). Insufficient self-care is an independent risk factor for cardiac events in Japanese patients with HF.
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Tolvaptan can improve clinical course in responders.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2013
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We previously defined "responders" as patients with increases in urine volume (UV) on day 1 after the administration of tolvaptan (TLV), and demonstrated that responders to TLV could be predicted with considerable accuracy by urine osmolality (U-OSM) levels. Responders and non-responders to TLV should be associated with different clinical courses after a certain time following TLV administration. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to validate our definition of responders by clinical parameters 1 week after administration of TLV. Data (n = 85) were obtained from inhospital patients with decompensated heart failure (HF) who had received TLV at 3.75-15 mg daily, and clinical data at 1 week after the administration of TLV were compared with those of baseline. Sixty patients (70.6%) were "responders", in whom UV on day 1 increased after the administration of TLV compared with day 0. "Non-responders" were older, and had higher serum creatinine concentration and lower baseline U-OSM than "responders". Serum creatinine concentration increased significantly in "non-responders", but was unchanged in "responders". Body weight, plasma B-type natriuretic peptide concentration, and HF symptom score decreased significantly in "responders", but remained unchanged in "non-responders". Increases in UV after the first administration of TLV were closely correlated with improvement of congestive HF after 1 week of TLV treatment, which verifi ed our defi nition of "responders" to TLV.
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Endovascular Aortic Repair Increases Vascular Stiffness and Alters Cardiac Structure and Function.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Background:?Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) is performed in patients with thoracic or abdominal aortic aneurysm because it is less invasive than conventional open repair. However, the effects of EVAR on vascular and cardiac function remain to be clarified. Methods and Results:?We studied the effects of EVAR on several outcome variables in 40 consecutive patients undergoing EVAR for abdominal and/or thoracic aneurysm with preserved ejection fraction. Echocardiography and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) data were collected before, 1 week, and 1 year after EVAR. Although no changes in blood pressure were found, baPWV, left ventricular mass index (LVMI), and left atrial volume index were significantly elevated at both post-op time periods after EVAR compared with baseline data. The changes in LVMI correlated with those in baPWV (R=0.32, P<0.05). Among the 22 patients who were successfully followed up, 13 showed deterioration in exercise tolerance 1 year after EVAR. Diastolic wall strain, an index for LV distensibility, was lower at baseline in patients with worsening exercise tolerance than in those with unchanged tolerance. Conclusions:?EVAR increased vascular stiffness and induced LV hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction without a corresponding elevation of blood pressure in the acute and chronic phases. In addition, low LV distensibility at baseline was associated with the impairment of exercise tolerance. EVAR-induced stiffness of arteries leads to limited clinical symptoms.
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Toll-like receptor-2 mediates adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload through interleukin-1? upregulation via nuclear factor ?B activation.
J Am Heart Assoc
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2013
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Inflammation is induced in the heart during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The initiating mechanisms and the role of inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy, however, remain unclear. Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) recognizes endogenous molecules that induce noninfectious inflammation. Here, we examined the role of TLR2-mediated inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy.
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Neovascularization induced by hypoxia inducible transcription factor is associated with the improvement of cardiac dysfunction in experimental autoimmune myocarditis.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2013
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Objective: Mechanisms of cardiac dysfunction in myocarditis have not been fully elucidated. Though it remains controversial whether angiogenesis is beneficial or harmful in inflammatory disease, significant vascular destruction might possibly impair cardiac function in myocarditis. The prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) inhibitor is a potential drug for promoting angiogenesis as it stabilizes hypoxia inducible transcription factor (HIF). The authors examine whether the PHD inhibitor TM6008 could affect cardiac function by promoting angiogenesis in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). Methods: EAM was induced on BALB/c mice by immunizing them with a synthesized ? myosin heavy-chain peptide. Every day, 200 mg/kg of TM6008 or vehicle was administered orally. Results: TM6008 improved left ventricular ejection fraction significantly on the 21st day of EAM. Though TM6008 did not affect the severity of myocardial cell infiltration, it tended to reduce cardiac fibrosis. Immunohistochemistry showed that CD31-positive blood vessels were preserved in the TM6008 group compared to the control group. Immunoblotting revealed that TM6008 increased the expression of HIF-1?, HIF-2? and vascular endothelial growth factor in myocarditis. Conclusion: Inhibition of PHD could ameliorate cardiac dysfunction in EAM, partially through promoting neovascularization. Relief of tissue hypoxia via neovascularization could improve cardiac function in myocarditis.
