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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Defining the role of common variation in the genomic and biological architecture of adult human height.
Andrew R Wood, Tonu Esko, Jian Yang, Sailaja Vedantam, Tune H Pers, Stefan Gustafsson, Audrey Y Chu, Karol Estrada, Jian'an Luan, Zoltan Kutalik, Najaf Amin, Martin L Buchkovich, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Yanan Duan, Tove Fall, Rudolf Fehrmann, Teresa Ferreira, Anne U Jackson, Juha Karjalainen, Ken Sin Lo, Adam E Locke, Reedik Mägi, Evelin Mihailov, Eleonora Porcu, Joshua C Randall, André Scherag, Anna A E Vinkhuyzen, Harm-Jan Westra, Thomas W Winkler, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Jing Hua Zhao, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Denise Anderson, Jeffrey Baron, Marian Beekman, Ayse Demirkan, Georg B Ehret, Bjarke Feenstra, Mary F Feitosa, Krista Fischer, Ross M Fraser, Anuj Goel, Jian Gong, Anne E Justice, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Kati Kristiansson, Unhee Lim, Vaneet Lotay, Julian C Lui, Massimo Mangino, Irene Mateo Leach, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Michael A Nalls, Dale R Nyholt, Cameron D Palmer, Dorota Pasko, Sonali Pechlivanis, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, Stephan Ripke, Dmitry Shungin, Alena Stančáková, Rona J Strawbridge, Yun Ju Sung, Toshiko Tanaka, Alexander Teumer, Stella Trompet, Sander W van der Laan, Jessica van Setten, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Zhaoming Wang, Loïc Yengo, Weihua Zhang, Uzma Afzal, Johan Arnlöv, Gillian M Arscott, Stefania Bandinelli, Amy Barrett, Claire Bellis, Amanda J Bennett, Christian Berne, Matthias Blüher, Jennifer L Bolton, Yvonne Böttcher, Heather A Boyd, Marcel Bruinenberg, Brendan M Buckley, Steven Buyske, Ida H Caspersen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Simone Claudi-Boehm, Matthew Cooper, E Warwick Daw, Pim A de Jong, Joris Deelen, Graciela Delgado, Josh C Denny, Rosalie Dhonukshe-Rutten, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Marcus Dörr, Niina Eklund, Elodie Eury, Lasse Folkersen, Melissa E Garcia, Frank Geller, Vilmantas Giedraitis, Alan S Go, Harald Grallert, Tanja B Grammer, Jürgen Gräßler, Henrik Grönberg, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Christopher J Groves, Jeffrey Haessler, Per Hall, Toomas Haller, Göran Hallmans, Anke Hannemann, Catharina A Hartman, Maija Hassinen, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Quinta Helmer, Gibran Hemani, Anjali K Henders, Hans L Hillege, Mark A Hlatky, Wolfgang Hoffmann, Per Hoffmann, Oddgeir Holmen, Jeanine J Houwing-Duistermaat, Thomas Illig, Aaron Isaacs, Alan L James, Janina Jeff, Berit Johansen, Asa Johansson, Jennifer Jolley, Thorhildur Juliusdottir, Juhani Junttila, Abel N Kho, Leena Kinnunen, Norman Klopp, Thomas Kocher, Wolfgang Kratzer, Peter Lichtner, Lars Lind, Jaana Lindström, Stéphane Lobbens, Mattias Lorentzon, Yingchang Lu, Valeriya Lyssenko, Patrik K E Magnusson, Anubha Mahajan, Marc Maillard, Wendy L McArdle, Colin A McKenzie, Stela McLachlan, Paul J McLaren, Cristina Menni, Sigrun Merger, Lili Milani, Alireza Moayyeri, Keri L Monda, Mario A Morken, Gabriele Müller, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Arthur W Musk, Narisu Narisu, Matthias Nauck, Ilja M Nolte, Markus M Nöthen, Laticia Oozageer, Stefan Pilz, Nigel W Rayner, Frida Renstrom, Neil R Robertson, Lynda M Rose, Ronan Roussel, Serena Sanna, Hubert Scharnagl, Salome Scholtens, Fredrick R Schumacher, Heribert Schunkert, Robert A Scott, Joban Sehmi, Thomas Seufferlein, Jianxin Shi, Karri Silventoinen, Johannes H Smit, Albert Vernon Smith, Joanna Smolonska, Alice V Stanton, Kathleen Stirrups, David J Stott, Heather M Stringham, Johan Sundström, Morris A Swertz, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Bamidele O Tayo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Suzanne van Dijk, Natasja M van Schoor, Nathalie van der Velde, Diana van Heemst, Floor V A van Oort, Sita H Vermeulen, Niek Verweij, Judith M Vonk, Lindsay L Waite, Melanie Waldenberger, Roman Wennauer, Lynne R Wilkens, Christina Willenborg, Tom Wilsgaard, Mary K Wojczynski, Andrew Wong, Alan F Wright, Qunyuan Zhang, Dominique Arveiler, Stephan J L Bakker, John Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Reiner Biffar, John Blangero, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Paolo Brambilla, Morris J Brown, Harry Campbell, Mark J Caulfield, Aravinda Chakravarti, Rory Collins, Francis S Collins, Dana C Crawford, L Adrienne Cupples, John Danesh, Ulf de Faire, Hester M den Ruijter, Raimund Erbel, Jeanette Erdmann, Johan G Eriksson, Martin Farrall, Ele Ferrannini, Jean Ferrières, Ian Ford, Nita G Forouhi, Terrence Forrester, Ron T Gansevoort, Pablo V Gejman, Christian Gieger, Alain Golay, Omri Gottesman, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, David W Haas, Alistair S Hall, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Lucia A Hindorff, Aroon D Hingorani, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Elina Hyppönen, Kevin B Jacobs, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti M Jula, Jaakko Kaprio, John J P Kastelein, Manfred Kayser, Frank Kee, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Jaspal S Kooner, Charles Kooperberg, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Aldi T Kraja, Meena Kumari, Johanna Kuusisto, Timo A Lakka, Claudia Langenberg, Loic Le Marchand, Terho Lehtimäki, Sara Lupoli, Pamela A F Madden, Satu Mannisto, Paolo Manunta, André Marette, Tara C Matise, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Frans L Moll, Grant W Montgomery, Andrew D Morris, Andrew P Morris, Jeffrey C Murray, Mari Nelis, Claes Ohlsson, Albertine J Oldehinkel, Ken K Ong, Willem H Ouwehand, Gerard Pasterkamp, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Tuomo Rankinen, D C Rao, Treva K Rice, Marylyn Ritchie, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Mark A Sarzynski, Peter E H Schwarz, Sylvain Sebert, Peter Sever, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Ronald P Stolk, Jean-Claude Tardif, Anke Tönjes, Angelo Tremblay, Elena Tremoli, Jarmo Virtamo, Marie-Claude Vohl, , Philippe Amouyel, Folkert W Asselbergs, Themistocles L Assimes, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Eric Boerwinkle, Erwin P Bottinger, Claude Bouchard, Stéphane Cauchi, John C Chambers, Stephen J Chanock, Richard S Cooper, Paul I W de Bakker, George Dedoussis, Luigi Ferrucci, Paul W Franks, Philippe Froguel, Leif C Groop, Christopher A Haiman, Anders Hamsten, M Geoffrey Hayes, Jennie Hui, David J Hunter, Kristian Hveem, J Wouter Jukema, Robert C Kaplan, Mika Kivimäki, Diana Kuh, Markku Laakso, Yongmei Liu, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mads Melbye, Susanne Moebus, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Ben A Oostra, Colin N A Palmer, Nancy L Pedersen, Markus Perola, Louis Pérusse, Ulrike Peters, Joseph E Powell, Chris Power, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Eva Reinmaa, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Jerome I Rotter, Timo E Saaristo, Danish Saleheen, David Schlessinger, P Eline Slagboom, Harold Snieder, Tim D Spector, Konstantin Strauch, Michael Stumvoll, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Pim van der Harst, Henry Völzke, Mark Walker, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, H-Erich Wichmann, James F Wilson, Pieter Zanen, Panos Deloukas, Iris M Heid, Cecilia M Lindgren, Karen L Mohlke, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Inês Barroso, Caroline S Fox, Kari E North, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Sonja I Berndt, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Mark I McCarthy, Andres Metspalu, Kari Stefansson, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Lude Franke, Cristen J Willer, Alkes L Price, Guillaume Lettre, Ruth J F Loos, Michael N Weedon, Erik Ingelsson, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Daniel I Chasman, Michael E Goddard, Peter M Visscher, Joel N Hirschhorn, Timothy M Frayling.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Using genome-wide data from 253,288 individuals, we identified 697 variants at genome-wide significance that together explained one-fifth of the heritability for adult height. By testing different numbers of variants in independent studies, we show that the most strongly associated ?2,000, ?3,700 and ?9,500 SNPs explained ?21%, ?24% and ?29% of phenotypic variance. Furthermore, all common variants together captured 60% of heritability. The 697 variants clustered in 423 loci were enriched for genes, pathways and tissue types known to be involved in growth and together implicated genes and pathways not highlighted in earlier efforts, such as signaling by fibroblast growth factors, WNT/?-catenin and chondroitin sulfate-related genes. We identified several genes and pathways not previously connected with human skeletal growth, including mTOR, osteoglycin and binding of hyaluronic acid. Our results indicate a genetic architecture for human height that is characterized by a very large but finite number (thousands) of causal variants.
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Novel approach identifies SNPs in SLC2A10 and KCNK9 with evidence for parent-of-origin effect on body mass index.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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The phenotypic effect of some single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) depends on their parental origin. We present a novel approach to detect parent-of-origin effects (POEs) in genome-wide genotype data of unrelated individuals. The method exploits increased phenotypic variance in the heterozygous genotype group relative to the homozygous groups. We applied the method to >56,000 unrelated individuals to search for POEs influencing body mass index (BMI). Six lead SNPs were carried forward for replication in five family-based studies (of ?4,000 trios). Two SNPs replicated: the paternal rs2471083-C allele (located near the imprinted KCNK9 gene) and the paternal rs3091869-T allele (located near the SLC2A10 gene) increased BMI equally (beta?=?0.11 (SD), P<0.0027) compared to the respective maternal alleles. Real-time PCR experiments of lymphoblastoid cell lines from the CEPH families showed that expression of both genes was dependent on parental origin of the SNPs alleles (P<0.01). Our scheme opens new opportunities to exploit GWAS data of unrelated individuals to identify POEs and demonstrates that they play an important role in adult obesity.
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16p11.2 600 kb Duplications confer risk for typical and atypical Rolandic epilepsy.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Rolandic epilepsy (RE) is the most common idiopathic focal childhood epilepsy. Its molecular basis is largely unknown and a complex genetic etiology is assumed in the majority of affected individuals. The present study tested whether six large recurrent copy number variants at 1q21, 15q11.2, 15q13.3, 16p11.2, 16p13.11 and 22q11.2 previously associated with neurodevelopmental disorders also increase risk of RE. Our association analyses revealed a significant excess of the 600 kb genomic duplication at the 16p11.2 locus (chr16: 29.5-30.1 Mb) in 393 unrelated patients with typical (n = 339) and atypical (ARE; n = 54) RE compared with the prevalence in 65 046 European population controls (5/393 cases versus 32/65 046 controls; Fisher's exact test P = 2.83 × 10(-6), odds ratio = 26.2, 95% confidence interval: 7.9-68.2). In contrast, the 16p11.2 duplication was not detected in 1738 European epilepsy patients with either temporal lobe epilepsy (n = 330) and genetic generalized epilepsies (n = 1408), suggesting a selective enrichment of the 16p11.2 duplication in idiopathic focal childhood epilepsies (Fisher's exact test P = 2.1 × 10(-4)). In a subsequent screen among children carrying the 16p11.2 600 kb rearrangement we identified three patients with RE-spectrum epilepsies in 117 duplication carriers (2.6%) but none in 202 carriers of the reciprocal deletion. Our results suggest that the 16p11.2 duplication represents a significant genetic risk factor for typical and atypical RE.
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MMP13 mutations are the cause of recessive metaphyseal dysplasia, Spahr type.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Metaphyseal dysplasia, Spahr type (MDST; OMIM 250400) was described in 1961 based on the observation of four children in one family who had rickets-like metaphyseal changes but normal blood chemistry and moderate short stature. Its molecular basis and nosologic status remained unknown. We followed up on those individuals and diagnosed the disorder in an additional member of the family. We used exome sequencing to ascertain the underlying mutation and explored its consequences on three-dimensional models of the affected protein. The MDST phenotype is associated with moderate short stature and knee pain in adults, while extra-skeletal complications are not observed. The sequencing showed that MDST segregated with a c.619T>G single nucleotide transversion in MMP13. The predicted non-conservative amino acid substitution, p.Trp207Gly, disrupts a crucial hydrogen bond in the calcium-binding region of the catalytic domain of the matrix metalloproteinase, MMP13. The MDST phenotype is associated with recessive MMP13 mutations, confirming the importance of this metalloproteinase in the metaphyseal growth plate. Dominant MMP13 mutations have been associated with metaphyseal anadysplasia (OMIM 602111), while a single child homozygous for a MMP13 mutation had been previously diagnosed as "recessive metaphyseal anadysplasia," that we conclude is the same nosologic entity as MDST. Molecular confirmation of MDST allows distinction of it from dominant conditions (e.g., metaphyseal dysplasia, Schmid type; OMIM # 156500) and from more severe multi-system conditions (such as cartilage-hair hypoplasia; OMIM # 250250) and to give precise recurrence risks and prognosis.
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A higher mutational burden in females supports a "female protective model" in neurodevelopmental disorders.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Increased male prevalence has been repeatedly reported in several neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs), leading to the concept of a "female protective model." We investigated the molecular basis of this sex-based difference in liability and demonstrated an excess of deleterious autosomal copy-number variants (CNVs) in females compared to males (odds ratio [OR] = 1.46, p = 8 × 10(-10)) in a cohort of 15,585 probands ascertained for NDs. In an independent autism spectrum disorder (ASD) cohort of 762 families, we found a 3-fold increase in deleterious autosomal CNVs (p = 7 × 10(-4)) and an excess of private deleterious single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in female compared to male probands (OR = 1.34, p = 0.03). We also showed that the deleteriousness of autosomal SNVs was significantly higher in female probands (p = 0.0006). A similar bias was observed in parents of probands ascertained for NDs. Deleterious CNVs (>400 kb) were maternally inherited more often (up to 64%, p = 10(-15)) than small CNVs < 400 kb (OR = 1.45, p = 0.0003). In the ASD cohort, increased maternal transmission was also observed for deleterious CNVs and SNVs. Although ASD females showed higher mutational burden and lower cognition, the excess mutational burden remained, even after adjustment for those cognitive differences. These results strongly suggest that females have an increased etiological burden unlinked to rare deleterious variants on the X chromosome. Carefully phenotyped and genotyped cohorts will be required for identifying the symptoms, which show gender-specific liability to mutational burden.
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Genome-wide association study of metabolic traits reveals novel gene-metabolite-disease links.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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Metabolic traits are molecular phenotypes that can drive clinical phenotypes and may predict disease progression. Here, we report results from a metabolome- and genome-wide association study on (1)H-NMR urine metabolic profiles. The study was conducted within an untargeted approach, employing a novel method for compound identification. From our discovery cohort of 835 Caucasian individuals who participated in the CoLaus study, we identified 139 suggestively significant (P<5×10(-8)) and independent associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and metabolome features. Fifty-six of these associations replicated in the TasteSensomics cohort, comprising 601 individuals from São Paulo of vastly diverse ethnic background. They correspond to eleven gene-metabolite associations, six of which had been previously identified in the urine metabolome and three in the serum metabolome. Our key novel findings are the associations of two SNPs with NMR spectral signatures pointing to fucose (rs492602, P?=?6.9×10(-44)) and lysine (rs8101881, P?=?1.2×10(-33)), respectively. Fine-mapping of the first locus pinpointed the FUT2 gene, which encodes a fucosyltransferase enzyme and has previously been associated with Crohn's disease. This implicates fucose as a potential prognostic disease marker, for which there is already published evidence from a mouse model. The second SNP lies within the SLC7A9 gene, rare mutations of which have been linked to severe kidney damage. The replication of previous associations and our new discoveries demonstrate the potential of untargeted metabolomics GWAS to robustly identify molecular disease markers.
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Investigation of memory, executive functions, and anatomic correlates in asymptomatic FMR1 premutation carriers.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a late-onset movement disorder associated with FMR1 premutation alleles. Asymptomatic premutation (aPM) carriers have preserved cognitive functions, but they present subtle executive deficits. Current efforts are focusing on the identification of specific cognitive markers that can detect aPM carriers at higher risk of developing FXTAS. This study aims at evaluating verbal memory and executive functions as early markers of disease progression while exploring associated brain structure changes using diffusion tensor imaging. We assessed 30 aPM men and 38 intrafamilial controls. The groups perform similarly in the executive domain except for decreased performance in motor planning in aPM carriers. In the memory domain, aPM carriers present a significant decrease in verbal encoding and retrieval. Retrieval is associated with microstructural changes of the white matter (WM) of the left hippocampal fimbria. Encoding is associated with changes in the WM under the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, a region implicated in relational memory encoding. These associations were found in the aPM group only and did not show age-related decline. This may be interpreted as a neurodevelopmental effect of the premutation, and longitudinal studies are required to better understand these mechanisms.
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Whole genome sequencing in patients with retinitis pigmentosa reveals pathogenic DNA structural changes and NEK2 as a new disease gene.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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We performed whole genome sequencing in 16 unrelated patients with autosomal recessive retinitis pigmentosa (ARRP), a disease characterized by progressive retinal degeneration and caused by mutations in over 50 genes, in search of pathogenic DNA variants. Eight patients were from North America, whereas eight were Japanese, a population for which ARRP seems to have different genetic drivers. Using a specific workflow, we assessed both the coding and noncoding regions of the human genome, including the evaluation of highly polymorphic SNPs, structural and copy number variations, as well as 69 control genomes sequenced by the same procedures. We detected homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in 7 genes associated with ARRP (USH2A, RDH12, CNGB1, EYS, PDE6B, DFNB31, and CERKL) in eight patients, three Japanese and five Americans. Fourteen of the 16 mutant alleles identified were previously unknown. Among these, there was a 2.3-kb deletion in USH2A and an inverted duplication of ~446 kb in EYS, which would have likely escaped conventional screening techniques or exome sequencing. Moreover, in another Japanese patient, we identified a homozygous frameshift (p.L206fs), absent in more than 2,500 chromosomes from ethnically matched controls, in the ciliary gene NEK2, encoding a serine/threonine-protein kinase. Inactivation of this gene in zebrafish induced retinal photoreceptor defects that were rescued by human NEK2 mRNA. In addition to identifying a previously undescribed ARRP gene, our study highlights the importance of rare structural DNA variations in Mendelian diseases and advocates the need for screening approaches that transcend the analysis of the coding sequences of the human genome.
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Discovery and refinement of loci associated with lipid levels.
