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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relationships among symptoms, psychosocial factors, and health-related quality of life in hematopoietic stem cell transplant survivors.
Support Care Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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The study aims to evaluate the mediating effect of depressive symptoms on the relationship between physical symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) survivors and to test a conceptual model of psychosocial factors, in addition to physical and psychological symptoms, that might contribute to HRQOL.
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Plerixafor and Abbreviated-Course Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor for Mobilizing Hematopoietic Progenitor Cells in Light Chain Amyloidosis.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Cytokine-based mobilization in light chain (AL) amyloidosis is frequently complicated by fluid overload, weight gain, cardiac arrhythmias, and peri-mobilization mortality. We analyzed hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC) mobilization outcomes in 49 consecutive AL amyloidosis patients at our institution between 2004 and 2013 with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G) (10 ?g/kg/day) (n = 25) versus an institutional protocol to limit G exposure using plerixafor (P) (.24 mg/kg s.c. starting day 3 of G 10 ?g/kg) (n = 24). G+P strategy yielded higher total CD34(+) cells/kg (12.8 × 10(6) versus 6.3 × 10(6); P < .001) and CD34(+) cells/kg collected on day 1 (10.8 × 10(6) versus 4.9 × 10(6), P = .004) compared with the G cohort. More G+P patients collected ?5 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (22 versus 16, P = .02) and ? 10 × 10(6) CD34(+) HPCs/kg (13 versus 5, P = .01). Four patients (16%) had mobilization failure with G; none with G+P. Peri-mobilization weight gain was lower with G+P strategy (median weight gain 1 versus 7 pounds, P = .009). Numbers of apheresis sessions (median, 1 versus 1, P = .52), number of hospitalization days (median, 1.1 versus 1.6, P = .52), transfusions, use of intravenous antibiotics, and cardiac arrhythmias were similar. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that upfront use of G+P as a mobilization strategy results in superior HPC collection, no mobilization failures, and less weight gain than G alone.
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HLA match likelihoods for hematopoietic stem-cell grafts in the U.S. registry.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) is a potentially lifesaving therapy for several blood cancers and other diseases. For patients without a suitable related HLA-matched donor, unrelated-donor registries of adult volunteers and banked umbilical cord-blood units, such as the Be the Match Registry operated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP), provide potential sources of donors. Our goal in the present study was to measure the likelihood of finding a suitable donor in the U.S. registry.
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[Recommended screening and preventive practices for long-term survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation].
Rinsho Ketsueki
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (eg, umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation exposures and risk factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplantation experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT.
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Exercise and stress management training prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation: Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network (BMT CTN) 0902.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Studies show that engaging patients in exercise and/or stress management techniques during hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) improves quality of life. The Blood and Marrow Transplant Clinical Trials Network tested the efficacy of training patients to engage in self-directed exercise and stress management during HCT. The study randomized 711 patients at 21 centers to receive 1 of 4 training interventions before HCT: a self-directed exercise program, a self-administered stress management program, both, or neither. Participants completed self-reported assessments at enrollment and up to 180 days after HCT. Randomization was stratified by center and transplant type. There were no differences in the primary endpoints of the Physical Component Summary and Mental Component Summary scales of the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 at day +100 among the groups, based on an intention-to-treat analysis. There also were no differences in overall survival, days of hospitalization through day +100 post-HCT, or in other patient-reported outcomes, including treatment-related distress, sleep quality, pain, and nausea. Patients randomized to training in stress management reported more use of those techniques, but patients randomized to training in exercise did not report more physical activity. Although other studies have reported efficacy of more intensive interventions, brief training in an easy-to-disseminate format for either self-directed exercise or stress management was not effective in our trial.
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Validation and refinement of the Disease Risk Index for allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Because the outcome of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is predominantly influenced by disease type and status, it is essential to be able to stratify patients undergoing HCT by disease risk. The Disease Risk Index (DRI) was developed for this purpose. In this study, we analyzed 13,131 patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research who underwent HCT between 2008 and 2010. The DRI stratified patients into 4 groups with 2-year overall survival (OS) ranging from 64% to 24% and was the strongest prognostic factor, regardless of age, conditioning intensity, graft source, or donor type. A randomly selected training subgroup of 9849 patients was used to refine the DRI, using a multivariable regression model for OS. This refined DRI had improved prediction ability for the remaining 3282 patients compared with the original DRI or other existing schemes. This validated and refined DRI can be used as a 4- or 3-group index, depending on the size of the cohort under study, for prognostication; to facilitate the interpretation of single-center, multicenter, or registry studies; to adjust center outcome data; and to stratify patients entering clinical trials that enroll patients across disease categories.
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Prospective cohort study comparing intravenous busulfan to total body irradiation in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2013
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We conducted a prospective cohort study testing the noninferiority of survival of ablative intravenous busulfan (IV-BU) vs ablative total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimens in myeloid malignancies. A total of 1483 patients undergoing transplantation for myeloid malignancies (IV-BU, N = 1025; TBI, N = 458) were enrolled. Cohorts were similar with respect to age, gender, race, performance score, disease, and disease stage at transplantation. Most patients had acute myeloid leukemia (68% IV-BU, 78% TBI). Grafts were primarily peripheral blood (77%) from HLA-matched siblings (40%) or well-matched unrelated donors (48%). Two-year probabilities of survival (95% confidence interval [CI]), were 56% (95% CI, 53%-60%) and 48% (95% CI, 43%-54%, P = .019) for IV-BU (relative risk, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.68-0.98, P = .03) and TBI, respectively. Corresponding incidences of transplant-related mortality (TRM) were 18% (95% CI, 16%-21%) and 19% (95% CI, 15%-23%, P = .75) and disease progression were 34% (95% CI, 31%-37%) and 39% (95% CI, 34%-44%, P = .08). The incidence of hepatic veno-occlusive disease (VOD) was 5% for IV-BU and 1% with TBI (P < .001). There were no differences in progression-free survival and graft-versus-host disease. Compared with TBI, IV-BU resulted in superior survival with no increased risk for relapse or TRM. These results support the use of myeloablative IV-BU vs TBI-based conditioning regimens for treatment of myeloid malignancies.
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Impact of donor source on hematopoietic cell transplantation outcomes for patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
Blood
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matched related donor (MRD) and matched unrelated donors (MUD) produces similar survival for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia. Whether these results can be extended to patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) is unknown. Therefore, analysis of post-HCT outcomes for MDS was performed. Outcomes of 701 adult MDS patients who underwent HCT between 2002 and 2006 were analyzed (MRD [n = 176], 8 of 8 HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 allele matched MUD [n = 413], 7 of 8 MUD [ n = 112]). Median age was 53 years (range, 22-78 years). In multivariate analyses, MRD HCT recipients had similar disease free survival (DFS) and survival rates compared with 8 of 8 MUD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR] 1.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.91-1.42] and 1.24 [95% CI 0.98-1.56], respectively), and both MRD and 8 of 8 MUD had superior DFS (RR 1.47 [95% CI 1.10-1.96] and 1.29 [95% CI 1.00-1.66], respectively) and survival (RR 1.62 [95% CI 1.21-2.17] and 1.30 [95% CI 1.01-1.68], respectively) compared with 7 of 8 MUD HCT recipients. In patients with MDS, MRD remains the best stem cell source followed by 8 of 8 MUD. Transplantation from 7 of 8 MUD is associated with significantly poorer outcomes.
