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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Facile Control of the Charge Density and Photocatalytic Activity of an Anionic Indium Porphyrin Framework via in Situ Metalation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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An anionic indium porphyrin framework (UNLPF-10) consisting of rare Williams ?-tetrakaidecahedral cages was constructed using an octatopic ligand linked with 4-connected [In(COO)4](-) SBUs. Remarkably, the extent of indium metalation of porphyrin macrocycles in UNLPF-10 can be facilely tuned in situ depending on the M/L ratio during synthesis, resulting in a controllable framework charge density and photocatalytic activity toward the selective oxygenation of sulfides.
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Predicting Outcomes Using the Heart Failure Survival Score in Adults with Moderate or Complex Congenital Heart Disease.
Congenit Heart Dis
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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Adults with congenital heart disease (CHD) face increased risk for morbidity and mortality with age, but few prognostic models exist.
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Reduced in vitro doxycycline susceptibility in plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya is associated with PfTetQ KYNNNN sequence polymorphism.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Doxycycline is widely used for malaria prophylaxis by international travelers. However, there is limited information on doxycycline efficacy in Kenya, and genetic polymorphisms associated with reduced efficacy are not well defined. In vitro doxycycline susceptibility profiles for 96 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya were determined. Genetic polymorphisms were assessed in P. falciparum metabolite drug transporter (Pfmdt) and P. falciparum GTPase tetQ (PftetQ) genes. Copy number variation of the gene and the number of KYNNNN amino acid motif repeats within the protein encoded by PftetQ were determined. Reduced in vitro susceptibility to doxycycline was defined by 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) of ?35,000 nM. The odds ratio (OR) of having 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN amino acid repeats in isolates with IC50s of >35,000 nM relative to those with IC50s of <35,000 nM is 15 (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.0 to 74.3; P value of <0.0002). Isolates with 1 copy of the Pfmdt gene had a median IC50 of 6,971 nM, whereas those with a Pfmdt copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 9,912 nM (P = 0.0245). Isolates with 1 copy of PftetQ had a median IC50 of 6,370 nM, whereas isolates with a PftetQ copy number of >1 had a median IC50 of 3,422 nM (P < 0.0007). Isolates with 2 PfTetQ KYNNNN motif repeats had a median IC50 of 26,165 nM, whereas isolates with 3 PfTetQ KYNNNN repeats had a median IC50 of 3,352 nM (P = 0.0023). PfTetQ sequence polymorphism is associated with a reduced doxycycline susceptibility phenotype in Kenyan isolates and is a potential marker for susceptibility testing.
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Polymorphisms in Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter and multidrug resistance 1 genes: parasite risk factors that affect treatment outcomes for P. falciparum malaria after artemether-lumefantrine and artesunate-amodiaquine.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2014
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Adequate clinical and parasitologic cure by artemisinin combination therapies relies on the artemisinin component and the partner drug. Polymorphisms in the Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (pfcrt) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance 1 (pfmdr1) genes are associated with decreased sensitivity to amodiaquine and lumefantrine, but effects of these polymorphisms on therapeutic responses to artesunate-amodiaquine (ASAQ) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL) have not been clearly defined. Individual patient data from 31 clinical trials were harmonized and pooled by using standardized methods from the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network. Data for more than 7,000 patients were analyzed to assess relationships between parasite polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1 and clinically relevant outcomes after treatment with AL or ASAQ. Presence of the pfmdr1 gene N86 (adjusted hazards ratio = 4.74, 95% confidence interval = 2.29 - 9.78, P < 0.001) and increased pfmdr1 copy number (adjusted hazards ratio = 6.52, 95% confidence interval = 2.36-17.97, P < 0.001 : were significant independent risk factors for recrudescence in patients treated with AL. AL and ASAQ exerted opposing selective effects on single-nucleotide polymorphisms in pfcrt and pfmdr1. Monitoring selection and responding to emerging signs of drug resistance are critical tools for preserving efficacy of artemisinin combination therapies; determination of the prevalence of at least pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y should now be routine.
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Crucial and novel cancer drivers in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer.
Cancer Genomics Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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We previously developed a mouse model of breast cancer that mimics human triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) by inactivating the Retinoblastoma (Rb), Transformation related protein 53 (p53), and Breast cancer 1 (Brca1) pathways in the mammary gland. Despite inactivation of all three tumor suppressors throughout the epithelium, low tumor multiplicity indicated that malignant carcinoma progression requires additional oncogenic stimuli.
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Polymorphisms in Pfmdr1, Pfcrt, and Pfnhe1 genes are associated with reduced in vitro activities of quinine in Plasmodium falciparum isolates from western Kenya.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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In combination with antibiotics, quinine is recommended as the second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, an alternative first-line treatment for severe malaria, and for treatment of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy. Quinine has been shown to have frequent clinical failures, and yet the mechanisms of action and resistance have not been fully elucidated. However, resistance is linked to polymorphisms in multiple genes, including multidrug resistance 1 (Pfmdr1), the chloroquine resistance transporter (Pfcrt), and the sodium/hydrogen exchanger gene (Pfnhe1). Here, we investigated the association between in vitro quinine susceptibility and genetic polymorphisms in Pfmdr1codons 86 and 184, Pfcrt codon 76, and Pfnhe1 ms4760 in 88 field isolates from western Kenya. In vitro activity was assessed based on the drug concentration that inhibited 50% of parasite growth (the IC50), and parasite genetic polymorphisms were determined from DNA sequencing. Data revealed there were significant associations between polymorphism in Pfmdr1-86Y, Pfmdr1-184F, or Pfcrt-76T and quinine susceptibility (P < 0.0001 for all three associations). Eighty-two percent of parasites resistant to quinine carried mutant alleles at these codons (Pfmdr1-86Y, Pfmdr1-184F, and Pfcrt-76T), whereas 74% of parasites susceptible to quinine carried the wild-type allele (Pfmdr1-N86, Pfmdr1-Y184, and Pfcrt-K76, respectively). In addition, quinine IC50 values for parasites with Pfnhe1 ms4760 3 DNNND repeats were significantly higher than for those with 1 or 2 repeats (P = 0.033 and P = 0.0043, respectively). Clinical efficacy studies are now required to confirm the validity of these markers and the importance of parasite genetic background.