, Cristen J Willer, Ellen M Schmidt, Sebanti Sengupta, Gina M Peloso, Stefan Gustafsson, Stavroula Kanoni, Andrea Ganna, Jin Chen, Martin L Buchkovich, Samia Mora, Jacques S Beckmann, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Hsing-Yi Chang, Ayse Demirkan, Heleen M den Hertog, Ron Do, Louise A Donnelly, Georg B Ehret, Tonu Esko, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Ross M Fraser, Daniel F Freitag, Deepti Gurdasani, Kauko Heikkilä, Elina Hyppönen, Aaron Isaacs, Anne U Jackson, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Johannes Kettunen, Marcus E Kleber, Xiaohui Li, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Massimo Mangino, Evelin Mihailov, May E Montasser, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Cameron D Palmer, Markus Perola, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Serena Sanna, Richa Saxena, Susan K Service, Sonia Shah, Dmitry Shungin, Carlo Sidore, Ci Song, Rona J Strawbridge, Ida Surakka, Toshiko Tanaka, Tanya M Teslovich, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Evita G van den Herik, Benjamin F Voight, Kelly A Volcik, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew Wong, Ying Wu, Weihua Zhang, Devin Absher, Gershim Asiki, Inês Barroso, Latonya F Been, Jennifer L Bolton, Lori L Bonnycastle, Paolo Brambilla, Mary S Burnett, Giancarlo Cesana, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Stephen E Epstein, Gudmundur Ingi Eyjolfsson, Bruna Gigante, Mark O Goodarzi, Harald Grallert, Martha L Gravito, Christopher J Groves, Göran Hallmans, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Dena Hernandez, Andrew A Hicks, Hilma Holm, Yi-Jen Hung, Thomas Illig, Michelle R Jones, Pontiano Kaleebu, John J P Kastelein, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric Kim, Norman Klopp, Pirjo Komulainen, Meena Kumari, Claudia Langenberg, Terho Lehtimäki, Shih-Yi Lin, Jaana Lindström, Ruth J F Loos, François Mach, Wendy L McArdle, Christa Meisinger, Braxton D Mitchell, Gabrielle Müller, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Narisu Narisu, Tuomo V M Nieminen, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Isleifur Olafsson, Ken K Ong, Aarno Palotie, Theodore Papamarkou, Cristina Pomilla, Anneli Pouta, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Nilesh Samani, Hubert Scharnagl, Janet Seeley, Kaisa Silander, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Amy J Swift, Laurence Tiret, André G Uitterlinden, L Joost van Pelt, Sailaja Vedantam, Nicholas Wainwright, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Elizabeth H Young, Jing Hua Zhao, Linda S Adair, Dominique Arveiler, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Franklyn Bennett, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Michel Burnier, Harry Campbell, Aravinda Chakravarti, John C Chambers, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Francis S Collins, Richard S Cooper, John Danesh, George Dedoussis, Ulf de Faire, Alan B Feranil, Jean Ferrières, Luigi Ferrucci, Nelson B Freimer, Christian Gieger, Leif C Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Tamara B Harris, Aroon Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Kristian Hveem, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter J Koudstaal, Ronald M Krauss, Diana Kuh, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten O Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo A Lakka, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mark I McCarthy, Colin A McKenzie, Pierre Meneton, Andres Metspalu, Leena Moilanen, Andrew D Morris, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Nancy L Pedersen, Chris Power, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Danish Saleheen, Veikko Salomaa, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, Peter E H Schwarz, Wayne H-H Sheu, Alan R Shuldiner, Agneta Siegbahn, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, David P Strachan, Bamidele O Tayo, Elena Tremoli, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter Vollenweider, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas J Wareham, John B Whitfield, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, José M Ordovás, Eric Boerwinkle, Colin N A Palmer, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel I Chasman, Jerome I Rotter, Paul W Franks, Samuli Ripatti, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Stephen S Rich, Michael Boehnke, Panos Deloukas, Sekar Kathiresan, Karen L Mohlke, Erik Ingelsson, Gonçalo R Abecasis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Levels of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, triglycerides and total cholesterol are heritable, modifiable risk factors for coronary artery disease. To identify new loci and refine known loci influencing these lipids, we examined 188,577 individuals using genome-wide and custom genotyping arrays. We identify and annotate 157 loci associated with lipid levels at P < 5 × 10(-8), including 62 loci not previously associated with lipid levels in humans. Using dense genotyping in individuals of European, East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry, we narrow association signals in 12 loci. We find that loci associated with blood lipid levels are often associated with cardiovascular and metabolic traits, including coronary artery disease, type 2 diabetes, blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index. Our results demonstrate the value of using genetic data from individuals of diverse ancestry and provide insights into the biological mechanisms regulating blood lipids to guide future genetic, biological and therapeutic research.
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Target sequencing, cell experiments, and a population study establish endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene as hypertension susceptibility gene.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
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A case-control study revealed association between hypertension and rs3918226 in the endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) gene promoter (minor/major allele, T/C allele). We aimed at substantiating these preliminary findings by target sequencing, cell experiments, and a population study. We sequenced the 140-kb genomic area encompassing the eNOS gene. In HeLa and HEK293T cells transfected with the eNOS promoter carrying either the T or the C allele, we quantified transcription by luciferase assay. In 2722 randomly recruited Europeans (53.0% women; mean age 40.1 years), we studied blood pressure change and incidence of hypertension in relation to rs3918226, using multivariable-adjusted models. Sequencing confirmed rs3918226, a binding site of E-twenty six transcription factors, as the single nucleotide polymorphism most closely associated with hypertension. In T compared with C transfected cells, eNOS promoter activity was from 20% to 40% (P<0.01) lower. In the population, systolic/diastolic blood pressure increased over 7.6 years (median) by 9.7/6.8 mm?Hg in 28 TT homozygotes and by 3.8/1.9 mm?Hg in 2694 C allele carriers (P?0.0004). The blood pressure rise was 5.9 mm?Hg systolic (confidence interval [CI], 0.6-11.1; P=0.028) and 4.8 mm?Hg diastolic (CI, 1.5-8.2; P=0.0046) greater in TT homozygotes, with no differences between the CT and CC genotypes (P?0.90). Among 2013 participants normotensive at baseline, 692 (34.4%) developed hypertension. The hazard ratio and attributable risk associated with TT homozygosity were 2.04 (CI, 1.24-3.37; P=0.0054) and 51.0%, respectively. In conclusion, rs3918226 in the eNOS promoter tags a hypertension susceptibility locus, TT homozygosity being associated with lesser transcription and higher risk of hypertension.
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GWAS of human bitter taste perception identifies new loci and reveals additional complexity of bitter taste genetics.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Human perception of bitterness displays pronounced interindividual variation. This phenotypic variation is mirrored by equally pronounced genetic variation in the family of bitter taste receptor genes. To better understand the effects of common genetic variations on human bitter taste perception, we conducted a genome-wide association study on a discovery panel of 504 subjects and a validation panel of 104 subjects from the general population of São Paulo in Brazil. Correction for general taste-sensitivity allowed us to identify a SNP in the cluster of bitter taste receptors on chr12 (10.88- 11.24 Mb, build 36.1) significantly associated (best SNP: rs2708377, P = 5.31 × 10(-13), r(2) = 8.9%, ? = -0.12, s.e. = 0.016) with the perceived bitterness of caffeine. This association overlaps with-but is statistically distinct from-the previously identified SNP rs10772420 influencing the perception of quinine bitterness that falls in the same bitter taste cluster. We replicated this association to quinine perception (P = 4.97 × 10(-37), r(2) = 23.2%, ? = 0.25, s.e. = 0.020) and additionally found the effect of this genetic locus to be concentration specific with a strong impact on the perception of low, but no impact on the perception of high concentrations of quinine. Our study, thus, furthers our understanding of the complex genetic architecture of bitter taste perception.
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Influence of CRTC1 polymorphisms on body mass index and fat mass in psychiatric patients and the general adult population.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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There is a high prevalence of obesity in psychiatric patients, possibly leading to metabolic complications and reducing life expectancy. The CREB-regulated transcription coactivator 1 (CRTC1) gene is involved in energy balance and obesity in animal models, but its role in human obesity is unknown.
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SCRIB and PUF60 are primary drivers of the multisystemic phenotypes of the 8q24.3 copy-number variant.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Copy-number variants (CNVs) represent a significant interpretative challenge, given that each CNV typically affects the dosage of multiple genes. Here we report on five individuals with coloboma, microcephaly, developmental delay, short stature, and craniofacial, cardiac, and renal defects who harbor overlapping microdeletions on 8q24.3. Fine mapping localized a commonly deleted 78 kb region that contains three genes: SCRIB, NRBP2, and PUF60. In vivo dissection of the CNV showed discrete contributions of the planar cell polarity effector SCRIB and the splicing factor PUF60 to the syndromic phenotype, and the combinatorial suppression of both genes exacerbated some, but not all, phenotypic components. Consistent with these findings, we identified an individual with microcephaly, short stature, intellectual disability, and heart defects with a de novo c.505C>T variant leading to a p.His169Tyr change in PUF60. Functional testing of this allele in vivo and in vitro showed that the mutation perturbs the relative dosage of two PUF60 isoforms and, subsequently, the splicing efficiency of downstream PUF60 targets. These data inform the functions of two genes not associated previously with human genetic disease and demonstrate how CNVs can exhibit complex genetic architecture, with the phenotype being the amalgam of both discrete dosage dysfunction of single transcripts and also of binary genetic interactions.
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Sex-stratified genome-wide association studies including 270,000 individuals show sexual dimorphism in genetic loci for anthropometric traits.
Joshua C Randall, Thomas W Winkler, Zoltan Kutalik, Sonja I Berndt, Anne U Jackson, Keri L Monda, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Tonu Esko, Reedik Mägi, Shengxu Li, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Mary F Feitosa, Damien C Croteau-Chonka, Felix R Day, Tove Fall, Teresa Ferreira, Stefan Gustafsson, Adam E Locke, Iain Mathieson, André Scherag, Sailaja Vedantam, Andrew R Wood, Liming Liang, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Emmanouil T Dermitzakis, Antigone S Dimas, Fredrik Karpe, Josine L Min, George Nicholson, Deborah J Clegg, Thomas Person, Jon P Krohn, Sabrina Bauer, Christa Buechler, Kristina Eisinger, , Amélie Bonnefond, Philippe Froguel, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Inga Prokopenko, Lindsay L Waite, Tamara B Harris, Albert Vernon Smith, Alan R Shuldiner, Wendy L McArdle, Mark J Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe, Henrik Grönberg, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Guo Li, Jacques S Beckmann, Toby Johnson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Maris Teder-Laving, Kay-Tee Khaw, Nicholas J Wareham, Jing Hua Zhao, Najaf Amin, Ben A Oostra, Aldi T Kraja, Michael A Province, L Adrienne Cupples, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Jaakko Kaprio, Samuli Ripatti, Ida Surakka, Francis S Collins, Jouko Saramies, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Antti Jula, Veikko Salomaa, Jeanette Erdmann, Christian Hengstenberg, Christina Loley, Heribert Schunkert, Claudia Lamina, H Erich Wichmann, Eva Albrecht, Christian Gieger, Andrew A Hicks, Asa Johansson, Peter P Pramstaller, Sekar Kathiresan, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Brenda Penninx, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Ulf Gyllensten, Dorret I Boomsma, Harry Campbell, James F Wilson, Stephen J Chanock, Martin Farrall, Anuj Goel, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Fernando Rivadeneira, Karol Estrada, André G Uitterlinden, Albert Hofman, M Carola Zillikens, Martin den Heijer, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Andrea Maschio, Per Hall, Jonathan Tyrer, Alexander Teumer, Henry Völzke, Peter Kovacs, Anke Tönjes, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Caroline Hayward, Igor Rudan, Alistair S Hall, Nilesh J Samani, Antony Paul Attwood, Jennifer G Sambrook, Joseph Hung, Lyle J Palmer, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Juha Sinisalo, Gabrielle Boucher, Heikki Huikuri, Mattias Lorentzon, Claes Ohlsson, Niina Eklund, Johan G Eriksson, Cristina Barlassina, Carlo Rivolta, Ilja M Nolte, Harold Snieder, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jana V van Vliet-Ostaptchouk, Pablo V Gejman, Jianxin Shi, Kevin B Jacobs, Zhaoming Wang, Stephan J L Bakker, Irene Mateo Leach, Gerjan Navis, Pim van der Harst, Nicholas G Martin, Sarah E Medland, Grant W Montgomery, Jian Yang, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Lynda M Rose, Terho Lehtimäki, Olli Raitakari, Devin Absher, Carlos Iribarren, Hanneke Basart, Kees G Hovingh, Elina Hyppönen, Chris Power, Denise Anderson, John P Beilby, Jennie Hui, Jennifer Jolley, Hendrik Sager, Stefan R Bornstein, Peter E H Schwarz, Kati Kristiansson, Markus Perola, Jaana Lindström, Amy J Swift, Matti Uusitupa, Mustafa Atalay, Timo A Lakka, Rainer Rauramaa, Jennifer L Bolton, Gerry Fowkes, Ross M Fraser, Jackie F Price, Krista Fischer, Kaarel Krjutå Kov, Andres Metspalu, Evelin Mihailov, Claudia Langenberg, Jian'an Luan, Ken K Ong, Peter S Chines, Sirkka M Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Timo E Saaristo, Sarah Edkins, Paul W Franks, Göran Hallmans, Dmitry Shungin, Andrew David Morris, Colin N A Palmer, Raimund Erbel, Susanne Moebus, Markus M Nöthen, Sonali Pechlivanis, Kristian Hveem, Narisu Narisu, Anders Hamsten, Steve E Humphries, Rona J Strawbridge, Elena Tremoli, Harald Grallert, Barbara Thorand, Thomas Illig, Wolfgang Koenig, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Annette Peters, Bernhard O Boehm, Marcus E Kleber, Winfried März, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Dominique Arveiler, Giancarlo Cesana, Kari Kuulasmaa, Jarmo Virtamo, John W G Yarnell, Diana Kuh, Andrew Wong, Lars Lind, Ulf de Faire, Bruna Gigante, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nancy L Pedersen, George Dedoussis, Maria Dimitriou, Genovefa Kolovou, Stavroula Kanoni, Kathleen Stirrups, Lori L Bonnycastle, Inger Njølstad, Tom Wilsgaard, Andrea Ganna, Emil Rehnberg, Aroon Hingorani, Mika Kivimäki, Meena Kumari, Themistocles L Assimes, Inês Barroso, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S Fox, Timothy Frayling, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, David Hunter, Erik Ingelsson, Robert Kaplan, Karen L Mohlke, Jeffrey R O'Connell, David Schlessinger, David P Strachan, Kari Stefansson, Cornelia M van Duijn, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark I McCarthy, Joel N Hirschhorn, Lu Qi, Ruth J F Loos, Cecilia M Lindgren, Kari E North, Iris M Heid.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2013
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Given the anthropometric differences between men and women and previous evidence of sex-difference in genetic effects, we conducted a genome-wide search for sexually dimorphic associations with height, weight, body mass index, waist circumference, hip circumference, and waist-to-hip-ratio (133,723 individuals) and took forward 348 SNPs into follow-up (additional 137,052 individuals) in a total of 94 studies. Seven loci displayed significant sex-difference (FDR<5%), including four previously established (near GRB14/COBLL1, LYPLAL1/SLC30A10, VEGFA, ADAMTS9) and three novel anthropometric trait loci (near MAP3K1, HSD17B4, PPARG), all of which were genome-wide significant in women (P<5×10(-8)), but not in men. Sex-differences were apparent only for waist phenotypes, not for height, weight, BMI, or hip circumference. Moreover, we found no evidence for genetic effects with opposite directions in men versus women. The PPARG locus is of specific interest due to its role in diabetes genetics and therapy. Our results demonstrate the value of sex-specific GWAS to unravel the sexually dimorphic genetic underpinning of complex traits.
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Potocki-shaffer deletion encompassing ALX4 in a patient with frontonasal dysplasia phenotype.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Frontonasal dysplasia (FND) is a genetically heterogeneous malformation spectrum with marked hypertelorism, broad nasal tip and bifid nose. Only a small number of genes have been associated with FND phenotypes until now, the first gene being EFNB1, related to craniofrontonasal syndrome (CFNS) with craniosynostosis in addition, and more recently the aristaless-like homeobox genes ALX3, ALX4, and ALX1, which have been related with distinct phenotypes named FND1, FND2, and FND3 respectively. We here report on a female patient presenting with severe FND features along with partial alopecia, hypogonadism and intellectual disability. While molecular investigations did not reveal mutations in any of the known genes, ALX4, ALX3, ALX1 and EFNB1, comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) techniques showed a large heterozygous de novo deletion at 11p11.12p12, encompassing the ALX4 gene. Deletions in this region have been described in patients with Potocki-Shaffer syndrome (PSS), characterized by biparietal foramina, multiple exostoses, and intellectual disability. Although the patient reported herein manifests some overlapping features of FND and PPS, it is likely that the observed phenotype maybe due to a second unidentified mutation in the ALX4 gene. The phenotype will be discussed in view of the deleted region encompassing the ALX4 gene. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Identification of heart rate-associated loci and their effects on cardiac conduction and rhythm disorders.
