Summary.-Research on racket sports has traditionally focused on expert players and has treated energy expenditure and tactics as independent factors. These prior studies could not assess how energy expenditure and tactics changed as a function of experience and skill. Here, the specific relationship between playing tactics and energy expenditure in badminton were assessed. Participants were classified into five stages of badminton experience on the basis of conative criteria: structural (physical abilities), technical (technical skills), and functional (tactics). The physical activity of 99 players (47 beginners, 15 intermediates, 30 advanced, and 7 experts) was measured using a three-axis accelerometer during a badminton set (21 points, no extra scoring). The results showed that physical activity (counts/sec.) ranged between about 115 (Stage 1) and 155 (Stage 5), and differed significantly across the conative stages. For Stages 2 and 4, defined by an increase in use of tactics, physical activity increased substantially. For Stage 3, defined by a decrease in use of tactics, physical activity decreased significantly. Thus, tactically-oriented play appears to be closely related to physical activity.
The aim was to explore the relationship between sleep habits and overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviors in French adults with intellectual disabilities. This observational study was conducted on 570 French adults with intellectual deficiency. Sleep habits were analyzed and related to anthropometric measures, physical activity and sedentary behaviors. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants completed the questionnaire during an interview with the principal investigator. Sleep timing behavior was classified into 4 sleep patterns: Early-bed/Early-rise, Early-bed/Late-rise, Late-bed/Late-rise, and Late-bed/Early-rise. Of 570 eligible participants, 61 were excluded because of missing data on age, weight or height. The number of participants identified in each of the four sleep patterns was as follows: Early-bed/Early-rise, N=119 (23%), Early-bed/Late-rise, N=171 (34%), Late-bed/Early-rise, N=100 (20%), Late-bed/Late-rise N=119 (23%). Participants who wake up earlier are more active than those who rise late (p<0.02). Participants who slept later spent more time in sedentary activities than those in the Early rise groups (p<0.01). The number of obese/overweight participants was also higher in Late-bed/Late rise group. Sleep behavior was associated with overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behavior in adults with intellectual deficiency, independently the sleep duration. Implementing intervention or promotion programs on sleep behaviors should be considered in order to meet the objectives of promoting health on anthropometric characteristics and increased physical activity among these disabled adults.
The aim was to examine the reliability of health-related physical fitness tests that were used in a French health promotion program 'Move…A priority for your health'. Participants were 174 French youth (88 children and 86 adolescents) aged 8·2-16·2 years. Aerobic fitness, muscular strength, speed and flexibility were tested using 20-m shuttle run test, ½ mile run test, basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and 20/30/50-m sprint tests. Reliability was calculated for the basketball throw, standing long jump, shoulder stretch and sprint tests. The tests were performed two times, 1 week apart on the same day of the week. Reliability was examined with intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) and Bland-Altman analysis. With the exception of the ½ mile run test, which resulted in moderate agreement (0·66), all tests had high reliability. ICCs were 0·97, 0·93, 0·91 and 0·93 for the sprint test, basketball throw, shoulder stretch and the standing long jump, respectively. The differences obtained between the first and the second trial were non-significant. Results from this study indicate that the BOUGE health-related physical fitness battery, administrated by physical education teachers, was reliable for measuring health-related components of fitness in children and adolescents in a school setting.
The aim was to assess the technical variability of a new wrist-worn accelerometer under controlled conditions with a shaker device and during normal daily physical activities (PAs). In the first experiment, 10 wrist-worn accelerometers (Vivago(®) Wellness, Paris, France) were attached to the shaker device. Variability was tested at five shaking frequencies (1.1, 2.1, 3.1, 4.1, and 10 Hz) for 10 min at each frequency. In the second experiment, 21 participants wore wrist-worn accelerometers and performed six consecutive 10-min periods of activity at increasing levels of intensity from sedentary to vigorous. Results from the first experiment show a modest inter- and intra-instrument reliability at low frequencies and that reliability improved as frequency increased. The inter-instrument coefficient of variation (CV) was 2.6-18.3%. The intra-instrument CV was 4.1-23.2%. Variability was similar in the second experiment with a CV inversely related to PA intensity. The inter- and intra-instrument CV varied from 24.2% and 19.9% for sedentary activities to 3.7% and 4.3% for vigorous PA, respectively. Results suggest that reliability was higher at high intensities, corresponding to moderate and vigorous PA, intensities generally recommended for public health purposes.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of age and type of physical activity on anthropometric measures of obese youth participating in an intervention programme. Subjects included 37 obese children (12·5 ± 2·9 years). The programme consisted of a unique programme of physical activity and health education. Assessments included body mass index (BMI), body composition and ability to perform sport activities. Paired t-tests were used to assess the effects of intervention, and chi square was used to assess interaction between measures. Findings suggest significant decrease in Z-scores of BMI and an improvement in the ability to perform sport activities (P<0·05). The effectiveness of the programme has more impact on children than adolescents (P<0·05). Improvements were greater in team versus net sports (P<0·05). Results show that intervention strategies have to be different according to the age to have a favourable effect on anthropometric characteristic and the consequences of obesity childhood and adulthood. The findings suggest that the intervention programme was of greater benefit for children than adolescents.