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Significant improvement in survival after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation during a period of significantly increased use, older recipient age, and use of unrelated donors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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Over the past four decades, allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (alloHCT) has evolved as a curative modality for patients with hematologic diseases. This study describes changes in use, technique, and survival in a population-based cohort.
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Divergent effects of novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide on the risk of engraftment syndrome after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Engraftment syndrome (ES) is an increasingly observed and occasionally fatal complication after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT). In this study, we demonstrate that the incidence of ES is significantly increased in patients undergoing autologous PBSCT for multiple myeloma in comparison to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma or Hodgkin lymphoma. Multivariate analysis revealed that age > 60 (hazard ratio [HR], 1.71; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.12 to 2.62; P = .013) and transplantation for multiple myeloma (HR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.60 to 4.90; P = .0003) were associated with an increased risk of this complication. When stratified for myeloma patients only, age > 60 (HR, 1.80; 95% CI, 1.13 to 2.87; P = .013) and prior treatment with both lenalidomide and bortezomib (HR, 1.83; 95% CI, 1.11 to 3.04; P = .0001) were associated with an increased incidence of ES. Conversely, lack of exposure to cyclophosphamide from either chemomobilization or as a component of the pretransplantation therapeutic regimen increased the risk of this complication (HR, 3.05; 95% CI, 1.91 to 4.87; P <.0001). These studies demonstrate that the pretransplantation exposure of multiple myeloma patients to novel immunomodulatory agents and cyclophosphamide significantly affects the subsequent risk of developing ES.
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Barriers to hematopoietic cell transplantation clinical trial participation of african american and black youth with sickle cell disease and their parents.
J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2013
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African Americans and Blacks have low participation rates in clinical trials and reduced access to aggressive medical therapies. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a high-risk but potentially curative therapy for sickle cell disease (SCD), a disorder predominantly seen in African Americans. We conducted focus groups to better understand participation barriers to HCT clinical trials for SCD. Nine focus groups of youth with SCD (n=10) and parents (n=41) were conducted at 3 sites representing the Midwest, South Atlantic, and West South Central US. Main barriers to clinical trial participation included gaps in knowledge about SCD, limited access to SCD/HCT trial information, and mistrust of medical professionals. For education about SCD/HCT trials, participants highly preferred one-on-one interactions with medical professionals and electronic media as a supplement. Providers can engage with sickle cell camps to provide information on SCD/HCT clinical trials to youth and local health fairs for parents/families. Youth reported learning about SCD through computer games; investigators may find this medium useful for clinical trial/HCT education. African Americans affected by SCD face unique barriers to clinical trial participation and have unmet HCT clinical studies education needs. Greater recognition of these barriers will allow targeted interventions in this community to increase their access to HCT.
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Trends in use of and survival after autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation in North America, 1995-2005: significant improvement in survival for lymphoma and myeloma during a period of increasing recipient age.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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Autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation (auto-HCT) is performed to treat relapsed and recurrent malignant disorders and as part of initial therapy for selected malignancies. This study evaluated changes in use, techniques, and survival in a population-based cohort of 68,404 patients who underwent first auto-HCT in a US or Canadian center between 1994 and 2005 and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). The mean annual number of auto-HCTs performed was highest during 1996-1999 (6948), and decreased subsequently 2000-2003 (4783), owing mainly to fewer auto-HCTs done to treat breast cancer. However, the mean annual number of auto-HCTs increased from 5278 annually in 1994-1995 to 5459 annually in 2004-2005, reflecting increased use for multiple myeloma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and Hodgkin lymphoma. Despite an increase in the median recipient age from 44 to 53 years, there has been a significant improvement in overall survival (OS) from 1994 to 2005 in patients with chemotherapy-sensitive relapsed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (day +100 OS, from 85% to 96%; 1-year OS, from 68% to 80%; P < .001) and chemotherapy-sensitive multiple myeloma (day +100 OS, from 96% to 98%; 1-year OS, from 83% to 92%; P < .001). This improvement in OS was most pronounced in middle-aged (>40 years) and older (>60 years) individuals.
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Surviving the cure: long term followup of hematopoietic cell transplant recipients.
Bone Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have led to an increasing number of transplant survivors. However, long-term survival is challenged by late relapse, late complications and late non-relapse mortality, and HCT survivors need continued lifelong surveillance for screening, early detection and timely treatment of late complications such as secondary cancers, late infections and organ toxicity. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT were updated and published in 2012. However, several barriers to the care of HCT survivors and routine utilization of these guidelines in clinical practice exist. Examples include paucity of and challenges to conducting prospective randomized trials for screening and prevention of late complications, lack of resources to manage late effects at the level of transplant centers and community health care providers, and inadequate tools to facilitate care and followup of HCT survivors. We summarize the long-term followup guidelines in this review, discuss ways that providers can integrate and utilize them for the care of their patients, and identify areas for research that can inform and increase the utilization of screening and prevention guidelines in clinical practice.
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Recommended screening and preventive practices for long-term survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2011
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Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (eg, umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, peri-, and posttransplantation exposures and risk factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplantation experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT.
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Relationship of race/ethnicity and survival after single umbilical cord blood transplantation for adults and children with leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The relationship of race/ethnicity with outcomes of umbilical cord blood transplantation (UCBT) is not well known. We analyzed the association between race/ethnicity and outcomes of unrelated single UCBT for leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes. Our retrospective cohort study consisted of 885 adults and children (612 whites, 145 blacks, and 128 Hispanics) who received unrelated single UCBT for leukemia and myelodysplastic syndromes between 1995 and 2006 and were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. A 5-6/6 HLA-matched unit with a total nucleated cell count infused of ?2.5 × 10(7)/kg was given to 40% white and 42% Hispanic, but only 21% black patients. Overall survival at 2 years was 44% for whites, 34% for blacks, and 46% for Hispanics (P = .008). In multivariate analysis adjusting for patient, disease, and treatment factors (including HLA match and cell dose), blacks had inferior overall survival (relative risk of death, 1.31; P = .02), whereas overall survival of Hispanics was similar (relative risk, 1.03; P = .81) to that of whites. For all patients, younger age, early-stage disease, use of units with higher cell dose, and performance status ?80 were independent predictors of improved survival. Black patients and white patients infused with well-matched cords had comparable survival; similarly, black and white patients receiving units with adequate cell dose had similar survival. These results suggest that blacks have inferior survival to whites after single UCBT, but outcomes are improved when units with a higher cell dose are used.
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Outcomes of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for adolescent and young adults compared with children and older adults with acute myeloid leukemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2011
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Adolescents and young adults (AYAs) with cancer have not experienced improvements in survival to the same extent as children and older adults. We compared outcomes among children (<15 years), AYAs (15-40 years) and older adults (>40 years) receiving allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Our cohort consisted of 900 children, 2,708 AYA, and 2,728 older adult recipients of HLA-identical sibling or unrelated donor (URD) transplantation using myeloablative or reduced-intensity/nonmyeloablative conditioning. Outcomes were assessed over three time periods (1980-1988, 1989-1997, 1998-2005) for siblings and two time periods (1989-1997, 1998-2005) for URD HCT. Analyses were stratified by donor type. Results showed overall survival for AYAs using either siblings or URD improved over time. Although children had better and older adults had worse survival compared with AYAs, improvements in survival for AYAs did not lag behind those for children and older adults. After sibling donor HCT, 5-year adjusted survival for the three time periods was 40%, 48%, and 53% for children, 35%, 41%, and 42% for AYAs, and 22%, 30%, and 34% for older adults. Among URD HCT recipients, 5-year adjusted survival for the two time periods was 38% and 37% for children, 24% and 28% for AYAs, and 19% and 23% for older adults. Improvements in survival occurred because of a reduction in risk of treatment-related mortality. The risk of relapse did not change over time. Improvements in survival among AYAs undergoing allogeneic HCT for AML have paralleled those among children and older adults.