Marcel den Hoed, Mark Eijgelsheim, Tonu Esko, Bianca J J M Brundel, David S Peal, David M Evans, Ilja M Nolte, Ayellet V Segrè, Hilma Holm, Robert E Handsaker, Harm-Jan Westra, Toby Johnson, Aaron Isaacs, Jian Yang, Alicia Lundby, Jing Hua Zhao, Young Jin Kim, Min Jin Go, Peter Almgren, Murielle Bochud, Gabrielle Boucher, Marilyn C Cornelis, Daniel Gudbjartsson, David Hadley, Pim van der Harst, Caroline Hayward, Martin den Heijer, Wilmar Igl, Anne U Jackson, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, John P Kemp, Kati Kristiansson, Claes Ladenvall, Mattias Lorentzon, May E Montasser, Omer T Njajou, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Beate St Pourcain, Tuomo Rankinen, Perttu Salo, Toshiko Tanaka, Nicholas J Timpson, Veronique Vitart, Lindsay Waite, William Wheeler, Weihua Zhang, Harmen H M Draisma, Mary F Feitosa, Kathleen F Kerr, Penelope A Lind, Evelin Mihailov, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Ci Song, Michael N Weedon, Weijia Xie, Loïc Yengo, Devin Absher, Christine M Albert, Alvaro Alonso, Dan E Arking, Paul I W de Bakker, Beverley Balkau, Cristina Barlassina, Paola Benaglio, Joshua C Bis, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Søren Brage, Stephen J Chanock, Peter S Chines, Mina Chung, Dawood Darbar, Christian Dina, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Stephan B Felix, Krista Fischer, Christian Fuchsberger, Eco J C de Geus, Philippe Goyette, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Susan R Heckbert, Andrew A Hicks, Albert Hofman, Suzanne Holewijn, Femke Hoogstra-Berends, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Majken K Jensen, Asa Johansson, Juhani Junttila, Stefan Kääb, Bart Kanon, Shamika Ketkar, Kay-Tee Khaw, Joshua W Knowles, Angrad S Kooner, Jan A Kors, Meena Kumari, Lili Milani, Päivi Laiho, Edward G Lakatta, Claudia Langenberg, Maarten Leusink, Yongmei Liu, Robert N Luben, Kathryn L Lunetta, Stacey N Lynch, Marcello R P Markus, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Irene Mateo Leach, Wendy L McArdle, Steven A McCarroll, Sarah E Medland, Kathryn A Miller, Grant W Montgomery, Alanna C Morrison, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Pau Navarro, Mari Nelis, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Christopher J O'Donnell, Ken K Ong, Anne B Newman, Annette Peters, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Dabeeru C Rao, Susan M Ring, Elizabeth J Rossin, Diana Rudan, Serena Sanna, Robert A Scott, Jaban S Sehmi, Stephen Sharp, Jordan T Shin, Andrew B Singleton, Albert V Smith, Nicole Soranzo, Tim D Spector, Chip Stewart, Heather M Stringham, Kirill V Tarasov, André G Uitterlinden, Liesbeth Vandenput, Shih-Jen Hwang, John B Whitfield, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Andrew Wong, Quenna Wong, Yalda Jamshidi, Paavo Zitting, Jolanda M A Boer, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Ulf Ekelund, Nita G Forouhi, Philippe Froguel, Aroon Hingorani, Erik Ingelsson, Mika Kivimäki, Richard A Kronmal, Diana Kuh, Lars Lind, Nicholas G Martin, Ben A Oostra, Nancy L Pedersen, Thomas Quertermous, Jerome I Rotter, Yvonne T van der Schouw, W M Monique Verschuren, Mark Walker, Demetrius Albanes, David O Arnar, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Michael Boehnke, Rudolf A de Boer, Claude Bouchard, W L Mark Caulfield, John C Chambers, Gary Curhan, Daniele Cusi, Johan Eriksson, Luigi Ferrucci, Wiek H van Gilst, Nicola Glorioso, Jacqueline de Graaf, Leif Groop, Ulf Gyllensten, Wen-Chi Hsueh, Frank B Hu, Heikki V Huikuri, David J Hunter, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Melanie M van der Klauw, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter Kraft, Licia Iacoviello, Terho Lehtimäki, Marja-Liisa L Lokki, Braxton D Mitchell, Gerjan Navis, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Neil R Poulter, Lu Qi, Olli T Raitakari, Eric B Rimm, John D Rioux, Federica Rizzi, Igor Rudan, Veikko Salomaa, Peter S Sever, Denis C Shields, Alan R Shuldiner, Juha Sinisalo, Alice V Stanton, Ronald P Stolk, David P Strachan, Jean-Claude Tardif, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Jaako Tuomilehto, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Jarmo Virtamo, Jorma Viikari, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Elisabeth Widén, Yoon Shin Cho, Jesper V Olsen, Peter M Visscher, Cristen Willer, Lude Franke, , Jeanette Erdmann, John R Thompson, Arne Pfeufer, Nona Sotoodehnia, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Patrick T Ellinor, Bruno H Ch Stricker, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Jacques S Beckmann, George Davey Smith, Kari Stefansson, Nicholas J Wareham, Patricia B Munroe, Ody C M Sibon, David J Milan, Harold Snieder, Nilesh J Samani, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Elevated resting heart rate is associated with greater risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. In a 2-stage meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in up to 181,171 individuals, we identified 14 new loci associated with heart rate and confirmed associations with all 7 previously established loci. Experimental downregulation of gene expression in Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio identified 20 genes at 11 loci that are relevant for heart rate regulation and highlight a role for genes involved in signal transmission, embryonic cardiac development and the pathophysiology of dilated cardiomyopathy, congenital heart failure and/or sudden cardiac death. In addition, genetic susceptibility to increased heart rate is associated with altered cardiac conduction and reduced risk of sick sinus syndrome, and both heart rate-increasing and heart rate-decreasing variants associate with risk of atrial fibrillation. Our findings provide fresh insights into the mechanisms regulating heart rate and identify new therapeutic targets.
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Novel FOXF1 mutations in sporadic and familial cases of alveolar capillary dysplasia with misaligned pulmonary veins imply a role for its DNA binding domain.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2013
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Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a rare and lethal developmental disorder of the lung defined by a constellation of characteristic histopathological features. Nonpulmonary anomalies involving organs of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and genitourinary systems have been identified in approximately 80% of patients with ACD/MPV. We have collected DNA and pathological samples from more than 90 infants with ACD/MPV and their family members. Since the publication of our initial report of four point mutations and 10 deletions, we have identified an additional 38 novel nonsynonymous mutations of FOXF1 (nine nonsense, seven frameshift, one inframe deletion, 20 missense, and one no stop). This report represents an up to date list of all known FOXF1 mutations to the best of our knowledge. Majority of the cases are sporadic. We report four familial cases of which three show maternal inheritance, consistent with paternal imprinting of the gene. Twenty five mutations (60%) are located within the putative DNA-binding domain, indicating its plausible role in FOXF1 function. Five mutations map to the second exon. We identified two additional genic and eight genomic deletions upstream to FOXF1. These results corroborate and extend our previous observations and further establish involvement of FOXF1 in ACD/MPV and lung organogenesis.
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Common variants associated with plasma triglycerides and risk for coronary artery disease.
Ron Do, Cristen J Willer, Ellen M Schmidt, Sebanti Sengupta, Chi Gao, Gina M Peloso, Stefan Gustafsson, Stavroula Kanoni, Andrea Ganna, Jin Chen, Martin L Buchkovich, Samia Mora, Jacques S Beckmann, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Hsing-Yi Chang, Ayse Demirkan, Heleen M den Hertog, Louise A Donnelly, Georg B Ehret, Tonu Esko, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Krista Fischer, Pierre Fontanillas, Ross M Fraser, Daniel F Freitag, Deepti Gurdasani, Kauko Heikkilä, Elina Hyppönen, Aaron Isaacs, Anne U Jackson, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Johannes Kettunen, Marcus E Kleber, Xiaohui Li, Jian'an Luan, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Patrik K E Magnusson, Massimo Mangino, Evelin Mihailov, May E Montasser, Martina Müller-Nurasyid, Ilja M Nolte, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Cameron D Palmer, Markus Perola, Ann-Kristin Petersen, Serena Sanna, Richa Saxena, Susan K Service, Sonia Shah, Dmitry Shungin, Carlo Sidore, Ci Song, Rona J Strawbridge, Ida Surakka, Toshiko Tanaka, Tanya M Teslovich, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Evita G van den Herik, Benjamin F Voight, Kelly A Volcik, Lindsay L Waite, Andrew Wong, Ying Wu, Weihua Zhang, Devin Absher, Gershim Asiki, Inês Barroso, Latonya F Been, Jennifer L Bolton, Lori L Bonnycastle, Paolo Brambilla, Mary S Burnett, Giancarlo Cesana, Maria Dimitriou, Alex S F Doney, Angela Döring, Paul Elliott, Stephen E Epstein, Gudmundur Ingi Eyjolfsson, Bruna Gigante, Mark O Goodarzi, Harald Grallert, Martha L Gravito, Christopher J Groves, Göran Hallmans, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Caroline Hayward, Dena Hernandez, Andrew A Hicks, Hilma Holm, Yi-Jen Hung, Thomas Illig, Michelle R Jones, Pontiano Kaleebu, John J P Kastelein, Kay-Tee Khaw, Eric Kim, Norman Klopp, Pirjo Komulainen, Meena Kumari, Claudia Langenberg, Terho Lehtimäki, Shih-Yi Lin, Jaana Lindström, Ruth J F Loos, François Mach, Wendy L McArdle, Christa Meisinger, Braxton D Mitchell, Gabrielle Müller, Ramaiah Nagaraja, Narisu Narisu, Tuomo V M Nieminen, Rebecca N Nsubuga, Isleifur Olafsson, Ken K Ong, Aarno Palotie, Theodore Papamarkou, Cristina Pomilla, Anneli Pouta, Daniel J Rader, Muredach P Reilly, Paul M Ridker, Fernando Rivadeneira, Igor Rudan, Aimo Ruokonen, Nilesh Samani, Hubert Scharnagl, Janet Seeley, Kaisa Silander, Alena Stančáková, Kathleen Stirrups, Amy J Swift, Laurence Tiret, André G Uitterlinden, L Joost van Pelt, Sailaja Vedantam, Nicholas Wainwright, Cisca Wijmenga, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Tom Wilsgaard, James F Wilson, Elizabeth H Young, Jing Hua Zhao, Linda S Adair, Dominique Arveiler, Themistocles L Assimes, Stefania Bandinelli, Franklyn Bennett, Murielle Bochud, Bernhard O Boehm, Dorret I Boomsma, Ingrid B Borecki, Stefan R Bornstein, Pascal Bovet, Michel Burnier, Harry Campbell, Aravinda Chakravarti, John C Chambers, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Francis S Collins, Richard S Cooper, John Danesh, George Dedoussis, Ulf de Faire, Alan B Feranil, Jean Ferrières, Luigi Ferrucci, Nelson B Freimer, Christian Gieger, Leif C Groop, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Tamara B Harris, Aroon Hingorani, Joel N Hirschhorn, Albert Hofman, G Kees Hovingh, Chao Agnes Hsiung, Steve E Humphries, Steven C Hunt, Kristian Hveem, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Antti Jula, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Antero Kesäniemi, Mika Kivimäki, Jaspal S Kooner, Peter J Koudstaal, Ronald M Krauss, Diana Kuh, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsten O Kyvik, Markku Laakso, Timo A Lakka, Lars Lind, Cecilia M Lindgren, Nicholas G Martin, Winfried März, Mark I McCarthy, Colin A McKenzie, Pierre Meneton, Andres Metspalu, Leena Moilanen, Andrew D Morris, Patricia B Munroe, Inger Njølstad, Nancy L Pedersen, Chris Power, Peter P Pramstaller, Jackie F Price, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Rainer Rauramaa, Danish Saleheen, Veikko Salomaa, Dharambir K Sanghera, Jouko Saramies, Peter E H Schwarz, Wayne H-H Sheu, Alan R Shuldiner, Agneta Siegbahn, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, David P Strachan, Bamidele O Tayo, Elena Tremoli, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Matti Uusitupa, Cornelia M van Duijn, Peter Vollenweider, Lars Wallentin, Nicholas J Wareham, John B Whitfield, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, David Altshuler, José M Ordovás, Eric Boerwinkle, Colin N A Palmer, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Daniel I Chasman, Jerome I Rotter, Paul W Franks, Samuli Ripatti, L Adrienne Cupples, Manjinder S Sandhu, Stephen S Rich, Michael Boehnke, Panos Deloukas, Karen L Mohlke, Erik Ingelsson, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark J Daly, Benjamin M Neale, Sekar Kathiresan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2013
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Triglycerides are transported in plasma by specific triglyceride-rich lipoproteins; in epidemiological studies, increased triglyceride levels correlate with higher risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). However, it is unclear whether this association reflects causal processes. We used 185 common variants recently mapped for plasma lipids (P < 5 × 10(-8) for each) to examine the role of triglycerides in risk for CAD. First, we highlight loci associated with both low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride levels, and we show that the direction and magnitude of the associations with both traits are factors in determining CAD risk. Second, we consider loci with only a strong association with triglycerides and show that these loci are also associated with CAD. Finally, in a model accounting for effects on LDL-C and/or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels, the strength of a polymorphisms effect on triglyceride levels is correlated with the magnitude of its effect on CAD risk. These results suggest that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins causally influence risk for CAD.
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Sh3tc2 deficiency affects neuregulin-1/ErbB signaling.
Glia
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2013
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Mutations in SH3TC2 trigger autosomal recessive demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth type 4C (CMT4C) neuropathy. Sh3tc2 is specifically expressed in Schwann cells and is necessary for proper myelination of peripheral axons. In line with the early onset of neuropathy observed in patients with CMT4C, our analyses of the murine model of CMT4C revealed that the myelinating properties of Sh3tc2-deficient Schwann cells are affected at an early stage. This early phenotype is associated with changes in the canonical Nrg1/ErbB pathway involved in control of myelination. We demonstrated that Sh3tc2 interacts with ErbB2 and plays a role in the regulation of ErbB2 intracellular trafficking from the plasma membrane upon Nrg1 activation. Interestingly, both the loss of Sh3tc2 function in mice and the pathological mutations present in CMT4C patients affect ErbB2 internalization, potentially altering its downstream intracellular signaling pathways. Altogether, our results indicate that the molecular mechanism for the axonal size sensing is disturbed in Sh3tc2-deficient myelinating Schwann cells, thus providing a novel insight into the pathophysiology of CMT4C neuropathy.
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Rare genomic structural variants in complex disease: lessons from the replication of associations with obesity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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The limited ability of common variants to account for the genetic contribution to complex disease has prompted searches for rare variants of large effect, to partly explain the missing heritability. Analyses of genome-wide genotyping data have identified genomic structural variants (GSVs) as a source of such rare causal variants. Recent studies have reported multiple GSV loci associated with risk of obesity. We attempted to replicate these associations by similar analysis of two familial-obesity case-control cohorts and a population cohort, and detected GSVs at 11 out of 18 loci, at frequencies similar to those previously reported. Based on their reported frequencies and effect sizes (OR?25), we had sufficient statistical power to detect the large majority (80%) of genuine associations at these loci. However, only one obesity association was replicated. Deletion of a 220 kb region on chromosome 16p11.2 has a carrier population frequency of 2×10(-4) (95% confidence interval [9.6×10(-5)-3.1×10(-4)]); accounts overall for 0.5% [0.19%-0.82%] of severe childhood obesity cases (P = 3.8×10(-10); odds ratio = 25.0 [9.9-60.6]); and results in a mean body mass index (BMI) increase of 5.8 kg.m(-2) [1.8-10.3] in adults from the general population. We also attempted replication using BMI as a quantitative trait in our population cohort; associations with BMI at or near nominal significance were detected at two further loci near KIF2B and within FOXP2, but these did not survive correction for multiple testing. These findings emphasise several issues of importance when conducting rare GSV association, including the need for careful cohort selection and replication strategy, accurate GSV identification, and appropriate correction for multiple testing and/or control of false discovery rate. Moreover, they highlight the potential difficulty in replicating rare CNV associations across different populations. Nevertheless, we show that such studies are potentially valuable for the identification of variants making an appreciable contribution to complex disease.
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The Growing Importance of CNVs: New Insights for Detection and Clinical Interpretation.
Front Genet
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Differences between genomes can be due to single nucleotide variants, translocations, inversions, and copy number variants (CNVs, gain or loss of DNA). The latter can range from sub-microscopic events to complete chromosomal aneuploidies. Small CNVs are often benign but those larger than 500?kb are strongly associated with morbid consequences such as developmental disorders and cancer. Detecting CNVs within and between populations is essential to better understand the plasticity of our genome and to elucidate its possible contribution to disease. Hence there is a need for better-tailored and more robust tools for the detection and genome-wide analyses of CNVs. While a link between a given CNV and a disease may have often been established, the relative CNV contribution to disease progression and impact on drug response is not necessarily understood. In this review we discuss the progress, challenges, and limitations that occur at different stages of CNV analysis from the detection (using DNA microarrays and next-generation sequencing) and identification of recurrent CNVs to the association with phenotypes. We emphasize the importance of germline CNVs and propose strategies to aid clinicians to better interpret structural variations and assess their clinical implications.
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Genomewide association study using a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism array and case-control design identifies a novel essential hypertension susceptibility locus in the promoter region of endothelial NO synthase.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2011
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Essential hypertension is a multifactorial disorder and is the main risk factor for renal and cardiovascular complications. The research on the genetics of hypertension has been frustrated by the small predictive value of the discovered genetic variants. The HYPERGENES Project investigated associations between genetic variants and essential hypertension pursuing a 2-stage study by recruiting cases and controls from extensively characterized cohorts recruited over many years in different European regions. The discovery phase consisted of 1865 cases and 1750 controls genotyped with 1M Illumina array. Best hits were followed up in a validation panel of 1385 cases and 1246 controls that were genotyped with a custom array of 14 055 markers. We identified a new hypertension susceptibility locus (rs3918226) in the promoter region of the endothelial NO synthase gene (odds ratio: 1.54 [95% CI: 1.37-1.73]; combined P=2.58 · 10(-13)). A meta-analysis, using other in silico/de novo genotyping data for a total of 21 714 subjects, resulted in an overall odds ratio of 1.34 (95% CI: 1.25-1.44; P=1.032 · 10(-14)). The quantitative analysis on a population-based sample revealed an effect size of 1.91 (95% CI: 0.16-3.66) for systolic and 1.40 (95% CI: 0.25-2.55) for diastolic blood pressure. We identified in silico a potential binding site for ETS transcription factors directly next to rs3918226, suggesting a potential modulation of endothelial NO synthase expression. Biological evidence links endothelial NO synthase with hypertension, because it is a critical mediator of cardiovascular homeostasis and blood pressure control via vascular tone regulation. This finding supports the hypothesis that there may be a causal genetic variation at this locus.
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Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk.