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Successful treatment of hemodynamic compromise caused by antibody-mediated and cellular rejection in a recipient 12 years after heart transplantation.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2013
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Heart transplantation (HTx) is an established therapy for stage D heart failure due to recent advances in immunosuppressive regimens. However, antibody-mediated rejection remains an unsolved problem because of its refractoriness to standard immunosuppressive therapy with high mortality and graft loss. We experienced a 16-year old patient with hemodynamic compromise caused by both cellular and antibody-mediated rejection 12 years after HTx. The rejection was refractory to repeated steroid pulse treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin administration, and intensifying immunosuppression including addition of everolimus. Eventually, she was successfully treated with repeated plasma exchange accompanied by a single administration of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab.
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Inhibition of NF-?B activation by a novel IKK inhibitor reduces the severity of experimental autoimmune myocarditis via suppression of T-cell activation.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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NF-?B, which is activated by the inhibitor of NF-?B kinase (IKK), is involved in the progression of inflammatory disease. However, the effect of IKK inhibition on the progression of myocarditis is unknown. We examined the effect of IKK inhibition on the progression of myocarditis. Lewis rats were immunized with porcine cardiac myosin to induce experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM). We administered the IKK inhibitor (IMD-0354; 15 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or vehicle to EAM rats daily. Hearts were harvested 21 days after immunization. Although the untreated EAM group showed increased heart weight-to-body weight ratio, and severe myocardial damage, these changes were attenuated in the IKK inhibitor-treated group. Moreover, IKK inhibitor administration significantly reduced NF-?B activation and mRNA expression of IFN-?, IL-2, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in myocardium compared with vehicle administration. In vitro study showed that the IKK inhibitor treatment inhibited T-cell proliferation and Th1 cytokines production induced by myosin stimulation. The IKK inhibitor ameliorated EAM by suppressing inflammatory reactions via suppression of T-cell activation.
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Angiopoietin-1 guides directional angiogenesis through integrin ?v?5 signaling for recovery of ischemic retinopathy.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) are ischemic retinal diseases caused by insufficient vascular network formation and vascular regression in addition to aberrant angiogenesis. We examined the role of angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) in retinal vascular network formation during postnatal development using Ang1 gain- and loss-of-function mouse models, and tested the effects of intraocular administration of Ang1 in an oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR) mouse model that mimics cardinal features of ROP and PDR. We observed that Ang1 plays a substantial role in the formation of the retinal vascular network during postnatal development and that Ang1 supplementation can rescue vascular retinopathies by simultaneously promoting healthy vascular network formation and inhibiting subsequent abnormal angiogenesis, vascular leakage, and neuronal dysfunction in the retinas of the OIR model. We attribute these Ang1-induced effects to a dual signaling pathway-Tie2 signaling in the vascular region and integrin ?v?5 signaling in the astrocytes. The activation of integrin ?v?5 signaling promoted fibronectin accumulation and radial distribution along the sprouting endothelial cells, which consequently stimulated guided angiogenesis in the retina. These findings shed light on the role of Ang1 in the recovery of ischemic retinopathies such as ROP, PDR, and retinal vascular occlusive disease.
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A novel heart failure mice model of hypertensive heart disease by angiotensin II infusion, nephrectomy, and salt loading.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Although the mouse heart failure (HF) model of hypertensive heart disease (HHD) is useful to investigate the pathophysiology and new therapeutic targets for HHD, the model using simple experimental procedures and stable phenotypes has not been established. This study aimed to develop a novel mouse HF model of HHD by combining salt loading and uninephrectomy with ANG II infusion. Eight-week-old C57BL/6 male mice were treated with ANG II infusion (AT), ANG II infusion and uninephrectomy (AN), ANG II infusion and salt loading (AS), or ANG II infusion, uninephrectomy, and salt loading (ANS). Systolic blood pressure was significantly elevated and left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy was found in AT, AN, AS, and ANS mice, and there were no significant differences in those parameters between the four groups. At 6 wk after the procedures, only ANS mice showed significant decreases in LV fractional shortening and increases in lung weight with a high incidence. This phenotype was reproducible, and there were few perioperative or early deaths in the experimental procedures. Severe LV fibrosis was found in ANS mice. Oxidative stress was enhanced and small GTPase Rac1 activity was upregulated in the hearts of ANS mice. After the addition of salt loading and uninephrectomy to the ANG II infusion mouse model, cardiac function was significantly impaired, and mice developed HF. This might be a novel and useful mouse HF model to study the transition from compensated LV hypertrophy to HF in HHD.
