JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[In Process Citation].
Praxis (Bern 1994)
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the case of a previously healthy young man who presented to the hospital with hemoptysis and dyspnea. Hemoptysis is a frequently encountered symptom in daily routine and investigations can easily be deferred to a longer time frame. Our case illustrates the importance of a prompt investigation and treatment of underlying causes. Furthermore one should not hesitate to include rare, yet life threatening conditions in differential diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Linguistic and content validation of a German-language PRO-CTCAE-based patient-reported outcomes instrument to evaluate the late effect symptom experience after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Eur J Oncol Nurs
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this sequential mixed methods study was to develop a PRO-CTCAE (Patient-Reported Outcomes version of the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events)-based measure of the symptom experience of late effects in German speaking long-term survivors of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), and to examine its content validity.
Related JoVE Video
Galactomannan in bronchoalveolar lavage for diagnosing invasive fungal disease.
Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.
Related JoVE Video
A mindfulness-based program for improving quality of life among hematopoietic stem cell transplantation survivors: feasibility and preliminary findings.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is often substantially reduced among individuals who have undergone hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), and incidences of depression, fatigue, and anxiety are elevated. We examined effects of a mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) compared to psycho-oncological telephone consultation upon HRQoL, depression, anxiety, and fatigue among HSCT survivors. Sixty-two medically stable patients participated in the study; they had completed HSCT ?6 months previously. Thirty-two were randomly assigned to intervention arms, and 30 were offered their treatment preference. MBI consisted of a structured 8-week program of mindfulness training. Assessments were made at baseline, post-intervention and 3 months follow-up. Primary outcome was HRQoL. Depression, fatigue, anxiety, and personal goal attainment were secondary measures. Non-completion of interventions was low in both groups (9 %, MBI; 7 % control). Employing intention-to-treat analysis, MBI, compared with comparison procedure, improved HRQoL and reduced depression and anxiety at post-intervention (p's?
Related JoVE Video
Forty years of haematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a review of the Basel experience.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The purpose of this study was to examine changes in haematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) characteristics and outcome in our combined paediatric and adult programme over the past four decades, since its implementation in 1973. The total number of transplant procedures rose from 109 in the first decade (1973-82) to 939 in the last decade (2003-12). Transplant characteristics changed significantly over time: patient age increased, peripheral blood largely replaced bone marrow as stem cell source, unrelated donors became an alternative to matched siblings, and patients are increasingly transplanted in more advanced disease stages. Advances such as improved supportive care and histocompatibility typing resulted in a steady decrease of transplant-related mortality after allogeneic HSCT (43% in the first decade, 22% in the last decade). Despite this, unadjusted survival rates were stable in the last three decades for allogeneic HSCT (approximately 50% 5-year survival) and in the last two decades for autologous HSCT (approximately 60% 5-year survival). After adjustment for covariates such as donor type, age and stage, the relative risk of treatment failure continuously dropped (for allogeneic HSCT: first decade 1.0, second decade 0.58, third decade 0.51, last decade 0.41). Collectively, these data suggest that improvements in peri- and post-transplant care have allowed considerable extension of transplant indications without having a negative impact on outcome.
Related JoVE Video
Progenitor cell therapy for sacral pressure sore: a pilot study with a novel human chronic wound model.
Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic wounds are a major health-care issue, but research is limited by the complexity and heterogeneity in terms of wound etiology as well as patient-related factors. A suitable animal model that replicates the situation in humans is not available. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to present a standardized human wound model and the data of a pilot study of topically applied progenitor cells in a sacral pressure sore.
Related JoVE Video
Heterogeneity in clinical course of EBV-associated lymphoproliferative disorder after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Hematology
PUBLISHED: 11-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is a severe complication after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Clinical presentations: Among 263 individuals treated with allo-HSCT for severe aplastic anemia, pure white cell aplasia, T-prolymphocytic leukemia, and relapsed Hodgkin lymphoma, we diagnosed EBV-PTLD in 5 patients. Median age was 29 years (range 19-70 years) and four of five patients were EBV-seropositive prior to HSCT. All five had unrelated EBV-positive donors. In all cases, PTLD occurred within the first year post-transplant (median 4 months).
Related JoVE Video
Calcineurin inhibitors in bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following stem cell transplantation.