, Georg B Ehret, Patricia B Munroe, Kenneth M Rice, Murielle Bochud, Andrew D Johnson, Daniel I Chasman, Albert V Smith, Martin D Tobin, Germaine C Verwoert, Shih-Jen Hwang, Vasyl Pihur, Peter Vollenweider, Paul F O'Reilly, Najaf Amin, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Alexander Teumer, Nicole L Glazer, Lenore Launer, Jing Hua Zhao, Yurii Aulchenko, Simon Heath, Siim Sõber, Afshin Parsa, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Abbas Dehghan, Feng Zhang, Gavin Lucas, Andrew A Hicks, Anne U Jackson, John F Peden, Toshiko Tanaka, Sarah H Wild, Igor Rudan, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Alex N Parker, Cristiano Fava, John C Chambers, Ervin R Fox, Meena Kumari, Min Jin Go, Pim van der Harst, Wen Hong Linda Kao, Marketa Sjögren, D G Vinay, Myriam Alexander, Yasuharu Tabara, Sue Shaw-Hawkins, Peter H Whincup, Yongmei Liu, Gang Shi, Johanna Kuusisto, Bamidele Tayo, Mark Seielstad, Xueling Sim, Khanh-Dung Hoang Nguyen, Terho Lehtimäki, Giuseppe Matullo, Ying Wu, Tom R Gaunt, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Matthew N Cooper, Carl G P Platou, Elin Org, Rebecca Hardy, Santosh Dahgam, Jutta Palmen, Veronique Vitart, Peter S Braund, Tatiana Kuznetsova, Cuno S P M Uiterwaal, Adebowale Adeyemo, Walter Palmas, Harry Campbell, Barbara Ludwig, Maciej Tomaszewski, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Nicholette D Palmer, Thor Aspelund, Melissa Garcia, Yen-Pei C Chang, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Nanette I Steinle, Diederick E Grobbee, Dan E Arking, Sharon L Kardia, Alanna C Morrison, Dena Hernandez, Samer Najjar, Wendy L McArdle, David Hadley, Morris J Brown, John M Connell, Aroon D Hingorani, Ian N M Day, Debbie A Lawlor, John P Beilby, Robert W Lawrence, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Albert W Dreisbach, Yali Li, J Hunter Young, Joshua C Bis, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Linda S Adair, Nanette R Lee, Ming-Huei Chen, Matthias Olden, Cristian Pattaro, Judith A Hoffman Bolton, Anna Köttgen, Sven Bergmann, Vincent Mooser, Nish Chaturvedi, Timothy M Frayling, Muhammad Islam, Tazeen H Jafar, Jeanette Erdmann, Smita R Kulkarni, Stefan R Bornstein, Jürgen Gräßler, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Johannes Kettunen, Philip Howard, Andrew Taylor, Simonetta Guarrera, Fulvio Ricceri, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Alan B Weder, Steven C Hunt, Yan V Sun, Richard N Bergman, Francis S Collins, Lori L Bonnycastle, Laura J Scott, Heather M Stringham, Leena Peltonen, Markus Perola, Erkki Vartiainen, Stefan-Martin Brand, Jan A Staessen, Thomas J Wang, Paul R Burton, María Soler Artigas, Yanbin Dong, Harold Snieder, Xiaoling Wang, Haidong Zhu, Kurt K Lohman, Megan E Rudock, Susan R Heckbert, Nicholas L Smith, Kerri L Wiggins, Ayo Doumatey, Daniel Shriner, Gudrun Veldre, Margus Viigimaa, Sanjay Kinra, Dorairaj Prabhakaran, Vikal Tripathy, Carl D Langefeld, Annika Rosengren, Dag S Thelle, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Terrence Forrester, Gina Hilton, Colin A McKenzie, Tunde Salako, Naoharu Iwai, Yoshikuni Kita, Toshio Ogihara, Takayoshi Ohkubo, Tomonori Okamura, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Satoshi Umemura, Susana Eyheramendy, Thomas Meitinger, H-Erich Wichmann, Yoon Shin Cho, Hyung-Lae Kim, Jong-Young Lee, James Scott, Joban S Sehmi, Weihua Zhang, Bo Hedblad, Peter Nilsson, George Davey Smith, Andrew Wong, Narisu Narisu, Alena Stančáková, Leslie J Raffel, Jie Yao, Sekar Kathiresan, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, M Arfan Ikram, W T Longstreth, Thomas H Mosley, Sudha Seshadri, Nick R G Shrine, Louise V Wain, Mario A Morken, Amy J Swift, Jaana Laitinen, Inga Prokopenko, Paavo Zitting, Jackie A Cooper, Steve E Humphries, John Danesh, Asif Rasheed, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Hugh Watkins, Stephan J L Bakker, Wiek H van Gilst, Charles S Janipalli, K Radha Mani, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Albert Hofman, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Ben A Oostra, Ayse Demirkan, Aaron Isaacs, Fernando Rivadeneira, Edward G Lakatta, Marco Orrù, Angelo Scuteri, Mika Ala-Korpela, Antti J Kangas, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Pasi Soininen, Taru Tukiainen, Peter Würtz, Rick Twee-Hee Ong, Marcus Dörr, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Massimo Mangino, Tim D Spector, Guangju Zhai, James F Meschia, Michael A Nalls, Pankaj Sharma, Janos Terzic, M V Kranthi Kumar, Matthew Denniff, Ewa Zukowska-Szczechowska, Lynne E Wagenknecht, F Gerald R Fowkes, Fadi J Charchar, Peter E H Schwarz, Caroline Hayward, Xiuqing Guo, Charles Rotimi, Michiel L Bots, Eva Brand, Nilesh J Samani, Ozren Polašek, Philippa J Talmud, Fredrik Nyberg, Diana Kuh, Maris Laan, Kristian Hveem, Lyle J Palmer, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Juan P Casas, Karen L Mohlke, Paolo Vineis, Olli Raitakari, Santhi K Ganesh, Tien Y Wong, E Shyong Tai, Richard S Cooper, Markku Laakso, Dabeeru C Rao, Tamara B Harris, Richard W Morris, Anna F Dominiczak, Mika Kivimäki, Michael G Marmot, Tetsuro Miki, Danish Saleheen, Giriraj R Chandak, Josef Coresh, Gerjan Navis, Veikko Salomaa, Bok-Ghee Han, Xiaofeng Zhu, Jaspal S Kooner, Olle Melander, Paul M Ridker, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, Alan F Wright, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Martin Farrall, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Peter P Pramstaller, Roberto Elosua, Nicole Soranzo, Eric J G Sijbrands, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Alan R Shuldiner, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, André G Uitterlinden, Nicholas J Wareham, Vilmundur Gudnason, Jerome I Rotter, Rainer Rettig, Manuela Uda, David P Strachan, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Jacques S Beckmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Ramachandran S Vasan, Michael Boehnke, Martin G Larson, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Bruce M Psaty, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Aravinda Chakravarti, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Mark J Caulfield, Toby Johnson.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2011
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Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (?140?mm?Hg systolic blood pressure or? ?90?mm?Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. This genome-wide association study of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, which used a multi-stage design in 200,000 individuals of European descent, identified sixteen novel loci: six of these loci contain genes previously known or suspected to regulate blood pressure (GUCY1A3-GUCY1B3, NPR3-C5orf23, ADM, FURIN-FES, GOSR2, GNAS-EDN3); the other ten provide new clues to blood pressure physiology. A genetic risk score based on 29 genome-wide significant variants was associated with hypertension, left ventricular wall thickness, stroke and coronary artery disease, but not kidney disease or kidney function. We also observed associations with blood pressure in East Asian, South Asian and African ancestry individuals. Our findings provide new insights into the genetics and biology of blood pressure, and suggest potential novel therapeutic pathways for cardiovascular disease prevention.
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Genome-wide association study identifies two loci strongly affecting transferrin glycosylation.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2011
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Polysaccharide sidechains attached to proteins play important roles in cell-cell and receptor-ligand interactions. Variation in the carbohydrate component has been extensively studied for the iron transport protein transferrin, because serum levels of the transferrin isoforms asialotransferrin + disialotransferrin (carbohydrate-deficient transferrin, CDT) are used as biomarkers of excessive alcohol intake. We conducted a genome-wide association study to assess whether genetic factors affect CDT concentration in serum. CDT was measured in three population-based studies: one in Switzerland (CoLaus study, n = 5181) and two in Australia (n = 1509, n = 775). The first cohort was used as the discovery panel and the latter ones served as replication. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) typing data were used to identify loci with significant associations with CDT as a percentage of total transferrin (CDT%). The top three SNPs in the discovery panel (rs2749097 near PGM1 on chromosome 1, and missense polymorphisms rs1049296, rs1799899 in TF on chromosome 3) were successfully replicated , yielding genome-wide significant combined association with CDT% (P = 1.9 × 10(-9), 4 × 10(-39), 5.5 × 10(-43), respectively) and explain 5.8% of the variation in CDT%. These allelic effects are postulated to be caused by variation in availability of glucose-1-phosphate as a precursor of the glycan (PGM1), and variation in transferrin (TF) structure.
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High-level transgene expression by homologous recombination-mediated gene transfer.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2011
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Gene transfer and expression in eukaryotes is often limited by a number of stably maintained gene copies and by epigenetic silencing effects. Silencing may be limited by the use of epigenetic regulatory sequences such as matrix attachment regions (MAR). Here, we show that successive transfections of MAR-containing vectors allow a synergistic increase of transgene expression. This finding is partly explained by an increased entry into the cell nuclei and genomic integration of the DNA, an effect that requires both the MAR element and iterative transfections. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis often showed single integration events, indicating that DNAs introduced in successive transfections could recombine. High expression was also linked to the cell division cycle, so that nuclear transport of the DNA occurs when homologous recombination is most active. Use of cells deficient in either non-homologous end-joining or homologous recombination suggested that efficient integration and expression may require homologous recombination-based genomic integration of MAR-containing plasmids and the lack of epigenetic silencing events associated with tandem gene copies. We conclude that MAR elements may promote homologous recombination, and that cells and vectors can be engineered to take advantage of this property to mediate highly efficient gene transfer and expression.
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Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 mutations in melanoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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We performed exome sequencing to detect somatic mutations in protein-coding regions in seven melanoma cell lines and donor-matched germline cells. All melanoma samples had high numbers of somatic mutations, which showed the hallmark of UV-induced DNA repair. Such a hallmark was absent in tumor sample-specific mutations in two metastases derived from the same individual. Two melanomas with non-canonical BRAF mutations harbored gain-of-function MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 (MEK1 and MEK2, respectively) mutations, resulting in constitutive ERK phosphorylation and higher resistance to MEK inhibitors. Screening a larger cohort of individuals with melanoma revealed the presence of recurring somatic MAP2K1 and MAP2K2 mutations, which occurred at an overall frequency of 8%. Furthermore, missense and nonsense somatic mutations were frequently found in three candidate melanoma genes, FAT4, LRP1B and DSC1.
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Recurrent deletions and reciprocal duplications of 10q11.21q11.23 including CHAT and SLC18A3 are likely mediated by complex low-copy repeats.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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We report 24 unrelated individuals with deletions and 17 additional cases with duplications at 10q11.21q21.1 identified by chromosomal microarray analysis. The rearrangements range in size from 0.3 to 12 Mb. Nineteen of the deletions and eight duplications are flanked by large, directly oriented segmental duplications of >98% sequence identity, suggesting that nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR) caused these genomic rearrangements. Nine individuals with deletions and five with duplications have additional copy number changes. Detailed clinical evaluation of 20 patients with deletions revealed variable clinical features, with developmental delay (DD) and/or intellectual disability (ID) as the only features common to a majority of individuals. We suggest that some of the other features present in more than one patient with deletion, including hypotonia, sleep apnea, chronic constipation, gastroesophageal and vesicoureteral refluxes, epilepsy, ataxia, dysphagia, nystagmus, and ptosis may result from deletion of the CHAT gene, encoding choline acetyltransferase, and the SLC18A3 gene, mapping in the first intron of CHAT and encoding vesicular acetylcholine transporter. The phenotypic diversity and presence of the deletion in apparently normal carrier parents suggest that subjects carrying 10q11.21q11.23 deletions may exhibit variable phenotypic expressivity and incomplete penetrance influenced by additional genetic and nongenetic modifiers.
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16q24.1 microdeletion in a premature newborn: usefulness of array-based comparative genomic hybridization in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.
Pediatr Crit Care Med
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Report of a 16q24.1 deletion in a premature newborn, demonstrating the usefulness of array-based comparative genomic hybridization in persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn and multiple congenital malformations.
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CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria.
Carsten A Böger, Ming-Huei Chen, Adrienne Tin, Matthias Olden, Anna Köttgen, Ian H de Boer, Christian Fuchsberger, Conall M O'Seaghdha, Cristian Pattaro, Alexander Teumer, Ching-Ti Liu, Nicole L Glazer, Man Li, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Toshiko Tanaka, Carmen A Peralta, Zoltan Kutalik, Jian'an Luan, Jing Hua Zhao, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ermeg Akylbekova, Holly Kramer, Pim van der Harst, Albert V Smith, Kurt Lohman, Mariza de Andrade, Caroline Hayward, Barbara Kollerits, Anke Tönjes, Thor Aspelund, Erik Ingelsson, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Lenore J Launer, Tamara B Harris, Alan R Shuldiner, Braxton D Mitchell, Dan E Arking, Nora Franceschini, Eric Boerwinkle, Josephine Egan, Dena Hernandez, Muredach Reilly, Raymond R Townsend, Thomas Lumley, David S Siscovick, Bruce M Psaty, Bryan Kestenbaum, Talin Haritunians, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Vincent Mooser, Dawn Waterworth, Andrew D Johnson, Jose C Florez, James B Meigs, Xiaoning Lu, Stephen T Turner, Elizabeth J Atkinson, Tennille S Leak, Knut Aasarød, Frank Skorpen, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Thomas Illig, Jens Baumert, Wolfgang Koenig, Bernhard K Krämer, Olivier Devuyst, Josyf C Mychaleckyj, Cosetta Minelli, Stephan J L Bakker, Lyudmyla Kedenko, Bernhard Paulweber, Stefan Coassin, Karlhans Endlich, Heyo K Kroemer, Reiner Biffar, Sylvia Stracke, Henry Völzke, Michael Stumvoll, Reedik Mägi, Harry Campbell, Veronique Vitart, Nicholas D Hastie, Vilmundur Gudnason, Sharon L R Kardia, Yongmei Liu, Ozren Polašek, Gary Curhan, Florian Kronenberg, Inga Prokopenko, Igor Rudan, Johan Arnlöv, Stein Hallan, Gerjan Navis, , Afshin Parsa, Luigi Ferrucci, Josef Coresh, Michael G Shlipak, Shelley B Bull, Nicholas J Paterson, H-Erich Wichmann, Nicholas J Wareham, Ruth J F Loos, Jerome I Rotter, Peter P Pramstaller, L Adrienne Cupples, Jacques S Beckmann, Qiong Yang, Iris M Heid, Rainer Rettig, Albert W Dreisbach, Murielle Bochud, Caroline S Fox, W H L Kao.
J. Am. Soc. Nephrol.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2011
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Identification of genetic risk factors for albuminuria may alter strategies for early prevention of CKD progression, particularly among patients with diabetes. Little is known about the influence of common genetic variants on albuminuria in both general and diabetic populations. We performed a meta-analysis of data from 63,153 individuals of European ancestry with genotype information from genome-wide association studies (CKDGen Consortium) and from a large candidate gene study (CARe Consortium) to identify susceptibility loci for the quantitative trait urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) and the clinical diagnosis microalbuminuria. We identified an association between a missense variant (I2984V) in the CUBN gene, which encodes cubilin, and both UACR (P = 1.1 × 10(-11)) and microalbuminuria (P = 0.001). We observed similar associations among 6981 African Americans in the CARe Consortium. The associations between this variant and both UACR and microalbuminuria were significant in individuals of European ancestry regardless of diabetes status. Finally, this variant associated with a 41% increased risk for the development of persistent microalbuminuria during 20 years of follow-up among 1304 participants with type 1 diabetes in the prospective DCCT/EDIC Study. In summary, we identified a missense CUBN variant that associates with levels of albuminuria in both the general population and in individuals with diabetes.
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Network-guided analysis of genes with altered somatic copy number and gene expression reveals pathways commonly perturbed in metastatic melanoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2011
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Cancer genomes frequently contain somatic copy number alterations (SCNA) that can significantly perturb the expression level of affected genes and thus disrupt pathways controlling normal growth. In melanoma, many studies have focussed on the copy number and gene expression levels of the BRAF, PTEN and MITF genes, but little has been done to identify new genes using these parameters at the genome-wide scale. Using karyotyping, SNP and CGH arrays, and RNA-seq, we have identified SCNA affecting gene expression (SCNA-genes) in seven human metastatic melanoma cell lines. We showed that the combination of these techniques is useful to identify candidate genes potentially involved in tumorigenesis. Since few of these alterations were recurrent across our samples, we used a protein network-guided approach to determine whether any pathways were enriched in SCNA-genes in one or more samples. From this unbiased genome-wide analysis, we identified 28 significantly enriched pathway modules. Comparison with two large, independent melanoma SCNA datasets showed less than 10% overlap at the individual gene level, but network-guided analysis revealed 66% shared pathways, including all but three of the pathways identified in our data. Frequently altered pathways included WNT, cadherin signalling, angiogenesis and melanogenesis. Additionally, our results emphasize the potential of the EPHA3 and FRS2 gene products, involved in angiogenesis and migration, as possible therapeutic targets in melanoma. Our study demonstrates the utility of network-guided approaches, for both large and small datasets, to identify pathways recurrently perturbed in cancer.
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Association of eGFR-Related Loci Identified by GWAS with Incident CKD and ESRD.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Family studies suggest a genetic component to the etiology of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end stage renal disease (ESRD). Previously, we identified 16 loci for eGFR in genome-wide association studies, but the associations of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for incident CKD or ESRD are unknown. We thus investigated the association of these loci with incident CKD in 26,308 individuals of European ancestry free of CKD at baseline drawn from eight population-based cohorts followed for a median of 7.2 years (including 2,122 incident CKD cases defined as eGFR <60ml/min/1.73m(2) at follow-up) and with ESRD in four case-control studies in subjects of European ancestry (3,775 cases, 4,577 controls). SNPs at 11 of the 16 loci (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, SHROOM3, DACH1, STC1, SLC34A1, ALMS1/NAT8, UBE2Q2, and GCKR) were associated with incident CKD; p-values ranged from p?=?4.1e-9 in UMOD to p?=?0.03 in GCKR. After adjusting for baseline eGFR, six of these loci remained significantly associated with incident CKD (UMOD, PRKAG2, ANXA9, DAB2, DACH1, and STC1). SNPs in UMOD (OR?=?0.92, p?=?0.04) and GCKR (OR?=?0.93, p?=?0.03) were nominally associated with ESRD. In summary, the majority of eGFR-related loci are either associated or show a strong trend towards association with incident CKD, but have modest associations with ESRD in individuals of European descent. Additional work is required to characterize the association of genetic determinants of CKD and ESRD at different stages of disease progression.
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Novel method to estimate the phenotypic variation explained by genome-wide association studies reveals large fraction of the missing heritability.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2011
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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are conducted with the promise to discover novel genetic variants associated with diverse traits. For most traits, associated markers individually explain just a modest fraction of the phenotypic variation, but their number can well be in the hundreds. We developed a maximum likelihood method that allows us to infer the distribution of associated variants even when many of them were missed by chance. Compared to previous approaches, the novelty of our method is that it (a) does not require having an independent (unbiased) estimate of the effect sizes; (b) makes use of the complete distribution of P-values while allowing for the false discovery rate; (c) takes into account allelic heterogeneity and the SNP pruning strategy. We applied our method to the latest GWAS meta-analysis results of the GIANT consortium. It revealed that while the explained variance of genome-wide (GW) significant SNPs is around 1% for waist-hip ratio (WHR), the observed P-values provide evidence for the existence of variants explaining 10% (CI=[8.5-11.5%]) of the phenotypic variance in total. Similarly, the total explained variance likely to exist for height is estimated to be 29% (CI=[28-30%]), three times higher than what the observed GW significant SNPs give rise to. This methodology also enables us to predict the benefit of future GWA studies that aim to reveal more associated genetic markers via increased sample size.
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Genome-wide association study identifies six new loci influencing pulse pressure and mean arterial pressure.
