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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Swimming training repercussion on metabolic and structural bone development; benefits of the incorporation of whole body vibration or pilometric training; the RENACIMIENTO project.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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Enviromental factors such as exercise participation and nutrition have often been linked to bone improvements. However, not all sports have the same effects, being non-osteogenic sports such as swimming defined as negative or neutral sports to practice regarding bone mass by some authors, similarly exercise-diet interaction in especific groups is still not clear.
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Physical activity, hydration and health.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2014
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Since the beginning of mankind, man has sought ways to promote and preserve health as well as to prevent disease. Hydration, physical activity and exercise are key factors for enhancing human health. However, either a little dose of them or an excess can be harmful for health maintenance at any age. Water is an essential nutrient for human body and a major key to survival has been to prevent dehydration. However, there is still a general controversy regarding the necessary amount to drink water or other beverages to properly get an adequate level of hydration. In addition, up to now the tools used to measure hydration are controversial. To this end, there are several important groups of variables to take into account such as water balance, hydration biomarkers and total body water. A combination of methods will be the most preferred tool to find out any risk or situation of dehydration at any age range. On the other hand, physical activity and exercise are being demonstrated to promote health, avoiding or reducing health problems, vascular and inflammatory disea ses and helping weight management. Therefore, physical activity is also being used as a pill within a therapy to promote health and reduce risk diseases, but as in the case of drugs, dose, intensity, frequency, duration and precautions have to be evaluated and taken into account in order to get the maximum effectiveness and success of a treatment. On the other hand, sedentariness is the opposite concept to physical activity that has been recently recognized as an important factor of lifestyle involved in the obesogenic environment and consequently in the risk of the non-communicable diseases. In view of the literature consulted and taking into account the expertise of the authors, in this review a Decalogue of global recommendations is included to achieve an adequate hydration and physical activity status to avoid overweight/obesity consequences.
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[Physical fitness evolution in octogenarian population and its relationship with a sedentary lifestyle].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The aim of this study was to determine the changes in physical fitness over two years of following up in octogenarian people and to check whether a sedentary lifestyle modify these variations.
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Effect of whole-body vibration therapy on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with disabilities: a systematic review.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To summarize the current literature regarding the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) therapy on the health-related physical fitness of children and adolescents with disabilities.
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Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on lean mass in elderly people.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV) training has an effect on lean mass (LM) in the elderly.
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The nutritional status in adolescent Spanish cyclists.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Adolescence is an important period of nutritional vulnerability due to the increased dietary requirements. Objective: To describe the nutritional status of adolescent cyclist and a group of normoactive controls.
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Physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in adolescents with Down syndrome.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To determine if adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) accomplish the physical activity (PA) guidelines and to evaluate relationships between PA and cardiorespiratory variables.
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Do calcium and vitamin D intake influence the effect of cycling on bone mass through adolescence?
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Cycling has been associated with decreased bone mass during adolescence. Calcium (Ca) and vitamin D (VitD) intake are associated to bone mass and may be important confounders when studying bone mass.
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[Sedentarism and physical fitness in postmenopausal women].
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The aging process is accompanied by several changes, such as a decrease in physical fitness.
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Inter-methods agreement for the assessment of percentage of body fat between two laboratory methods in male adolescent cyclists.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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To examine inter-methods agreement between dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in male adolescent cyclists for assessing percentage of body fat (PBF).
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Impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns in free living conditions among adolescents measured using a uniaxial accelerometer: The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
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Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.
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Influence of Hard vs. Soft Ground Surfaces on Bone Accretion in Prepubertal Footballers.
Int J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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Information regarding osteogenic effects of physical activity performed on different playing surfaces is scarce. A total of 42 children (9.2±0.2 years, Tanner stages I-II) participated in this study. 14 were playing on artificial turf soft ground (SG), 14 on a natural non-grass hard ground (HG) and 14 were assigned to the sedentary control group (C). Whole body and hip scans (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), anthropometric variables (weight and height) and physical fitness (VO2max) were determined in all participants. Bone mineral content (BMC) values were higher in the SG group compared to the C group at the legs (209.75±5.11 g vs. 187.42±5.14 g, respectively), pelvis (122.72±4.27 g vs. 98.58±4.29 g respectively) and whole-body level (1 126.1±22.81 g vs. 1 035.34±22.92 g, respectively). The hard ground (HG) group also showed higher values in the majority of BMC variables compared to the C group. Additionally, bone mineral density (BMD) was significantly higher at all sites of the hip in both active groups compared to control (P<0.05). No differences between HG and SG were found. In summary, similar bone mass accretion is obtained by prepubescent footballers independently of the surface on which they practice football.