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Abandonment of high-dose chemotherapy/hematopoietic cell transplants for breast cancer following negative trial results.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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In 1999, three randomized controlled trials concluded that high-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HDC/HCT) is no better than conventional chemotherapy for women with breast cancer. This study documents the impact of the trials on use of HDC/HCT and describes how hospitals reacted to the trials.
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Tocilizumab for the treatment of steroid refractory graft-versus-host disease.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2011
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Corticosteroid refractory graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) is one of the major challenges in the management of allogeneic stem cell transplant recipients. Although numerous agents have been employed to treat this patient population, no standardized second-line therapy exists. In this study, we report our experience with the administration of tocilizumab, an anti-interleukin 6 receptor antibody, in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD. Tocilizumab was administered to 8 patients with refractory acute (n = 6) or chronic GVHD (cGVHD) (n = 2) once every 3 to 4 weeks. The majority of patients with acute GVHD (aGVHD) had grade IV organ involvement of the skin or gastrointestinal tract, whereas both patients with cGVHD had long-standing severe skin sclerosis at the time of treatment. There were no allergic or infusion-related adverse events. Treatment was discontinued in one patient over concerns that tocilizumab may have worsened preexisting hyperbilirubinemia. Several patients also had transient elevations in serum transaminase values. Infections were the primary adverse events associated with tocilizumab administration. Four patients (67%) with aGVHD had either partial or complete responses apparent within the first 56 days of therapy. One patient with cGVHD had a significant response to therapy, whereas the second had stabilization of disease that allowed for a modest reduction in immune suppressive medications. These results indicate that tocilizumab has activity in the treatment of steroid refractory GVHD and warrants further investigation as a therapeutic option for this disorder.
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Long-term survival and late deaths after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative but is associated with life-threatening complications. Most deaths occur within the first 2 years after transplantation. In this report, we examine long-term survival in 2-year survivors in the largest cohort ever studied.
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Allogeneic transplant physician and center capacity in the United States.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Shortage of manpower and center capacity is expected to be a major challenge to the anticipated future growth in the utilization of allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in the United States. Using data from the National Marrow Donor Programs Transplant Center Network Renewal Survey, we describe transplant center and transplant physician capacity in the United States from 2005 to 2009. Over this 5-year period, the number of allogeneic transplants increased by 30%, bed capacity increased by 17%, and physician full-time equivalents increased by 26%. The number of related donor HCT increased by 15% and unrelated donor HCT increased by 45%. In addition to large centers, small- and medium-sized centers also made a major contribution to overall national transplant volumes for both related and unrelated donor HCT. Increase in utilization of unrelated donor HCT occurred in centers irrespective of their size. The majority of transplant centers were performing more transplantations using existing physician and bed capacity. Our study provides important descriptions of allogeneic transplant activity and capacity of U.S. centers, and our data will assist policy makers plan for the projected growth in the use of transplantation.
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American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Society of Hematology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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To update American Society of Clinical Oncology/American Society of Hematology recommendations for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer.
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American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2010
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Purpose: To update American Society of Hematology/American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendations for use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESAs) in patients with cancer. Methods: An Update Committee reviewed data published between January 2007 and January 2010. MEDLINE and the Cochrane Library were searched. Results: The literature search yielded one new individual patient data analysis and four literature-based meta-analyses, two systematic reviews, and 13 publications reporting new results from randomized controlled trials not included in prior or new reviews. Recommendations: For patients undergoing myelosuppressive chemotherapy who have a hemoglobin (Hb) level less than 10 g/dL, the Update Committee recommends that clinicians discuss potential harms (eg, thromboembolism, shorter survival) and benefits (eg, decreased transfusions) of ESAs and compare these with potential harms (eg, serious infections, immune-mediated adverse reactions) and benefits (eg, rapid Hb improvement) of RBC transfusions. Individual preferences for assumed risk should contribute to shared decisions on managing chemotherapy-induced anemia. The Committee cautions against ESA use under other circumstances. If used, ESAs should be administered at the lowest dose possible and should increase Hb to the lowest concentration possible to avoid transfusions. Available evidence does not identify Hb levels ? 10 g/dL either as thresholds for initiating treatment or as targets for ESA therapy. Starting doses and dose modifications after response or nonresponse should follow US Food and Drug Administration-approved labeling. ESAs should be discontinued after 6 to 8 weeks in nonresponders. ESAs should be avoided in patients with cancer not receiving concurrent chemotherapy, except for those with lower risk myelodysplastic syndromes. Caution should be exercised when using ESAs with chemotherapeutic agents in diseases associated with increased risk of thromboembolic complications. Table 1 lists detailed recommendations.
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Secondary solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2010
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Risks of secondary solid cancers among allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients who receive conditioning without total body irradiation are not well known. We evaluated the incidence and risk factors for solid cancers after HCT using high-dose busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning in 4318 recipients of first allogeneic HCT for acute myeloid leukemia in first complete remission (N = 1742) and chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase (N = 2576). Our cohort represented 22 041 person-years at risk. Sixty-six solid cancers were reported at a median of 6 years after HCT. The cumulative-incidence of solid cancers at 5 and 10 years after HCT was 0.6% and 1.2% among acute myeloid leukemia and 0.9% and 2.4% among chronic myeloid leukemia patients. In comparison to general population incidence rates, HCT recipients had 1.4× higher than expected rate of invasive solid cancers (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.79, P = .01). Significantly elevated risks were observed for tumors of the oral cavity, esophagus, lung, soft tissue, and brain. Chronic graft-versus-host disease was an independent risk factor for all solid cancers, and especially cancers of the oral cavity. Recipients of allogeneic HCT using busulfan-cyclophosphamide conditioning are at risk for developing solid cancers. Their incidence continues to increase with time, and lifelong cancer surveillance is warranted in this population.
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American society of clinical oncology/american society of hematology clinical practice guideline update on the use of epoetin and darbepoetin in adult patients with cancer.
J Oncol Pract
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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This guideline update addresses two clinical questions: (1) What are the defining features of patients with a malignancy who are appropriate candidates for ESA treatment? (2) For patients who are appropriate candidates for treatment with ESAs, what are the optimal approaches to ESA therapy?
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Clinical outcomes following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for the treatment of mucopolysaccharidosis VI.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2010
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Mucopolysaccharidosis VI (MPS VI, Maroteaux-Lamy Syndrome) is one of approximately 50 known lysosomal storage disorders. MPS VI is characterized by an absence or deficiency of N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B) resulting in accumulation of dermatan sulfate. Prior to the availability of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), the clinical management of MPS VI was limited to supportive care and allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT); however, due to the rarity of this disease, little is known about the long-term outcomes of HSCT for MPS VI. The following retrospective study was performed using aggregate data gathered by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 1982 and 2007 to determine survival probability for patients with MPS VI following allogeneic HSCT. This analysis identified 45 MPS VI patients with a median age of 5 years (range, 1-22 years) at the time they received an allogeneic HSCT. Cumulative incidence (95% CI) of acute graft-vs.-host disease at 100 days was 36% (21-53%). Probability of survival was 78% (65-89%) at 100 days and 66% (52-79%) at 1 and 3 years. While these data are based upon small numbers of recipients, they represent the largest series to date and may help clinicians assess the relative risks and benefits of currently available therapies.