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Sustained normalization of neurological disease after intracranial gene therapy in a feline model.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Progressive debilitating neurological defects characterize feline G(M1) gangliosidosis, a lysosomal storage disease caused by deficiency of lysosomal ?-galactosidase. No effective therapy exists for affected children, who often die before age 5 years. An adeno-associated viral vector carrying the therapeutic gene was injected bilaterally into two brain targets (thalamus and deep cerebellar nuclei) of a feline model of G(M1) gangliosidosis. Gene therapy normalized ?-galactosidase activity and storage throughout the brain and spinal cord. The mean survival of 12 treated G(M1) animals was >38 months, compared to 8 months for untreated animals. Seven of the eight treated animals remaining alive demonstrated normalization of disease, with abrogation of many symptoms including gait deficits and postural imbalance. Sustained correction of the G(M1) gangliosidosis disease phenotype after limited intracranial targeting by gene therapy in a large animal model suggests that this approach may be useful for treating the human version of this lysosomal storage disorder.
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The use of a prodrug approach to minimize potential CNS exposure of next generation quinoline methanols while maintaining efficacy in in vivo animal models.
Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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The use of mefloquine (MQ) for antimalarial treatment and prophylaxis has diminished largely in response to concerns about its neurologic side effects. An analog campaign designed to maintain the efficacy of MQ while minimizing blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration has resulted in the synthesis of a prodrug with comparable-to-superior in vivo efficacy versus mefloquine in a P. berghei mouse model while exhibiting a sixfold reduction in CNS drug levels. The prodrug, WR319670, performed poorly compared to MQ in in vitro efficacy assays, but had promising in vitro permeability in an MDCK-MDR1 cell line BBB permeability screen. Its metabolite, WR308245, exhibited high predicted BBB penetration with excellent in vitro efficacy. Both WR319670 and WR308245 cured 5/5 animals in separate in vivo efficacy studies. The in vivo efficacy of WR319670 was thought to be due to the formation of a more active metabolite, specifically WR308245. This was supported by pharmacokinetics studies in non-infected mice, which showed that both IV and oral administration of WR319670 produced essentially identical levels of WR319670 and WR308245 in both plasma and brain samples at all time points. In these studies, the levels of WR308245 in the brain were 1/4 and 1/6 that of MQ in similar IV and oral studies, respectively. These data show that the use of WR319670 as an antimalarial prodrug was able to maintain efficacy in in vivo efficacy screens, while significantly lowering overall penetration of drug and metabolites across the BBB.
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Trends in drug resistance codons in Plasmodium falciparum dihydrofolate reductase and dihydropteroate synthase genes in Kenyan parasites from 2008 to 2012.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), an antifolate, was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line malaria drug treatment in Kenya in 2004 due to the wide spread of resistance. However, SP still remains the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women and infants (IPTP/I) owing to its safety profile. This study assessed the prevalence of mutations in dihydrofolate reductase (Pfdhfr) and dihydropteroate synthase (Pfdhps) genes associated with SP resistance in samples collected in Kenya between 2008 and 2012.
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Direct X-ray observation of trapped CO? in a predesigned porphyrinic metal-organic framework.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are emerging microporous materials that are promising for capture and sequestration of CO2 due to their tailorable binding properties. However, it remains a grand challenge to pre-design a MOF with a precise, multivalent binding environment at the molecular level to enhance CO2 capture. Here, we report the design, synthesis, and direct X-ray crystallographic observation of a porphyrinic MOF, UNLPF-2, that contains CO2-specific single molecular traps. Assembled from an octatopic porphyrin ligand with [Co2(COO)4] paddlewheel clusters, UNLPF-2 provides an appropriate distance between the coordinatively unsaturated metal centers, which serve as the ideal binding sites for in situ generated CO2. The coordination of Co(II) in the porphyrin macrocycle is crucial and responsible for the formation of the required topology to trap CO2. By repeatedly releasing and recapturing CO2, UNLPL-2 also exhibits recyclability.
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Usefulness of the Seattle Heart Failure Model to identify adults with congenital heart disease at high risk of poor outcome.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Our objective was to determine whether the Seattle Heart Failure Model (SHFM) differentiates patients with adult congenital heart disease (ACHD) at high versus low risk for cardiovascular outcomes and poor exercise capacity. The ACHD population is growing and presents increasingly for care in the community and at tertiary centers. Few strategies exist to identify the patients with ACHD at high risk for heart failure and mortality.We studied 153 adults with transposition of the great arteries, Ebstein anomaly, tetralogy of Fallot, double outlet right ventricle, and single ventricle from 2 ACHD centers. The primary outcome was cardiovascular death, with a secondary composite outcome of death, transplant, ventricular assist device, cardiovascular admission, and treatment for arrhythmia. We defined risk groups based on SHFM 5-year predicted survival: high (predicted survival <70%), intermediate (70% to 85%), and low risk (>85%). Ten patients had the primary outcome of death, and 46 the combined end point. The hazard of death in the SHFM high- versus the intermediate-risk group was 7.09 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 33.4, p = 0.01; no deaths in the low-risk group) and the hazard of the composite outcome between the high- versus low-risk group was 6.64 (95% confidence interval 2.5 to 17.6, p = 0.0001). Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed greater probability of all-cause mortality (p = 0.003) in the high-risk group. In conclusion, the SHFM can help identify subjects with ACHD at risk for adverse outcome and poor cardiopulmonary efficiency. This may add to the care of patients with ACHD in the community and streamline care at tertiary centers.