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Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on bone mass and structure in elderly people.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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OBJECTIVES: We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration training has a beneficial effect on bone mass and structure in elderly men and women. DESIGN: Randomised controlled trial. METHODS: A total of 49 non-institutionalised elderly (20 men and 29 women) volunteered to participate in the study. Participants who met the inclusion criteria were randomly assigned to one of the study groups (whole body vibration or control). A total of 24 elderly trained squat positioned on a vibration platform 3 times per week for 11 weeks. Bone-related variables were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography. Two-way repeated measures one-way analysis of variance (group by time) was used to determine the effects of the intervention on the bone-related variables and also to determinate the changes within group throughout the intervention period. Analysis of covariance was used to test the differences between groups for bone-related variables in pre- and post-training assessments and in the percentage of change between groups. All analysis were carried out including age, height, subtotal lean mass and daily calcium intake as covariates. RESULTS: 11 weeks of whole body vibration training led to no changes in none of the bone mineral content and bone mineral density parameters measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry through the skeleton. At the tibia, total, trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density decreased significantly in the whole body vibration group (all P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: A short-term whole body vibration therapy is not enough to cause any changes on bone mineral content or bone mineral density and it only produces a slight variation on bone structure among elderly people.
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Effects of whole body vibration training on balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The present study aimed to determine whether a whole body vibration training program (WBV) is able to improve static standing balance in adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescents with DS aged 11-20 years (DSG) and 27 adolescent, age/sex matched, without DS (CG) joined the study. Participants of each group were divided into two comparable groups, those who performed WVB (in DSG: VDSG; in CG: VCG) and those who did not perform WVB (in DSG: nVDSG; in CG: nVCG). Static-standing-balance under four conditions (C1: open-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C2: closed-eyes/fixed-foot-support; C3: open-eyes/compliant-foot-support; C4: closed-eyes/compliant-foot-support) was examine, before and after a 20-week WBV training program. For balance study, Postural-Parameters (PPs), based on center of pressure (COP) oscillations (anterior/posterior and medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity), and PPs ratios among the four conditions were calculated. After WBV training, no significant differences were found in any parameter in the VCG and nVCG and neither in the nVDSG, but there was a decrease of mean values in the analyzed PPs under C4, with significant differences in medial/lateral COP excursion and COP mean velocity, and a significant decrease in the ratio C4/C1 of the mean velocity in VDSG. Therefore, WBV training had positive effects in the balance of DS adolescents although only under specific conditions, with vision and somatosensory input altered. The positive results of this study are encouraging and open a wide field of research, looking for the most efficient program for this population.
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Decreased levels of physical activity in adolescents with down syndrome are related with low bone mineral density: a cross-sectional study.
BMC Endocr Disord
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2013
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Down syndrome (DS) has been described as one of the main contributors for low bone mineral density (BMD). Physical activity (PA) is a key factor in skeletal health and thus, PA levels might be associated to the risk of developing osteoporosis. Therefore, the aims were (1) to describe PA patterns in adolescents with DS compared to their counterparts and (2) to determine the relationships between PA and the risk of having low bone mass in adolescents with DS.
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Effects of whole body vibration training on body composition in adolescents with Down syndrome.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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The present study aimed to determine the effect of 20 weeks of whole body vibration (WBV) on the body composition of adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Thirty adolescent with DS were divided into two groups: control and WBV. Whole body, upper and lower limbs body fat and lean body mass were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after 20 weeks of WBV training. Repeated measures of ANOVA adjusting by height, weight and Tanner stage were used to analyze possible group by time interactions on body composition. The adjusted percentages of change in body composition were also compared between control and WBV groups. No group by time interactions were found for any variable, but the WBV group showed a higher reduction in body fat at the upper limbs (p<0.05), and a tendency toward higher percent increase in whole body lean body mass. Overall, a 20-week WBV training is not enough by itself for increasing lean body mass in adolescents with DS, but it might be helpful for improving body composition in this population. Its relationship with health and autonomy enhances the importance of these results.
