JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Significant Reduction in HIV Virologic Failure During a 15-Year Period in a Setting With Free Healthcare Access.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
?Calendar trends in virologic failure (VF) among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients can help to evaluate the performance of healthcare systems and the need for new antiretroviral therapy (ART). We examined the time trend in the rate of VF beyond 6 months of ART between 1997 and 2011 in France.
Related JoVE Video
Phenotypic characterization of virological failure following lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy using full-length gag-protease genes.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Major protease mutations are rarely observed following first-line failure with PIs and interpretation of genotyping results in this context may be difficult. We performed extensive phenotyping of viruses from five patients failing lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in the MONARK study without major PI mutations by standard genotyping.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of rapid progressors in HIV infection as an extreme phenotype.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rapid CD4 cell loss represents an HIV phenotype used to identify causal variants of accelerated disease progression. The optimal rate and threshold for identifying this extreme phenotype in recently infected individuals is unclear.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 DNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cannabis use are associated with intermittent HIV shedding in semen of men who have sex with men on successful antiretroviral regimens.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Few data exist on the efficacy of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) in semen of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected men who have sex with men (MSM) with sustained control of HIV replication in blood.
Related JoVE Video
Population pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine in HIV-1-infected adult patients.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aims of this study were to describe emtricitabine concentration-time courses in a large population of HIV-1-infected adults, to evaluate the influence of renal function on emtricitabine disposition, and to assess current dosing adjustment recommendations. Emtricitabine blood plasma concentrations were determined from samples collected from 161 adult patients during therapeutic drug monitoring and measured by liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry. The data were analyzed by a population approach. Emtricitabine pharmacokinetics was best described by a two-compartment model in which the absorption and distribution rate constants were assumed to be equal. Typical population parameter estimates (interindividual variability) were apparent elimination and intercompartmental clearances of 15.1 liters/h (17.4%) and 5.75 liters/h, respectively, and apparent central and peripheral volumes of distribution of 42.3 liters and 55.4 liters, respectively. The apparent elimination clearance was significantly related to creatinine clearance (CLCR), reflecting renal function. For 200 mg once a day (QD), the median area under the concentration-time curve over 24 h (AUC0-24) was 12.5 mg·h/liter for patients with normal renal function (CLCR, >80 ml/min), 14.7 mg·h/liter for patients with mild renal impairment (CLCR, 79 to 50 ml/min), and 17.9 mg·h/liter for patients with moderate renal impairment (CLCR, 49 to 30 ml/min). Simulations of the recommended dosing schemes for the oral solid form of emtricitabine (i.e., 200 mg per 48 h according to renal function) led to lower emtricitabine exposures for patients with moderate renal impairment (median AUC0-48, 17.2 mg·h/liter) than for patients with normal renal function (median AUC0-48, 25.6 mg·h/liter). Administering 18 ml of emtricitabine oral solution (10 mg/ml) QD to patients with moderate renal impairment should yield emtricitabine exposures similar to those in patients with normal renal function.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of effect of impaired renal function on lamivudine pharmacokinetics.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study aimed to describe lamivudine pharmacokinetics in patients with impaired renal function and to evaluate the consistency of current dosing recommendations.
Related JoVE Video
CD4+ cell count recovery in naïve patients initiating cART, who achieved and maintained plasma HIV-RNA suppression.
J Int AIDS Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A key objective of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) is to reach and maintain high CD4 cell counts to provide long-term protection against AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and malignancies, as well as other comorbidities. However, a high proportion of patients present late for care. Our objective was to assess CD4 cell count recovery up to seven years in naïve patients initiating cART with at least three drugs in usual clinical care.
Related JoVE Video
[Vitamin D and infectious diseases].
Presse Med
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin D plays a role in the synthesis of antibacterial peptids and in autophagy. Several studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D are associated with the susceptibility and the severity of acute infections on one hand, and with an unfavorable outcome of some chronic infections (such as HIV infection). Vitamin D supplementation improves response to treatment of some viral (such as chronic hepatitis C infection) or bacterial infections (such as pulmonar tuberculosis). Vitamin D supplementation demonstrated no benefit in reducing the incidence of pulmonary infections. The target level of vitamin D to be reached after supplementation is not known yet.