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Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenyan children aged less than five years: results of an open-label, randomized, single-centre study.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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This open-label, randomized study evaluated efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children below five years of age, to build evidence on use of AL as first-line treatment and DP as second-line treatment in Kenya.
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Five-year tracking of Plasmodium falciparum allele frequencies in a holoendemic area with indistinct seasonal transitions.
J Multidiscip Healthc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The renewed malaria eradication efforts require an understanding of the seasonal patterns of frequency of polymorphic variants in order to focus limited funds productively. Although cross-sectional studies in holoendemic areas spanning a single year could be useful in describing parasite genotype status at a given point, such information is inadequate in describing temporal trends in genotype polymorphisms. For Plasmodium falciparum isolates from Kisumu District Hospital, Plasmodium falciparum chloroquine-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt-K76T) and P. falciparum multidrug resistance gene 1 (PfMDR1-N86Y), were analyzed for polymorphisms and parasitemia changes in the 53 months from March 2008 to August 2012. Observations were compared with prevailing climatic factors, including humidity, rainfall, and temperature.
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The student as teacher: reflections on collaborative learning in a senior seminar.
J Undergrad Neurosci Educ
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A major influence on education since the 1950's has been Bloom's Taxonomy, a classification of learning objectives across multiple domains meant to educate the whole student (Anderson and Krathwohl, 2001). Although it has influenced educational pedagogy in primary education, higher education remains, in antiquity, heavily lecture based; viewing the instructor as an expert who professes their vast knowledge to their students. However, when students serve as instructor, it is difficult to apply this traditional view to the college classroom. Here we discuss the development, pedagogical approach, and experience of a senior level seminar course in which the students and instructor collaboratively explored an emerging field, embodied cognition, which combines research and theory from psychology and neuroscience among other disciplines, in which neither the students nor instructor were an expert. Students provided feedback and evaluations at three time points over the course of the semester, before class started, at midterm and at the end of the semester in order to address the experience and effectiveness of a collaborative seminar experience in which the instructor assumed a role closer to an equal of the students. Student responses revealed both high levels of satisfaction and degrees of perceived learning within the course at both the midterm and final evaluation. The approach of this seminar may be beneficial when applied to other seminars or course formats as students in this course felt as though they were learning more and appreciated being a more equal partner in their own learning process.
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Oral contraceptive use and acute mountain sickness in South Pole workers.
Aviat Space Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Progesterone has a number of properties that could influence the development of acute mountain sickness (AMS), including anti-inflammation, respiratory smooth muscle relaxation, ventilatory stimulation, and antidiuretic characteristics. Oral contraceptive (OC) use decreases levels of circulating progesterone by preventing ovulation. We hypothesized rates of AMS development would be significantly higher in OC users as compared to Non-OC users in a population traveling rapidly to the South Pole.
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A SYBR Green 1-based in vitro test of susceptibility of Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum clinical isolates to a panel of anti-malarial drugs.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2013
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Based on report of declining efficacy of chloroquine, Ghana shifted to the use of artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) in 2005 as the first-line anti-malarial drug. Since then, there has not been any major evaluation of the efficacy of anti-malarial drugs in Ghana in vitro. The sensitivity of Ghanaian Plasmodium falciparum isolates to anti-malarial drugs was, therefore, assessed and the data compared with that obtained prior to the change in the malaria treatment policy.
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Hemodynamic effects of implanting a unidirectional valve in the inferior vena cava of the Fontan circulation pathway: an in vitro investigation.
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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The Fontan surgical procedure used for treating patients with single ventricle congenital heart disorders results in a total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) of the vena cavae to the pulmonary arteries (PAs). Sluggish TCPC flow and elevated hepatic venous pressures are commonly observed in this altered physiology, which in turn can lead to long-term complications including liver congestion and cirrhosis. The hypothesis of this study is that placement of a unidirectional valve within the inferior vena cava (IVC) will improve hemodynamics of the Fontan circulation by preventing retrograde flow and lowering hepatic venous pressure. An in vitro experimental setup consisting of an idealized TCPC model with flexible walls was used for investigation, and a bovine venous valve was inserted in the IVC below the TCPC. Pressure fluctuations were introduced in the flow through the model to simulate venous pulsatility. Hemodynamics of baseline and valve-implanted conditions were compared across total caval flows ranging from 1.0 to 2.5 l/min with varying caval flow distributions. The results indicated that valve closure occurred for 15-20% of the total cycle, with consequent reduction in the upstream hepatic venous pressure by 5 to 10 mmHg. Energy loss (EL) through the TCPC was lowered with valve implantation to 20-50% of baseline, occurring across all flow conditions considered with mean caval and PA pressures greater than 10 mmHg. The results of this in vitro modeling suggest that IVC valve placement has the potential to improve hemodynamics in the Fontan circulation by decreasing hepatic venous hypertension and EL.