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Influence of running stride frequency in heart rate variability analysis during treadmill exercise testing.
IEEE Trans Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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The analysis and interpretation of heart rate variability (HRV) during exercise is challenging not only because of the nonstationary nature of exercise, the time-varying mean heart rate, and the fact that respiratory frequency exceeds 0.4 Hz, but there are also other factors, such as the component centered at the pedaling frequency observed in maximal cycling tests, which may confuse the interpretation of HRV analysis. The objectives of this study are to test the hypothesis that a component centered at the running stride frequency (SF) appears in the HRV of subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing, and to study its influence in the interpretation of the low-frequency (LF) and high-frequency (HF) components of HRV during exercise. The HRV of 23 subjects during maximal treadmill exercise testing is analyzed. The instantaneous power of different HRV components is computed from the smoothed pseudo-Wigner-Ville distribution of the modulating signal assumed to carry information from the autonomic nervous system, which is estimated based on the time-varying integral pulse frequency modulation model. Besides the LF and HF components, the appearance is revealed of a component centered at the running SF as well as its aliases. The power associated with the SF component and its aliases represents 22±7% (median±median absolute deviation) of the total HRV power in all the subjects. Normalized LF power decreases as the exercise intensity increases, while normalized HF power increases. The power associated with the SF does not change significantly with exercise intensity. Consideration of the running SF component and its aliases is very important in HRV analysis since stride frequency aliases may overlap with LF and HF components.
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Effects of a short-term whole body vibration intervention on physical fitness in elderly people.
Maturitas
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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We aimed to clarify whether a short-term whole body vibration (WBV) training has a beneficial effect on physical fitness in elderly people. Forty-nine non-institutionalized elderly (75.0±4.7 years) participated in the study. Twenty-four of them trained on a vibration platform for 11 weeks. Physical fitness included balance, lower- and upper-body strength and flexibility, agility, walking speed and endurance. In the WBV group most of the physical tests improved through the intervention (all P<0.01) while in the control group only an increment was detected in lower-body strength (P<0.05). In conclusion, a short-term WBV training is beneficial for physical fitness among elderly people.
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Enhancing sucrose synthase activity results in increased levels of starch and ADP-glucose in maize (Zea mays L.) seed endosperms.
Plant Cell Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Sucrose synthase (SuSy) is a highly regulated cytosolic enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of sucrose and a nucleoside diphosphate into the corresponding nucleoside diphosphate glucose and fructose. In cereal endosperms, it is widely assumed that the stepwise reactions of SuSy, UDPglucose pyrophosphorylase and ADPglucose (ADPG) pyrophosphorylase (AGP) take place in the cytosol to convert sucrose into ADPG necessary for starch biosynthesis, although it has also been suggested that SuSy may participate in the direct conversion of sucrose into ADPG. In this study, the levels of the major primary carbon metabolites, and the activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes were assessed in endosperms of transgenic maize plants ectopically expressing StSUS4, which encodes a potato SuSy isoform. A total of 29 fertile lines transformed with StSUS4 were obtained, five of them containing a single copy of the transgene that was still functional after five generations. The number of seeds per ear of the five transgenic lines containing a single StSUS4 copy was comparable with that of wild-type (WT) control seeds. However, transgenic seeds accumulated 10-15% more starch at the mature stage, and contained a higher amylose/amylopectin balance than WT seeds. Endosperms of developing StSUS4-expressing seeds exhibited a significant increase in SuSy activity, and in starch and ADPG contents when compared with WT endosperms. No significant changes could be detected in the transgenic seeds in the content of soluble sugars, and in activities of starch metabolism-related enzymes when compared with WT seeds. A suggested metabolic model is presented wherein both AGP and SuSy are involved in the production of ADPG linked to starch biosynthesis in maize endosperm cells.
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Is bone tissue really affected by swimming? A systematic review.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Swimming, a sport practiced in hypogravity, has sometimes been associated with decreased bone mass.
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A combined training intervention programme increases lean mass in youths with Down syndrome.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2011
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The present study aimed to determine whether youths with Down syndrome (DS) are able to increase lean mass and decrease fat mass, after 21 weeks of conditioning combined with a plyometric jumps training program.
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Prevalence of overweight and obesity in non-institutionalized people aged 65 or over from Spain: the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study.