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Childhood obesity and outcomes after bone marrow transplantation for patients with severe aplastic anemia.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
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The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has increased in the last 2 decades and represents a serious health concern, with potential impact on outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We studied the effect of weight by age-adjusted body mass index (BMI) percentile in 1,281 pediatric patients (age 2-19 years) with severe aplastic anemia who underwent HCT between 1990 and 2005. The study population was divided into 5 weight groups-underweight, risk of underweight, normal BMI range, risk of overweight, and overweight-according to age-adjusted BMI percentiles. Cox proportional hazards regression models for survival and acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD), performed using weight groups as the main effect and the normal BMI range (26th-75th percentile) as the baseline comparison, found higher mortality among overweight children (>95th percentile adjusted for age). Weight at transplantation did not increase the adjusted risk of grade III-IV aGVHD. The 1-year and 2-year overall survival rates were 60% and 59% for overweight children, compared with >70% in children with lower BMI at both time points (P < .001). Other significant factors associated with survival included race and region, donor type, conditioning regimens in related donor transplants, performance score, and year of transplantation. In conclusion, overweight children with aplastic anemia have worse outcomes after HCT. The impact of obesity on survival outcomes in children should be discussed during pretransplantation counseling.
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Access to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: effect of race and sex.
Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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The purpose of the current study was to determine whether the use of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) to treat leukemia, lymphoma, or multiple myeloma (MM) differs by race and sex.
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Pregnancy after hematopoietic cell transplantation: a report from the late effects working committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR).
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2010
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Preservation of fertility after hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can have a significant influence on the quality of life of transplant survivors. We describe 178 pregnancies in HCT recipients that were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) between 2002 and 2007. There were 83 pregnancies in female HCT recipients and 95 pregnancies in female partners of male HCT recipients. Indications for transplantation included hematologic and other malignancies (N = 99) and nonmalignant disorders (N = 79, of which 75 patients had severe aplastic anemia). The cohort included recipients of autologous HCT (20 women, 13 men), myeloablative (MA) allogeneic HCT (12 women, 50 men), and nonmyeloablative allogeneic HCT (2 women, 2 men). Age at HCT was <20 years for 50% of women and 19% of men. Conditioning regimens included total body irradiation (TBI) in 16% of women and 19% of men; doses were MA in 10% of women and in 16% of men. Live births were reported in 86% of pregnancies in partners of male transplant patients and 85% of pregnancies in female transplant patients, with most pregnancies occurring 5 to 10 years after HCT. We conclude that some HCT recipients can retain fertility, including patients who have received TBI and/or MA conditioning. Young patients undergoing HCT should be counseled both before and after HCT about potential loss of fertility, methods for preserving fertility, and planning for future pregnancy. Fertility and outcomes of pregnancy after HCT need prospective evaluation in large transplant cohorts.
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Practice patterns for evaluation, consent, and care of related donors and recipients at hematopoietic cell transplantation centers in the United States.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2010
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Conflict of interest may arise when 1 physician serves 2 persons whose medical care is interdependent. In hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated donors and in the setting of solid organ transplantation from living donors, the standard of care is for donors and recipients to be managed by separate physicians to provide unbiased care. However, the practice patterns of evaluation and care of related donors and recipients are not well described. A survey of HCT centers in the United States was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to determine the type of provider involved in medical clearance, informed consent, and medical management of hematopoietic cell collection and the relationship of that provider to the HC transplant recipient. The response rate was 40%. In greater than 70% of centers, transplantation physicians were involved or potentially involved in overlapping care of the HC transplant donor and the recipient. These patterns were similar between transplantation teams caring for adult or pediatric donors and recipients. Among responding centers, medical management of recipients and their related donors by the same provider is common, a practice that has the potential for conflict of interest.
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Factors associated with self-reported physical and mental health after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an intensive treatment for hematologic malignancies that has the potential to cure disease or prolong life, but also to impair quality of life for survivors. Earlier studies have suggested that various factors are associated with physical and mental health after HCT. In this study, we evaluated demographic and clinical factors before and after HCT and selected psychosocial factors after HCT, exploring their association with self-reported physical and mental health. We studied a cohort of 662 survivors at a median of 6.6 years after HCT. Pre-HCT demographic and clinical factors accounted for only a small amount of the variance in physical and mental health post-HCT (3% and 1%, respectively). Adding post-HCT clinical variables to the pre-HCT factors accounted for 32% and 7% of physical and mental outcomes, respectively. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better physical health post-HCT was associated with younger age, race other than white, higher current family income, currently working or being a student, less severe transplantation experience (ie, not experiencing graft-versus-host disease), fewer current comorbidities, higher Karnofsky status, less social constraint, less social support, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 36% of the variance in physical health, with the psychosocial variables contributing very little. When both clinical and psychosocial factors were considered, better mental health after HCT was associated with more severe transplantation experience, less social constraint, greater spiritual well being, and less trait anxiety. This multivariate model accounted for 56% of the variance in mental health, with the psychosocial factors accounting for most of the variance. These data suggest that clinical factors are explanatory for much of the post-HCT physical health reported by HCT survivors, but very little of self-perceived mental health. These observations provide insight into the identification of factors that can allow recognition of at-risk patients, as well as factors amenable to intervention.
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Relapse and late mortality in 5-year survivors of myeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia in first chronic phase.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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PURPOSE Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is curative therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but its long-term outcomes are not well described. We studied the long-term outcomes of CML patients in first chronic phase who receive an allogeneic HCT. PATIENTS AND METHODS Our study included 2,444 patients who received myeloablative HCT for CML in first chronic phase between 1978 and 1998 and survived in continuous complete remission for at least 5 years (median follow-up, 11 years; range, 5 to 25 years). Donor sources were human leukocyte antigen-matched siblings in 1,692 patients, unrelated donors in 639 patients, and other related donors in 113 patients. RESULTS Overall survival rates at 15 years were 88% (95% CI, 86% to 90%) for sibling HCT and 87% (95% CI, 83% to 90%) for unrelated donor HCT. Corresponding cumulative incidences of relapse were 8% (95% CI, 7% to 10%) and 2% (95% CI, 1% to 4%), respectively. The latest relapse was reported 18 years post-HCT. In multivariable analyses, history of chronic graft-versus-host disease increased risks of late overall mortality and nonrelapse mortality but reduced risks of relapse. In comparison with age-, race-, and sex-adjusted normal populations, the mortality of HCT recipients was significantly higher until 14 years post-HCT; thereafter, mortality rates were similar to those of the general population (relative mortality ratio at 15 years, 2.3; 95% CI, 0 to 4.9). CONCLUSION Recipients of allogeneic HCT for CML in first chronic phase who remain in remission for at least 5 years have favorable subsequent long-term survival, and their mortality rates eventually approach those of the general population.