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High-throughput analysis of antimalarial susceptibility data by the WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network (WWARN) in vitro analysis and reporting tool.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2013
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Assessment of in vitro susceptibility is a fundamental component of antimalarial surveillance studies, but wide variations in the measurement of parasite growth and the calculation of inhibitory constants make comparisons of data from different laboratories difficult. Here we describe a Web-based, high-throughput in vitro analysis and reporting tool (IVART) generating inhibitory constants for large data sets. Fourteen primary data sets examining laboratory-determined susceptibility to artemisinin derivatives and artemisinin combination therapy partner drugs were collated from 11 laboratories. Drug concentrations associated with half-maximal inhibition of growth (IC50s) were determined by a modified sigmoid Emax model-fitting algorithm, allowing standardized analysis of 7,350 concentration-inhibition assays involving 1,592 isolates. Examination of concentration-inhibition data revealed evidence of apparent paradoxical growth at high concentrations of nonartemisinin drugs, supporting amendment of the method for calculating the maximal drug effect in each assay. Criteria for defining more-reliable IC50s based on estimated confidence intervals and growth ratios improved correlation coefficients for the drug pairs mefloquine-quinine and chloroquine-desethylamodiaquine in 9 of 11 and 8 of 8 data sets, respectively. Further analysis showed that maximal drug inhibition was higher for artemisinins than for other drugs, particularly in ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay)-based assays, a finding consistent with the earlier onset of action of these drugs in the parasite life cycle. This is the first high-throughput analytical approach to apply consistent constraints and reliability criteria to large, diverse antimalarial susceptibility data sets. The data also illustrate the distinct biological properties of artemisinins and underline the need to apply more sensitive approaches to assessing in vitro susceptibility to these drugs.
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Direct comparison of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests in Plasmodium falciparum reference clones and fresh ex vivo field isolates from Cambodia.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Performance of the histidine-rich protein-2 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HRP-2 ELISA) and malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence (MSF) drug sensitivity tests were directly compared using Plasmodium falciparum reference strains and fresh ex vivo isolates from Cambodia against a panel of standard anti-malarials. The objective was to determine which of these two common assays is more appropriate for studying drug susceptibility of "immediate ex vivo" (IEV) isolates, analysed without culture adaption, in a region of relatively low malaria transmission.
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A "pillar-free", highly porous metalloporphyrinic framework exhibiting eclipsed porphyrin arrays.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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A "pillar-free", highly porous metalloporphyrinic framework (UNLPF-1) exhibiting eclipsed porphyrin arrays has been constructed from an octacarboxylate ligand connected with paddlewheel secondary building units. UNLPF-1 possesses two types of open metal sites and exhibits an efficient selectivity toward capture of CO2 over N2.
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Drug discovery algorithm for cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis is clinically widespread but lacks treatments that are effective and well tolerated. Because all present drugs have been grandfathered into clinical use, there are no examples of a pre-clinical product evaluation scheme that lead to new candidates for formal development. To provide oral agents for development targeting cutaneous leishmaniasis, we have implemented a discovery scheme that incorporates in vitro and in vivo testing of efficacy, toxicity, and pharmacokinetics/metabolism. Particular emphasis is placed on in vivo testing, progression from higher-throughput models to those with most clinical relevance, and efficient use of resources.
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Misclassification of Plasmodium infections by conventional microscopy and the impact of remedial training on the proficiency of laboratory technicians in species identification.
Malar. J.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2013
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Malaria diagnosis is largely dependent on the demonstration of parasites in stained blood films by conventional microscopy. Accurate identification of the infecting Plasmodium species relies on detailed examination of parasite morphological characteristics, such as size, shape, pigment granules, besides the size and shape of the parasitized red blood cells and presence of cell inclusions. This work explores misclassifications of four Plasmodium species by conventional microscopy relative to the proficiency of microscopists and morphological characteristics of the parasites on Giemsa-stained blood films.
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Physiological variables associated with the development of acute mountain sickness at the South Pole.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Exposure to altitudes >2500 m can result in acute mountain sickness (AMS), a mild and usually self-limiting condition. Research has attempted to identify factors associated with developing AMS without controlling important factors related to the ascent or collecting a comprehensive set of variables.
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The role of Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt in changing chloroquine, amodiaquine, mefloquine and lumefantrine susceptibility in western-Kenya P. falciparum samples during 2008-2011.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y. Additionally, Pfcrt K76 allele carrying parasites have shown tolerance to LU. We investigated the association between Pfmdr1 86/Pfcrt 72-76 and P. falciparum resistance to CQ, AQ, MQ and LU using field samples collected during 2008-2011 from malaria endemic sites in western Kenya. Genomic DNA from these samples was genotyped to examine SNPs and haplotypes in Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt respectively. Additionally, immediate ex vivo and in vitro drug sensitivity profiles were assessed using the malaria SYBR Green I fluorescence-based assay. We observed a rapid but steady percent increase in wild-type parasites with regard to both Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt between 2008 and 2011 (p<0.0001). Equally, a significant reciprocate decrease in AQ and CQ median IC50 values occurred (p<0.0001) during the same period. Thus, the data in this study point to a significantly rapid change in parasite response to AQ and CQ in the study period. This may be due to releasing of drug pressure on the parasite from reduced use of AQ in the face of increased Artemisinin (ART) Combination Therapy (ACT) administration following the intervention of the Global Fund in 2008. LU has been shown to select for 76K genotypes, thus the observed increase in 76K genotypes coupled with significant cross resistance between LU and MQ, may herald emergence of tolerance against both drugs in future.