Obes Rev
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Coupled with the growth of the older population, an increase in the prevalence of overweight and obesity in this age group has occurred in the last decades. The main aims of the present study were (i) to provide an updated prevalence of overweight and obesity in a representative sample of the Spanish elderly population; (ii) to calculate the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity (SO) and (iii) to analyse the relationships between adiposity measurements and lifestyle. A cross-sectional study was carried out in a sample of 3136 persons representative of the non-institutionalized population ?65 years of age. Anthropometric measurements were obtained using standardized techniques and equipment. Overall, 84% of the population can be categorized as overweight and/or obese. The present study indicates that 67% of the Spanish elderly population has an increased percentage of fat mass and more than 56% suffer from central obesity. Moreover, SO is present in 15% of the Spanish elderly population. Finally, a strong relationship between both physically active and sedentary lifestyles and the level of adiposity was found. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among elderly people in Spain is very high and is still increasing. Lifestyle seems to be a determinant factor in the development of obesity among elderly people.
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Socioeconomic status and bone mass in Spanish adolescents. The HELENA Study.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Socioeconomic status (SES) has been frequently associated with body composition, particularly fat mass and obesity. However, the SES-bone mass association is not clear. We aimed to evaluate the associations between different SES indicators (Family Affluence Scale, parental education, and occupation) and bone mineral content in Spanish adolescents.
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Physical fitness in rural and urban children and adolescents from Spain.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2011
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We aimed to examine the differences in fitness components between rural and urban Spanish children and adolescents.
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Impact of methodological decisions on accelerometer outcome variables in young children.
Int J Obes (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The impact of accelerometer-related methodological decisions relating to the assessment of physical activity and sedentary time has not been conclusively determined in young children.
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The IDEFICS validation study on field methods for assessing physical activity and body composition in children: design and data collection.
Int J Obes (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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To describe the design, measurements and fieldwork of the IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) physical activity and body composition validation study, and to determine the potential and limitations of the data obtained.
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Bone related health status in adolescent cyclists.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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To describe bone status and analyse bone mass in adolescent cyclists.
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Accuracy of prediction equations to assess percentage of body fat in children and adolescents with Down syndrome compared to air displacement plethysmography.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
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To determine the accuracy of the published percentage body fat (%BF) prediction equations (Durnin et al., Johnston et al., Brook and Slaughter et al.) from skinfold thickness compared to air displacement plethysmography (ADP) in children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS). Twenty-eight children and adolescents with DS (10-20 years old; 12 girls, 16 boys) participated in the study. Anthropometric measurements height, weight, and skinfolds biceps, triceps, subscapular and suprailiac were performed following ISAK recommendations. Total body density (TBD) was estimated using three equations and was also measured with ADP; while %BF was calculated from all densities using the Siri equation and from skinfolds using the Slaughter et al. equation. Finally, the agreement between methods was assessed by plotting the results in Bland-Altman graphs. The presence of heteroscedasticity was also examined. Despite the equation of Slaughter et al. had a large 95% limits of agreement, it was the only one without a significant inter-methods difference and without heteroscedasticity. The equation of Slaughter seems to be, from the studied, the most accurate for estimating %BF in children and adolescents with DS.
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Effect of fitness and physical activity on bone mass in adolescents: the HELENA Study.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2011
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Our aim is to analyse the effect on bone mass of: (1) physical fitness performance on a specific group of physical activity (PA) and, (2) PA on a specific physical fitness performance group. Bone mineral content (BMC) by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and PA by accelerometers was assessed in 373 Spanish adolescents (182 males). Adolescents were classified as: active and non-active (?60 or <60 min day(-1) of moderate-vigorous PA). Fitness was assessed through speed/agility, strength and cardiorespiratory tests. Adolescents were classified by tertiles (T1, T2 and T3). ANCOVA was used for the analysis with sex, height, lean mass, calcium intake and pubertal status as covariates. Adolescents with lower strength, speed/agility and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) showed lower BMC in the whole body and extremities compared with adolescents with better results in these tests, mainly those non-active adolescents. Non-active adolescents with high fitness levels showed higher BMC (whole body and upper limbs) than active ones. The conclusions included: (1) within the non-active group, lower levels of fitness were associated with lower BMC; this might be through PA or trough an effect of PA on muscle mass. (2) Non-active adolescents with high level of fitness in most fitness tests showed higher BMC than their active peers, in spite of their lower PA levels. These unexpected results could be influenced by several factors such as genetics, nutrition, type of exercise or sport, hormones and skeletal age.