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Obesity does not preclude safe and effective myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) in adults.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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The incidence of excessive adiposity is increasing worldwide, and is associated with numerous adverse health outcomes. We compared outcomes by body mass index (BMI) for adult patients with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) who underwent autologous (auto, n = 373), related donor (RD, n = 2041), or unrelated donor (URD, n = 1801) allogeneic myeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) using bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cells reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1995 to 2004. Four weight groups by BMI (kg/m(2)) were defined: underweight <18 kg/m(2); normal 18-25 kg/m(2); overweight >25-30 kg/m(2); and obese >30 kg/m(2). Multivariable analysis referenced to the normal weight group showed an increased risk of death for underweight patients in the RD group (relative risk [RR], 1.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.28-2.89; P = .002), but not in the URD group. There were no other differences in outcomes among the other weight groups within the other HCT groups. Overweight and obese patients enjoyed a modest decrease in relapse incidence, although this did not translate into a survival benefit. Small numbers of patients limit the ability to better characterize the adverse outcomes seen in the underweight RD but not the underweight URD allogeneic HCT patients. Obesity alone should not be considered a barrier to HCT.
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Second unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary graft failure.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2010
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Failure to engraft donor cells is a devastating complication after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). We describe the results of 122 patients reported to the National Marrow Donor Program between 1990 and 2005, who received a second unrelated donor HCT after failing to achieve an absolute neutrophil count of >or=500/microL without recurrent disease. Patients were transplanted for leukemia (n = 83), myelodysplastic disorders (n = 16), severe aplastic anemia (n = 20), and other diseases (n = 3). The median age was 29 years. Twenty-four patients received second grafts from a different unrelated donor. Among 98 patients who received a second graft from the same donor, 28 received products that were previously collected and cryopreserved for the first transplantation. One-year overall survival (OS) after second transplant was 11%, with 10 patients alive at last follow-up. We observed no differences between patients who received grafts from the same or different donors, or in those who received fresh or cryopreserved product. The outcomes after a second allogeneic HCT for primary graft failure are dismal. Identifying risk factors for primary graft failure can decrease the incidence of this complication. Further studies are needed to test whether early recognition and hastened procurement of alternative grafts can improve transplant outcomes for primary graft failure.
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Allogeneic transplantation for therapy-related myelodysplastic syndrome and acute myeloid leukemia.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2009
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Therapy-related myelodysplastic syndromes (t-MDSs) and acute myeloid leukemia (t-AML) have a poor prognosis with conventional therapy. Encouraging results are reported after allogeneic transplantation. We analyzed outcomes in 868 persons with t-AML (n = 545) or t-MDS (n = 323) receiving allogeneic transplants from 1990 to 2004. A myeloablative regimen was used for conditioning in 77%. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) and relapse were 41% (95% confidence interval [CI], 38-44) and 27% (24-30) at 1 year and 48% (44-51) and 31% (28-34) at 5 years, respectively. Disease-free (DFS) and overall survival (OS) were 32% (95% CI, 29-36) and 37% (34-41) at 1 year and 21% (18-24) and 22% (19-26) at 5 years, respectively. In multivariate analysis, 4 risk factors had adverse impacts on DFS and OS: (1) age older than 35 years; (2) poor-risk cytogenetics; (3) t-AML not in remission or advanced t-MDS; and (4) donor other than an HLA-identical sibling or a partially or well-matched unrelated donor. Five-year survival for subjects with none, 1, 2, 3, or 4 of these risk factors was 50% (95% CI, 38-61), 26% (20-31), 21% (16-26), 10% (5-15), and 4% (0-16), respectively (P < .001). These data permit a more precise prediction of outcome and identify subjects most likely to benefit from allogeneic transplantation.
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Access to hematopoietic cell transplantation in the United States.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 11-02-2009
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Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a highly specialized and resource-intense medical procedure that can be associated with disparities in access to transplantation. Barriers to access to HCT are multifactorial, complex, and interrelated. Our current knowledge of specific barriers that prevent access to HCT is very limited. As the utilization of HCT increases, it is imperative that underserved populations receive the benefit of this life-saving procedure. We review the prevailing literature on access to HCT and describe research priorities for eliminating disparities in transplantation. Better understanding of these complex barriers will minimize inequities, inform health policy, guide development of interventions targeted to eliminate disparities, and continue the expansion of HCT in the future.
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Outcomes of hematologic malignancies after unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation according to place of residence.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 10-05-2009
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Studies suggest that patients who live in rural areas may have worse clinical outcomes compared with patients living in urban areas. We studied whether place of residence (rural versus urban) is associated with clinical outcomes of patients with leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) who received an unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Patients residential ZIP code at the time of transplant was used to determine rural or urban designation based on the Rural Urban Commuting Codes. The study included 6140 patients reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 121 U.S. HCT centers: 1179 (19%) came from rural areas, whereas 4961 (81%) came from urban areas. Rural and urban patients were similar in patient-, disease-, and transplant-related characteristics aside from household income and distance traveled to the HCT center. After adjusting for income and other significant patient, disease, and transplant-related variables, the risk of overall mortality between patients residing in rural and urban areas were not statistically significant (relative risk 1.01, 95% confidence intervals 0.93-1.10, P = .74). Similar outcomes were noted for treatment-related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and relapse. Patients income, derived from the U.S. Census and based on their residential ZIP code, was independently associated with outcomes. In summary, our study showed no differences in the clinical outcomes of patients from rural or urban areas after unrelated donor HCT.
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Race and outcomes of autologous hematopoietic cell transplantation for multiple myeloma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2009
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Blacks are twice as likely to develop and die from multiple myeloma (MM), and are less likely to receive an autologous hematopoietic-cell transplant (AHCT) for MM compared to Whites. The influence of race on outcomes of AHCT for MM is not well described. We compared the probability of overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), disease progression, and nonrelapse mortality (NRM) among Black (N=303) and White (N=1892) recipients of AHCT for MM, who were reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) from 1995 to 2005. The Black cohort was more likely to be female, and had better Karnofsky performance scores, but lower hemoglobin and albumin levels at diagnosis. Black recipients were younger and more likely to be transplanted later in their disease course. Disease stage and treatment characteristics prior to AHCT were similar between the 2 groups. Black and White recipients had similar probabilities of 5-year OS (52% versus 47%, P=.19) and PFS (19% versus 21%, P=.64) as well as cumulative incidences of disease progression (72% versus 72%, P=.97) and NRM (9% versus 8%, P=.52). In multivariate analyses, race was not associated with any of these endpoints. Black recipients of AHCT for MM have similar outcomes compared to Whites, suggesting that the reasons underlying lower rates of AHCT in Blacks need to be studied further to ensure equal access to effective therapy.
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Improving cellular therapy for primary immune deficiency diseases: recognition, diagnosis, and management.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2009
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More than 20 North American academic centers account for the majority of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) procedures for primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs), with smaller numbers performed at additional sites. Given the importance of a timely diagnosis of these rare diseases and the diversity of practice sites, there is a need for guidance as to best practices in management of patients with PIDs before, during, and in follow-up for definitive treatment. In this conference report of immune deficiency experts and HCT physicians who care for patients with PIDs, we present expert guidance for (1) PID diagnoses that are indications for HCT, including severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), combined immunodeficiency disease, and other non-SCID diseases; (2) the critical importance of a high degree of suspicion of the primary care physician and timeliness of diagnosis for PIDs; (3) the need for rapid referral to an immune deficiency expert, center with experience in HCT, or both for patients with PIDs; (4) medical management of a child with suspicion of SCID/combined immunodeficiency disease while confirming the diagnosis, including infectious disease management and workup; (5) the posttransplantation follow-up visit schedule; (6) antimicrobial prophylaxis after transplantation, including gamma globulin administration; and (7) important indications for return to the transplantation center after discharge. Finally, we discuss the role of high-quality databases in treatment of PIDs and HCT as an element of the infrastructure that will be needed for productive multicenter clinical trials in these rare diseases.