Related JoVE Video
Symptomatic Illness and Low CD4 Cell Count at HIV Seroconversion as Markers of Severe Primary HIV Infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The risk/benefit of initiating ART in primary HIV infection (PHI) is unclear. The benefits are more likely to outweigh the risks in patients with severe PHI. An accepted definition of severe PHI is, however, lacking.
Related JoVE Video
Trends in virological and clinical outcomes in individuals with HIV-1 infection and virological failure of drugs from three antiretroviral drug classes: a cohort study.
Lancet Infect Dis
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited treatment options have been available for people with HIV who have had virological failure of the three original classes of HIV antiretroviral drugs-so-called triple-class virological failure (TCVF). However, introduction of new drugs and drug classes might have improved outcomes. We aimed to assess trends in virological and clinical outcomes for individuals with TCVF in 2000-09.
Related JoVE Video
Efficacy and safety of a switch to unboosted atazanavir in combination with nucleoside analogues in HIV-1-infected patients with virological suppression under antiretroviral therapy.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Limited data are available on the use of unboosted atazanavir in combination with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) in treatment-experienced HIV-infected patients.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphism in Gag gene cleavage sites of HIV-1 non-B subtype and virological outcome of a first-line lopinavir/ritonavir single drug regimen.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Virological failure on a boosted-protease inhibitor (PI/r) first-line triple combination is usually not associated with the detection of resistance mutations in the protease gene. Thus, other resistance pathways are being investigated. First-line PI/r monotherapy is the best model to investigate in vivo if the presence of mutations in the cleavage sites (CS) of gag gene prior to any antiretroviral treatment might influence PI/r efficacy. 83 patients were assigned to initiate antiretroviral treatment with first-line lopinavir/r monotherapy in the randomised Monark trial. We compared baseline sequence of gag CS between patients harbouring B or non-B HIV-1 subtype, and between those who achieved viral suppression and those who experienced virological failure while on LPV/r monotherapy up to Week 96. Baseline sequence of gag CS was available for 82/83 isolates; 81/82 carried at least one substitution in gag CS compared to HXB2 sequence. At baseline, non-B subtype isolates were significantly more likely to harbour mutations in gag CS than B subtype isolates (p<0.0001). Twenty-three patients experienced virological failure while on lopinavir/r monotherapy. The presence of more than two substitutions in p2/NC site at baseline significantly predicted virological failure (p?=?0.0479), non-B subtype isolates being more likely to harbour more than two substitutions in this specific site. In conclusion, gag cleavage site was highly polymorphic in antiretroviral-naive patients harbouring a non-B HIV-1 strain. We show that pre-therapy mutations in gag cleavage site sequence were significantly associated with the virological outcome of a first-line LPV/r single drug regimen in the Monark trial.
Related JoVE Video
X4 tropic multi-drug resistant quasi-species detected at the time of primary HIV-1 infection remain exclusive or at least dominant far from PHI.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Our objective was to analyze the evolution of resistance mutations (RM) and viral tropism of multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strains detected at primary HIV-1 infection (PHI). MDR HIV strain was defined as the presence of genotypic resistance to at least 1 antiretroviral of the 3 classes. Tropism determinations (CCR5 or CXCR4) were performed on baseline plasma HIV-RNA and/or PBMC-HIV-DNA samples, then during follow-up using population-based sequencing of V3 loop and phenotypic tests. Clonal analysis was performed at baseline for env, RT and protease genes, and for HIV-DNA env gene during follow-up. Five patients were eligible. At baseline, RT, protease and env clones from HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA were highly homogenous for each patient; genotypic tropism was R5 in 3 (A,B,C) and X4 in 2 patients (D,E). MDR strains persisted in HIV-DNA throughout follow-up in all patients. For patient A, tropism remained R5 with concordance between phenotypic and genotypic tests. Clonal analysis on Month (M) 78 HIV-DNA evidenced exclusively R5 (21/21) variants. In patient B, clonal analysis at M36 showed exclusively R5 variants (19/19) using both genotypic and phenotypic tests. In patient C, baseline tropism was R5 by genotypic test and R5/X4 by phenotypic test. An expansion of these X4 clones was evidenced by clonal analysis on M72 HIV-DNA (12/14 X4 and 2/14 R5 variants). In patient D, baseline tropism was X4 with concordance between both techniques and HIV-RNA and HIV-DNA remained X4-tropic up to M72, confirmed by the clonal analysis. Patient E harboured highly homogenous X4-using population at baseline; tropism was unchanged at M1 and M18. In all patients, the initial MDR population was highly homogenous initially, supporting the early expansion of a monoclonal population and its long-term persistence. X4-tropic variants present at baseline were still exclusive (patients D and E) or dominant (at least one time point, patient C) far from PHI.
