Abstract Developing oat cultivars with partial resistance to crown rust would be beneficial and cost-effective for disease management. Two recombinant inbred line populations were generated by crossing the susceptible cultivar 'Provena' with two partially resistant sources, 'CDC Boyer' and breeding line 94197A1-9-2-2-2-5. A third mapping population was generated by crossing the partially resistant sources to validate the QTL results. The three populations were evaluated for crown rust severity in the field at Louisiana State University (LSU) in 2009 and 2010 and at the Cereal Disease Laboratory (CDL) in St. Paul, Minnesota in 2009, 2010, and 2011. An iSelect platform assays containing 5744 oat single nucleotide polymorphisms was used to genotype the populations. From the 2009 CDL test, linkage analyses revealed two QTL for partial resistance in the Provena/CDC Boyer population on chromosome 19A. One of the 19A QTL was also detected in the 2009 LSU test. Another QTL was detected in on chromosome 12D in the CDL 2009 test. In the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population, only one QTL was detected on chromosome 13A in the CDL 2011 test. The 13A QTL from the Provena/94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population was validated in CDC Boyer /94197A1-9-2-2-2-5 population in the CDL 2010 and 2011 tests. Comparative analysis of the significant markers sequences with the rice genome database revealed 15 candidate genes for disease resistance on chromosomes 4 and 6 of rice. These genes could be potential targets for cloning from the two resistant parents.
Accelerated wheat development and deployment of high-yielding, climate resilient, and disease resistant cultivars can contribute to enhanced food security and sustainable intensification. To facilitate gene discovery, we assembled an association mapping panel of 528 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin for a genome-wide association study (GWAS). All accessions were genotyped using an Illumina Infinium 9K wheat single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) chip and 4781 polymorphic SNPs were used for analysis. To identify loci underlying resistance to the major leaf spot diseases and to better understand the genomic patterns, we quantified population structure, allelic diversity, and linkage disequilibrium. Our results showed 32 loci were significantly associated with resistance to the major leaf spot diseases. Further analysis identified QTL effective against major leaf spot diseases of wheat which appeared to be novel and others that were previously identified by association analysis using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) and bi-parental mapping. In addition, several identified SNPs co-localized with genes that have been implicated in plant disease resistance. Future work could aim to select the putative novel loci and pyramid them in locally adapted wheat cultivars to develop broad-spectrum resistance to multiple leaf spot diseases of wheat via marker-assisted selection (MAS).
A physically anchored consensus map is foundational to modern genomics research; however, construction of such a map in oat (Avena sativa L., 2n?=?6x?=?42) has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, the scarcity of robust molecular markers, and the lack of aneuploid stocks. Resources developed in this study include a modified SNP discovery method for complex genomes, a diverse set of oat SNP markers, and a novel chromosome-deficient SNP anchoring strategy. These resources were applied to build the first complete, physically-anchored consensus map of hexaploid oat. Approximately 11,000 high-confidence in silico SNPs were discovered based on nine million inter-varietal sequence reads of genomic and cDNA origin. GoldenGate genotyping of 3,072 SNP assays yielded 1,311 robust markers, of which 985 were mapped in 390 recombinant-inbred lines from six bi-parental mapping populations ranging in size from 49 to 97 progeny. The consensus map included 985 SNPs and 68 previously-published markers, resolving 21 linkage groups with a total map distance of 1,838.8 cM. Consensus linkage groups were assigned to 21 chromosomes using SNP deletion analysis of chromosome-deficient monosomic hybrid stocks. Alignments with sequenced genomes of rice and Brachypodium provide evidence for extensive conservation of genomic regions, and renewed encouragement for orthology-based genomic discovery in this important hexaploid species. These results also provide a framework for high-resolution genetic analysis in oat, and a model for marker development and map construction in other species with complex genomes and limited resources.
Stagonospora nodorum blotch (SNB), caused by Phaeosphaeria nodorum, is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) found throughout the United States. Host resistance is the only economically feasible option for managing the disease; however, few SNB-resistant wheat cultivars are known to exist. In this study, we report findings from an association mapping (AM) of resistance to P. nodorum in 567 spring wheat landraces of diverse geographic origin. The accessions were evaluated for seedling resistance to P. nodorum in a greenhouse. Phenotypic data and 625 polymorphic diversity array technology (DArT) markers have been used for linkage disequilibrium (LD) and association analyses. The results showed that seven DArT markers on five chromosomes (2D, 3B, 5B, 6A, and 7A) were significantly associated with resistance to P. nodorum. Genetic regions on 2D, 3B, and 5B correspond to previously mapped quantitative trait loci (QTL) conferring resistance to P. nodorum whereas the remaining QTL appeared to be novel. These results demonstrate that the use of AM is an effective method for identifying new genomic regions associated with resistance to P. nodorum in spring wheat landraces. Additionally, the novel resistance found in this study could be useful in wheat breeding aimed at controlling SNB.
Genetic markers are pivotal to modern genomics research; however, discovery and genotyping of molecular markers in oat has been hindered by the size and complexity of the genome, and by a scarcity of sequence data. The purpose of this study was to generate oat expressed sequence tag (EST) information, develop a bioinformatics pipeline for SNP discovery, and establish a method for rapid, cost-effective, and straightforward genotyping of SNP markers in complex polyploid genomes such as oat.
Genomic discovery in oat and its application to oat improvement have been hindered by a lack of genetic markers common to different genetic maps, and by the difficulty of conducting whole-genome analysis using high-throughput markers. This study was intended to develop, characterize, and apply a large set of oat genetic markers based on Diversity Array Technology (DArT).
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