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Fat and lean masses in youths with Down syndrome: gender differences.
Res Dev Disabil
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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The present study aimed at comparing fat and lean masses between children and adolescents with and without Down syndrome (DS) and evaluating the presence of sexual dimorphism. Total and regional fat and lean masses were assessed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and the percentage of body fat (%BF) by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in 31 participants with DS and 32 controls. Waist circumference (WC) was also measured. Analysis of covariance and the Students t-test were used to compare variables between groups and between sexes within the same group. There were no significant differences in %BF, WC or body mass index (BMI) between groups. Females with DS showed higher fat and lean masses in the trunk, and lower fat and lean masses in the lower limbs compared with females without DS (all p?0.05). Males with DS showed higher fat masses in the whole body and upper limbs, and lower lean masses in the whole body and lower limbs compared with males without DS (all p?0.05). Females in both groups showed higher levels of fat, and lower levels of lean than did their respective males (all p?0.05). Youths with DS showed higher fat and lower lean than their non-DS peers. The increased truncal fat in females with DS might indicate a higher risk of metabolic syndrome in this group. Sexual dimorphism in youths with and without DS was very similar. BMI, WC and %BF were not effective indicators of increased risk in youths with DS.
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Physical fitness and obesity are associated in a dose-dependent manner in children.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2010
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To analyze the relationships between physical fitness, lifestyle-related factors, and obesity in a large population of children.
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Recommended levels and intensities of physical activity to avoid low-cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: The HELENA study.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific physical activity (PA) intensity thresholds that best discriminate between unhealthy/healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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Bone mass in male and female children and adolescents with Down syndrome.
Osteoporos Int
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Children and adolescents with Down syndrome (DS) have lower levels of bone mass compared with youths without DS. Their sexual dimorphism in bone mass also differs from that observed in children and adolescents without Down syndrome.
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Health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with Down syndrome and response to training.
Scand J Med Sci Sports
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
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Physical fitness is related to health at all ages. Information about physical fitness in the Down syndrome (DS) population, however, is scarce, especially when we consider children and adolescents. A review of the current data available on this topic would be both timely and important as it would serve as a starting point to stimulate new research perspectives. The data we reviewed from the literature showed a general trend toward lower values of physical fitness parameters and worse body composition variables in children and adolescents with DS compared with the population without intellectual disability (ID) or even with the population with ID without DS. Notably, children and adolescents with DS have been described as less active or overprotected; however, these factors may not be the cause of their poor physical fitness. Many of the training programs carried out in children and adolescents with DS did not yield the desired responses, and the reasons are still unknown. The purpose of this review is to summarize the current available literature on health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents with DS, and the effect of training on these variables. From the literature available, it is clear that more data on this population are necessary.
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Secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents: the AVENA and HELENA studies.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2010
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We analysed the secular trends in health-related physical fitness in Spanish adolescents between 2001-2002 and 2006-2007. Two representative population studies were conducted 5 years apart in adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) from Zaragoza (Spain) that participated in the AVENA study in 2001-2002 and in the HELENA-CSS study in 2006-2007. Both studies used the same tests to assess physical fitness: the handgrip strength, bent arm hang, standing broad jump, 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests. Performance in 4×10m shuttle run and 20m shuttle run tests was higher in 2006-2007 (Cohens d ranging from 0.2 to 0.4, p<0.05), whereas performance in handgrip strength and standing broad jump tests was lower in 2006-2007 (Cohens d ranging from 0.3 to 1.1, p<0.001). Adjustment for age, pubertal status, fat mass, fat free mass and parental education did not alter the results. The odds ratio (OR) of meeting the FITNESSGRAM Standards for healthy cardiorespiratory fitness was higher in 2006-2007 in both boys (OR, 95% CI: 2.123, 1.157-3.908) and girls (OR, 95% CI: 2.420, 1.377-4.255). The results indicate that levels of both speed/agility and cardiorespiratory fitness were higher in 2006-2007 than in 2001-2002, whereas muscular strength components were lower in 2006-2007.
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Temporal values and plantar pressures during normal walking and racewalking in a group of racewalkers.
J Sport Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2009
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To compare temporal and pressure values between racewalking and normal walking (freely selected speed) and evaluate the impact of racewalking on normal walking.