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Inhibitory activity of ferroquine, versus chloroquine, against western Kenya Plasmodium falciparum field isolates determined by a SYBR Green I in vitro assay.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Ferroquine (FQ), a chloroquine (CQ) analog, is being developed to treat persons with Plasmodium falciparum malaria. In 146 P. falciparum field isolates from western Kenya, we measured 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50); nM) of CQ and FQ by a SYBR Green I in vitro assay. Reference clones included W2 (CQ resistant) and D6 (CQ sensitive). Mutation analysis was done for P. falciparum CQ-resistance transporter gene (Pfcrt K76T). Median IC(50) values for FQ were lower than CQ for field isolates and the W2 clone (both P < 0.05). The Pfcrt mutation (76T), which was detected in > 80% of isolates, conferred higher CQ IC(50) values (P < 0.05) and modestly lower FQ IC(50) values (P < 0.05), versus Pfcrt wild type (K76). FQ is more potent than CQ against CQ-resistant P. falciparum field isolates and the W2 clone, and is less affected by Pfcrt 76T. These findings support the notion that FQ could be useful in treating persons with P. falciparum malaria.
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Structure-activity relationships of 4-position diamine quinoline methanols as intermittent preventative treatment (IPT) against Plasmodium falciparum.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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A library of diamine quinoline methanols were designed based on the mefloquine scaffold. The systematic variation of the 4-position amino alcohol side chain led to analogues that maintained potency while reducing accumulation in the central nervous system (CNS). Although the mechanism of action remains elusive, these data indicate that the 4-position side chain is critical for activity and that potency (as measured by IC(90)) does not correlate with accumulation in the CNS. A new lead compound, (S)-1-(2,8-bis(trifluoromethyl)quinolin-4-yl)-2-(2-(cyclopropylamino)ethylamino)ethanol (WR621308), was identified with single dose efficacy and substantially lower permeability across MDCK cell monolayers than mefloquine. This compound could be appropriate for intermittent preventative treatment (IPTx) indications or other malaria treatments currently approved for mefloquine.
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Antimalarial drug sensitivity profile of western Kenya Plasmodium falciparum field isolates determined by a SYBR Green I in vitro assay and molecular analysis.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2011
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In vitro drug sensitivity and molecular analyses of Plasmodium falciparum track drug resistance. DNA-binding fluorescent dyes like SYBR Green I may allow field laboratories, proximal to P. falciparum collection sites, to conduct drug assays. In 2007-2008, we assayed 121 P. falciparum field isolates from western Kenya for 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) against 6 antimalarial drugs using a SYBR Green I in vitro assay: 91 immediate ex vivo (IEV) and 30 culture-adapted, along with P. falciparum reference clones D6 (chloroquine [CQ] sensitive) and W2 (CQ resistant). We also assessed P. falciparum mdr1 (Pfmdr1) copy number and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at four codons. The IC(50)s for IEV and culture-adapted P. falciparum isolates were similar, and approximated historical IC(50)s. For Pfmdr1, mean copy number was 1, with SNPs common at codons 86 and 184. The SYBR Green I assay adapted well to our field-based laboratory, for both IEV and culture-adapted P. falciparum, warranting continued use.
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Incidence and Symptoms of High Altitude Illness in South Pole Workers: Antarctic Study of Altitude Physiology (ASAP).
Clin Med Insights Circ Respir Pulm Med
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2011
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Each year, the US Antarctic Program rapidly transports scientists and support personnel from sea level (SL) to the South Pole (SP, 2835 m) providing a unique natural laboratory to quantify the incidence of acute mountain sickness (AMS), patterns of altitude related symptoms and the field effectiveness of acetazolamide in a highly controlled setting. We hypothesized that the combination of rapid ascent (3 hr), accentuated hypobarism (relative to altitude), cold, and immediate exertion would increase altitude illness risk.
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Use of the NP-40 detergent-mediated assay in discovery of inhibitors of beta-hematin crystallization.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2011
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The protozoan parasite responsible for malaria affects over 500 million people each year. Current antimalarials have experienced decreased efficacy due to the development of drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium spp., resulting in a critical need for the discovery of new antimalarials. Hemozoin, a crystalline by-product of heme detoxification that is necessary for parasite survival, serves as an important drug target. The quinoline antimalarials, including amodiaquine and chloroquine, act by inhibiting the formation of hemozoin. The formation of this crystal does not occur spontaneously, and recent evidence suggests crystallization occurs in the presence of neutral lipid particles located in the acidic digestive vacuole of the parasite. To mimic these conditions, the lipophilic detergent NP-40 has previously been shown to successfully mediate the formation of ?-hematin, synthetic hemozoin. Here, an NP-40 detergent-based assay was successfully adapted for use as a high-throughput screen to identify inhibitors of ?-hematin formation. The resulting assay exhibited a favorable Z of 0.82 and maximal drift of less than 4%. The assay was used in a pilot screen of 38,400 diverse compounds at a screening concentration of 19.3 ?M, resulting in the identification of 161 previously unreported ?-hematin inhibitors. Of these, 48 also exhibited ? 90% inhibition of parasitemia in a Plasmodium falciparum whole-cell assay at a screening concentration of 23 ?M. Eight of these compounds were identified to have nanomolar 50% inhibitory concentration values near that of chloroquine in this assay.