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Impending challenges in the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation physician workforce.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2009
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With increasing use of high dose chemotherapy with autologous and allogeneic transplants the need for the transplant physician workforce requires reassessment. The types of transplants and patients are also shifting toward transplants being done in patients with more comorbidities and more commonly these types of patients require more work effort per patient from the transplant physician. Additionally, HSCT survivors often require ongoing care at the transplant center due to the inability of the primary care workforce or the hematology/oncology workforce to absorb caring for post complex post transplant patients. The adult transplant workforce has had very few physicians join under age 40. Nearly 50% of adult transplant physicians are over age 50 whereas only 28% of pediatric transplant physicians are over age 50. By 2020, it is projected that we will need 1,264 new adult transplant physicians and 94 pediatric transplant physicians. Training time for a physician is approximately 15 years. The capping of both medical school slots and residency slots since the early 80s is now having a very big impact on supply, but other factors are also affecting supplies such as generational differences, lifestyle expectations, and the change of the medical workforce from being mostly men. Workforce shortages are being reported for many specialities. Workforce problems are also present for nurses, pharmacists and medical technologists. So increasing use of general internists and mid-level providers may not exist as a solution. Transplant physicians must be actively engaged in the medical education process to show young medical students and residents who are not committed to another sub specialty career the excitement and challenges of a career in bone marrow transplantation, so that our field will have providers for the future.
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The preventive health behaviors of long-term survivors of cancer and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation compared with matched controls.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Little is known about the health promotion, prevention, and disease screening behaviors of cancer survivors treated with hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), who undergo arduous treatment and may be at particular risk for late effects and secondary malignancies. The purposes of this study were to examine the current health and secondary prevention behaviors of long-term HCT survivors compared with matched controls without cancer, and to identify sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with appropriate preventive practices. HCT survivors (n = 662) were drawn from 40 North American transplantation centers. Peer-nominated acquaintances of survivors matched on sex, age, education, and marital status served as controls (n = 158). Data were collected a mean of 6.7 years post-HCT (range, 1.8-22.6 years). Despite a greater frequency of physical exams, the HCT survivors had similar health and screening behaviors as the matched controls. Sociodemographic factors were associated with health prevention behaviors in expected ways. Some differences between disease group and type of transplant were found, with survivors of acute leukemia less likely to report regular exercise, autologous transplant survivors more likely than allogeneic transplant survivors to report screenings for breast and cervical cancer, and allogeneic transplant survivors more likely than autologous transplant survivors to report undergoing a skin exam in the previous year. Despite higher levels of engagement with health care providers, HCT survivors had similar health behaviors as matched controls and comparable to those reported by cancer survivors who did not undergo HCT. There remains considerable room for improvement. These findings support the need for further education of both HCT survivors and health practitioners.
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Long-term survival and late relapse in 2-year survivors of autologous haematopoietic cell transplantation for Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
Br. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2009
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This study described long-term outcomes of autologous haematopoietic-cell transplantation (HCT) for advanced Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). The study included recipients of autologous HCT for HL (N = 407) and NHL (N = 960) from 1990-98 who were in continuous complete remission for at least 2 years post-HCT. Median follow-up was 104 months for HL and 107 months for NHL. Overall survival at 10-years was 77% (72-82%) for HL, 78% (73-82%) for diffuse large-cell NHL, 77% (71-83%) for follicular NHL, 85% (75-93%) for lymphoblastic/Burkitt NHL, 52% (37-67%) for mantle-cell NHL and 77% (67-85%) for other NHL. On multivariate analysis, mantle-cell NHL had the highest relative-risk for late mortality [2.87 (1.70-4.87)], while the risks of death for other histologies were comparable. Relapse was the most common cause of death. Relative mortality compared to age, race and gender adjusted normal population remained significantly elevated and was 14.8 (6.3-23.3) for HL and 5.9 (3.6-8.2) for NHL at 10-years post-HCT. Recipients of autologous HCT for HL and NHL who remain in remission for at least 2-years have favourable subsequent long-term survival but remain at risk for late relapse. Compared to the general population, mortality rates continue to remain elevated at 10-years post-transplantation.
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A comparison of HLA-identical sibling allogeneic versus autologous transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma: a report from the CIBMTR.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2009
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We compared outcomes of 916 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients aged >or=18 years undergoing first autologous (n = 837) or myeloablative (MA) allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) (n = 79) between 1995 and 2003 reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR). Median follow-up was 81 months for allogeneic HCT versus 60 months for autologous HCT. Allogeneic HCT recipients were more likely to have high-risk disease features including higher stage, more prior chemotherapy regimens, and resistant disease. Allogeneic HCT was associated with a higher 1 year treatment-related mortality (TRM) (relative risk [RR] 4.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.21-7.40, P < .001), treatment failure (RR 2.06, 95% CI, 1.54-2.75, P < .001), and mortality (RR 2.75, 95% CI, 2.03-3.72, P < .001). Risk of disease progression was similar in the 2 groups (RR 1.12, 95% CI, 0.73-1.72, P = .59). In fact, for 1-year survivors, no significant differences were observed for TRM, progression, progression-free (PFS) or overall survival (OS). Increased risks of TRM and mortality were associated with older age (>50 years), lower performance score, chemoresistance, and earlier year of transplant. In a cohort of mainly high-risk DLBCL patients, upfront MA allogeneic HCT, although associated with increased early mortality, was associated with a similar risk of disease progression compared to lower risk patients receiving autologous HCT.
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Race and socioeconomic status influence outcomes of unrelated donor hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Success of hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) can vary by race, but the impact of socioeconomic status (SES) is not known. To evaluate the role of race and SES, we studied 6207 unrelated-donor myeloablative (MA) HCT recipients transplanted between 1995 and 2004 for acute or chronic leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Patients were reported by transplant center to be White (n = 5253), African American (n = 368), Asian/Pacific-Islander (n = 141), or Hispanic (n = 445). Patient income was estimated from residential zip code at time of HCT. Cox regression analysis adjusting for other significant factors showed that African American (but not Asian or Hispanic) recipients had worse overall survival (OS) (relative-risk [RR] 1.47; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.29-1.68, P < .001) compared to Whites. Treatment-related mortality (TRM) was higher in African Americans (RR 1.56; 95% CI 1.34-1.83, P < .001) and in Hispanics (RR 1.30; 95% CI 1.11-1.51, P = .001). Across all racial groups, patients with median incomes in the lowest quartile (<$34,700) had worse OS (RR 1.15; 95% CI 1.04-1.26, P = .005) and higher risks of TRM (RR 1.21; 1.07-1.36, P = .002). Inferior outcomes among African Americans are not fully explained by transplant-related factors or SES. Potential other mechanisms such as genetic polymorphisms that have an impact on drug metabolism or unmeasured comorbidities, socioeconomic factors, and health behaviors may be important. Low SES, regardless of race, has a negative impact on unrelated donor HCT outcomes.