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High incidence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection in patients with cerebral infarction and diabetic renal failure: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2013
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Recent epidemiological studies suggest that periodontitis is a major risk factor for renal failure and cerebral infarction. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association among periodontitis, renal failure, and cerebral infarction, focusing on microbiological and immunological features.
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[Mid-long term result of implantable ventricular assist device treatment for end-stage heart failure in the University of Tokyo Hospital].
Kyobu Geka
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2013
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Two implantable left ventricular assist devices(I-LVADs)were approved in Japan in 2011. I-LVADs were used for end-stage heart failure of 20 patients in our institute until March 2012. We examine the clinical course of these 20 patients who were treated with I-LVADs. End points are transplantation, death, or weaning from I-LVADs. Mean hospital days after I-LVAD implantation were 58.1 days, and all 20 patients could discharge from hospital alive. Until September 2012, mean follow up interval was 515 days. Five patients reached heart transplantation, 2 died, weaning from an I-LVAD could be done in 1 patient, and 12 continued to wait for heart transplantation. Survival rate was 100% at 1 month, 95% at 3 months, and 89% at 1 year, respectively. Mean follow up duration after discharge were 457 days, and 16 patients(80%)needed a total of 41 times of readmission in this period. Freedom from readmission was 75% at 1 month, 60% at 3 months, and 25% at 1 year, respectively. In conclusion, prognosis of I-LVAD treatment was good, but many patients needed readmission after I-LVAD implantation and follow up system for I-LVAD treatment should be improved immediately.
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Saturated fatty acid palmitate aggravates neointima formation by promoting smooth muscle phenotypic modulation.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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Obesity is a major risk factor of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Circulating free fatty acid levels are known to be elevated in obese individuals and, along with dietary saturated fatty acids, are known to associate with cardiovascular events. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms by which free fatty acids are linked to cardiovascular disease.
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Usefulness of Transient Elastography for Noninvasive and Reliable Estimation of Right-Sided Filling Pressure in Heart Failure.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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Accurate noninvasive assessment of right atrial pressure (RAP) is important for volume management in patients with heart failure (HF). Transient elastography is a noninvasive and reliable method to assess liver stiffness (LS). We investigated the value of LS for evaluation of RAP in patients with HF without structural liver disease. We measured LS using transient elastography (Fibroscan) in 31 patients undergoing right-sided cardiac catheterization (test group). The relation between LS and RAP found in the test group was used to derive the best-fit model to predict RAP. The applicability of the model was then tested in a validation group of 49 additional patients. There was an excellent correlation between LS and RAP in the test group (r = 0.95, p <0.0001; RAP = -5.8 + 6.7 × ln [LS]). Natural log transformation (ln) of LS provided the regression equation to predict RAP. When the equation model derived from the test group was applied to the validation group, predicted RAP correlated excellently with actual RAP (r = 0.90, p <0.0001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses in the test group showed that LS favorably compared with echocardiography for detecting RAP >10 mm Hg (area under the curve 0.958 vs 0.800, respectively, p = 0.047). In the validation group, LS with a cut-off value of 10.6 kPa for identifying RAP >10 mm Hg had a higher sensitivity and accuracy (p = 0.046 and p = 0.049, respectively) than echocardiography. In conclusion, LS may offer an accurate noninvasive diagnostic method to assess RAP in patients with HF.