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Genotype and cardiovascular phenotype correlations with TBX1 in 1,022 velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Haploinsufficiency of TBX1, encoding a T-box transcription factor, is largely responsible for the physical malformations in velo-cardio-facial /DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) patients. Cardiovascular malformations in these patients are highly variable, raising the question as to whether DNA variations in the TBX1 locus on the remaining allele of 22q11.2 could be responsible. To test this, a large sample size is needed. The TBX1 gene was sequenced in 360 consecutive 22q11DS patients. Rare and common variations were identified. We did not detect enrichment in rare SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) number in those with or without a congenital heart defect. One exception was that there was increased number of very rare SNPs between those with normal heart anatomy compared to those with right-sided aortic arch or persistent truncus arteriosus, suggesting potentially protective roles in the SNPs for these phenotype-enrichment groups. Nine common SNPs (minor allele frequency, MAF > 0.05) were chosen and used to genotype the entire cohort of 1,022 22q11DS subjects. We did not find a correlation between common SNPs or haplotypes and cardiovascular phenotype. This work demonstrates that common DNA variations in TBX1 do not explain variable cardiovascular expression in 22q11DS patients, implicating existence of modifiers in other genes on 22q11.2 or elsewhere in the genome.
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Malaria and other vector-borne infection surveillance in the U.S. Department of Defense Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance program: review of 2009 accomplishments.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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Vector-borne infections (VBI) are defined as infectious diseases transmitted by the bite or mechanical transfer of arthropod vectors. They constitute a significant proportion of the global infectious disease burden. United States (U.S.) Department of Defense (DoD) personnel are especially vulnerable to VBIs due to occupational contact with arthropod vectors, immunological naiveté to previously unencountered pathogens, and limited diagnostic and treatment options available in the austere and unstable environments sometimes associated with military operations. In addition to the risk uniquely encountered by military populations, other factors have driven the worldwide emergence of VBIs. Unprecedented levels of global travel, tourism and trade, and blurred lines of demarcation between zoonotic VBI reservoirs and human populations increase vector exposure. Urban growth in previously undeveloped regions and perturbations in global weather patterns also contribute to the rise of VBIs. The Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center-Global Emerging Infections Surveillance and Response System (AFHSC-GEIS) and its partners at DoD overseas laboratories form a network to better characterize the nature, emergence and growth of VBIs globally. In 2009 the network tested 19,730 specimens from 25 sites for Plasmodium species and malaria drug resistance phenotypes and nearly another 10,000 samples to determine the etiologies of non-Plasmodium species VBIs from regions spanning from Oceania to Africa, South America, and northeast, south and Southeast Asia. This review describes recent VBI-related epidemiological studies conducted by AFHSC-GEIS partner laboratories within the OCONUS DoD laboratory network emphasizing their impact on human populations.
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Design of anti-parasitic and anti-fungal hydroxy-naphthoquinones that are less susceptible to drug resistance.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2011
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Atovaquone is a hydroxy-naphthoquinone that is used to treat parasitic and fungal infections including Plasmodium falciparum (malaria), Pneumocystis jivorecii (pneumonia) and Toxoplasma gondii (toxoplasmosis). It blocks mitochondrial oxidation of ubiquinol in these organisms by binding to the ubiquinol oxidation site of the cytochrome bc(1) complex. Failure of atovaquone treatment has been linked to the appearance of mutations in the mitochondrially encoded gene for cytochrome b. In order to determine the optimal parameters required for inhibition of respiration in parasites and pathogenic fungi and overcome drug resistance, we have synthesized and tested the inhibitory activity of novel hydroxy-naphthoquinones against blood stage P. falciparum and liver stage P. berghei and against cytochrome bc(1) complexes isolated from yeast strains bearing mutations in cytochrome b associated with resistance in Plasmodium, Pneumocystis, and Toxoplasma. One of the new inhibitors is highly effective against an atovaquone resistant Plasmodium and illustrates the type of modification to the hydroxy-naphthoquinone ring of atovaquone that might mitigate drug resistance.
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Application of the laryngeal mask airway for anesthesia in three chimpanzees and one gibbon.
J. Zoo Wildl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2010
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Three pediatric chimpanzees and one pediatric gibbon were anesthetized for routine physical examination. Anesthesia was maintained with inhalant delivered via a laryngeal mask airway (LMA). The LMA was easy to insert, provided adequate control of the airway for ventilation, and caused no tracheal stimulation. No complications were observed. As compared with a face mask, the LMA has the advantage of a more secure airway; the ability to effectively ventilate the patient; less dead space, which leads to lower rebreathing of carbon dioxide; and less exposure of personnel to waste gases. As compared with an endotracheal tube, the LMA causes less airway trauma, is easier to place, and is less stimulating to the patient. The LMA should be considered for use in fasted non-human primates presented for procedures lasting less than 60 min where high peak inspiratory pressures are not needed.
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Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-? and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing.
EMBO Rep.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Physical cues, such as extracellular matrix stiffness, direct cell differentiation and support tissue-specific function. Perturbation of these cues underlies diverse pathologies, including osteoarthritis, cardiovascular disease and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms that establish tissue-specific material properties and link them to healthy tissue function are unknown. We show that Runx2, a key lineage-specific transcription factor, regulates the material properties of bone matrix through the same transforming growth factor-? (TGF?)-responsive pathway that controls osteoblast differentiation. Deregulated TGF? or Runx2 function compromises the distinctly hard cochlear bone matrix and causes hearing loss, as seen in human cleidocranial dysplasia. In Runx2+/? mice, inhibition of TGF? signalling rescues both the material properties of the defective matrix, and hearing. This study elucidates the unknown cause of hearing loss in cleidocranial dysplasia, and demonstrates that a molecular pathway controlling cell differentiation also defines material properties of extracellular matrix. Furthermore, our results suggest that the careful regulation of these properties is essential for healthy tissue function.