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Impact of pre-transplant rituximab on survival after autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for diffuse large B cell lymphoma.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
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Incorporation of the anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody rituximab into front-line regimens to treat diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has resulted in improved survival. Despite this progress, however, many patients develop refractory or recurrent DLBCL and then undergo autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (AuHCT). It is unclear to what extent pre-transplant exposure to rituximab affects outcomes after AuHCT. Outcomes of 994 patients receiving AuHCT for DLBCL between 1996 and 2003 were analyzed according to whether rituximab was (n = 176; +R cohort) or was not (n = 818; -R cohort) administered with front-line or salvage therapy before AuHCT. The +R cohort had superior progression-free survival (PFS; 50% vs 38%; P = .008) and overall survival (OS; 57% vs 45%; P = .006) at 3 years. Platelet and neutrophil engraftment were not affected by exposure to rituximab. Nonrelapse mortality (NRM) did not differ significantly between the 2 cohorts. In multivariate analysis, the +R cohort had improved PFS (relative risk of relapse/progression or death, 0.64; P < .001) and improved OS (relative risk of death, 0.74; P = .039). We conclude that pre-transplant rituximab is associated with a lower rate of progression and improved survival after AuHCT for DLBCL, with no evidence of impaired engraftment or increased NRM.
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The National Marrow Donor Programs symposium on patient advocacy in cellular transplantation therapy: addressing barriers to hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2009
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Although hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an effective treatment option for patients with life-threatening blood, immune system, or genetic disorders, many barriers besides a lack of suitably matched donors exist and can have an adverse impact on access and outcomes of HCT. In 2008, the National Marrow Donor Program, through its Office of Patient Advocacy, convened a diverse group of experts and transplantation survivors to identify persistent patient barriers throughout the transplantation process and to make recommendations for programs and initiatives to address these barriers, including new research opportunities. This group included transplantation physicians and other health care providers, relevant subject experts, and representatives from transplantation centers and patient advocacy organizations. Working groups were formed to identify patient barriers to HCT and to recommend and prioritize initiatives as they relate to the pretransplantation period, the early posttransplantation period, long-term survivorship, financial issues, and special populations. This report summarizes the symposiums deliberations and recommendations to address persistent patient barriers throughout the transplantation process.
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The effect of smoking on allogeneic transplant outcomes.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
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Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) data, we compared the transplant outcomes of patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) who were nonsmokers (NS) and past or current smokers (PCS). There were 2193 NS and 625 PCS who received matched sibling and unrelated donor allografts for CML in first chronic phase. We looked for dose effects and identified low and high dose smoking groups (>10 pack years, >1 pack per day). Outcomes were adjusted for known prognostic variables including the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant (EBMT) risk score. In multivariate analyses of sibling allograft recipients, relapse risk (RR) was higher (RR=1.67, P=.003) in smokers than NS, but the dose effects were not consistent. High-dose smokers experienced a 50% treatment-related mortality (TRM) versus 28% in the NS group at 5 years on univariate analysis, and the RR was 1.57 (P=.005) on multivariate analysis. Overall survival (OS) at 5 years was 68% in NS versus 62% in the low-dose smoking group versus 50% in the high-dose smoking group (P < .001). Smoking did not significantly affect outcomes in unrelated donor recipients, but numbers were smaller. High-dose smoking is associated with a reduction in OS in patients having sibling allografts for CML. A prospective study with detailed demographic, pulmonary function, and quality-of-life data would improve our understanding of this issue.
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Risk factors for lymphoproliferative disorders after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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We evaluated 26 901 patients who underwent allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) at 271 centers worldwide to define patterns of posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs). PTLDs developed in 127 recipients, with 105 (83%) cases occurring within 1 year after transplantation. In multivariate analyses, we confirmed that PTLD risks were strongly associated (P < .001) with T-cell depletion of the donor marrow, antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use, and unrelated or HLA-mismatched grafts (URD/HLA mismatch). Significant associations were also confirmed for acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease. The increased risk associated with URD/HLA-mismatched donors (RR = 3.8) was limited to patients with T-cell depletion or ATG use (P = .004). New findings were elevated risks for age 50 years or older at transplantation (RR = 5.1; P < .001) and second transplantation (RR = 3.5; P < .001). Lower risks were found for T-cell depletion methods that remove both T and B cells (alemtuzumab and elutriation, RR = 3.1; P = .025) compared with other methods (RR = 9.4; P = .005 for difference). The cumulative incidence of PTLDs was low (0.2%) among 21 686 patients with no major risk factors, but increased to 1.1%, 3.6%, and 8.1% with 1, 2, and more than 3 major risk factors, respectively. Our findings identify subgroups of patients who underwent allogeneic HCT at elevated risk of PTLDs for whom prospective monitoring of Epstein-Barr virus activation and early treatment intervention may be particularly beneficial.
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Solid cancers after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2009
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Transplant recipients have been reported to have an increased risk of solid cancers but most studies are small and have limited ability to evaluate the interaction of host, disease, and treatment-related factors. In the largest study to date to evaluate risk factors for solid cancers, we studied a multi-institutional cohort of 28 874 allogeneic transplant recipients with 189 solid malignancies. Overall, patients developed new solid cancers at twice the rate expected based on general population rates (observed-to-expected ratio 2.1; 95% confidence interval 1.8-2.5), with the risk increasing over time (P trend < .001); the risk reached 3-fold among patients followed for 15 years or more after transplantation. New findings showed that the risk of developing a non-squamous cell carcinoma (non-SCC) following conditioning radiation was highly dependent on age at exposure. Among patients irradiated at ages under 30 years, the relative risk of non-SCC was 9 times that of nonirradiated patients, while the comparable risk for older patients was 1.1 (P interaction < .01). Chronic graft-versus-host disease and male sex were the main determinants for risk of SCC. These data indicate that allogeneic transplant survivors, particularly those irradiated at young ages, face increased risks of solid cancers, supporting strategies to promote lifelong surveillance among these patients.
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Reduced-intensity conditioning regimen workshop: defining the dose spectrum. Report of a workshop convened by the center for international blood and marrow transplant research.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2009
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During the 2006 BMT Tandem Meetings, a workshop was convened by the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) to discuss conditioning regimen intensity and define boundaries of reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) before hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The goal of the workshop was to determine the acceptance of available RIC definitions in the transplant community. Participants were surveyed regarding their opinions on specific statements on conditioning regimen intensity. Questions covered the "Champlin criteria," as well as operational definitions used in registry studies, exemplified in clinical vignettes. A total of 56 participants, including transplantation physicians, transplant center directors, and transplantation nurses, with a median of 12 years of experience in HCT, answered the survey. Of these, 67% agreed that a RIC regimen should cause reversible myelosuppression when administered without stem cell support, result in low nonhematologic toxicity, and, after transplantation, result in mixed donor-recipient chimerism at the time of first assessment in most patients. Likewise, the majority (71%) agreed or strongly agreed that regimens including < 500 cGy of total body irradiation as a single fraction or 800 cGy in fractionated doses, busulfan dose < 9 mg/kg, melphalan dose <140 mg/m(2), or thiotepa dose < 10 mg/kg should be considered RIC regimens. However, only 32% agreed or strongly agreed that the combination of carmustine, etoposide, cytarabine, and melphalan (BEAM) should be considered a RIC regimen. These results demonstrate that although HCT professionals have not reached a consensus on what constitutes a RIC regimen, most accept currently used criteria and operational definitions. These results support the continued use of current criteria for RIC regimens until a consensus statement can be developed.