Louise V Wain, Germaine C Verwoert, Paul F O'Reilly, Gang Shi, Toby Johnson, Andrew D Johnson, Murielle Bochud, Kenneth M Rice, Peter Henneman, Albert V Smith, Georg B Ehret, Najaf Amin, Martin G Larson, Vincent Mooser, David Hadley, Marcus Dörr, Joshua C Bis, Thor Aspelund, Tonu Esko, A Cecile J W Janssens, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon Heath, Maris Laan, Jingyuan Fu, Giorgio Pistis, Jian'an Luan, Pankaj Arora, Gavin Lucas, Nicola Pirastu, Irene Pichler, Anne U Jackson, Rebecca J Webster, Feng Zhang, John F Peden, Helena Schmidt, Toshiko Tanaka, Harry Campbell, Wilmar Igl, Yuri Milaneschi, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Veronique Vitart, Daniel I Chasman, Stella Trompet, Jennifer L Bragg-Gresham, Behrooz Z Alizadeh, John C Chambers, Xiuqing Guo, Terho Lehtimäki, Brigitte Kühnel, Lorna M Lopez, Ozren Polašek, Mladen Boban, Christopher P Nelson, Alanna C Morrison, Vasyl Pihur, Santhi K Ganesh, Albert Hofman, Suman Kundu, Francesco U S Mattace-Raso, Fernando Rivadeneira, Eric J G Sijbrands, André G Uitterlinden, Shih-Jen Hwang, Ramachandran S Vasan, Thomas J Wang, Sven Bergmann, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Jaana Laitinen, Anneli Pouta, Paavo Zitting, Wendy L McArdle, Heyo K Kroemer, Uwe Völker, Henry Völzke, Nicole L Glazer, Kent D Taylor, Tamara B Harris, Helene Alavere, Toomas Haller, Aime Keis, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Yurii Aulchenko, Inês Barroso, Kay-Tee Khaw, Pilar Galán, Serge Hercberg, Mark Lathrop, Susana Eyheramendy, Elin Org, Siim Sõber, Xiaowen Lu, Ilja M Nolte, Brenda W Penninx, Tanguy Corre, Corrado Masciullo, Cinzia Sala, Leif Groop, Benjamin F Voight, Olle Melander, Christopher J O'Donnell, Veikko Salomaa, Adamo Pio D'adamo, Antonella Fabretto, Flavio Faletra, Sheila Ulivi, Fabiola M Del Greco, Maurizio Facheris, Francis S Collins, Richard N Bergman, John P Beilby, Joseph Hung, A William Musk, Massimo Mangino, So-Youn Shin, Nicole Soranzo, Hugh Watkins, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, Pierre Gider, Marisa Loitfelder, Marion Zeginigg, Dena Hernandez, Samer S Najjar, Pau Navarro, Sarah H Wild, Anna Maria Corsi, Andrew Singleton, Eco J C de Geus, Gonneke Willemsen, Alex N Parker, Lynda M Rose, Brendan Buckley, David Stott, Marco Orrù, Manuela Uda, , Melanie M van der Klauw, Weihua Zhang, Xinzhong Li, James Scott, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Gregory L Burke, Mika Kähönen, Jorma Viikari, Angela Döring, Thomas Meitinger, Gail Davies, John M Starr, Valur Emilsson, Andrew Plump, Jan H Lindeman, Peter A C 't Hoen, Inke R König, Janine F Felix, Robert Clarke, Jemma C Hopewell, Halit Ongen, Monique Breteler, Stéphanie Debette, Anita L Destefano, Myriam Fornage, Gary F Mitchell, Nicholas L Smith, Hilma Holm, Kari Stefansson, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Nilesh J Samani, Michael Preuss, Igor Rudan, Caroline Hayward, Ian J Deary, H-Erich Wichmann, Olli T Raitakari, Walter Palmas, Jaspal S Kooner, Ronald P Stolk, J Wouter Jukema, Alan F Wright, Dorret I Boomsma, Stefania Bandinelli, Ulf B Gyllensten, James F Wilson, Luigi Ferrucci, Reinhold Schmidt, Martin Farrall, Tim D Spector, Lyle J Palmer, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Arne Pfeufer, Paolo Gasparini, David Siscovick, David Altshuler, Ruth J F Loos, Daniela Toniolo, Harold Snieder, Christian Gieger, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Ben A Oostra, Andres Metspalu, Lenore Launer, Rainer Rettig, David P Strachan, Jacques S Beckmann, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Jeanette Erdmann, Ko Willems van Dijk, Eric Boerwinkle, Michael Boehnke, Paul M Ridker, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Aravinda Chakravarti, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Vilmundur Gudnason, Christopher Newton-Cheh, Daniel Levy, Patricia B Munroe, Bruce M Psaty, Mark J Caulfield, Dabeeru C Rao, Martin D Tobin, Paul Elliott, Cornelia M van Duijn.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Numerous genetic loci have been associated with systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) in Europeans. We now report genome-wide association studies of pulse pressure (PP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP). In discovery (N = 74,064) and follow-up studies (N = 48,607), we identified at genome-wide significance (P = 2.7 × 10(-8) to P = 2.3 × 10(-13)) four new PP loci (at 4q12 near CHIC2, 7q22.3 near PIK3CG, 8q24.12 in NOV and 11q24.3 near ADAMTS8), two new MAP loci (3p21.31 in MAP4 and 10q25.3 near ADRB1) and one locus associated with both of these traits (2q24.3 near FIGN) that has also recently been associated with SBP in east Asians. For three of the new PP loci, the estimated effect for SBP was opposite of that for DBP, in contrast to the majority of common SBP- and DBP-associated variants, which show concordant effects on both traits. These findings suggest new genetic pathways underlying blood pressure variation, some of which may differentially influence SBP and DBP.
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Mirror extreme BMI phenotypes associated with gene dosage at the chromosome 16p11.2 locus.
Sébastien Jacquemont, Alexandre Reymond, Flore Zufferey, Louise Harewood, Robin G Walters, Zoltan Kutalik, Danielle Martinet, Yiping Shen, Armand Valsesia, Noam D Beckmann, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Marco Belfiore, Sonia Bouquillon, Dominique Campion, Nicole de Leeuw, Bert B A de Vries, Tonu Esko, Bridget A Fernandez, Fernando Fernandez-Aranda, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Mònica Gratacòs, Audrey Guilmatre, Juliane Hoyer, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, R Frank Kooy, Ants Kurg, Cédric Le Caignec, Katrin Männik, Orah S Platt, Damien Sanlaville, Mieke M van Haelst, Sergi Villatoro Gomez, Faida Walha, Bai-Lin Wu, Yongguo Yu, Azzedine Aboura, Marie-Claude Addor, Yves Alembik, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Benoit Arveiler, Magalie Barth, Nathalie Bednarek, Frédérique Béna, Sven Bergmann, Mylène Beri, Laura Bernardini, Bettina Blaumeiser, Dominique Bonneau, Armand Bottani, Odile Boute, Han G Brunner, Dorothée Cailley, Patrick Callier, Jean Chiesa, Jacqueline Chrast, Lachlan Coin, Charles Coutton, Jean-Marie Cuisset, Jean-Christophe Cuvellier, Albert David, Bénédicte de Freminville, Bruno Delobel, Marie-Ange Delrue, Bénédicte Demeer, Dominique Descamps, Gérard Didelot, Klaus Dieterich, Vittoria Disciglio, Martine Doco-Fenzy, Séverine Drunat, Bénédicte Duban-Bedu, Christèle Dubourg, Julia S El-Sayed Moustafa, Paul Elliott, Brigitte H W Faas, Laurence Faivre, Anne Faudet, Florence Fellmann, Alessandra Ferrarini, Richard Fisher, Elisabeth Flori, Lukas Forer, Dominique Gaillard, Marion Gérard, Christian Gieger, Stefania Gimelli, Giorgio Gimelli, Hans J Grabe, Agnès Guichet, Olivier Guillin, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Delphine Heron, Loyse Hippolyte, Muriel Holder, Georg Homuth, Bertrand Isidor, Sylvie Jaillard, Zdenek Jaros, Susana Jiménez-Murcia, Géraldine Joly Helas, Philippe Jonveaux, Satu Kaksonen, Boris Keren, Anita Kloss-Brandstätter, Nine V A M Knoers, David A Koolen, Peter M Kroisel, Florian Kronenberg, Audrey Labalme, Emilie Landais, Elisabetta Lapi, Valérie Layet, Solenn Legallic, Bruno Leheup, Barbara Leube, Suzanne Lewis, Josette Lucas, Kay D MacDermot, Páll Magnússon, Christian Marshall, Michèle Mathieu-Dramard, Mark I McCarthy, Thomas Meitinger, Maria Antonietta Mencarelli, Giuseppe Merla, Alexandre Moerman, Vincent Mooser, Fanny Morice-Picard, Mafalda Mucciolo, Matthias Nauck, Ndeye Coumba Ndiaye, Ann Nordgren, Laurent Pasquier, Florence Petit, Rolph Pfundt, Ghislaine Plessis, Evica Rajcan-Separovic, Gian Paolo Ramelli, Anita Rauch, Roberto Ravazzolo, André Reis, Alessandra Renieri, Cristóbal Richart, Janina S Ried, Claudine Rieubland, Wendy Roberts, Katharina M Roetzer, Caroline Rooryck, Massimiliano Rossi, Evald Saemundsen, Véronique Satre, Claudia Schurmann, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Dimitri J Stavropoulos, Hreinn Stefansson, Carola Tengström, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Francisco J Tinahones, Renaud Touraine, Louis Vallée, Ellen van Binsbergen, Nathalie Van der Aa, Catherine Vincent-Delorme, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Peter Vollenweider, Henry Völzke, Anneke T Vulto-van Silfhout, Gérard Waeber, Carina Wallgren-Pettersson, Robert M Witwicki, Simon Zwolinksi, Joris Andrieux, Xavier Estivill, James F Gusella, Omar Gústafsson, Andres Metspalu, Stephen W Scherer, Kari Stefansson, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Jacques S Beckmann, Philippe Froguel.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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Both obesity and being underweight have been associated with increased mortality. Underweight, defined as a body mass index (BMI) ??18.5?kg?per?m(2) in adults and ??-2 standard deviations from the mean in children, is the main sign of a series of heterogeneous clinical conditions including failure to thrive, feeding and eating disorder and/or anorexia nervosa. In contrast to obesity, few genetic variants underlying these clinical conditions have been reported. We previously showed that hemizygosity of a ?600-kilobase (kb) region on the short arm of chromosome 16 causes a highly penetrant form of obesity that is often associated with hyperphagia and intellectual disabilities. Here we show that the corresponding reciprocal duplication is associated with being underweight. We identified 138 duplication carriers (including 132 novel cases and 108 unrelated carriers) from individuals clinically referred for developmental or intellectual disabilities (DD/ID) or psychiatric disorders, or recruited from population-based cohorts. These carriers show significantly reduced postnatal weight and BMI. Half of the boys younger than five years are underweight with a probable diagnosis of failure to thrive, whereas adult duplication carriers have an 8.3-fold increased risk of being clinically underweight. We observe a trend towards increased severity in males, as well as a depletion of male carriers among non-medically ascertained cases. These features are associated with an unusually high frequency of selective and restrictive eating behaviours and a significant reduction in head circumference. Each of the observed phenotypes is the converse of one reported in carriers of deletions at this locus. The phenotypes correlate with changes in transcript levels for genes mapping within the duplication but not in flanking regions. The reciprocal impact of these 16p11.2 copy-number variants indicates that severe obesity and being underweight could have mirror aetiologies, possibly through contrasting effects on energy balance.
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The phenotype of recurrent 10q22q23 deletions and duplications.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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The genomic architecture of the 10q22q23 region is characterised by two low-copy repeats (LCRs3 and 4), and deletions in this region appear to be rare. We report the clinical and molecular characterisation of eight novel deletions and six duplications within the 10q22.3q23.3 region. Five deletions and three duplications occur between LCRs3 and 4, whereas three deletions and three duplications have unique breakpoints. Most of the individuals with the LCR3-4 deletion had developmental delay, mainly affecting speech. In addition, macrocephaly, mild facial dysmorphisms, cerebellar anomalies, cardiac defects and congenital breast aplasia were observed. For congenital breast aplasia, the NRG3 gene, known to be involved in early mammary gland development in mice, is a putative candidate gene. For cardiac defects, BMPR1A and GRID1 are putative candidate genes because of their association with cardiac structure and function. Duplications between LCRs3 and 4 are associated with variable phenotypic penetrance. Probands had speech and/or motor delays and dysmorphisms including a broad forehead, deep-set eyes, upslanting palpebral fissures, a smooth philtrum and a thin upper lip. In conclusion, duplications between LCRs3 and 4 on 10q22.3q23.2 may lead to a distinct facial appearance and delays in speech and motor development. However, the phenotypic spectrum is broad, and duplications have also been found in healthy family members of a proband. Reciprocal deletions lead to speech and language delay, mild facial dysmorphisms and, in some individuals, to cerebellar, breast developmental and cardiac defects.
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Genetic variation near IRS1 associates with reduced adiposity and an impaired metabolic profile.
Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, M Carola Zillikens, Alena Stančáková, Francis M Finucane, Janina S Ried, Claudia Langenberg, Weihua Zhang, Jacques S Beckmann, Jian'an Luan, Liesbeth Vandenput, Unnur Styrkarsdottir, Yanhua Zhou, Albert Vernon Smith, Jing-Hua Zhao, Najaf Amin, Sailaja Vedantam, So-Youn Shin, Talin Haritunians, Mao Fu, Mary F Feitosa, Meena Kumari, Bjarni V Halldórsson, Emmi Tikkanen, Massimo Mangino, Caroline Hayward, Ci Song, Alice M Arnold, Yurii S Aulchenko, Ben A Oostra, Harry Campbell, L Adrienne Cupples, Kathryn E Davis, Angela Döring, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Karol Estrada, José Manuel Fernández-Real, Melissa Garcia, Christian Gieger, Nicole L Glazer, Candace Guiducci, Albert Hofman, Steve E Humphries, Bo Isomaa, Leonie C Jacobs, Antti Jula, David Karasik, Magnus K Karlsson, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lauren J Kim, Mika Kivimäki, Norman Klopp, Brigitte Kühnel, Johanna Kuusisto, Yongmei Liu, Osten Ljunggren, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N Luben, Barbara McKnight, Dan Mellström, Braxton D Mitchell, Vincent Mooser, Jose María Moreno, Satu Mannisto, Jeffery R O'Connell, Laura Pascoe, Leena Peltonen, Belén Peral, Markus Perola, Bruce M Psaty, Veikko Salomaa, David B Savage, Robert K Semple, Tatjana Skarić-Jurić, Gunnar Sigurdsson, Kijoung S Song, Timothy D Spector, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Philippa J Talmud, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, André G Uitterlinden, Cornelia M van Duijn, Antonio Vidal-Puig, Sarah H Wild, Alan F Wright, Deborah J Clegg, Eric Schadt, James F Wilson, Igor Rudan, Samuli Ripatti, Ingrid B Borecki, Alan R Shuldiner, Erik Ingelsson, John-Olov Jansson, Robert C Kaplan, Vilmundur Gudnason, Tamara B Harris, Leif Groop, Douglas P Kiel, Fernando Rivadeneira, Mark Walker, Inês Barroso, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, John C Chambers, Jaspal S Kooner, Nicole Soranzo, Joel N Hirschhorn, Kari Stefansson, H-Erich Wichmann, Claes Ohlsson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Nicholas J Wareham, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Caroline S Fox, Markku Laakso, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Genome-wide association studies have identified 32 loci influencing body mass index, but this measure does not distinguish lean from fat mass. To identify adiposity loci, we meta-analyzed associations between ?2.5 million SNPs and body fat percentage from 36,626 individuals and followed up the 14 most significant (P < 10(-6)) independent loci in 39,576 individuals. We confirmed a previously established adiposity locus in FTO (P = 3 × 10(-26)) and identified two new loci associated with body fat percentage, one near IRS1 (P = 4 × 10(-11)) and one near SPRY2 (P = 3 × 10(-8)). Both loci contain genes with potential links to adipocyte physiology. Notably, the body-fat-decreasing allele near IRS1 is associated with decreased IRS1 expression and with an impaired metabolic profile, including an increased visceral to subcutaneous fat ratio, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, risk of diabetes and coronary artery disease and decreased adiponectin levels. Our findings provide new insights into adiposity and insulin resistance.
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Early occurrence of lung adenocarcinoma and breast cancer after radiotherapy of a chest wall sarcoma in a patient with a de novo germline mutation in TP53.
Fam. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2011
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We report a 26-year-old female patient who was diagnosed within 4 years with chest sarcoma, lung adenocarcinoma, and breast cancer. While her family history was unremarkable, DNA sequencing of TP53 revealed a germline de novo non-sense mutation in exon 6 p.Arg213X. One year later, she further developed a contralateral ductal carcinoma in situ, and 18 months later a jaw osteosarcoma. This case illustrates the therapeutic pitfalls in the care of a young cancer patient with TP53 de novo germline mutations and the complications related to her first-line therapy. Suggestion is made to use the less stringent Chompret criteria for germline TP53 mutation screening. Our observation underlines the possibly negative effect of radiotherapy in generating second tumors in patients with a TP53 mutation. We also present a review of six previously reported cases, comparing their cancer phenotypes with those generally produced by TP53 mutations.
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Epigenetic modification of the FMR1 gene in fragile X syndrome is associated with differential response to the mGluR5 antagonist AFQ056.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an X-linked condition associated with intellectual disability and behavioral problems. It is caused by expansion of a CGG repeat in the 5 untranslated region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. This mutation is associated with hypermethylation at the FMR1 promoter and resultant transcriptional silencing. FMR1 silencing has many consequences, including up-regulation of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-mediated signaling. mGluR5 receptor antagonists have shown promise in preclinical FXS models and in one small open-label study of FXS. We examined whether a receptor subtype-selective inhibitor of mGluR5, AFQ056, improves the behavioral symptoms of FXS in a randomized, double-blind, two-treatment, two-period, crossover study of 30 male FXS patients aged 18 to 35 years. We detected no significant effects of treatment on the primary outcome measure, the Aberrant Behavior Checklist-Community Edition (ABC-C) score, at day 19 or 20 of treatment. In an exploratory analysis, however, seven patients with full FMR1 promoter methylation and no detectable FMR1 messenger RNA improved, as measured with the ABC-C, significantly more after AFQ056 treatment than with placebo (P < 0.001). We detected no response in 18 patients with partial promoter methylation. Twenty-four patients experienced an adverse event, which was mostly mild to moderately severe fatigue or headache. If confirmed in larger and longer-term studies, these results suggest that blockade of the mGluR5 receptor in patients with full methylation at the FMR1 promoter may show improvement in the behavioral attributes of FXS.
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[R74W;R1070W;D1270N]: a new complex allele responsible for cystic fibrosis.
J. Cyst. Fibros.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Since the beginning of population screening for CF carriers, it has become apparent that complex CFTR alleles are not uncommon. Deciphering their impact in disease pathogenesis remains a challenge for both clinicians and researchers. We report the observation of a new complex allele p.[R74W+R1070W+D1270N] found in trans with a type 1 mutation and associated with clinical diagnosis of cystic fibrosis in a one year-old Moroccan patient. This case underlines the difficulties in counseling patients with uncommon mutations and the necessity of functional studies to evaluate the structure-function relationships, since the association of several variations in cis can dramatically alter CFTR function.
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Genetic male infertility and mutation of CATSPER ion channels.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2010
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A clinically significant proportion of couples experience difficulty in conceiving a child. In about half of these cases male infertility is the cause and often genetic factors are involved. Despite advances in clinical diagnostics ?50% of male infertility cases remain idiopathic. Based on this, further analysis of infertile males is required to identify new genetic factors involved in male infertility. This review focuses on cation channel of sperm (CATSPER)-related male infertility. It is based on PubMed literature searches using the keywords CATSPER, male infertility, male contraception, immunocontraception and pharmacologic contraception (publication dates from January 1979 to December 2009). Previously, contiguous gene deletions including the CATSPER2 gene implicated the sperm-specific CATSPER channel in syndromic male infertility (SMI). Recently, we identified insertion mutations of the CATSPER1 gene in families with recessively inherited nonsyndromic male infertility (NSMI). The CATSPER channel therefore represents a novel human male fertility factor. In this review we summarize the genetic and clinical data showing the role of CATSPER mutation in human forms of NSMI and SMI. In addition, we discuss clinical management and therapeutic options for these patients. Finally, we describe how the CATSPER channel could be used as a target for development of a male contraceptive.