Related JoVE Video
Unboosted atazanavir-based therapy maintains control of HIV type-1 replication as effectively as a ritonavir-boosted regimen.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Triple combination therapy based on a ritonavir (RTV)-boosted protease inhibitor plus two nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) has improved outcomes in HIV type-1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. For patients unable to tolerate these regimens, alternative therapeutic approaches are needed.
Related JoVE Video
Undetectable HIV-1 RNA load with the Cobas TaqMan v1.0 in a patient diagnosed at the time of primary HIV-1 infection.
J. Med. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Diagnosis of primary HIV-1 infection is challenging due to the presence of a serological window; thus, HIV-1-RNA quantitation and/or measurement of p24 antigenemia are recommended in such cases. A patient was diagnosed at the time of primary HIV-1 infection, he harbored a CFR02_AG subtype virus; quantitation of plasma HIV-1-RNA yielded an undetectable result according to one commercial assay, while HIV-1-RNA was detectable when measured with three other assays.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Time course of total HIV-1 DNA and 2-long-terminal repeat circles in patients with controlled plasma viremia switching to a raltegravir-containing regimen.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Early integration of HIV proviral DNA into the host cell genome prevents viral eradication, despite suppressive HAART. In vitro, integrase inhibitors reduce proviral DNA levels and rapidly increase 2-long-terminal repeat (LTR) circle levels. We examined the effect of raltegravir on the time course of HIV-1 DNA forms in patients with controlled viremia.
Related JoVE Video
Is it safe to discontinue primary Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia prophylaxis in patients with virologically suppressed HIV infection and a CD4 cell count <200 cells/microL?
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Current guidelines suggest that primary prophylaxis for Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PcP) can be safely stopped in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients who are receiving combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) and who have a CD4 cell count >200 cells/microL. There are few data regarding the incidence of PcP or safety of stopping prophylaxis in virologically suppressed patients with CD4 cell counts of 101-200 cells/microL.
Related JoVE Video
Short communication: evidence of HIV type 1 complex and second generation recombinant strains among patients infected in 1997-2007 in France: ANRS CO06 PRIMO Cohort.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although subtype B strains are still predominant in France, non-B viruses have been isolated from 26% of patients with a primary HIV-1 infection in 2005-2006. The objective of this study was to characterize recombinant-HIV-1 strains by a subtyping based on the phylogenetic analysis of both pol and env sequences. We studied 591 patients who were part of the French PRIMO-Cohort between 1997 and 2007. The RT and V3 regions were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses were performed. Phylogenetic analyses showed concordant subtype results for 91.7% of viruses: 71.6% of the viruses were subtype B and 28.4% belonged to non-B subtypes or circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). Forty-nine strains showed different phylogenies between the two genes (pol and env), indicating that recombinations were observed in 8.3% of the cases. These recombinants were observed in patients from sub-Saharan Africa (28.3%) and in white patients (6.3%). Moreover, among the 49 recombinant viruses, 15 (30.6%) contained a B sequence in the pol or in the env gene compared to 34 (69.4%), which contained non-B or CRF sequences. Twenty-six different recombination patterns involving subtypes, CRFs, or undetermined strains were observed. We have reported the occurrence of new recombinant forms between the two major viral types of strains circulating in France: subtype B and CRF02_AG. Our study confirms a high HIV-1 diversity among patients infected in France within the past 10 years, with a high proportion of non-B strains and the circulation of complex recombinant strains among both sub-Saharan patients and French patients.