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Human mitochondrial variants influence on oxygen consumption.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2009
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This work investigates if human mitochondrial variants influence on maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)). With this purpose we recruited, as a uniform population in term of nutritional habits and life style, 114 healthy male Spanish subjects that practiced fitness exercises 3-4 times a week. Once mtDNA haplogroups were determined, we found that J presents with lower VO(2max) (P=0.02) than nonJ variants. J has been related with a lower efficiency of electron transport chain (ETC), diminished ATP and ROS production. Thus, the difficult to compensate the mitochondrial energetic deficiency could explain the accumulation of J haplogroup in LHON and multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the lower ROS production associated to J could also account for the accrual of this variant in elderly people consequent to a decreased oxidative damage.
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Human mitochondrial haplogroup H: the highest VO2max consumer--is it a paradox?
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2009
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Mitochondrial background has been demonstrated to influence maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max), in mLkg(-1)min(-1)), but this genetic influence can be compensated for by regular exercise. A positive correlation among electron transport chain (ETC) coupling, ATP and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production has been established, and mitochondrial variants have been reported to show differences in their ETC performance. In this study, we examined in detail the VO(2max) differences found among mitochondrial haplogroups. We recruited 81 healthy male Spanish Caucasian individuals and determined their mitochondrial haplogroup. Their VO(2max) was determined using incremental cycling exercise (ICE). VO(2max) was lower in J than in non-J haplogroup individuals (P=0.04). The H haplogroup was responsible for this difference (VO(2max); J vs. H; P=0.008) and this group also had significantly higher mitochondrial oxidative damage (mtOD) than the J haplogroup (P=0.04). In agreement with these results, VO(2max) and mtOD were positively correlated (P=0.01). Given that ROS production is the major contributor to mtOD and consumes four times more oxygen per electron than the ETC, our results strongly suggest that ROS production is responsible for the higher VO(2max) found in the H variant. These findings not only contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms underneath VO(2max), but also help to explain some reported associations between mitochondrial haplogroups and mtOD with longevity, sperm motility, premature aging and susceptibility to different pathologies.
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Steady exercise removes VO(2max) difference between mitochondrial genomic variants.
Mitochondrion
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2009
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It has been clearly established that mitochondrial variants, among other potential factors, influence on VO(2max). With this study we sought to determine whether this genetic predisposition could be modified by steady exercise. Mitochondrial genetic variants were determined in 70 healthy controls (CON) and in 77 athletes who trained regularly (50 cyclists, aerobic training (AER), and 27 runners of 400m, anaerobic training (NoAER)). All of them were male Spanish Caucasian individuals. A maximum graded exercise test (GXT) in cycle-ergometer was performed to determine VO(2max) (mL kg(-1)min(-1)). Our results confirmed that, in CON, VO(2max) (P=0.007) was higher in Non-J than J individuals. Furthermore, we found that AER and NoAER showed, as it could be expected, higher VO(2max) than CON, but not differences between mitochondrial variants have been found. According with these findings, the influence of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants on VO(2max) has been confirmed, and a new conclusion has arisen: the steady exercise is able to remove this influence. The interest of these promising findings in muscular performance should be further explored, in particular, the understanding of potential applications in sport training and in muscle pathological syndromes.
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Specific Jak3 Downregulation in Lymphocytes Impairs ?c Cytokine Signal Transduction and Alleviates Antigen-driven Inflammation In Vivo.
Mol Ther Nucleic Acids
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Jak3, one of the four members comprising the Jak family of cytosolic tyrosine kinases, has emerged as a promising target for nontoxic immunotherapies. Although a number of Jak inhibitors has already demonstrated efficacy, they suffer from secondary effects apparently associated to their pan-Jak activity. However, whether selective Jak3 inhibition would afford therapeutic efficacy remains unclear. To address this question we have investigated the immunosuppressive potential of selective Jak3 intervention in lymphocytes using RNA interference (RNAi) technology in vitro and in vivo. Using synthetic small interference RNA (siRNA) sequences we achieved successful transfections into human and mouse primary T lymphocytes. We found that Jak3 knockdown was sufficient to impair not only interleukin-2 (IL-2) and T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated cell activation in vitro, but also antigen-triggereds welling, inflammatory cell infiltration, and proinflammatory cytokine raise in vivo. Furthermore, Jak1 (which mediates ?c cytokine signaling in conjunction with Jak3) cosilencing did not provide higher potency to the aforementioned immunosuppressant effects. Our data provides direct evidences indicating that Jak3 protein plays an important role in ?c cytokine and antigen-mediated T cell activation and modulates Th1-mediated inflammatory disorders, all in all highlighting its potential as a target in immunosuppressive therapies.Molecular Therapy - Nucleic Acids (2012) 1, e42; doi:10.1038/mtna.2012.37; published online 04 September 2012.