Eur. Respir. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bronchiolitis obliterans is a complication after allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Management of bronchiolitis obliterans comprises intensive immunosuppression, but treatment response is poor. We investigated the effect of cyclosporine A (CsA), tacrolimus (FK506), methylprednisolone (mPRED), mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) and everolimus on the proliferation of primary lung myofibroblasts from HSCT patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). Cells were isolated from surgical lung biopsies of eight HSCT patients with BOS. Proliferation was assessed by [(3)H]-thymidine incorporation. Biopsies revealed constrictive bronchiolitis obliterans in three patients and lymphocytic bronchiolitis in five patients. CsA and FK506 significantly induced proliferation of myofibroblasts. mPRED and MMF caused a significant inhibition of proliferation, whereas everolimus had no effect. Costimulation with FK506, mPRED and MMF significantly inhibited proliferation. Serial pulmonary function tests over 12 months after lung biopsy and under triple therapy demonstrated that patients with lymphocytic bronchiolitis had a significant improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), whereas FEV1 of patients with bronchiolitis obliterans was unchanged. Our data demonstrate a pro-proliferative effect of calcineurin inhibitors on primary human lung myofibroblasts obtained from patients with BOS after HSCT. In contrast, based on the observed antiproliferative capacity of MMF in vitro, MMF-based calcineurin inhibitor-free treatment strategies should be further evaluated in patients with bronchiolitis obliterans after HSCT.
Related JoVE Video
Current practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: results from a survey among German-Austrian-Swiss hematopoietic stem cell transplant centers.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess current clinical practice in diagnosis and treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), we performed a survey among German, Austrian, and Swiss allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) centers. Thirty-four of 72 contacted centers (47%) completed both the diagnostic and therapeutic sections of the survey, representing 65% of allo-HSCT activity within the participating countries in 2011. Three pediatric centers answered as requested only the diagnostic part of the survey. In the presence of diarrhea and decreased oral intake after engraftment, only 4 centers (12%) do not perform any endoscopy before the start of immunosuppressive treatment. In case of a skin rash with the differential diagnosis of drug reaction, only 12 centers (35%) perform a skin biopsy up front, whereas 19 do so after failure of systemic steroids. In the presence of rapidly increasing cholestasis occurring without any other signs of aGVHD, 11 centers (32%) perform a liver biopsy up front and 14 only after failure of steroid treatment, whereas 9 centers do not perform a liver biopsy at all. Twenty centers (59%) use a percutaneous approach, 12 a transvenous approach, and 1 mini-laparoscopy for liver biopsies. First-line treatment of cutaneous aGVHD stage 1 consists of topical treatment alone in 17 of 31 responding centers (61%), whereas isolated cutaneous aGVHD stage III is treated with systemic steroids (prednisolone below 0.5 mg/kg/day n = 2, 0.5 to 1.0 mg/kg/day n = 10, above 1.0 to 2.5 mg/kg/day n = 19) without or with topical agents (steroids n = 10; calcineurin inhibitors n = 3). In gastrointestinal manifestations of aGVHD, 9 centers (29%) add topical to systemic steroids, and 3 consider topical steroids as the only treatment for mild gastrointestinal and cutaneous aGVHD. The choice of agent for second-line treatment as well as the sequence of administration are extremely heterogeneous, most likely due to a lack of convincing data published. Most frequently used are mycophenolate mofetil (n = 14) and extracorporeal photopheresis (n = 10). Our survey also demonstrates that clinicians chose salvage therapies for steroid-refractory aGVHD based on their centers own clinical experience.
Related JoVE Video
Outcome of pandemic H1N1 infections in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
During 2009, a new strain of A/H1N1 influenza appeared and became pandemic. A prospective study was performed to collect data regarding risk factors and outcome of A/H1N1 in hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Only verified pandemic A/H1N1 influenza strains were included: 286 patients were reported, 222 allogeneic and 64 autologous recipients. The median age was 38.3 years and the median time from transplant was 19.4 months. Oseltamivir was administered to 267 patients and 15 patients received zanamivir. One hundred and twenty-five patients (43.7%) were hospitalized. Ninety-three patients (32.5%) developed lower respiratory tract disease. In multivariate analysis, risk factors were age (OR 1.025; 1.01-1.04; P=0.002) and lymphopenia (OR 2.49; 1.33-4.67; P<0.001). Thirty-three patients (11.5%) required mechanical ventilation. Eighteen patients (6.3%) died from A/H1N1 infection or its complications. Neutropenia (P=0.03) and patient age (P=0.04) were significant risk factors for death. The 2009 A/H1N1 influenza pandemic caused severe complications in stem cell transplant recipients.