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Development and psychometric properties of the Japanese heart failure knowledge scale.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Knowledge about their own condition is important for patients with heart failure (HF). No valid, reliable, and easily administered instrument is available to measure this knowledge in clinical practice. In this study, a HF knowledge scale was developed, and its psychometric properties were tested. Items related to knowledge about HF were extracted from relevant guidelines. Content validity of the items was confirmed by an expert panel including a cardiologist and nurses specialized in treatment and care of patients with HF. A self-administered questionnaire was then distributed to 187 patients with HF (64.0 ± 12.1 years, males 69%). In 62% patients, a left ventricular ejection fraction of < 50% was identified. Exploratory factor analysis demonstrated the one-dimensionality of the 15-item HF knowledge scale. Mean score was 10.7 ± 3.0 (range, 0-15). Known-group validity testing revealed a significant difference in HF knowledge score between patients newly diagnosed with HF and patients experienced with HF (9.4 ± 3.2 versus 10.8 ± 2.9, P = 0.043). In addition, HF knowledge scale scores were correlated with HF self-care scores assessed by the European Heart Failure Self-Care Behavior Scale for evaluation of criterion validity (? = -0.304, P < 0.001). Cronbachs alpha was 0.79, and item-total correlation was 0.22-0.51, thereby suggesting that the reliability of the scale was acceptable. Acceptable validity and reliability were demonstrated for the HF knowledge scale developed in this study. This instrument could be useful in evaluation of patient knowledge about HF.
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Everolimus-incorporated immunosuppressant strategy improves renal dysfunction while maintaining low rejection rates after heart transplantation in Japanese patients.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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The long-term survival of heart transplantation (HTx) recipients has increased significantly in recent years, however, the nephrotoxic adverse effects of calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs) are still a major concern. Recently, an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, everolimus (EVL), has emerged as an alternative immunosuppressant drug that may allow CNI dosage reduction and thereby spare renal function. Data were collected from 20 HTx recipients who had received EVL (target trough level 3-8 ng/mL) along with a dose reduction of CNIs and/or mycophenolate mophetil (MMF) and had been followed for 1 year. Estimated glomerular filtration rate increased significantly with a reduction in the CNI dosage in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.001, r = -0.807). Neutrophil count increased significantly (P < 0.05) with a reduction in the dosage of MMF (P = 0.009, r = -0.671). Cytomegalovirus antigenemia remained negative after EVL administration among all candidates without any antiviral agents (P = 0.001). There were no significant increases in the acute rejection rates among recipients with EVL compared to those without EVL (P = 0.132). An immunosuppressant strategy incorporating EVL could reduce the CNI and MMF dosages, which resulted in improvements in renal dysfunction and neutropenia while maintaining low rejection rates among HTx recipients.
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A selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? agonist attenuates neointimal hyperplasia after wire-mediated arterial injury.
Expert Opin Investig Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Neointimal hyperplasia after the percutaneous coronary intervention is still a clinically serious problem, associated with the risk of thrombosis due to delayed reendothelization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR-?/?) belongs to a family of ligand-activated transcription factors.
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Significance of Imbalance in the Ratio of Serum n-3 to n-6 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
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This study aimed to assess the balance of serum n-3 to n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). We enrolled 1,119 patients who were treated and in whom serum PUFA level was evaluated in 5 divisions of cardiology in a metropolitan area in Japan. Serum levels of PUFAs, including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA), were compared between patients with and without ACS. We also evaluated the balance of serum n-3 to n-6 PUFAs, including EPA/AA and DHA/AA ratios. EPA/AA values were 0.46 ± 0.32 and 0.50 ± 0.32 in the ACS and non-ACS groups, respectively. DHA/AA values were 0.95 ± 0.37 and 0.96 ± 0.41 in the ACS and non-ACS groups, respectively. Next, we divided the patients into 3 groups based on the tertiles of EPA/AA or tertiles of DHA/AA to determine the independent risk factors for ACS. According to multivariate logistic regression analysis, the group with the lowest EPA/AA (?0.33) had a greater probability of ACS (odds ratio 3.14, 95% confidence interval 1.16 to 8.49), but this was not true for DHA/AA. In conclusion, an imbalance in the ratio of serum EPA to AA, but not in the ratio of DHA to AA, was significantly associated with ACS.
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Anti-salusin-? antibody enhances angiogenesis after myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury.
Expert Opin. Ther. Targets
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Salusins are multifunctional endogenous bioactive peptides simultaneously biosynthesized from their precursor prosalusin. Salusin-? stimulates proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells and fibroblasts and regulates myocardial growth and hypertrophy. Salusin-? has potent hypotensive, bradycardic and proatherosclerotic effects.
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Deletion of progranulin exacerbates atherosclerosis in ApoE knockout mice.