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Peroxisomal and microsomal lipid pathways associated with resistance to hepatic steatosis and reduced pro-inflammatory state.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2010
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Accumulation of fat in the liver increases the risk to develop fibrosis and cirrhosis and is associated with development of the metabolic syndrome. Here, to identify genes or gene pathways that may underlie the genetic susceptibility to fat accumulation in liver, we studied A/J and C57Bl/6 mice that are resistant and sensitive to diet-induced hepatosteatosis and obesity, respectively. We performed comparative transcriptomic and lipidomic analysis of the livers of both strains of mice fed a high fat diet for 2, 10, and 30 days. We found that resistance to steatosis in A/J mice was associated with the following: (i) a coordinated up-regulation of 10 genes controlling peroxisome biogenesis and ?-oxidation; (ii) an increased expression of the elongase Elovl5 and desaturases Fads1 and Fads2. In agreement with these observations, peroxisomal ?-oxidation was increased in livers of A/J mice, and lipidomic analysis showed increased concentrations of long chain fatty acid-containing triglycerides, arachidonic acid-containing lysophosphatidylcholine, and 2-arachidonylglycerol, a cannabinoid receptor agonist. We found that the anti-inflammatory CB2 receptor was the main hepatic cannabinoid receptor, which was highly expressed in Kupffer cells. We further found that A/J mice had a lower pro-inflammatory state as determined by lower plasma levels and IL-1? and granulocyte-CSF and reduced hepatic expression of their mRNAs, which were found only in Kupffer cells. This suggests that increased 2-arachidonylglycerol production may limit Kupffer cell activity. Collectively, our data suggest that genetic variations in the expression of peroxisomal ?-oxidation genes and of genes controlling the production of an anti-inflammatory lipid may underlie the differential susceptibility to diet-induced hepatic steatosis and pro-inflammatory state.
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Genome-wide meta-analysis for serum calcium identifies significantly associated SNPs near the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2010
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Calcium has a pivotal role in biological functions, and serum calcium levels have been associated with numerous disorders of bone and mineral metabolism, as well as with cardiovascular mortality. Here we report results from a genome-wide association study of serum calcium, integrating data from four independent cohorts including a total of 12,865 individuals of European and Indian Asian descent. Our meta-analysis shows that serum calcium is associated with SNPs in or near the calcium-sensing receptor (CASR) gene on 3q13. The top hit with a p-value of 6.3 x 10(-37) is rs1801725, a missense variant, explaining 1.26% of the variance in serum calcium. This SNP had the strongest association in individuals of European descent, while for individuals of Indian Asian descent the top hit was rs17251221 (p = 1.1 x 10(-21)), a SNP in strong linkage disequilibrium with rs1801725. The strongest locus in CASR was shown to replicate in an independent Icelandic cohort of 4,126 individuals (p = 1.02 x 10(-4)). This genome-wide meta-analysis shows that common CASR variants modulate serum calcium levels in the adult general population, which confirms previous results in some candidate gene studies of the CASR locus. This study highlights the key role of CASR in calcium regulation.
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Methods for testing association between uncertain genotypes and quantitative traits.
Biostatistics
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2010
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Interpretability and power of genome-wide association studies can be increased by imputing unobserved genotypes, using a reference panel of individuals genotyped at higher marker density. For many markers, genotypes cannot be imputed with complete certainty, and the uncertainty needs to be taken into account when testing for association with a given phenotype. In this paper, we compare currently available methods for testing association between uncertain genotypes and quantitative traits. We show that some previously described methods offer poor control of the false-positive rate (FPR), and that satisfactory performance of these methods is obtained only by using ad hoc filtering rules or by using a harsh transformation of the trait under study. We propose new methods that are based on exact maximum likelihood estimation and use a mixture model to accommodate nonnormal trait distributions when necessary. The new methods adequately control the FPR and also have equal or better power compared to all previously described methods. We provide a fast software implementation of all the methods studied here; our new method requires computation time of less than one computer-day for a typical genome-wide scan, with 2.5 M single nucleotide polymorphisms and 5000 individuals.
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Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index.
Elizabeth K Speliotes, Cristen J Willer, Sonja I Berndt, Keri L Monda, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Anne U Jackson, Hana Lango Allen, Cecilia M Lindgren, Jian'an Luan, Reedik Mägi, Joshua C Randall, Sailaja Vedantam, Thomas W Winkler, Lu Qi, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Iris M Heid, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Heather M Stringham, Michael N Weedon, Eleanor Wheeler, Andrew R Wood, Teresa Ferreira, Robert J Weyant, Ayellet V Segrè, Karol Estrada, Liming Liang, James Nemesh, Ju-Hyun Park, Stefan Gustafsson, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Jian Yang, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Tonu Esko, Mary F Feitosa, Zoltan Kutalik, Massimo Mangino, Soumya Raychaudhuri, André Scherag, Albert Vernon Smith, Ryan Welch, Jing Hua Zhao, Katja K Aben, Devin M Absher, Najaf Amin, Anna L Dixon, Eva Fisher, Nicole L Glazer, Michael E Goddard, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Volker Hoesel, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Shamika Ketkar, Claudia Lamina, Shengxu Li, Miriam F Moffatt, Richard H Myers, Narisu Narisu, John R B Perry, Marjolein J Peters, Michael Preuss, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Camilla Sandholt, Laura J Scott, Nicholas J Timpson, Jonathan P Tyrer, Sophie van Wingerden, Richard M Watanabe, Charles C White, Fredrik Wiklund, Christina Barlassina, Daniel I Chasman, Matthew N Cooper, John-Olov Jansson, Robert W Lawrence, Niina Pellikka, Inga Prokopenko, Jianxin Shi, Elisabeth Thiering, Helene Alavere, Maria T S Alibrandi, Peter Almgren, Alice M Arnold, Thor Aspelund, Larry D Atwood, Beverley Balkau, Anthony J Balmforth, Amanda J Bennett, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Heike Biebermann, Alexandra I F Blakemore, Tanja Boes, Lori L Bonnycastle, Stefan R Bornstein, Morris J Brown, Thomas A Buchanan, Fabio Busonero, Harry Campbell, Francesco P Cappuccio, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Chih-Mei Chen, Peter S Chines, Robert Clarke, Lachlan Coin, John Connell, Ian N M Day, Martin den Heijer, Jubao Duan, Shah Ebrahim, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Michael R Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Maurizio F Facheris, Stephan B Felix, Pamela Fischer-Posovszky, Aaron R Folsom, Nele Friedrich, Nelson B Freimer, Mao Fu, Stefan Gaget, Pablo V Gejman, Eco J C Geus, Christian Gieger, Anette P Gjesing, Anuj Goel, Philippe Goyette, Harald Grallert, Jürgen Gräßler, Danielle M Greenawalt, Christopher J Groves, Vilmundur Gudnason, Candace Guiducci, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Alistair S Hall, Aki S Havulinna, Caroline Hayward, Andrew C Heath, Christian Hengstenberg, Andrew A Hicks, Anke Hinney, Albert Hofman, Georg Homuth, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Carlos Iribarren, Bo Isomaa, Kevin B Jacobs, Ivonne Jarick, Elizabeth Jewell, Ulrich John, Torben Jørgensen, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Marika Kaakinen, Eero Kajantie, Lee M Kaplan, Sekar Kathiresan, Johannes Kettunen, Leena Kinnunen, Joshua W Knowles, Ivana Kolčić, Inke R König, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Johanna Kuusisto, Peter Kraft, Kirsti Kvaløy, Jaana Laitinen, Olivier Lantieri, Chiara Lanzani, Lenore J Launer, Cécile Lecoeur, Terho Lehtimäki, Guillaume Lettre, Jianjun Liu, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Mattias Lorentzon, Robert N Luben, Barbara Ludwig, , Paolo Manunta, Diana Marek, Michel Marre, Nicholas G Martin, Wendy L McArdle, Anne McCarthy, Barbara McKnight, Thomas Meitinger, Olle Melander, David Meyre, Kristian Midthjell, Grant W Montgomery, Mario A Morken, Andrew P Morris, Rosanda Mulić, Julius S Ngwa, Mari Nelis, Matt J Neville, Dale R Nyholt, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen O'Rahilly, Ken K Ong, Ben Oostra, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, Markus Perola, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Carl G P Platou, Ozren Polašek, Anneli Pouta, Suzanne Rafelt, Olli Raitakari, Nigel W Rayner, Martin Ridderstråle, Winfried Rief, Aimo Ruokonen, Neil R Robertson, Peter Rzehak, Veikko Salomaa, Alan R Sanders, Manjinder S Sandhu, Serena Sanna, Jouko Saramies, Markku J Savolainen, Susann Scherag, Sabine Schipf, Stefan Schreiber, Heribert Schunkert, Kaisa Silander, Juha Sinisalo, David S Siscovick, Jan H Smit, Nicole Soranzo, Ulla Sovio, Jonathan Stephens, Ida Surakka, Amy J Swift, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Jean-Claude Tardif, Maris Teder-Laving, Tanya M Teslovich, John R Thompson, Brian Thomson, Anke Tönjes, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Joyce B J van Meurs, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Vincent Vatin, Jorma Viikari, Sophie Visvikis-Siest, Veronique Vitart, Carla I G Vogel, Benjamin F Voight, Lindsay L Waite, Henri Wallaschofski, G Bragi Walters, Elisabeth Widén, Susanna Wiegand, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Daniel R Witte, Jacqueline C Witteman, Jianfeng Xu, Qunyuan Zhang, Lina Zgaga, Andreas Ziegler, Paavo Zitting, John P Beilby, I Sadaf Farooqi, Johannes Hebebrand, Heikki V Huikuri, Alan L James, Mika Kähönen, Douglas F Levinson, Fabio Macciardi, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Lyle J Palmer, Paul M Ridker, Michael Stumvoll, Jacques S Beckmann, Heiner Boeing, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark J Caulfield, Stephen J Chanock, Francis S Collins, L Adrienne Cupples, George Davey Smith, Jeanette Erdmann, Philippe Froguel, Henrik Grönberg, Ulf Gyllensten, Per Hall, Torben Hansen, Tamara B Harris, Andrew T Hattersley, Richard B Hayes, Joachim Heinrich, Frank B Hu, Kristian Hveem, Thomas Illig, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Jaakko Kaprio, Fredrik Karpe, Kay-Tee Khaw, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Heiko Krude, Markku Laakso, Debbie A Lawlor, Andres Metspalu, Patricia B Munroe, Willem H Ouwehand, Oluf Pedersen, Brenda W Penninx, Annette Peters, Peter P Pramstaller, Thomas Quertermous, Thomas Reinehr, Aila Rissanen, Igor Rudan, Nilesh J Samani, Peter E H Schwarz, Alan R Shuldiner, Timothy D Spector, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Manuela Uda, André Uitterlinden, Timo T Valle, Martin Wabitsch, Gérard Waeber, Nicholas J Wareham, Hugh Watkins, James F Wilson, Alan F Wright, M Carola Zillikens, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Steven A McCarroll, Shaun Purcell, Eric E Schadt, Peter M Visscher, Themistocles L Assimes, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Caroline S Fox, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, David J Hunter, Robert C Kaplan, Karen L Mohlke, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P Strachan, Cornelia M van Duijn, H-Erich Wichmann, Timothy M Frayling, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Inês Barroso, Michael Boehnke, Kari Stefansson, Kari E North, Mark I McCarthy, Joel N Hirschhorn, Erik Ingelsson, Ruth J F Loos.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
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Obesity is globally prevalent and highly heritable, but its underlying genetic factors remain largely elusive. To identify genetic loci for obesity susceptibility, we examined associations between body mass index and ? 2.8 million SNPs in up to 123,865 individuals with targeted follow up of 42 SNPs in up to 125,931 additional individuals. We confirmed 14 known obesity susceptibility loci and identified 18 new loci associated with body mass index (P < 5 × 10??), one of which includes a copy number variant near GPRC5B. Some loci (at MC4R, POMC, SH2B1 and BDNF) map near key hypothalamic regulators of energy balance, and one of these loci is near GIPR, an incretin receptor. Furthermore, genes in other newly associated loci may provide new insights into human body weight regulation.
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Meta-analysis identifies 13 new loci associated with waist-hip ratio and reveals sexual dimorphism in the genetic basis of fat distribution.
Iris M Heid, Anne U Jackson, Joshua C Randall, Thomas W Winkler, Lu Qi, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Gudmar Thorleifsson, M Carola Zillikens, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Reedik Mägi, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Charles C White, Nabila Bouatia-Naji, Tamara B Harris, Sonja I Berndt, Erik Ingelsson, Cristen J Willer, Michael N Weedon, Jian'an Luan, Sailaja Vedantam, Tonu Esko, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Zoltan Kutalik, Shengxu Li, Keri L Monda, Anna L Dixon, Christopher C Holmes, Lee M Kaplan, Liming Liang, Josine L Min, Miriam F Moffatt, Cliona Molony, George Nicholson, Eric E Schadt, Krina T Zondervan, Mary F Feitosa, Teresa Ferreira, Hana Lango Allen, Robert J Weyant, Eleanor Wheeler, Andrew R Wood, , Karol Estrada, Michael E Goddard, Guillaume Lettre, Massimo Mangino, Dale R Nyholt, Shaun Purcell, Albert Vernon Smith, Peter M Visscher, Jian Yang, Steven A McCarroll, James Nemesh, Benjamin F Voight, Devin Absher, Najaf Amin, Thor Aspelund, Lachlan Coin, Nicole L Glazer, Caroline Hayward, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Asa Johansson, Toby Johnson, Marika Kaakinen, Karen Kapur, Shamika Ketkar, Joshua W Knowles, Peter Kraft, Aldi T Kraja, Claudia Lamina, Michael F Leitzmann, Barbara McKnight, Andrew P Morris, Ken K Ong, John R B Perry, Marjolein J Peters, Ozren Polašek, Inga Prokopenko, Nigel W Rayner, Samuli Ripatti, Fernando Rivadeneira, Neil R Robertson, Serena Sanna, Ulla Sovio, Ida Surakka, Alexander Teumer, Sophie van Wingerden, Veronique Vitart, Jing Hua Zhao, Christine Cavalcanti-Proença, Peter S Chines, Eva Fisher, Jennifer R Kulzer, Cécile Lecoeur, Narisu Narisu, Camilla Sandholt, Laura J Scott, Kaisa Silander, Klaus Stark, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Tanya M Teslovich, Nicholas John Timpson, Richard M Watanabe, Ryan Welch, Daniel I Chasman, Matthew N Cooper, John-Olov Jansson, Johannes Kettunen, Robert W Lawrence, Niina Pellikka, Markus Perola, Liesbeth Vandenput, Helene Alavere, Peter Almgren, Larry D Atwood, Amanda J Bennett, Reiner Biffar, Lori L Bonnycastle, Stefan R Bornstein, Thomas A Buchanan, Harry Campbell, Ian N M Day, Mariano Dei, Marcus Dörr, Paul Elliott, Michael R Erdos, Johan G Eriksson, Nelson B Freimer, Mao Fu, Stefan Gaget, Eco J C Geus, Anette P Gjesing, Harald Grallert, Jürgen Gräßler, Christopher J Groves, Candace Guiducci, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Neelam Hassanali, Aki S Havulinna, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Andrew A Hicks, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Pekka Jousilahti, Antti Jula, Eero Kajantie, Leena Kinnunen, Ivana Kolčić, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Heyo K Kroemer, Vjekoslav Krželj, Johanna Kuusisto, Kirsti Kvaloy, Jaana Laitinen, Olivier Lantieri, G Mark Lathrop, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Robert N Luben, Barbara Ludwig, Wendy L McArdle, Anne McCarthy, Mario A Morken, Mari Nelis, Matt J Neville, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, John F Peden, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Carl G P Platou, Anneli Pouta, Martin Ridderstråle, Nilesh J Samani, Jouko Saramies, Juha Sinisalo, Jan H Smit, Rona J Strawbridge, Heather M Stringham, Amy J Swift, Maris Teder-Laving, Brian Thomson, Gianluca Usala, Joyce B J van Meurs, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Vincent Vatin, Claudia B Volpato, Henri Wallaschofski, G Bragi Walters, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Daniel R Witte, Lina Zgaga, Paavo Zitting, John P Beilby, Alan L James, Mika Kähönen, Terho Lehtimäki, Markku S Nieminen, Claes Ohlsson, Lyle J Palmer, Olli Raitakari, Paul M Ridker, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Jorma Viikari, Beverley Balkau, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Richard N Bergman, Heiner Boeing, George Davey Smith, Shah Ebrahim, Philippe Froguel, Torben Hansen, Christian Hengstenberg, Kristian Hveem, Bo Isomaa, Torben Jørgensen, Fredrik Karpe, Kay-Tee Khaw, Markku Laakso, Debbie A Lawlor, Michel Marre, Thomas Meitinger, Andres Metspalu, Kristian Midthjell, Oluf Pedersen, Veikko Salomaa, Peter E H Schwarz, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Timo T Valle, Nicholas J Wareham, Alice M Arnold, Jacques S Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Eric Boerwinkle, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark J Caulfield, Francis S Collins, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Anders Hamsten, Andrew T Hattersley, Albert Hofman, Frank B Hu, Thomas Illig, Carlos Iribarren, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, W H Linda Kao, Jaakko Kaprio, Lenore J Launer, Patricia B Munroe, Ben Oostra, Brenda W Penninx, Peter P Pramstaller, Bruce M Psaty, Thomas Quertermous, Aila Rissanen, Igor Rudan, Alan R Shuldiner, Nicole Soranzo, Timothy D Spector, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Manuela Uda, André Uitterlinden, Henry Völzke, Peter Vollenweider, James F Wilson, Jacqueline C Witteman, Alan F Wright, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Michael Boehnke, Ingrid B Borecki, Panos Deloukas, Timothy M Frayling, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, David J Hunter, Robert C Kaplan, Kari E North, Jeffrey R O'Connell, Leena Peltonen, David Schlessinger, David P Strachan, Joel N Hirschhorn, Themistocles L Assimes, H-Erich Wichmann, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Cornelia M van Duijn, Kari Stefansson, L Adrienne Cupples, Ruth J F Loos, Inês Barroso, Mark I McCarthy, Caroline S Fox, Karen L Mohlke, Cecilia M Lindgren.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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Waist-hip ratio (WHR) is a measure of body fat distribution and a predictor of metabolic consequences independent of overall adiposity. WHR is heritable, but few genetic variants influencing this trait have been identified. We conducted a meta-analysis of 32 genome-wide association studies for WHR adjusted for body mass index (comprising up to 77,167 participants), following up 16 loci in an additional 29 studies (comprising up to 113,636 subjects). We identified 13 new loci in or near RSPO3, VEGFA, TBX15-WARS2, NFE2L3, GRB14, DNM3-PIGC, ITPR2-SSPN, LY86, HOXC13, ADAMTS9, ZNRF3-KREMEN1, NISCH-STAB1 and CPEB4 (P = 1.9 × 10?? to P = 1.8 × 10???) and the known signal at LYPLAL1. Seven of these loci exhibited marked sexual dimorphism, all with a stronger effect on WHR in women than men (P for sex difference = 1.9 × 10?³ to P = 1.2 × 10?¹³). These findings provide evidence for multiple loci that modulate body fat distribution independent of overall adiposity and reveal strong gene-by-sex interactions.
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Genome-wide association study identifies new HLA class II haplotypes strongly protective against narcolepsy.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2010
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Narcolepsy is a rare sleep disorder with the strongest human leukocyte antigen (HLA) association ever reported. Since the associated HLA-DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602 haplotype is common in the general population (15-25%), it has been suggested that it is almost necessary but not sufficient for developing narcolepsy. To further define the genetic basis of narcolepsy risk, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 562 European individuals with narcolepsy (cases) and 702 ethnically matched controls, with independent replication in 370 cases and 495 controls, all heterozygous for DRB1*1501-DQB1*0602. We found association with a protective variant near HLA-DQA2 (rs2858884; P < 3 x 10(-8)). Further analysis revealed that rs2858884 is strongly linked to DRB1*03-DQB1*02 (P < 4 x 10(-43)) and DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 (P < 3 x 10(-7)). Cases almost never carried a trans DRB1*1301-DQB1*0603 haplotype (odds ratio = 0.02; P < 6 x 10(-14)). This unexpected protective HLA haplotype suggests a virtually causal involvement of the HLA region in narcolepsy susceptibility.