Related JoVE Video
The treatment of chronic graft-versus-host disease: consensus recommendations of experts from Germany, Austria, and Switzerland.
Dtsch Arztebl Int
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD) is the commonest complication of allogeneic bone marrow and blood stem-cell transplantation, occurring in 50% of all cases and causing late mortality in as many as 25%. There are now about 10 000 patients with cGVHD in Germany, and their number is growing by about 500 each year. cGVHD is a chronic multisystem disease due to impaired tolerance mechanisms. It affects many organs in variable ways, impairing organ function and lowering quality of life.
Related JoVE Video
Vaccination of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: report from the international consensus conference on clinical practice in chronic GVHD.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients lose protective immunity to vaccine-preventable diseases after haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, revaccination of HSCT recipients represents an important strategy for reducing morbidity and mortality associated with these infections. Since there is little consensus on vaccine recommendations and practices for allogeneic HSCT recipients with active chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) the German-Austrian-Swiss-Consensus Conference on Clinical Practice in Chronic GVHD developed an immunization schedule with the aim to provide optimal patient care. The proposed vaccine recommendations include immunization against Haemophilus influenzae type b, pertussis, pneumococci, meningococci, tetanus, diphtheria, hepatitis A and B, measles, mumps and rubella, influenza, poliomyelitis, varicella-zoster virus, human papilloma virus, and tick-borne encephalitis with a particular focus on vaccination of patients with active chronic GVHD.
Related JoVE Video
Persistence of recipient-type endothelium after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The possibility that allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation performed across the ABO blood group-barrier is associated with an increase of graft-versus-host disease, in particular endothelial damage, has not been elucidated so far. For this reason, we investigated the level of endothelial cell chimerism after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in order to delineate the role of hematopoietic stem cells in endothelial replacement.
Related JoVE Video
Late altered organ function in very long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a paired comparison with their HLA-identical sibling donor.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation has become an established procedure worldwide. Severe early and late complications are well described. Little is known about more subtle changes in general health status of very long-term survivors. The study objective was to assess health status of very long-term survivors in comparison with their respective human leukocyte antigen-identical sibling donors.
Related JoVE Video
[Blood transfusions in the treatment of chronic anemia].
Ther Umsch
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Blood transfusion is a not causal therapeutic option in symptomatic anemia. For long time, since the discovery of the blood circulation and the first experiments in transfusion over 300 years ago, blood transfusions were the only possibility to improve the tissue oxygenation. Pretransfusion testing of the blood components as well as of the donor and the recipient has made transfusion of allogeneic blood increasingly safe. Despite transfusion reactions still do occur, they have considerably diminished, inter alia by the introduction of hemovigilance systems and decreasing the hemoglobin value used as transfusion trigger, hence performing less unnecessary transfusions. In chronic anemia, usually accepted transfusion triggers today are 70 g/l hemoglobin in patients without comorbidities. The use of erythropoetin stimulating agents is widely used and should - after a careful examination of the anemia - be considered early in the treatment plan in patients with chronic anemic.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for a bidirectional relationship between cytomegalovirus replication and acute graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) are important complications after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) with a clear link. Multiple studies show that GVHD and its treatment put patients at risk for CMV replication. Data on CMV replication as a cause of GVHD, in contrast, are controversial. We analyzed the reciprocal association of CMV replication with acute GVHD (aGVHD) in 515 patients treated with allogeneic HSCT between 1993 and 2008. Cumulative incidences at day 100 were 17% for CMV replication, 68% for aGVHD grade I-IV, and 48% for GVHD grade II-IV. Multivariate time-dependent analyses revealed that the presence of GVHD increased the risk of CMV replication in a dose-dependent manner: hazard ratio (HR) for CMV replication for patients with aGVHD grade I was 1.35 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.82-2.21); HR for patients with aGVHD grade II-IV was 1.61 (95% CI 1.11-2.36, P-value for trend = .01). During phases of CMV replication, patients were at increased risk of developing aGVHD (HR 2.18, 95% CI 1.30-3.65, P < .01). These data confirm that GVHD and its therapy can induce CMV replication. They further demonstrate the reciprocal novel finding that patients are at significantly increased risk of developing aGVHD during CMV replication.