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Lactococcus lactis fabH, encoding beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase, can be functionally replaced by the Plasmodium falciparum congener.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Plasmodium falciparum, in addition to scavenging essential fatty acids from its intra- and intercellular environments, possesses a functional complement of type II fatty acid synthase (FAS) enzymes targeted to the apicoplast organelle. Recent evidence suggests that products of the plasmodial FAS II system may be critical for the parasites liver-to-blood cycle transition, and it has been speculated that endogenously generated fatty acids may be precursors for essential cofactors, such as lipoate, in the apicoplast. beta-Ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) synthase III (pfKASIII or FabH) is one of the key enzymes in the initiating steps of the FAS II pathway, possessing two functions in P. falciparum: the decarboxylative thio-Claisen condensation of malonyl-ACP and various acyl coenzymes A (acyl-CoAs; KAS activity) and the acetyl-CoA:ACP transacylase reaction (ACAT). Here, we report the generation and characterization of a hybrid Lactococcus lactis strain that translates pfKASIII instead of L. lactis fabH to initiate fatty acid biosynthesis. The L. lactis expression vector pMG36e was modified for the efficient overexpression of the plasmodial gene in L. lactis. Transcriptional analysis indicated high-efficiency overexpression, and biochemical KAS and ACAT assays confirm these activities in cell extracts. Phenotypically, the L. lactis strain expressing pfKASIII has a growth rate and fatty acid profiles that are comparable to those of the strain complemented with its endogenous gene, suggesting that pfKASIII can use L. lactis ACP as substrate and perform near-normal function in L. lactis cells. This strain may have potential application as a bacterial model for pfKASIII inhibitor prescreening.
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A novel activity from an old compound: Manzamine A reduces the metastatic potential of AsPC-1 pancreatic cancer cells and sensitizes them to TRAIL-induced apoptosis.
Invest New Drugs
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States, and new drugs to treat the disease are needed. Pancreatic cancer cells are highly metastatic and exhibit resistance to apoptosis. Small molecules that can restore sensitivity to apoptosis or reduce metastasis would have therapeutic potential against this disease. Manzamine A is an alkaloid isolated from marine sponges that was suspected to have inhibitory activity against the mitogen activated kinase kinase (MEK). Because of this, the effects of Manzamine A were studied in pancreatic cancer cells.
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Identification of potent chemotypes targeting Leishmania major using a high-throughput, low-stringency, computationally enhanced, small molecule screen.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2009
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Patients with clinical manifestations of leishmaniasis, including cutaneous leishmaniasis, have limited treatment options, and existing therapies frequently have significant untoward liabilities. Rapid expansion in the diversity of available cutaneous leishmanicidal chemotypes is the initial step in finding alternative efficacious treatments. To this end, we combined a low-stringency Leishmania major promastigote growth inhibition assay with a structural computational filtering algorithm. After a rigorous assay validation process, we interrogated approximately 200,000 unique compounds for L. major promastigote growth inhibition. Using iterative computational filtering of the compounds exhibiting > 50% inhibition, we identified 553 structural clusters and 640 compound singletons. Secondary confirmation assays yielded 93 compounds with EC(50)s < or = 1 microM, with none of the identified chemotypes being structurally similar to known leishmanicidals and most having favorable in silico predicted bioavailability characteristics. The leishmanicidal activity of a representative subset of 15 chemotypes was confirmed in two independent assay formats, and L. major parasite specificity was demonstrated by assaying against a panel of human cell lines. Thirteen chemotypes inhibited the growth of a L. major axenic amastigote-like population. Murine in vivo efficacy studies using one of the new chemotypes document inhibition of footpad lesion development. These results authenticate that low stringency, large-scale compound screening combined with computational structure filtering can rapidly expand the chemotypes targeting in vitro and in vivo Leishmania growth and viability.
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Assessment of malaria in vitro drug combination screening and mixed-strain infections using the malaria Sybr green I-based fluorescence assay.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Several drug development strategies, including optimization of new antimalarial drug combinations, have been used to counter malaria drug resistance. We evaluated the malaria Sybr green I-based fluorescence (MSF) assay for its use in in vitro drug combination sensitivity assays. Drug combinations of previously published synergistic (atovaquone and proguanil), indifferent (chloroquine and azithromycin), and antagonistic (chloroquine and atovaquone) antimalarial drug interactions were tested against Plasmodium falciparum strains D6 and W2 using the MSF assay. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) were calculated for individual drugs and in fixed ratio combinations relative to their individual IC(50)s. Subsequent isobologram analysis and fractional inhibitory concentration determinations demonstrated the expected drug interaction pattern for each combination tested. Furthermore, we explored the ability of the MSF assay to examine mixed parasite population dynamics, which are commonly seen in malaria patient isolates. Specifically, the capacity of the MSF assay to discern between single and mixed parasite populations was determined. To simulate mixed infections in vitro, fixed ratios of D6 and W2 strains were cocultured with antimalarial drugs and IC(50)s were determined using the MSF assay. Dichotomous concentration curves indicated that the sensitive and resistant parasites composing the genetically heterogeneous population were detectable. Biphasic analysis was performed to obtain subpopulation IC(50)s for comparison to those obtained for the individual malaria strains alone. In conclusion, the MSF assay allows for reliable antimalarial drug combination screening and provides an important method to discern between homogenous and heterogeneous parasite populations.