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Hundreds of variants clustered in genomic loci and biological pathways affect human height.
Hana Lango Allen, Karol Estrada, Guillaume Lettre, Sonja I Berndt, Michael N Weedon, Fernando Rivadeneira, Cristen J Willer, Anne U Jackson, Sailaja Vedantam, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Teresa Ferreira, Andrew R Wood, Robert J Weyant, Ayellet V Segrè, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Eleanor Wheeler, Nicole Soranzo, Ju-Hyun Park, Jian Yang, Daniel Gudbjartsson, Nancy L Heard-Costa, Joshua C Randall, Lu Qi, Albert Vernon Smith, Reedik Mägi, Tomi Pastinen, Liming Liang, Iris M Heid, Jian'an Luan, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Thomas W Winkler, Michael E Goddard, Ken Sin Lo, Cameron Palmer, Tsegaselassie Workalemahu, Yurii S Aulchenko, Asa Johansson, M Carola Zillikens, Mary F Feitosa, Tonu Esko, Toby Johnson, Shamika Ketkar, Peter Kraft, Massimo Mangino, Inga Prokopenko, Devin Absher, Eva Albrecht, Florian Ernst, Nicole L Glazer, Caroline Hayward, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Kevin B Jacobs, Joshua W Knowles, Zoltan Kutalik, Keri L Monda, Ozren Polašek, Michael Preuss, Nigel W Rayner, Neil R Robertson, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Jonathan P Tyrer, Benjamin F Voight, Fredrik Wiklund, Jianfeng Xu, Jing Hua Zhao, Dale R Nyholt, Niina Pellikka, Markus Perola, John R B Perry, Ida Surakka, Mari-Liis Tammesoo, Elizabeth L Altmaier, Najaf Amin, Thor Aspelund, Tushar Bhangale, Gabrielle Boucher, Daniel I Chasman, Constance Chen, Lachlan Coin, Matthew N Cooper, Anna L Dixon, Quince Gibson, Elin Grundberg, Ke Hao, M Juhani Junttila, Lee M Kaplan, Johannes Kettunen, Inke R König, Tony Kwan, Robert W Lawrence, Douglas F Levinson, Mattias Lorentzon, Barbara McKnight, Andrew P Morris, Martina Müller, Julius Suh Ngwa, Shaun Purcell, Suzanne Rafelt, Rany M Salem, Erika Salvi, Serena Sanna, Jianxin Shi, Ulla Sovio, John R Thompson, Michael C Turchin, Liesbeth Vandenput, Dominique J Verlaan, Veronique Vitart, Charles C White, Andreas Ziegler, Peter Almgren, Anthony J Balmforth, Harry Campbell, Lorena Citterio, Alessandro De Grandi, Anna Dominiczak, Jubao Duan, Paul Elliott, Roberto Elosua, Johan G Eriksson, Nelson B Freimer, Eco J C Geus, Nicola Glorioso, Shen Haiqing, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Aki S Havulinna, Andrew A Hicks, Jennie Hui, Wilmar Igl, Thomas Illig, Antti Jula, Eero Kajantie, Tuomas O Kilpeläinen, Markku Koiranen, Ivana Kolčić, Seppo Koskinen, Peter Kovacs, Jaana Laitinen, Jianjun Liu, Marja-Liisa Lokki, Ana Marušić, Andrea Maschio, Thomas Meitinger, Antonella Mulas, Guillaume Paré, Alex N Parker, John F Peden, Astrid Petersmann, Irene Pichler, Kirsi H Pietiläinen, Anneli Pouta, Martin Ridderstråle, Jerome I Rotter, Jennifer G Sambrook, Alan R Sanders, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Juha Sinisalo, Jan H Smit, Heather M Stringham, G Bragi Walters, Elisabeth Widén, Sarah H Wild, Gonneke Willemsen, Laura Zagato, Lina Zgaga, Paavo Zitting, Helene Alavere, Martin Farrall, Wendy L McArdle, Mari Nelis, Marjolein J Peters, Samuli Ripatti, Joyce B J van Meurs, Katja K Aben, Kristin G Ardlie, Jacques S Beckmann, John P Beilby, Richard N Bergman, Sven Bergmann, Francis S Collins, Daniele Cusi, Martin den Heijer, Gudny Eiriksdottir, Pablo V Gejman, Alistair S Hall, Anders Hamsten, Heikki V Huikuri, Carlos Iribarren, Mika Kähönen, Jaakko Kaprio, Sekar Kathiresan, Lambertus Kiemeney, Thomas Kocher, Lenore J Launer, Terho Lehtimäki, Olle Melander, Tom H Mosley, Arthur W Musk, Markku S Nieminen, Christopher J O'Donnell, Claes Ohlsson, Ben Oostra, Lyle J Palmer, Olli Raitakari, Paul M Ridker, John D Rioux, Aila Rissanen, Carlo Rivolta, Heribert Schunkert, Alan R Shuldiner, David S Siscovick, Michael Stumvoll, Anke Tönjes, Jaakko Tuomilehto, Gert-Jan van Ommen, Jorma Viikari, Andrew C Heath, Nicholas G Martin, Grant W Montgomery, Michael A Province, Manfred Kayser, Alice M Arnold, Larry D Atwood, Eric Boerwinkle, Stephen J Chanock, Panos Deloukas, Christian Gieger, Henrik Grönberg, Per Hall, Andrew T Hattersley, Christian Hengstenberg, Wolfgang Hoffman, G Mark Lathrop, Veikko Salomaa, Stefan Schreiber, Manuela Uda, Dawn Waterworth, Alan F Wright, Themistocles L Assimes, Inês Barroso, Albert Hofman, Karen L Mohlke, Dorret I Boomsma, Mark J Caulfield, L Adrienne Cupples, Jeanette Erdmann, Caroline S Fox, Vilmundur Gudnason, Ulf Gyllensten, Tamara B Harris, Richard B Hayes, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent Mooser, Patricia B Munroe, Willem H Ouwehand, Brenda W Penninx, Peter P Pramstaller, Thomas Quertermous, Igor Rudan, Nilesh J Samani, Timothy D Spector, Henry Völzke, Hugh Watkins, James F Wilson, Leif C Groop, Talin Haritunians, Frank B Hu, Robert C Kaplan, Andres Metspalu, Kari E North, David Schlessinger, Nicholas J Wareham, David J Hunter, Jeffrey R O'Connell, David P Strachan, H-Erich Wichmann, Ingrid B Borecki, Cornelia M van Duijn, Eric E Schadt, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Leena Peltonen, André G Uitterlinden, Peter M Visscher, Nilanjan Chatterjee, Ruth J F Loos, Michael Boehnke, Mark I McCarthy, Erik Ingelsson, Cecilia M Lindgren, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Kari Stefansson, Timothy M Frayling, Joel N Hirschhorn.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2010
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Most common human traits and diseases have a polygenic pattern of inheritance: DNA sequence variants at many genetic loci influence the phenotype. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have identified more than 600 variants associated with human traits, but these typically explain small fractions of phenotypic variation, raising questions about the use of further studies. Here, using 183,727 individuals, we show that hundreds of genetic variants, in at least 180 loci, influence adult height, a highly heritable and classic polygenic trait. The large number of loci reveals patterns with important implications for genetic studies of common human diseases and traits. First, the 180 loci are not random, but instead are enriched for genes that are connected in biological pathways (P = 0.016) and that underlie skeletal growth defects (P?
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Global transcriptional programs in peripheral nerve endoneurium and DRG are resistant to the onset of type 1 diabetic neuropathy in Ins2 mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2010
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While the morphological and electrophysiological changes underlying diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) are relatively well described, the involved molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether phenotypic changes associated with early DPN are correlated with transcriptional alterations in the neuronal (dorsal root ganglia [DRG]) or the glial (endoneurium) compartments of the peripheral nerve. We used Ins2(Akita/+) mice to study transcriptional changes underlying the onset of DPN in type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM). Weight, blood glucose and motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) were measured in Ins2(Akita/+) and control mice during the first three months of life in order to determine the onset of DPN. Based on this phenotypic characterization, we performed gene expression profiling using sciatic nerve endoneurium and DRG isolated from pre-symptomatic and early symptomatic Ins2(Akita/+) mice and sex-matched littermate controls. Our phenotypic analysis of Ins2(Akita/+) mice revealed that DPN, as measured by reduced MNCV, is detectable in affected animals already one week after the onset of hyperglycemia. Surprisingly, the onset of DPN was not associated with any major persistent changes in gene expression profiles in either sciatic nerve endoneurium or DRG. Our data thus demonstrated that the transcriptional programs in both endoneurial and neuronal compartments of the peripheral nerve are relatively resistant to the onset of hyperglycemia and hypoinsulinemia suggesting that either minor transcriptional alterations or changes on the proteomic level are responsible for the functional deficits associated with the onset of DPN in type 1 DM.
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Fine mapping of AHI1 as a schizophrenia susceptibility gene: from association to evolutionary evidence.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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In previous studies, we identified a locus for schizophrenia on 6q23.3 and proposed the Abelson helper integration site 1 (AHI1) as the candidate gene. AHI1 is expressed in the brain and plays a key role in neurodevelopment, is involved in Joubert syndrome, and has been recently associated with autism. The neurodevelopmental role of AHI1 fits with etiological hypotheses of schizophrenia. To definitively confirm our hypothesis, we searched for associations using a dense map of the region. Our strongest findings lay within the AHI1 gene: single-nucleotide polymorphisms rs11154801 and rs7759971 showed significant associations (P=6.23E-06; P=0.84E-06) and haplotypes gave P values in the 10E-8 to 10E-10 range. The second highest significant region maps close to AHI1 and includes the intergenic region between BC040979 and PDE7B (rs2038549 at P=9.70E-06 and rs1475069 at P=6.97E-06), and PDE7B and MAP7. Using a sample of Palestinian Arab families to confirm these findings, we found isolated signals. While these results did not retain their significance after correction for multiple testing, the joint analysis across the 2 samples supports the role of AHI1, despite the presence of heterogeneity. Given the hypothesis of positive selection of schizophrenia genes, we resequenced a 11 kb region within AHI1 in ethnically defined populations and found evidence for a selective sweep. Network analysis indicates 2 haplotype clades, with schizophrenia-susceptibility haplotypes clustering within the major clade. In conclusion, our data support the role of AHI1 as a susceptibility gene for schizophrenia and confirm it has been subjected to positive selection, also shedding light on new possible candidate genes, MAP7 and PDE7B.
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Genetic variation in IL28B is associated with chronic hepatitis C and treatment failure: a genome-wide association study.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) induces chronic infection in 50% to 80% of infected persons; approximately 50% of these do not respond to therapy. We performed a genome-wide association study to screen for host genetic determinants of HCV persistence and response to therapy.
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Molecular autopsy in sudden cardiac death and its implication for families: discussion of the practical, legal and ethical aspects of the multidisciplinary collaboration.
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2009
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Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a major cause of premature death in young adults and children in developed countries. Standard forensic autopsy procedures are often unsuccessful in determining the cause of SCD. Post-mortem genetic testing, also called molecular autopsy, has revealed that a non-negligible number of these deaths are a result of inherited cardiac diseases, including arrhythmic disorders such as congenital long QT syndrome and Brugada syndrome. Due to the heritability of these diseases, the potential implications for living relatives must be taken into consideration. Advanced diagnostic analyses, genetic counselling, and interdisciplinary collaboration should be integral parts of clinical and forensic practice. In this article we present a multidisciplinary collaboration established in Lausanne, with the goal of properly informing families of these pathologies and their implications for surviving family members. In Switzerland, as in many other countries, legal guidelines for genetic testing do not address the use of molecular tools for post-mortem genetic analyses in forensic practice. In this article we present the standard practice guidelines established by our multidisciplinary team.
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Familial occurrence of an association of multiple intestinal atresia and choanal atresia: a new syndrome?
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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We report on two familial cases from a non-consanguineous marriage, presenting multiple intestinal and choanal atresia. Massive hydramnios and dilatation of the bowel were observed at 29 weeks of gestation during routine ultrasound scan of a healthy mother. The fetal karyotype was normal and cystic fibrosis screening was negative. Regular scans were performed throughout the pregnancy. The child was born at 34 weeks gestation. Choanal atresia was diagnosed at birth and abdominal investigations showed multiple atresia interesting both the small bowel and the colon. Further interventions were necessary because of recurrent obstructions. During the following pregnancy, a dilatation of the fetal intestinal tract was detected by ultrasonography at 27 weeks of gestation. Pregnancy was interrupted. Post-mortem examination of the fetus confirmed the stenosis of long segments of the small intestine associated with areas of colonic atresia. In both cases, histology and distribution were consistent with those reported in hereditary multiple intestinal atresia (HMIA). An association between multiple intestinal and choanal atresia has never been reported. We suggest it could correspond to a new autosomal recessive entity for which cytogenetic investigations and high-resolution array CGH revealed no visible anomalies.
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A single-base substitution within an intronic repetitive element causes dominant retinitis pigmentosa with reduced penetrance.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 07-21-2009
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We report the study of a large American family displaying autosomal dominant retinitis pigmentosa with reduced penetrance, a form of hereditary retinal degeneration. Although the inheritance pattern and previous linkage mapping pointed to the involvement of the PRPF31 gene, extensive screening of all its exons and their boundaries failed in the past to reveal any mutation. In this work, we sequenced the entire PRPF31 genomic region by both the classical Sanger method and ultrahigh throughput (UHT) sequencing. Among the many variants identified, a single-base substitution (c.1374+654C>G) located deep within intron 13 and inside a repetitive DNA element was common to all patients and obligate asymptomatic carriers. This change created a new splice donor site leading to the synthesis of two mutant PRPF31 isoforms, degraded by nonsense-mediated mRNA decay. As a consequence, amounts of PRPF31 mRNA derived from the mutant allele were very reduced, with no evidence of mutant proteins being synthesized. Our results indicate that c.1374+654C>G causes retinitis pigmentosa via haploinsufficiency, similar to the vast majority of PRPF31 mutations described so far. We discuss the potential of UHT sequencing technologies in mutation screening and the continued identification of pathogenic splicing mutations buried deep within intronic regions.
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Association between C-reactive protein and adiposity in women.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2009
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The link between C-reactive protein (CRP) and adiposity deserves to be further explored, considering the controversial diabetogenic role of CRP.
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Common genetic variation and the control of HIV-1 in humans.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2009
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To extend the understanding of host genetic determinants of HIV-1 control, we performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 2,554 infected Caucasian subjects. The study was powered to detect common genetic variants explaining down to 1.3% of the variability in viral load at set point. We provide overwhelming confirmation of three associations previously reported in a genome-wide study and show further independent effects of both common and rare variants in the Major Histocompatibility Complex region (MHC). We also examined the polymorphisms reported in previous candidate gene studies and fail to support a role for any variant outside of the MHC or the chemokine receptor cluster on chromosome 3. In addition, we evaluated functional variants, copy-number polymorphisms, epistatic interactions, and biological pathways. This study thus represents a comprehensive assessment of common human genetic variation in HIV-1 control in Caucasians.
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Mutation screening of the glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) gene in patients with schizophrenia.
Psychiatr. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2009
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Experimental evidences show that glutathione and its rate-limiting synthesizing enzyme, the glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), are involved in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Furthermore, genetic association has been previously reported between two single nucleotide polymorphisms lying in noncoding regions of glutamate cysteine ligase modifier (GCLM) gene, which specifies for the modifier subunit of GCL and schizophrenia.
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Cardiovascular response to beta-adrenergic blockade or activation in 23 inbred mouse strains.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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We report the characterisation of 27 cardiovascular-related traits in 23 inbred mouse strains. Mice were phenotyped either in response to chronic administration of a single dose of the beta-adrenergic receptor blocker atenolol or under a low and a high dose of the beta-agonist isoproterenol and compared to baseline condition. The robustness of our data is supported by high trait heritabilities (typically H(2)>0.7) and significant correlations of trait values measured in baseline condition with independent multistrain datasets of the Mouse Phenome Database. We then focused on the drug-, dose-, and strain-specific responses to beta-stimulation and beta-blockade of a selection of traits including heart rate, systolic blood pressure, cardiac weight indices, ECG parameters and body weight. Because of the wealth of data accumulated, we applied integrative analyses such as comprehensive bi-clustering to investigate the structure of the response across the different phenotypes, strains and experimental conditions. Information extracted from these analyses is discussed in terms of novelty and biological implications. For example, we observe that traits related to ventricular weight in most strains respond only to the high dose of isoproterenol, while heart rate and atrial weight are already affected by the low dose. Finally, we observe little concordance between strain similarity based on the phenotypes and genotypic relatedness computed from genomic SNP profiles. This indicates that cardiovascular phenotypes are unlikely to segregate according to global phylogeny, but rather be governed by smaller, local differences in the genetic architecture of the various strains.
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Sharing data between LSDBs and central repositories.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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Several Locus-Specific DataBases (LSDBs) have recently been approached by larger, more general data repositories (including NCBI and UCSC) with the request to share the DNA variant data they have collected. Within the Human Genome Variation Society (HGVS) a document was generated summarizing the issues related to these requests. The document has been circulated in the HGVS/LSDB community and was discussed extensively. Here we summarize these discussions and present the concluded recommendations for LSDB data sharing with central repositories.
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Transcription factor CTF1 acts as a chromatin domain boundary that shields human telomeric genes from silencing.
Mol. Cell. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2009
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Telomeres are associated with chromatin-mediated silencing of genes in their vicinity. However, how epigenetic markers mediate mammalian telomeric silencing and whether specific proteins may counteract this effect are not known. We evaluated the ability of CTF1, a DNA- and histone-binding transcription factor, to prevent transgene silencing at human telomeres. CTF1 was found to protect a gene from silencing when its DNA-binding sites were interposed between the gene and the telomeric extremity, while it did not affect a gene adjacent to the telomere. Protein fusions containing the CTF1 histone-binding domain displayed similar activities, while mutants impaired in their ability to interact with the histone did not. Chromatin immunoprecipitation indicated the propagation of a hypoacetylated histone structure to various extents depending on the telomere. The CTF1 fusion protein was found to recruit the H2A.Z histone variant at the telomeric locus and to restore high histone acetylation levels to the insulated telomeric transgene. Histone lysine trimethylations were also increased on the insulated transgene, indicating that these modifications may mediate expression rather than silencing at human telomeres. Overall, these results indicate that transcription factors can act to delimit chromatin domain boundaries at mammalian telomeres, thereby blocking the propagation of a silent chromatin structure.