Related JoVE Video
Alemtuzumab is safe and effective as immunosuppressive treatment for aplastic anaemia and single-lineage marrow failure: a pilot study and a survey from the EBMT WPSAA.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
An alemtuzumab-based experimental immunosuppressive treatment (IST) regimen was investigated in 35 patients with severe aplastic anaemia (SAA), pure red cell (PRCA) or pure white cell aplasia (PWCA). Alemtuzumab total dose was 73-103 mg s.c., followed by cyclosporine. No serious toxicity due to the regimen was observed. Adverse events were clinically irrelevant; infectious events were rare. The total response rate was 58%, 84% and 100% in SAA, PRCA and PWCA, respectively, with corresponding 6 months cumulative response probabilities of 84%, 84% and 100%. Subcutaneous alemtuzumab is a feasible and sufficiently safe IST regimen for patients suffering from immune-mediated marrow failures.
Related JoVE Video
Autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy.
J. Peripher. Nerv. Syst.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Six patients with chronic acquired demyelinating neuropathy (CADP) were treated with autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). Two with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M-protein, and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome improved-improvement was sustained in one but relapsed and required repeat transplant in the other. Two of the three with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and one with an IgM paraprotein and antibodies to nerve improved--of the responders, one relapsed after 18 months and the other was in remission after 6 months. Four developed neutropenic septicemia and pneumonia. The role of PBSCT in CADP refractory to other treatment deserves further investigation but the serious adverse events and lack of sustained response in some patients emphasize the need for caution.
Related JoVE Video
The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Do some patients benefit from an unrelated donor (URD) transplant because of a stronger graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) effect? We analyzed 4099 patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) undergoing a myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from an URD (8/8 human leukocyte antigen [HLA]-matched, n=941) or HLA-identical sibling donor (n=3158) between 1995 and 2004 reported to the CIBMTR. In the Cox regression model, acute and chronic GVHD were added as time-dependent variables. In multivariate analysis, URD transplant recipients had a higher risk for transplantation-related mortality (TRM; relative risk [RR], 2.76; P< .001) and relapse (RR, 1.50; P< .002) in patients with AML, but not ALL or CML. Chronic GVHD was associated with a lower relapse risk in all diagnoses. Leukemia-free survival (LFS) was decreased in patients with AML without acute GVHD receiving a URD transplant (RR, 2.02; P< .001) but was comparable to those receiving HLA-identical sibling transplants in patients with ALL and CML. In patients without GVHD, multivariate analysis showed similar risk of relapse but decreased LFS for URD transplants for all 3 diagnoses. In conclusion, risk of relapse was the same (ALL, CML) or worse (AML) in URD transplant recipients compared with HLA-identical sibling transplant recipients, suggesting a similar GVL effect.
Related JoVE Video
Cellular senescence of white blood cells in very long-term survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: the role of chronic graft-versus-host disease and female donor sex.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this single-center, cross-sectional study, we evaluated 44 very long-term survivors with a median follow-up of 17.5 years (range, 11-26 years) after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. We assessed the telomere length difference in human leukocyte antigen-identical donor and recipient sibling pairs and searched for its relationship with clinical factors. The telomere length (in kb, mean +/- SD) was significantly shorter in all recipient blood cells compared with their donors blood cells (P < .01): granulocytes (6.5 +/- 0.9 vs 7.1 +/- 0.9), naive/memory T cells (5.7 +/- 1.2 vs 6.6 +/- 1.2; 5.2 +/- 1.0 vs 5.7 +/- 0.9), B cells (7.1 +/- 1.1 vs 7.8 +/- 1.1), and natural killer/natural killer T cells (4.8 +/- 1.0 vs 5.6 +/- 1.3). Chronic graft-versus-host disease (P < .04) and a female donor (P < .04) were associated with a greater difference in telomere length between donor and recipient. Critically short telomeres have been described in degenerative diseases and secondary malignancies. If this hypothesis can be confirmed, identification of recipients at risk for cellular senescence could become part of monitoring long-term survivors after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical-grade purification of natural killer cells in haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Transfusion