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Selective cytotoxic activity of the marine-derived batzelline compounds against pancreatic cancer cell lines.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2009
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Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. The prognosis of the disease is very negative, because the cancer will be usually metastasized by the time a patient manifests symptoms. Although combination therapy shows some promise, new drugs to treat the disease are needed. Given our interest in finding new therapies for pancreatic cancer, we sought to determine whether the known cytotoxic activity of the batzellines extended to pancreatic cancer cell lines. The batzellines are pyrroloiminoquinones alkaloids obtained from the deep-water Caribbean sponge Batzella sp (family Esperiopsidae, order Poecilosclerida). We show here that batzellines exhibit selective cytotoxicity towards the pancreatic cancer cell lines AsPC-1, Panc-1, BxPC-3, and MIA PaCa2 compared with the normal African green monkey kidney epithelial cell line Vero. The batzellines cause cytotoxicity by inducing cell cycle arrest that is mediated by their ability to intercalate into DNA and/or inhibit topoisomerase II activity. The cytotoxic abilities of isobatzellines A and C against pancreatic cancer cell lines, their low toxicity against normal cells, and their reported ability to be synthesized makes them interesting compounds with potential chemotherapeutic effects that may merit further research.
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Targeting the fatty acid biosynthesis enzyme, beta-ketoacyl-acyl carrier protein synthase III (PfKASIII), in the identification of novel antimalarial agents.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2009
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The importance of fatty acids to the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, and differences due to a type I fatty acid synthesis (FAS) pathway in the parasite, make it an attractive drug target. In the present study, we developed and a utilized a pharmacophore to select compounds for testing against PfKASIII, the initiating enzyme of FAS. This effort identified several PfKASIII inhibitors that grouped into various chemical classes of sulfides, sulfonamides, and sulfonyls. Approximately 60% of the submicromolar inhibitors of PfKASIII inhibited in vitro growth of the malaria parasite. These compounds inhibited both drug sensitive and resistant parasites and testing against a mammalian cell line revealed an encouraging in vitro therapeutic index for the most active compounds. Docking studies into the active site of PfKASIII suggest a potential binding mode that exploits amino acid residues at the mouth of the substrate tunnel.
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Cooperativity of Rb, Brca1, and p53 in malignant breast cancer evolution.
PLoS Genet.
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Breast cancers that are "triple-negative" for the clinical markers ESR1, PGR, and HER2 typically belong to the Basal-like molecular subtype. Defective Rb, p53, and Brca1 pathways are each associated with triple-negative and Basal-like subtypes. Our mouse genetic studies demonstrate that the combined inactivation of Rb and p53 pathways is sufficient to suppress the physiological cell death of mammary involution. Furthermore, concomitant inactivation of all three pathways in mammary epithelium has an additive effect on tumor latency and predisposes highly penetrant, metastatic adenocarcinomas. The tumors are poorly differentiated and have histologic features that are common among human Brca1-mutated tumors, including heterogeneous morphology, metaplasia, and necrosis. Gene expression analyses demonstrate that the tumors share attributes of both Basal-like and Claudin-low signatures, two molecular subtypes encompassed by the broader, triple-negative class defined by clinical markers.
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Overt cleft palate phenotype and TBX1 genotype correlations in velo-cardio-facial/DiGeorge/22q11.2 deletion syndrome patients.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
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Velo-cardio-facial syndrome/DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11DS) is the most common microdeletion syndrome, with an estimated incidence of 1/2,000-1/4,000 live births. Approximately 9-11% of patients with this disorder have an overt cleft palate (CP), but the genetic factors responsible for CP in the 22q11DS subset are unknown. The TBX1 gene, a member of the T-box transcription factor gene family, lies within the 22q11.2 region that is hemizygous in patients with 22q11DS. Inactivation of one allele of Tbx1 in the mouse does not result in CP, but inactivation of both alleles does. Based on these data, we hypothesized that DNA variants in the remaining allele of TBX1 may confer risk to CP in patients with 22q11DS. To test the hypothesis, we evaluated TBX1 exon sequencing (n = 360) and genotyping data (n = 737) with respect to presence (n = 54) or absence (n = 683) of CP in patients with 22q11DS. Two upstream SNPs (rs4819835 and rs5748410) showed individual evidence for association but they were not significant after correction for multiple testing. Associations were not identified between DNA variants and haplotypes in 22q11DS patients with CP. Overall, this study indicates that common DNA variants in TBX1 may be nominally causative for CP in patients with 22q11DS. This raises the possibility that genes elsewhere on the remaining allele of 22q11.2 or in the genome could be relevant.
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Anteroposterior thickening of the femoral neck with aging decreases the "offset" in men.
Am J Sports Med
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The contour of the femoral head-neck junction has been shown to have an effect on femoroacetabular impingement (FAI), which can lead to early osteoarthritis of the hip. This study uses computed tomography (CT) to investigate changes in the femoral head, femoral neck, and joint space with aging.
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The antiplasmodial and radical scavenging activities of flavonoids of Erythrina burttii.
Acta Trop.
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The acetone extract of the root bark of Erythrina burttii showed in vitro antiplasmodial activity against the chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum with IC(50) values of 0.97 ± 0.2 and 1.73 ± 0.5 ?g/ml respectively. The extract also had radical scavenging activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical with an EC(50) value of 12.0 ?g/ml. The isoflav-3-enes burttinol-A and burttinol-C, and the 2-arylbenzofuran derivative burttinol-D were identified as the most active antiplasmodial (IC(50)<10 ?M) and free radical scavenging (EC(50)ca. 10 ?M) principles. The acetone extract of E. burttii at 800 mg/kg/day, in a 4-day Plasmodium berghei ANKA suppressive test, showed in vivo antimalarial activity with 52% chemosuppression. In the same in vivo test, marginal activities were also observed for the extracts of the root and stem bark of Erythrina abyssinica and the root bark of Erythrina sacleuxii.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.