Cardiovasc. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Progranulin (PGRN) is a multifunctional protein known to be involved in inflammation. However, the relation between PGRN and atherosclerosis remains elusive. The aim of this study was to define the role of PGRN in the development of atherosclerosis.
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High incidence and severity of periodontitis in patients with Marfan syndrome in Japan.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a systemic connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the extracellular matrix protein fibrillin-1. While it is known that patients with MFS are at high risk of dental disorders and cardiovascular diseases, little information has been provided to date. To clarify the prevalence of periodontitis in patients with MFS, their oral condition and cardiovascular complications were evaluated. The subjects were patients with MFS (n = 40) who attended the University of Tokyo hospital; age- and gender-matched healthy individuals (n = 14) constituted a control group. Cardiovascular complications and full-mouth clinical measurements, including number of teeth, probing of pocket depth (PD), bleeding on probing (BOP), and community periodontal index (CPI) were recorded. MFS patients had more frequent cardiovascular complications (95 %) compared with the controls (0 %). MFS patients had periodontitis (CPI 3 and 4) more frequently (87.5 %) than the age- and gender-matched control subjects (35.7 %). Furthermore, MFS patients had significantly more severe periodontitis (CPI 2.90 ± 0.12 vs 1.64 ± 0.32) and fewer remaining teeth (26.7 ± 0.4 vs 28.4 ± 0.4) compared with the controls. However, PD and BOP were comparable between MFS patients and the control group. A high incidence of periodontitis and cardiovascular complications was observed in Japanese MFS patients.
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Cardiac side population cells and Sca-1-positive cells.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2013
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Since the resident cardiac stem/progenitor cells were discovered, their ability to maintain the architecture and functional integrity of adult heart has been broadly explored. The methods for isolation and purification of the cardiac stem cells are crucial for the precise analysis of their developmental origin and intrinsic potential as tissue stem cells. Stem cell antigen-1 (Sca-1) is one of the useful cell surface markers to purify the cardiac progenitor cells. Another purification strategy is based on the high efflux ability of the dye, which is a common feature of tissue stem cells. These dye-extruding cells have been called side population cells because they locate in the side of dye-retaining cells after fluorescent cell sorting. In this chapter, we describe the methodology for the isolation of cardiac SP cells and Sca-1 positive cells.
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Circulating p53-responsive microRNAs are predictive indicators of heart failure after acute myocardial infarction.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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Despite a recent decline of in-hospital mortality attributable to acute myocardial infarction (AMI), the incidence of ischemic heart failure (HF) in post-AMI patients is increasing. Although various microRNAs have been proposed as diagnostic indicators for AMI, no microRNAs have been established as predictors of ischemic HF that develops after AMI.
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Porphyromonas gingivalis promotes neointimal formation after arterial injury through toll-like receptor 2 signaling.
Heart Vessels
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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We previously demonstrated that Porphyromonas gingivalis infection induces neointimal hyperplasia with an increase in monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 after arterial injury in wild-type mice. Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 is a key receptor for the virulence factors of P. gingivalis. The aim of this study was to assess whether TLR2 plays a role in periodontopathic bacteria-induced neointimal formation after an arterial injury. Wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice were used in this study. The femoral arteries were injured, and P. gingivalis or vehicle was injected subcutaneously once per week. Fourteen days after arterial injury, the murine femoral arteries were obtained for histopathologic and immunohistochemical analyses. The immunoglobulin-G levels of the P. gingivalis-infected groups were significantly increased in comparison with the level in the corresponding noninfected groups in both wild-type and TLR2-deficient mice. TLR2 deficiency negated the P. gingivalis-induced neointimal formation in comparison with the wild-type mice, and reduced the number of positive monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 cells in the neointimal area. These findings demonstrate that P. gingivalis infection can promote neointimal formation after an arterial injury through TLR2 signaling.