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Because of a high risk of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), donor lymphocyte infusions with unmodified lymphapheresis products are not used after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Natural killer (NK) cells have antitumor activity and may consolidate engraftment without inducing GVHD. Production of NK cells under good manufacturing practice (GMP) conditions in a sufficient number is difficult.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic action of budesonide after buccal administration in healthy subjects and patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Buccal administration of budesonide (mouthwash) may be effective as a topical add-on therapy in patients with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Safety of approved oral budesonide is based on high intestinal and hepatic extraction by cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A) enzymes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presystemic extraction and pharmacodynamic action of buccal budesonide. Oral budesonide (3 mg) was taken as reference to which various single and multiple dose regimens of buccal budesonide were compared. Budesonide and the 2 main CYP3A-dependent metabolites (6beta-hydroxybudesonide, 16alpha-hydroxyprednisolone) were analyzed in blood and urine along with the drugs effect on endogenous cortisol in 12 healthy subjects and 7 patients with oral cGVHD. We assessed CYP3A-dependent metabolites in both healthy subjects and patients after buccal budesonide. Whereas systemic exposure to budesonide was markedly lower in healthy subjects after the mouthwash compared to oral dosing (mean relative bioavailability 18%-36%), the systemic concentrations thereafter in patients were as high as those after the identical dose of oral budesonide. Reduced buccal CYP3A activity (lower inactivation of budesonide) in patients contributed to this remarkable difference. Endogenous cortisol was suppressed in some patients during 1 week of continuous treatment with buccal budesonide (3 x 3 mg per day). We are the first to report the biotransformation of budesonide via CYP3A enzymes after buccal drug administration. Only 2% of a buccal dose of budesonide achieves systemic circulation in healthy individuals; that fraction is 10% in patients with oral cGVHD, probably because of alterations in drug uptake and metabolization.
Related JoVE Video
Prevention of pure red cell aplasia after major or bidirectional ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation by pretransplant reduction of host anti-donor isoagglutinins.
Haematologica
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Persistent anti-donor isoagglutinins after major ABO blood group incompatible hematopoietic stem cell transplantation may cause delayed red blood cell engraftment and post-transplant pure red cell aplasia.
Related JoVE Video
Aplastic anemia and concomitant autoimmune diseases.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The association of aplastic anemia (AA) with other autoimmune diseases (AID) has been described but so far not systematically evaluated. We assessed the incidence and the outcome of concomitant AID in a retrospective, single-center study of 243 patients with severe AA treated between 1974 and 2006 with either immunosuppression (186) or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (57) and a median follow-up time of 9.3 years (0-33). Clinically manifest AID were observed in 24 out of 243 (10 +/- 3.7%) patients. Age at diagnosis of AA was significantly younger in patients without AID compared to patients with AID (median, 20 versus 52 years; P < 0.001). In 12 patients where the diagnosis of AID was done before AA therapy, response to antithymocyte globulin was good for AA (ten out of 12) but not for AID (2 out of 12). In 13 patients in which AID occurred after first-line therapy, the median time to the AID was 7 years (range 3 months-27.5 years).
Related JoVE Video
Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a review and recommendations for follow-up care for the general practitioner.
Swiss Med Wkly
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The first hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), the replacement of the hematopoietic system, by hematopoietic stem cells from the patient (autologous HSCT) or from another person (allogeneic HSCT), was performed almost 45 years ago. Today autologous HSCT is used to bridge hematopoietic failure after high dose chemotherapy for the treatment of selected hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic tumours. Allogeneic HSCT is used to treat congenital or acquired marrow failure, and, more commonly, to exploit the graft versus tumour effect of allogeneic cells against high risk hematologic malignancies. In 2010, 30,000 patients were treated with HSCT (12,000 allogeneic and 18,000 autologous HSCT) in Europe. Substantial progress has been made in the field of allogeneic HSCT in the last decade. First the article describes advances in patient and donor selection, the current concepts of choosing the optimal stem cell source and the most appropriate preparative regimen. Furthermore, recent advances in supportive care are described. We describe how these innovations have allowed indications for allogeneic HSCT to be expanded. Finally, prospects for future developments will be outlined.
Related JoVE Video
Aspergillus-PCR in bronchoalveolar lavage for detection of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in immunocompromised patients.
BMC Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a frequent and serious infectious complication in immunocompromised patients. Culture and cytology in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) have a high specificity but low sensitivity for the diagnosis of IFD as assessed by histology. Molecular methods are expected to allow a rapid diagnosis of IFD with a high sensitivity. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of conventional nested PCR in the bronchoalveolar fluid to diagnose IFD in severely immunocompromised patients.