Intellectually disabled (ID) people are at high risk of overweight and obesity. Prevalence and risk factors were assessed in a French population of ID adults attending specialized institutions, using a questionnaire focusing on demographic characteristics, physical activities, food habits and self-awareness about body and health. Data analysis included descriptive statistics, univariate and multivariate regression. Overall, 570 participants were included in the analysis (59% male), aged 19-59 years. The mean body mass index (BMI) was 24.9kg/m(2); 45.6% of participants were overweight (BMI?25), including 17.2% who were obese (BMI?30). Participants practiced sports for 5.7h/week on average and were sedentary for 21.8h/week (time spent in front of some kind of screen). Most participants had food and self-care habits usually regarded as healthy. Eighty percent of them felt unhappy with their body and their physical capacities, but otherwise expressed a rather good opinion of themselves. Bivariate and multivariate analyses showed that some behavioral habits were associated with a reduced incidence of overweight and/or obesity, such as regular sport practice outside the institution, good personal body care or alcohol avoidance. The strongest risk factor was gender. Women were much more at risk than men of being overweight (53.9% versus 39.9%) and obese (28.2% versus 9.5%). Results suggest numerous ways to improve the health of institutionalized ID adults, related to sports education, nutrition and self-care, with particular attention paid to women.
The aim of this study was to determine the type and the number of accelerometer monitoring days needed to predict weekly sedentary behaviour and physical activity in obese youth. Fifty-three obese youth wore a triaxial accelerometer for 7 days to measure physical activity in free-living conditions. Analyses of variance for repeated measures, Intraclass coefficient (ICC) and regression linear analyses were used. Obese youth spent significantly less time in physical activity on weekends or free days compared with school days. ICC analyses indicated a minimum of 2 days is needed to estimate physical activity behaviour. ICC were 0·80 between weekly physical activity and weekdays and 0·92 between physical activity and weekend days. The model has to include a weekday and a weekend day. Using any combination of one weekday and one weekend day, the percentage of variance explained is >90%. Results indicate that 2 days of monitoring are needed to estimate the weekly physical activity behaviour in obese youth with an accelerometer. Our results also showed the importance of taking into consideration school day versus free day and weekday versus weekend day in assessing physical activity in obese youth.
Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
Physical activity is an important component of a healthy lifestyle. Evaluating and promoting this activity warrants careful attention, particularly in the context of preventing obesity associated with low physical activity. The aim of the present study was to assess the concurrent validity of a modified, long, self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) using triaxial accelerometry in 56 youth with obesity. The participants physical activity was measured with an RT3 accelerometer (objective measure) and with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire for Adolescents (IPAQ-A; subjective measure). Although the two methods were correlated strongly (r = .84), there was a significant difference between the two methods. The participants subjective ratings on the IPAQ-A overestimated the objective measure. Although activity questionnaires are simple and widely used in assessing physical activity, alternative methods should be used when measuring physical activity in youth with obesity.
Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different bodys components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
The aim of this study was to determine and validate the new thresholds for various intensities of physical activity in adolescents using the Actigraph accelerometer. Sixty healthy participants aged 10-16 years were recruited. Forty participants participated in the calibration study whereas the others participated in the validation study. Accelerometer data, heart rate, and oxygen consumption were measured at nine levels of physical activity which varied in intensity: sedentary, light, moderate and vigorous. The activity categories and accelerometer counts were sedentary activity, 0-400 counts/min; light activity, 401-1900 counts/min; moderate activity, 1901-3918 counts/min; and vigorous activity, greater than 3918 counts/min, respectively. This study establishes new threshold values for various physical activities that can be used for population-based studies in adolescents.