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Adverse events among 2408 unrelated donors of peripheral blood stem cells: results of a prospective trial from the National Marrow Donor Program.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2009
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Limited data are available describing donor adverse events (AEs) associated with filgrastim mobilized peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collections in unrelated volunteers. We report results in 2408 unrelated PBSC donors prospectively evaluated by the National Marrow Donor Program (NMDP) between 1999 and 2004. Female donors had higher rates of AEs, requiring central line placement more often (17% vs 4%, P< .001), experiencing more apheresis-related AEs (20% vs 7%, P< .001), more bone pain (odds ratio [OR]=1.49), and higher rates of grades II-IV and III-IV CALGB AEs (OR=2.22 and 2.32). Obese donors experienced more bone pain (obese vs normal, OR=1.73) and heavy donors had higher rates of CALGB toxicities (>95 kg vs <70 kg, OR=1.49). Six percent of donors experienced grade III-IV CALGB toxicities and 0.6% experienced toxicities that were considered serious and unexpected. Complete recovery is universal, however, and no late AEs attributable to donation have been identified. In conclusion, PBSC collection in unrelated donors is generally safe, but nearly all donors will experience bone pain, 1 in 4 will have significant headache, nausea, or citrate toxicity, and a small percentage will experience serious short-term adverse events. In addition, women and larger donors are at higher risk for donation-related AEs.
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Methodological and logistical considerations to study design and data collection in racial/ethnic minority populations evaluating outcome disparity in hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Outcome disparity associated with race or ethnicity in the United States has been observed in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). The underlying reasons for such disparity are not known. In the United States, an optimal study of health care disparity by race or ethnicity involves consideration of both biologic and psychosocial determinants, which requires an adequately powered, prospective cohort study design. To better characterize the nature and quantify the magnitude of the many impediments relevant to conducting a successful prospective study involving racial or ethnic minorities in HCT, we conducted a feasibility study to help guide planning of a larger scale outcome and disparity study in HCT. The primary questions to be addressed in the study were: (1) can we establish a racially or ethnically diverse patient sample that will respond to a survey focused on sociodemographic, economic, health insurance, cultural, spiritual, and religious well-being, and social support information? (2) What is the retention rate in the study over time? (3) What is the quality of the data collected from the patients over time? The challenges we faced in conducting this multicenter feasibility study are summarized in this report. Despite the difficulty in conducting disparity studies in racial and ethnic minorities, such studies are essential to ensure that people of all ethnic and racial backgrounds have the best chance possible of benefiting from HCT.
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Recommended screening and preventive practices for long-term survivors after hematopoietic cell transplantation.
Rev Bras Hematol Hemoter
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Advances in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) technology and supportive care techniques have led to improvements in long-term survival after HCT. Emerging indications for transplantation, introduction of newer graft sources (e.g. umbilical cord blood) and transplantation of older patients using less intense conditioning regimens have also contributed to an increase in the number of HCT survivors. These survivors are at risk for developing late complications secondary to pre-, periand post-transplant exposures and risk-factors. Guidelines for screening and preventive practices for HCT survivors were published in 2006. An international group of transplant experts was convened in 2011 to review contemporary literature and update the recommendations while considering the changing practice of transplantation and international applicability of these guidelines. This review provides the updated recommendations for screening and preventive practices for pediatric and adult survivors of autologous and allogeneic HCT.
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Graft-versus-host disease induced graft-versus-leukemia effect: greater impact on relapse and disease-free survival after reduced intensity conditioning.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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We studied graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) on relapse, transplant-related mortality (TRM), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS) after allogeneic transplantation for acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) (n = 4224) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) (n = 1517) in 4 groups: without GVHD, acute GVHD (aGVHD) alone, chronic GVHD (cGVHD) alone, and aGVHD + cGVHD. Examining GVHD as a time-dependent covariate, after myeloablative conditioning (MAC), cGVHD and aGVHD + cGVHD were associated with lower relapse (P < .002). TRM was higher in all GVHD groups (P < .0001); DFS and OS were lower with aGVHD ± cGVHD (P < .0001). After reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC), relapse was lower in all GVHD groups (P < .0001); TRM was increased and DFS and OS were reduced with any GVHD (P < .0001). In those surviving disease-free (?1-year) after MAC, relapse risks were similar in all groups and TRM was higher with any GVHD (P < .0001). DFS and OS were lower with cGVHD and aGVHD + cGVHD (P < .0006). After RIC, relapse was lower (P = .009) and TRM higher (P = .002) only with aGVHD + cGVHD. DFS was similar in all groups and OS worse with aGVHD + cGVHD. After MAC, GVHD has an adverse effect on TRM with early modest augmentation of GVHD-associated graft-versus-leukemia (GVL). With RIC, GVHD-associated GVL may be important in limiting both early and late leukemia recurrence.
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First- and second-line systemic treatment of acute graft-versus-host disease: recommendations of the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation.
Biol. Blood Marrow Transplant.
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Despite prophylaxis with immunosuppressive agents or a variety of other approaches, many patients suffer from acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Although consensus has emerged supporting the use of high-dose methylprednisolone or prednisone for initial treatment of aGVHD, practices differ among centers with respect to the initial glucocorticoid dose, the use of additional immunosuppressive agents, and the approach to withdrawal of treatment after initial improvement. Despite many studies, practices vary considerably with respect to the selection of agents for treatment of glucocorticoid-resistant or refractory GVHD. Investigators and clinicians have recognized the lack of progress and lamented the absence of an accepted standard of care for secondary treatment of aGVHD. The American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation has developed recommendations for treatment of aGVHD to be considered by care providers, based on a comprehensive and critical review of published reports. Because the literature provides little basis for a definitive guideline, this review also provides a framework for the interpretation of previous results and the design of future studies.
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Outcomes after matched unrelated donor versus identical sibling hematopoietic cell transplantation in adults with acute myelogenous leukemia.
Blood
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Approximately one-third of patients with an indication for hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) have an HLA-matched related donor (MRD) available to them. For the remaining patients, a matched unrelated donor (MUD) is an alternative. Prior studies comparing MRD and MUD HCT provide conflicting results, and the relative efficacy of MRD and MUD transplantation is an area of active investigation. To address this issue, we analyzed outcomes of 2223 adult acute myelogenous leukemia patients who underwent allogeneic HCT between 2002 and 2006 (MRD, n = 624; 8/8 HLA locus matched MUD, n = 1193; 7/8 MUD, n = 406). The 100-day cumulative incidence of grades B-D acute GVHD was significantly lower in MRD HCT recipients than in 8/8 MUD and 7/8 MUD HCT recipients (33%, 51%, and 53%, respectively; P < .001). In multivariate analysis, 8/8 MUD HCT recipients had a similar survival rate compared with MRD HCT recipients (relative risk [RR], 1.03; P = .62). 7/8 MUD HCT recipients had higher early mortality than MRD HCT recipients (RR, 1.40; P < .001), but beyond 6 months after HCT, their survival rates were similar (RR, 0.88; P = .30). These results suggest that transplantation from MUD and MRD donors results in similar survival times for patients with acute myelogenous leukemia.
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Second solid tumors: screening and management guidelines in long-term survivors after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
Semin. Hematol.
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With greater numbers of patients surviving long-term after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT), second malignancies have increasingly been recognized. Secondary solid tumors, the most prevalent second malignancies after allogeneic SCT, are reviewed with particular emphasis on recent developments in the pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and treatment of these transplant-related complications.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.