Related JoVE Video
Allogeneic stem cell transplantation for relapsed or refractory lymphoma after conditioning with BEAM/fludarabine/TBI.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Allogeneic stem cell transplant (SCT) after high-dose conditioning with BEAM/fludarabine/total body irradiation (TBI) in patients with relapsed or refractory lymphoma has shown promising results in a pilot study. In this trial, we treated 50 consecutive patients with refractory or relapsed lymphoma or chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). The patients included were considered to have poor-prognosis disease (eg, one-third was chemo-refractory at transplantation and more than one-half had failed previous autologous or allogeneic SCT). All patients engrafted and achieved full donor chimerism. Grade II-IV acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) occurred in 64% of patients (95% confidence interval [CI], 52% to 79%), and chronic GVHD (cGVHD) in 51% (95% CI, 36% to 66%). At 3 years, overall survival was 61% (95% CI, 46% to 75%). Progression-free survival was 55% (95% CI, 40% to 70%), with 30% (95% CI, 19% to 47%) transplantation-related mortality and a relapse incidence of 15% (95% CI, 7% to 32%). Disease classification and stage as well as remission status at transplantation and type of previous treatment (including previous SCT) had no significant impact on transplantation outcome. In conclusion, allogeneic SCT after BEAM/fludarabine/TBI provides excellent tumor control with complete and durable remissions in patients with poor-prognosis lymphoma and CLL. High rates of GVHD and GVHD-related mortality associated with this regimen are a major concern and warrant modification of the regimen in the future.
Related JoVE Video
Large granular lymphocyte expansion after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is associated with a cytomegalovirus reactivation and shows an indolent outcome.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Expansions of CD3+ large granular lymphocytes (LGLs) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) have been described. We sought to evaluate incidence, characteristics, and clinical significance of persistent T cell (T-)LGL after HSCT. Fourteen of 215 recipients (7%) were diagnosed with LGL expansions. Thirteen showed a CD3+/CD8+ immunophenotype, 5 of them with clonal TCR-? rearrangement. The lymphocytes appeared at a median of 16 months (range, 3-58 months) after HSCT and lasted for a median time of 31 months (range, 2-179 months). Cytomegalovirus (CMV) reactivation (P = .001) and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) were associated with LGL expansion (P = .02). In the multivariate analysis, only CMV reactivation showed a significant association with T-LGL expansion (relative risk [RR]: 5.063; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.586-16.160; P = .006). The observed posttransplantation LGL expansions, even if monoclonal, showed a chronic, indolent course. Our data indicate that such expansions may be considered as an expression of chronic stimulation, triggered by CMV reactivation rather than a malignant transformation.
Related JoVE Video
Dynamics of ampicillin-resistant Enterococcus faecium clones colonizing hospitalized patients: data from a prospective observational study.
BMC Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Little is known about the dynamics of colonizing Enterococcus faecium clones during hospitalization, invasive infection and after discharge.
Related JoVE Video
Future trends in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Curr. Probl. Dermatol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The procedure of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) will keep expanding over the next decades. The list of indications for autologous or allogeneic HSCT of nonmalignant and malignant hematological disorders will grow. Other life-threatening diseases such as genetic, metabolic or autoimmune disorders including systemic sclerosis will undergo critical evaluation for that treatment. As a consequence of continuous research and clinical progress in that field, more and more patients will survive HSCT, and physicians will be confronted with organ-specific late and very late effects including chronic graft-versus-host disease (cGVHD). Changes of eligibility criteria for HSCT, quality assessment of the stem cell graft, graft manipulation, and new developments in donor selection might possibly impact patients health status and epidemiology as well as presentations of posttransplant complications. Efforts to diminish GVHD while forcing graft-versus-tumor effects will persist to be one of the major goals, and advances in prophylaxis and treatment of cGVHD will remain high priority. Changes in stem cell sources and graft manipulation might have additional influence on immune reconstitution and posttransplant disorders of infectious and immunological type. The recent publications of the National Institutes of Health consensus development project on various aspects of chronic GVHD has rightly positioned cGVHD as a serious and difficult to treat pleiotropic systemic disease with tremendous impact on long-term outcome. In this chapter, we will point out some of the most important issues and trends related to HSCT.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.