The objective of this study is to assess the effects of the unique 1-year health-wellness program of exercise and health education for obese youth on body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure. The CEMHaVi program included 74 obese children. Participants, 19 girls and 18 boys, and controls, 17 girls and 20 boys, were assigned to treatment. The treatment participants were compared with a group who chose not to participate. Treatment consisted of a unique program of physical activity that emphasized playing games. Activity sessions were offered once per week, 2 h each session, for 12 months. Physical activity was complemented with health education. Controls received only the normal care of a physician in pediatrics. Physical and physiological measures were assessed before and after intervention. Findings of the study showed a significant difference in BMI between treatment and control participants (P<0.05). BMI decreased in the treatment group and increased in controls. There were no significant differences in blood pressure. In conclusion, results of the study suggest that a unique program of exercise and health education had beneficial effects on BMI in obese youth after 1 year. The feasibility of a beneficial lifestyle intervention program is encouraging.
The study investigates the prevalence of overweight and obesity in a population of intellectually disabled (ID) adolescents. An observational study was conducted on a group of 410 ID children, living in France. Overweight and obesity, defined according to international standards, were analyzed and related to demographic and sociological parameters, educational care, physical activity and dietary habits. The study highlighted a high prevalence of overweight and obesity (19.0%) in ID adolescents and 22.5% in oldest teenagers, age 15-20 y. This observation was more likely in medico-educative institutes (25.1%) than in general schools (12.3%). Average time spent in physical activity was 4.5 h/week, compared with 3.5 h/week in obese subjects. Time spent in sedentary behavior was 26.6 h/week for the whole population, compared with 18.6 h/week in obese adolescents. Meals were ingested regularly, and adherence to eating breakfast was good. However, snacks and soft drinks were consumed between and during meals by 66.5% of subjects. Overweight in young ID appeared to be related to parental overweight. Even though ID adolescents receive a balanced diet and practice sport regularly, they exhibit a high prevalence for overweight and obesity. In subjects more than 15 years of age, enrollment in medico-educative institutes and parental overweight were contributory factors to poor weight status.
Obesity in children has increased in recent years. Many studies with differing methodologies have been undertaken to treat obesity. The Control, Evaluation, and Modification of Lifestyles in Obese Youth (CEMHaVi) program is a unique 2-year health-wellness program of physical activity and health education for obese youth. Findings of this study represent results at 1-year follow-up. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the CEMHaVi program.
The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the RT3 accelerometer under conditions of normal physical activity. Sixty healthy individuals (30 boys, 30 girls) aged 10-16 years wore two accelerometers while performing different structured physical activities. The accelerometers were synchronized and data were recorded every minute during nine 15-min sessions of physical activity that varied in intensity from sedentary (watching television, playing video games) to vigorous (running on a treadmill at different speeds). Intra-instrument coefficients of variation (CV) were assessed using the formula CV = standard deviation of the measure x 100/mean of the measure. The intra-instrument coefficient of variation was higher for sedentary (17%) and light activity (16.2%) than moderate (9.3%) and vigorous activity (6.6%). These results confirmed the poor reliability of the RT3 for activity of low magnitude and frequency that was demonstrated in studies using a shaker.
The aim of this study was to determine thresholds for various intensities of physical activity in children and adolescents using the RT3 accelerometer. Forty healthy participants aged 10-16 years were recruited to the study. To validate the RT3 accelerometer data, an independent sample of 20 children and adolescents aged 10-16 years performed the same activities. Accelerometer data, heart rate, and oxygen consumption were measured at nine levels of physical activity, which varied in intensity: sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous. Age and sex did not affect thresholds. The activity categories and accelerometer counts were: sedentary activity, 0-40 counts x min(-1); light activity, 41-950 counts x min(-1); moderate activity, 951-3410 counts x min(-1); and vigorous activity, >3410 counts x min(-1), respectively. These thresholds were considered valid as the difference between threshold values obtained using two independent groups of children was not significant. This study has established threshold values for various physical activities and enables the RT3 accelerometer to be used to quantify the duration of various levels of activity in adolescents under free-living conditions.