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Cycling and bone health: a systematic review.
BMC Med
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Cycling is considered to be a highly beneficial sport for significantly enhancing cardiovascular fitness in individuals, yet studies show little or no corresponding improvements in bone mass.
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[Increased risk of obesity and central obesity in sedentary postmenopausal women].
Nutr Hosp
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To establish the influence of a sedentary behavior (sit time) on body composition in elderly women from Aragón.
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Fat mass influence on bone mass is mediated by the independent association between lean mass and bone mass among elderly women: a cross-sectional study.
Maturitas
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To study the independent association of fat mass (FM) and lean mass (LM) with bone mass and to study the differences in bone mass by weight and fat status in 223 seniors (aged 65-89 years) from the city of Zaragoza (Spain), after controlling for age, height, physical activity (PA) and LM.
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Validity of hip-mounted uniaxial accelerometry with heart-rate monitoring vs. triaxial accelerometry in the assessment of free-living energy expenditure in young children: the IDEFICS Validation Study.
J. Appl. Physiol.
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One of the aims of Identification and Prevention of Dietary- and Lifestyle-Induced Health Effects in Children and Infants (IDEFICS) validation study is to validate field measures of physical activity (PA) and energy expenditure (EE) in young children. This study compared the validity of uniaxial accelerometry with heart-rate (HR) monitoring vs. triaxial accelerometry against doubly labeled water (DLW) criterion method for assessment of free-living EE in young children. Forty-nine European children (25 female, 24 male) aged 4-10 yr (mean age: 6.9 ± 1.5 yr) were assessed by uniaxial ActiTrainer with HR, uniaxial 3DNX, and triaxial 3DNX accelerometry. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was estimated using DLW over a 1-wk period. The longitudinal axis of both devices and triaxial 3DNX counts per minute (CPM) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with physical activity level (PAL; r = 0.51 ActiTrainer, r = 0.49 uniaxial-3DNX, and r = 0.42 triaxial ?3DNX). Eight-six percent of the variance in TEE could be predicted by a model combining body mass (partial r(2) = 71%; P < 0.05), CPM-ActiTrainer (partial r(2) = 11%; P < 0.05), and difference between HR at moderate and sedentary activities (ModHR - SedHR) (partial r(2) = 4%; P < 0.05). The SE of TEE estimate for ActiTrainer and 3DNX models ranged from 0.44 to 0.74 MJ/days or ?7-11% of the average TEE. The SE of activity-induced energy expenditure (AEE) model estimates ranged from 0.38 to 0.57 MJ/day or 24-26% of the average AEE. It is concluded that the comparative validity of hip-mounted uniaxial and triaxial accelerometers for assessing PA and EE is similar.
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Cortical and trabecular bone at the radius and tibia in male and female adolescents with Down syndrome: a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) study.
Osteoporos Int
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We aimed to describe the structure and strength of the tibia and radius of adolescents with Down syndrome. We observed that despite higher levels of volumetric bone mineral density in determined skeletal sites, they are at higher risk of developing osteoporotic fractures in the future due to their lower bone strength indexes.
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[Aging and body composition: the sarcopenic obesity in Spain].
Nutr Hosp
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The increase in life expectancy occurred during the last decades has resulted in a growth of the elderly population, being estimated that a third of the Spanish population will be elderly (> 65 years) in the year 2050. Human aging involves many changes, such as a variation in body composition. Different factors work together leading to an increase in fat mass, decreased muscle mass and reduced bone mass among seniors. These characteristic changes among elderly people may lead to suffer several diseases such as obesity, sarcopenia and osteoporosis and may result in decreased quality of life, increased dependence and increased risk of mortality in this population. In the late 90s, "sarcopenic obesity" was a concept that emerged in order to define those people who simultaneously have an excess of body fat and a significant loss of muscle mass. Recently, for the first time in Spain (the elderly EXERNET multi-centre study), it has been shown that the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity in a representative sample of non-institutionalized seniors reaches values of 15%.