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Meta-analysis of 28,141 individuals identifies common variants within five new loci that influence uric acid concentrations.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2009
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Elevated serum uric acid levels cause gout and are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To investigate the polygenetic basis of serum uric acid levels, we conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association scans from 14 studies totalling 28,141 participants of European descent, resulting in identification of 954 SNPs distributed across nine loci that exceeded the threshold of genome-wide significance, five of which are novel. Overall, the common variants associated with serum uric acid levels fall in the following nine regions: SLC2A9 (p = 5.2x10(-201)), ABCG2 (p = 3.1x10(-26)), SLC17A1 (p = 3.0x10(-14)), SLC22A11 (p = 6.7x10(-14)), SLC22A12 (p = 2.0x10(-9)), SLC16A9 (p = 1.1x10(-8)), GCKR (p = 1.4x10(-9)), LRRC16A (p = 8.5x10(-9)), and near PDZK1 (p = 2.7x10(-9)). Identified variants were analyzed for gender differences. We found that the minor allele for rs734553 in SLC2A9 has greater influence in lowering uric acid levels in women and the minor allele of rs2231142 in ABCG2 elevates uric acid levels more strongly in men compared to women. To further characterize the identified variants, we analyzed their association with a panel of metabolites. rs12356193 within SLC16A9 was associated with DL-carnitine (p = 4.0x10(-26)) and propionyl-L-carnitine (p = 5.0x10(-8)) concentrations, which in turn were associated with serum UA levels (p = 1.4x10(-57) and p = 8.1x10(-54), respectively), forming a triangle between SNP, metabolites, and UA levels. Taken together, these associations highlight additional pathways that are important in the regulation of serum uric acid levels and point toward novel potential targets for pharmacological intervention to prevent or treat hyperuricemia. In addition, these findings strongly support the hypothesis that transport proteins are key in regulating serum uric acid levels.
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Genome-wide association study identifies eight loci associated with blood pressure.
Christopher Newton-Cheh, Toby Johnson, Vesela Gateva, Martin D Tobin, Murielle Bochud, Lachlan Coin, Samer S Najjar, Jing Hua Zhao, Simon C Heath, Susana Eyheramendy, Konstantinos Papadakis, Benjamin F Voight, Laura J Scott, Feng Zhang, Martin Farrall, Toshiko Tanaka, Chris Wallace, John C Chambers, Kay-Tee Khaw, Peter Nilsson, Pim van der Harst, Silvia Polidoro, Diederick E Grobbee, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Michiel L Bots, Louise V Wain, Katherine S Elliott, Alexander Teumer, Jian'an Luan, Gavin Lucas, Johanna Kuusisto, Paul R Burton, David Hadley, Wendy L McArdle, , Morris Brown, Anna Dominiczak, Stephen J Newhouse, Nilesh J Samani, John Webster, Eleftheria Zeggini, Jacques S Beckmann, Sven Bergmann, Noha Lim, Kijoung Song, Peter Vollenweider, Gérard Waeber, Dawn M Waterworth, Xin Yuan, Leif Groop, Marju Orho-Melander, Alessandra Allione, Alessandra Di Gregorio, Simonetta Guarrera, Salvatore Panico, Fulvio Ricceri, Valeria Romanazzi, Carlotta Sacerdote, Paolo Vineis, Inês Barroso, Manjinder S Sandhu, Robert N Luben, Gabriel J Crawford, Pekka Jousilahti, Markus Perola, Michael Boehnke, Lori L Bonnycastle, Francis S Collins, Anne U Jackson, Karen L Mohlke, Heather M Stringham, Timo T Valle, Cristen J Willer, Richard N Bergman, Mario A Morken, Angela Döring, Christian Gieger, Thomas Illig, Thomas Meitinger, Elin Org, Arne Pfeufer, H Erich Wichmann, Sekar Kathiresan, Jaume Marrugat, Christopher J O'Donnell, Stephen M Schwartz, David S Siscovick, Isaac Subirana, Nelson B Freimer, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Mark I McCarthy, Paul F O'Reilly, Leena Peltonen, Anneli Pouta, Paul E de Jong, Harold Snieder, Wiek H van Gilst, Robert Clarke, Anuj Goel, Anders Hamsten, John F Peden, Udo Seedorf, Ann-Christine Syvänen, Giovanni Tognoni, Edward G Lakatta, Serena Sanna, Paul Scheet, David Schlessinger, Angelo Scuteri, Marcus Dörr, Florian Ernst, Stephan B Felix, Georg Homuth, Roberto Lorbeer, Thorsten Reffelmann, Rainer Rettig, Uwe Völker, Pilar Galán, Ivo G Gut, Serge Hercberg, G Mark Lathrop, Diana Zelenika, Panos Deloukas, Nicole Soranzo, Frances M Williams, Guangju Zhai, Veikko Salomaa, Markku Laakso, Roberto Elosua, Nita G Forouhi, Henry Völzke, Cuno S Uiterwaal, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Mattijs E Numans, Giuseppe Matullo, Gerjan Navis, Göran Berglund, Sheila A Bingham, Jaspal S Kooner, John M Connell, Stefania Bandinelli, Luigi Ferrucci, Hugh Watkins, Tim D Spector, Jaakko Tuomilehto, David Altshuler, David P Strachan, Maris Laan, Pierre Meneton, Nicholas J Wareham, Manuela Uda, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Vincent Mooser, Olle Melander, Ruth J F Loos, Paul Elliott, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Mark Caulfield, Patricia B Munroe.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
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Elevated blood pressure is a common, heritable cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. To date, identification of common genetic variants influencing blood pressure has proven challenging. We tested 2.5 million genotyped and imputed SNPs for association with systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 34,433 subjects of European ancestry from the Global BPgen consortium and followed up findings with direct genotyping (N ? 71,225 European ancestry, N ? 12,889 Indian Asian ancestry) and in silico comparison (CHARGE consortium, N = 29,136). We identified association between systolic or diastolic blood pressure and common variants in eight regions near the CYP17A1 (P = 7 × 10(-24)), CYP1A2 (P = 1 × 10(-23)), FGF5 (P = 1 × 10(-21)), SH2B3 (P = 3 × 10(-18)), MTHFR (P = 2 × 10(-13)), c10orf107 (P = 1 × 10(-9)), ZNF652 (P = 5 × 10(-9)) and PLCD3 (P = 1 × 10(-8)) genes. All variants associated with continuous blood pressure were associated with dichotomous hypertension. These associations between common variants and blood pressure and hypertension offer mechanistic insights into the regulation of blood pressure and may point to novel targets for interventions to prevent cardiovascular disease.
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Mutations in the heparan-sulfate proteoglycan glypican 6 (GPC6) impair endochondral ossification and cause recessive omodysplasia.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2009
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Glypicans are a family of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored, membrane-bound heparan sulfate (HS) proteoglycans. Their biological roles are only partly understood, although it is assumed that they modulate the activity of HS-binding growth factors. The involvement of glypicans in developmental morphogenesis and growth regulation has been highlighted by Drosophila mutants and by a human overgrowth syndrome with multiple malformations caused by glypican 3 mutations (Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome). We now report that autosomal-recessive omodysplasia, a genetic condition characterized by short-limbed short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and variable developmental delay, maps to chromosome 13 (13q31.1-q32.2) and is caused by point mutations or by larger genomic rearrangements in glypican 6 (GPC6). All mutations cause truncation of the GPC6 protein and abolish both the HS-binding site and the GPI-bearing membrane-associated domain, and thus loss of function is predicted. Expression studies in microdissected mouse growth plate revealed expression of Gpc6 in proliferative chondrocytes. Thus, GPC6 seems to have a previously unsuspected role in endochondral ossification and skeletal growth, and its functional abrogation results in a short-limb phenotype.
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Limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A can result from accelerated autoproteolytic inactivation of calpain 3.
Biochemistry
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2009
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Loss-of-function mutations in calpain 3 have been shown to cause limb-girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A), an autosomal recessive disorder that results in gradual wasting of the muscles of the hip and shoulder areas. Due to the inherent instability of calpain 3, recombinant expression of the full-length enzyme has not been possible, making in vitro analysis of specific LGMD2A-causing mutations difficult. However, because calpain 3 is highly similar in amino acid sequence to calpain 2, the recently solved crystal structure of full-length, Ca2+-bound, calpastatin-inhibited rat calpain 2 has allowed us to model calpain 3 as a Ca2+-bound homodimer. The model revealed three distinct areas of the enzyme that undergo a large conformational change upon Ca2+ binding. Located in these areas are several residues that undergo mutation to cause LGMD2A. We investigated the in vitro effects of six of these mutations by making the corresponding mutations in rat calpain 2. All six mutations examined in this study resulted in a decrease in enzyme activity. All but one of the mutations caused an increased rate of autoproteolytic degradation of the enzyme as witnessed by SDS-PAGE, indicating the decrease in enzyme activity is caused, at least in part, by an increase in the rate of autoproteolytic degradation. The putative in vivo effects of these mutations on calpain 3 activity are discussed with respect to their ability to cause LGMD2A.
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Variants in MTNR1B influence fasting glucose levels.
Inga Prokopenko, Claudia Langenberg, Jose C Florez, Richa Saxena, Nicole Soranzo, Gudmar Thorleifsson, Ruth J F Loos, Alisa K Manning, Anne U Jackson, Yurii Aulchenko, Simon C Potter, Michael R Erdos, Serena Sanna, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Eleanor Wheeler, Marika Kaakinen, Valeriya Lyssenko, Wei-Min Chen, Kourosh Ahmadi, Jacques S Beckmann, Richard N Bergman, Murielle Bochud, Lori L Bonnycastle, Thomas A Buchanan, Antonio Cao, Alessandra Cervino, Lachlan Coin, Francis S Collins, Laura Crisponi, Eco J C de Geus, Abbas Dehghan, Panos Deloukas, Alex S F Doney, Paul Elliott, Nelson Freimer, Vesela Gateva, Christian Herder, Albert Hofman, Thomas E Hughes, Sarah Hunt, Thomas Illig, Michael Inouye, Bo Isomaa, Toby Johnson, Augustine Kong, Maria Krestyaninova, Johanna Kuusisto, Markku Laakso, Noha Lim, Ulf Lindblad, Cecilia M Lindgren, Owen T McCann, Karen L Mohlke, Andrew D Morris, Silvia Naitza, Marco Orrù, Colin N A Palmer, Anneli Pouta, Joshua Randall, Wolfgang Rathmann, Jouko Saramies, Paul Scheet, Laura J Scott, Angelo Scuteri, Stephen Sharp, Eric Sijbrands, Jan H Smit, Kijoung Song, Valgerdur Steinthorsdottir, Heather M Stringham, Tiinamaija Tuomi, Jaakko Tuomilehto, André G Uitterlinden, Benjamin F Voight, Dawn Waterworth, H-Erich Wichmann, Gonneke Willemsen, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Xin Yuan, Jing Hua Zhao, Eleftheria Zeggini, David Schlessinger, Manjinder Sandhu, Dorret I Boomsma, Manuela Uda, Tim D Spector, Brenda Wjh Penninx, David Altshuler, Peter Vollenweider, Marjo Riitta Jarvelin, Edward Lakatta, Gérard Waeber, Caroline S Fox, Leena Peltonen, Leif C Groop, Vincent Mooser, L Adrienne Cupples, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Michael Boehnke, Inês Barroso, Cornelia van Duijn, Josée Dupuis, Richard M Watanabe, Kari Stefansson, Mark I McCarthy, Nicholas J Wareham, James B Meigs, Gonçalo R Abecasis.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2009
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To identify previously unknown genetic loci associated with fasting glucose concentrations, we examined the leading association signals in ten genome-wide association scans involving a total of 36,610 individuals of European descent. Variants in the gene encoding melatonin receptor 1B (MTNR1B) were consistently associated with fasting glucose across all ten studies. The strongest signal was observed at rs10830963, where each G allele (frequency 0.30 in HapMap CEU) was associated with an increase of 0.07 (95% CI = 0.06-0.08) mmol/l in fasting glucose levels (P = 3.2 x 10(-50)) and reduced beta-cell function as measured by homeostasis model assessment (HOMA-B, P = 1.1 x 10(-15)). The same allele was associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (odds ratio = 1.09 (1.05-1.12), per G allele P = 3.3 x 10(-7)) in a meta-analysis of 13 case-control studies totaling 18,236 cases and 64,453 controls. Our analyses also confirm previous associations of fasting glucose with variants at the G6PC2 (rs560887, P = 1.1 x 10(-57)) and GCK (rs4607517, P = 1.0 x 10(-25)) loci.
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Autosomal-dominant distal myopathy associated with a recurrent missense mutation in the gene encoding the nuclear matrix protein, matrin 3.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2009
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Distal myopathies represent a heterogeneous group of inherited skeletal muscle disorders. One type of adult-onset, progressive autosomal-dominant distal myopathy, frequently associated with dysphagia and dysphonia (vocal cord and pharyngeal weakness with distal myopathy [VCPDM]), has been mapped to chromosome 5q31 in a North American pedigree. Here, we report the identification of a second large VCPDM family of Bulgarian descent and fine mapping of the critical interval. Sequencing of positional candidate genes revealed precisely the same nonconservative S85C missense mutation affecting an interspecies conserved residue in the MATR3 gene in both families. MATR3 is expressed in skeletal muscle and encodes matrin 3, a component of the nuclear matrix, which is a proteinaceous network that extends throughout the nucleus. Different disease related haplotype signatures in the two families provided evidence that two independent mutational events at the same position in MATR3 cause VCPDM. Our data establish proof of principle that the nuclear matrix is crucial for normal skeletal muscle structure and function and put VCPDM on the growing list of monogenic disorders associated with the nuclear proteome.
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Seventy-five genetic loci influencing the human red blood cell.
Pim van der Harst, Weihua Zhang, Irene Mateo Leach, Augusto Rendon, Niek Verweij, Joban Sehmi, Dirk S Paul, Ulrich Elling, Hooman Allayee, Xinzhong Li, Aparna Radhakrishnan, Sian-Tsung Tan, Katrin Voss, Christian X Weichenberger, Cornelis A Albers, Abtehale Al-Hussani, Folkert W Asselbergs, Marina Ciullo, Fabrice Danjou, Christian Dina, Tonu Esko, David M Evans, Lude Franke, Martin Gögele, Jaana Hartiala, Micha Hersch, Hilma Holm, Jouke-Jan Hottenga, Stavroula Kanoni, Marcus E Kleber, Vasiliki Lagou, Claudia Langenberg, Lorna M Lopez, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Olle Melander, Federico Murgia, Ilja M Nolte, Paul F O'Reilly, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Afshin Parsa, Nicola Pirastu, Eleonora Porcu, Laura Portas, Inga Prokopenko, Janina S Ried, So-Youn Shin, Clara S Tang, Alexander Teumer, Michela Traglia, Sheila Ulivi, Harm-Jan Westra, Jian Yang, Jing Hua Zhao, Franco Anni, Abdel Abdellaoui, Antony Attwood, Beverley Balkau, Stefania Bandinelli, François Bastardot, Beben Benyamin, Bernhard O Boehm, William O Cookson, Debashish Das, Paul I W de Bakker, Rudolf A de Boer, Eco J C de Geus, Marleen H de Moor, Maria Dimitriou, Francisco S Domingues, Angela Döring, Gunnar Engström, Gudmundur Ingi Eyjolfsson, Luigi Ferrucci, Krista Fischer, Renzo Galanello, Stephen F Garner, Bernd Genser, Quince D Gibson, Giorgia Girotto, Daniel Fannar Gudbjartsson, Sarah E Harris, Anna-Liisa Hartikainen, Claire E Hastie, Bo Hedblad, Thomas Illig, Jennifer Jolley, Mika Kähönen, Ido P Kema, John P Kemp, Liming Liang, Heather Lloyd-Jones, Ruth J F Loos, Stuart Meacham, Sarah E Medland, Christa Meisinger, Yasin Memari, Evelin Mihailov, Kathy Miller, Miriam F Moffatt, Matthias Nauck, Maria Novatchkova, Teresa Nutile, Isleifur Olafsson, Pall T Onundarson, Debora Parracciani, Brenda W Penninx, Lucia Perseu, Antonio Piga, Giorgio Pistis, Anneli Pouta, Ursula Puc, Olli Raitakari, Susan M Ring, Antonietta Robino, Daniela Ruggiero, Aimo Ruokonen, Aude Saint-Pierre, Cinzia Sala, Andres Salumets, Jennifer Sambrook, Hein Schepers, Carsten Oliver Schmidt, Herman H W Sillje, Rob Sladek, Johannes H Smit, John M Starr, Jonathan Stephens, Patrick Sulem, Toshiko Tanaka, Unnur Thorsteinsdottir, Vinicius Tragante, Wiek H van Gilst, L Joost van Pelt, Dirk J van Veldhuisen, Uwe Völker, John B Whitfield, Gonneke Willemsen, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Gerald Wirnsberger, Ale Algra, Francesco Cucca, Adamo Pio D'adamo, John Danesh, Ian J Deary, Anna F Dominiczak, Paul Elliott, Paolo Fortina, Philippe Froguel, Paolo Gasparini, Andreas Greinacher, Stanley L Hazen, Marjo-Riitta Järvelin, Kay Tee Khaw, Terho Lehtimäki, Winfried Maerz, Nicholas G Martin, Andres Metspalu, Braxton D Mitchell, Grant W Montgomery, Carmel Moore, Gerjan Navis, Mario Pirastu, Peter P Pramstaller, Ramiro Ramirez-Solis, Eric Schadt, James Scott, Alan R Shuldiner, George Davey Smith, J Gustav Smith, Harold Snieder, Rossella Sorice, Tim D Spector, Kari Stefansson, Michael Stumvoll, W H Wilson Tang, Daniela Toniolo, Anke Tönjes, Peter M Visscher, Peter Vollenweider, Nicholas J Wareham, Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel, Dorret I Boomsma, Jacques S Beckmann, George V Dedoussis, Panos Deloukas, Manuel A Ferreira, Serena Sanna, Manuela Uda, Andrew A Hicks, Josef Martin Penninger, Christian Gieger, Jaspal S Kooner, Willem H Ouwehand, Nicole Soranzo, John C Chambers.
Nature
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Anaemia is a chief determinant of global ill health, contributing to cognitive impairment, growth retardation and impaired physical capacity. To understand further the genetic factors influencing red blood cells, we carried out a genome-wide association study of haemoglobin concentration and related parameters in up to 135,367 individuals. Here we identify 75 independent genetic loci associated with one or more red blood cell phenotypes at P?
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A multi-SNP locus-association method reveals a substantial fraction of the missing heritability.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
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There are many known examples of multiple semi-independent associations at individual loci; such associations might arise either because of true allelic heterogeneity or because of imperfect tagging of an unobserved causal variant. This phenomenon is of great importance in monogenic traits but has not yet been systematically investigated and quantified in complex-trait genome-wide association studies (GWASs). Here, we describe a multi-SNP association method that estimates the effect of loci harboring multiple association signals by using GWAS summary statistics. Applying the method to a large anthropometric GWAS meta-analysis (from the Genetic Investigation of Anthropometric Traits consortium study), we show that for height, body mass index (BMI), and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), 3%, 2%, and 1%, respectively, of additional phenotypic variance can be explained on top of the previously reported 10% (height), 1.5% (BMI), and 1% (WHR). The method also permitted a substantial increase (by up to 50%) in the number of loci that replicate in a discovery-validation design. Specifically, we identified 74 loci at which the multi-SNP, a linear combination of SNPs, explains significantly more variance than does the best individual SNP. A detailed analysis of multi-SNPs shows that most of the additional variability explained is derived from SNPs that are not in linkage disequilibrium with the lead SNP, suggesting a major contribution of allelic heterogeneity to the missing heritability.
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Carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation allele present with increased levels of cytokine IL-10.
J Neuroinflammation
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Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is an inherited late-onset neurodegenerative disorder, characterized both by neurological and cognitive deficits. It is caused by the expansion of CGG repeats (55 to 200 repeats) in the noncoding region of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Abnormal immunological patterns are often associated with neurodegenerative disorders and implicated in their etiology. We therefore investigated the immune status of FXTAS patients, which had not been assessed prior to this study.
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