The aim of this study was to compare equivalence and agreement of physical activity output data collected by a Research Tri-axial accelerometer (R3T) during walking and running on a treadmill versus on land. Fifty healthy volunteers, 35 males (age 21.9 +/- 1.8 years) and 15 females (age 21.6 +/- 0.7 years), underwent a series of tests on a treadmill and on land with the order of testing administered randomly. Each participant walked for 10 min at 4 km x h(-1) and 6 km x h(-1), and ran at 8 km x h(-1) and 10 km x h(-1), with the same accelerometer. Analysis of output data was assessed by two statistical tests: the equivalence test and Bland and Altman method. Mean differences for walking were 41.2 +/- 129.8 counts per minute and -68.8 +/- 173.15 counts per minute at 4 km . h(-1) and km x h(-1), respectively. Mean differences for running were 19.1 +/- 253.20 counts per minute and 38.9 +/- 270.2 counts per minute at 8 km x h(-1) and 10 km x h(-1), respectively. The physical activity output data from the treadmill were higher by an average of 3.5% than the data collected on land. The differences obtained between the treadmill and on land were small and non-significant. The equivalence test showed that output data from the treadmill versus on land were equivalent (P < 0.05). The Bland and Altman method showed good agreement between the counts obtained on the treadmill and on land (P < 0.05). In conclusion, physical activity output data were similar as measured by the RT3 accelerometer on a treadmill and on land. The findings suggest that the RT3 may be used in a laboratory and extrapolated to data obtained on land.
Most accelerometers are worn around the waist (hip or lower back) to assess habitual physical activity. Wrist-worn accelerometers may be an alternative to the waist-worn monitors and may improve compliance in studies with prolonged wear. The aim of this study was to validate the Vivago® Wrist-Worn Accelerometer at various intensities of physical activity (PA) in adults.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess reproducibility and validity of the 6 minute walk test (6MWT) in obese youth and to develop an equation to predict aerobic power (VO(2max)). Methods: Fifty-two girls and 45 boys, ages 7-17.8 participated in the study. Three walk tests were administered 1 week apart. Each visit corresponded to a specific test, either an incremental treadmill test, or the 6MWT. The 6MWT was performed on two occasions 1 week apart to assess reproducibility. Treadmill and walk tests were randomly assigned to avoid order effect. Results: Subjects walked 689.4?±?98.6 m on the initial 6MWT and 690.4?±?98.2 m on the second test. Intraclass correlation coefficient was r = 0.99. The Bland and Altman method also showed good agreement between the two 6MWTs. Stepwise multiple regression determined that distance walked in 6 MWT and BMI are the most significant factors in predicting VO(2max). The prediction equation is VO2 max (ml.kg.min(-1)) = 26.9 + 0.014?×?6 MWT (meters) - 0.38 × BMI (kg/m((2))). Conclusions: In obese youth, the 6 MWT is a reproducible and valid test for assessing aerobic power. A prediction equation was developed to estimate VO(2)max, using distance walked in 6MWT and BMI. [Box: see text].
The aim of this study was to measure the inter-instrument reliability of the ActiGraph and RT3 accelerometers in free-living conditions. 15 healthy adults wore eight ActiGraph accelerometers and five RT3 accelerometers fastened to their back with an elastic belt and adjustable buckle in free-living conditions. For both accelerometers, the inter-instrument coefficient of variation (CV) decreased with increasing physical activity intensity. The inter-instrument CV of the ActiGraph (3% to 10.5%) was significantly lower than that of the RT3 (12.6% to 35.5%; p < 0.05). This finding demonstrates that the ActiGraph has higher inter-instrument reliability than the RT3. For both accelerometers, the inter-instrument reliability was higher for moderate and vigorous physical activity, the two intensities recommended for public health purposes. Studies using these devices can be compared with a low risk of misclassification of participants who meet the recommendation to perform moderate to vigorous physical activity.
Obesity in children has increased in recent years throughout the world and is associated with adverse health consequences. Early interventions, including appropriate pedagogy strategies, are important for a successful intervention program. The aim of this study was to assess changes in body mass index, the ability to perform sport activities, behavior in the classroom and academic performance following one year of a health-wellness intervention program in obese youth.
Different types of devices are available and the choice about which to use depends on various factors: cost, physical characteristics, performance, and the validity and intra- and interinstrument reliability. Given the large number of studies that have used uniaxial or triaxial devices, it is of interest to know whether the different devices give similar information about PA levels and patterns. The aim of this study was to compare physical activity (PA) levels and patterns obtained simultaneously by triaxial accelerometry and uniaxial accelerometry in adolescents in free-living conditions.
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