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Adipose Natural Regulatory B Cells Negatively Control Adipose Tissue Inflammation.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Distinct B cell populations, designated regulatory B (Breg) cells, are known to restrain immune responses associated with autoimmune diseases. Additionally, obesity is known to induce local inflammation within adipose tissue that contributes to systemic metabolic abnormalities, but the underlying mechanisms that modulate adipose inflammation remain poorly understood. We identified Breg cells that produce interleukin-10 constitutively within adipose tissue. B cell-specific Il10 deletion enhanced adipose inflammation and insulin resistance in diet-induced obese mice, whereas adoptive transfer of adipose tissue Breg cells ameliorated those effects. Adipose environmental factors, including CXCL12 and free fatty acids, support Breg cell function, and Breg cell fraction and function were reduced in adipose tissue from obese mice and humans. Our findings indicate that adipose tissue Breg cells are a naturally occurring regulatory B cell subset that maintains homeostasis within adipose tissue and that Breg cell dysfunction contributes pivotally to the progression of adipose tissue inflammation in obesity.
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Melatonin ameliorates angiotensin II-induced vascular endothelial damage via its antioxidative properties.
J. Pineal Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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Melatonin is well known to have a beneficial effect on the cardiovascular system, but it remains to be elucidated whether melatonin has a therapeutic effect on the vascular damage induced by the potential vasoactive substance angiotensin II (Ang II). In this study, the effects of melatonin on Ang II-induced vascular endothelial damage were investigated. In cultured vascular endothelial cells, Ang II stimulation increased ROS generation and inhibited eNOS phosphorylation (Ser1177), both of which were clearly restored by pretreatment with melatonin. The translocation of p47(phox) subunit of NADPH oxidase from the cytosol to plasma membrane was promoted in Ang II-treated vascular endothelial cells, which was canceled by melatonin pretreatment. In Ang II-infused rats, increased ROS generation in the aortic wall and impaired endothelial function of the aortic ring were observed, which were rescued by coadministration of melatonin. In vasculature, melatonin receptor agonist ramelteon had the antioxidative effect in the same manner as melatonin by itself. These findings suggest that melatonin directly ameliorates Ang II-induced vascular endothelial damage partly via its antioxidative properties, providing with us the potential rationale for clinical application of melatonin to the prevention from cardiovascular diseases.
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Roles of transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC) channels and reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchanger on cell proliferation in human cardiac fibroblasts: effects of transforming growth factor ?1.
Cell Calcium
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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Expression of transient receptor potential canonical channels (TRPC) and the effects of transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) on Ca2+ signals and fibroblast proliferation were investigated in human cardiac fibroblasts. The conventional and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, western blot, immunocytochemical analysis, and intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i measurement were applied. Cell proliferation and cell cycle progression were assessed using MTT assays and fluorescence activated cell sorting. Human cardiac fibroblasts have the expression of TRPC1,3,4,6 mRNA and proteins. 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) and thapsigargin induced extracellular Ca(2+)-mediated [Ca2+]i rise. siRNA for knock down of TRPC6 reduced OAG-induced Ca2+ entry. Hyperforin as well as angiotensin II (Ang II) induced Ca2+ entry. KB-R7943, a reverse-mode Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) inhibitor, and/or replacement of Na+ with NMDG+ inhibited thapsigargin-, OAG- and Ang II-induced Ca2+ entry. Treatment with TGF-?1 increased thapsigargin-, OAG- and Ang II-induced Ca2+ entry with an enhancement of TRPC1,6 protein expression, suppressed by KB-R7943. TGF-?1 and AngII promoted cell cycle progression from G0/G1 to S/G2/M and cell proliferation. A decrease of the extracellular Ca2+ and KB-R7943 suppressed it. Human cardiac fibroblasts contain several TRPC-mediated Ca2+ influx pathways, which activate the reverse-mode NCX. TGF-?1 enhances the Ca2+ influx pathways requiring Ca2+ signals for its effect on fibroblast proliferation.
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Cardiac rehabilitation increases exercise capacity with a reduction of oxidative stress.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate various signaling pathways that underlie vascular inflammation in atherogenesis and cardiovascular diseases. Cardiac rehabilitation (CR) has a variety of multiple beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory effects. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CR on ROS in patients with cardiovascular diseases.
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Clinical impact of acute hyperglycemia on development of diabetes mellitus in non-diabetic patients with acute myocardial infarction.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Acute hyperglycemia (AH) after the onset of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is a manifestation of transient abnormal glucose metabolism that may reflect AMI severity, and thus be a predictor of poor prognosis. However, it remains unknown whether AH may predict development of de novo diabetes mellitus (dn-DM) in non-diabetic AMI patients.
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