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Physical fitness levels among independent non-institutionalized Spanish elderly: the elderly EXERNET multi-center study.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr
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Physical fitness is gaining in importance in all population groups, including elderly, but data are still scarce. The aim of this study was to report gender and age specific physical fitness levels in non-institutionalized Spanish elderly.
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A 21-week bone deposition promoting exercise programme increases bone mass in young people with Down syndrome.
Dev Med Child Neurol
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To determine whether the bone mass of young people with Down syndrome may increase, following a 21-week conditioning training programme including plyometric jumps.
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Whole-body vibration increases upper and lower body muscle activity in older adults: potential use of vibration accessories.
J Electromyogr Kinesiol
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The current study examined the effects of whole-body vibration (WBV) on upper and lower body muscle activity during static muscle contractions (squat and bicep curls). The use of WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform and a soft surface mat were also evaluated. Surface electromyography (sEMG) was measured for the medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps brachii (BB) muscles in fourteen healthy older adults (74.8±4.5 years; mean±SD) with a WBV stimulus at an acceleration of 40 m s(-2) (30 Hz High, 2.5 mm or 46 Hz Low, 1.1 mm). WBV increased lower body (VL and MG) sEMG vs baseline (no WBV) though this was decreased with the use of the soft mat. The addition of the bicep curl with hand straps had no effect on lower body sEMG. WBV also increased BB sEMG vs baseline which was further increased when using the hand straps. There was no upper body effect of the soft mat. This study demonstrates WBV increases both lower and upper body muscle activity in healthy older adults. Moreover, WBV accessories such as hand straps attached to the platform or a soft surface mat may be used to alter exercise intensity.
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Effects of training on bone mass in older adults: a systematic review.
Sports Med
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It is widely recognized that the risk of fractures is closely related to the typical decline in bone mass during the ageing process in both women and men. Exercise has been reported as one of the best non-pharmacological ways to improve bone mass throughout life. However, not all exercise regimens have the same positive effects on bone mass, and the studies that have evaluated the role of exercise programmes on bone-related variables in elderly people have obtained inconclusive results. This systematic review aims to summarize and update present knowledge about the effects of different types of training programmes on bone mass in older adults and elderly people as a starting point for developing future interventions that maintain a healthy bone mass and higher quality of life in people throughout their lifetime. A literature search using MEDLINE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases was conducted and bibliographies for studies discussing the effect of exercise interventions in older adults published up to August 2011 were examined. Inclusion criteria were met by 59 controlled trials, 7 meta-analyses and 8 reviews. The studies included in this review indicate that bone-related variables can be increased, or at least the common decline in bone mass during ageing attenuated, through following specific training programmes. Walking provides a modest increase in the loads on the skeleton above gravity and, therefore, this type of exercise has proved to be less effective in osteoporosis prevention. Strength exercise seems to be a powerful stimulus to improve and maintain bone mass during the ageing process. Multi-component exercise programmes of strength, aerobic, high impact and/or weight-bearing training, as well as whole-body vibration (WBV) alone or in combination with exercise, may help to increase or at least prevent decline in bone mass with ageing, especially in postmenopausal women. This review provides, therefore, an overview of intervention studies involving training and bone measurements among older adults, especially postmenopausal women. Some novelties are that WBV training is a promising alternative to prevent bone fractures and osteoporosis. Because this type of exercise under prescription is potentially safe, it may be considered as a low impact alternative to current methods combating bone deterioration. In other respects, the ability of peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) to assess bone strength and geometric properties may prove advantageous in evaluating the effects of training on bone health. As a result of changes in bone mass becoming evident by pQCT even when dual energy X-ray absortiometry (DXA) measurements were unremarkable, pQCT may provide new knowledge about the effects of exercise on bone that could not be elucidated by DXA. Future research is recommended including longest-term exercise training programmes, the addition of pQCT measurements to DXA scanners and more trials among men, including older participants.
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Effect of urbanization on objectively measured physical activity levels, sedentary time, and indices of adiposity in Kenyan adolescents.
J Phys Act Health
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Urbanization affects lifestyles in the developing world but no studies have assessed the impact on objectively measured physical activity in children and adolescents from sub-Saharan Africa.
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