Related JoVE Video
Breast enlargement in an HIV-infected man on combined antiretroviral therapy: what if it was carcinoma?
Int J STD AIDS
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We describe a case of an HIV-infected man on effective combined antiretroviral therapy, presenting with bilateral gynaecomastia revealing breast carcinoma. Gynaecomastia was first considered to be related to efavirenz and/or didanosine. Although breast carcinoma is rare among HIV-infected men, it should be considered as a potential cause of breast enlargement.
Related JoVE Video
Treatment of acute hepatitis C in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: the HEPAIG study.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Acute hepatitis C continues to be a concern in men who have sex with men (MSM), and its optimal management has yet to be established. In this study, the clinical, biological, and therapeutic data of 53 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected MSM included in a multicenter prospective study on acute hepatitis C in 2006-2007 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The mean hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load at diagnosis was 5.8 ± 1.1 log(10) IU/mL (genotype 4, n = 28; genotype 1, n = 14, genotype 3, n = 7). The cumulative rates of spontaneous HCV clearance were 11.0% and 16.5% 3 and 6 months after diagnosis, respectively. Forty patients were treated, 38 of whom received pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The mean duration of HCV therapy was 39 ± 17 weeks (24 ± 4 weeks in 14 cases). On treatment, 18/36 (50.0%; 95% confidence interval 34.3-65.7) patients had undetectable HCV RNA at week 4 (RVR), and 32/39 (82.1%; 95 confidence interval 70.0-94.1) achieved sustained virological response (SVR). SVR did not correlate with pretreatment parameters, including HCV genotype, but correlated with RVR (predictive positive value of 94.4%) and with effective duration of HCV therapy (64.3% for 24 ± 4 weeks versus 92.0% for longer treatment; P = 0.03). Conclusion: The low rate of spontaneous clearance and the high SVR rates argue for early HCV therapy following diagnosis of acute hepatitis C in HIV-infected MSM. Pegylated interferon and ribavirin seem to be the best option. The duration of treatment should be modulated according to RVR, with a 24-week course for patients presenting RVR and a 48-week course for those who do not, irrespectively of HCV genotype.
Related JoVE Video
Impact of 48 week lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy on blood cell-associated HIV-1-DNA in the MONARK trial.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To study the impact of protease inhibitor monotherapy on the HIV-1 blood reservoir in 72 antiretroviral-naive patients.
Related JoVE Video
Long-term (96-week) follow-up of antiretroviral-naïve HIV-infected patients treated with first-line lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy in the MONARK trial.
HIV Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The toxicities, cost and complexity of triple combinations warrant the search for other treatment options, such as boosted protease inhibitor (PI) monotherapy. MONotherapy AntiRetroviral Kaletra (MONARK) is the first randomized trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir monotherapy to triple combination therapy with zidovudine/lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir in antiretroviral-naïve patients.
Related JoVE Video
HIV-1 resistance to first- and second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
AIDS Rev
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Resistance to the first-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors nevirapine and efavirenz is characterized by rapid selection of viruses carrying one or several mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene, which immediately confer high-level resistance as well as cross-resistance to the two drugs. Such mutations have been detected close to the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor binding site and also in the connection domain of HIV reverse transcriptase. They lead to a loss of drug affinity without affecting viral fitness. As a single mutation is enough to confer high-level resistance, transmission of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant viruses (currently 2-7% of cases) is strongly associated with virologic failure of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based first-line regimens. The development of second-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors is a major challenge. The most promising compounds, etravirine and rilpivirine, are active on mutant viruses and possess a relatively high genetic barrier for resistance. Data on etravirine resistance in patients already exposed to first-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors show that, among 17 mutations in the reverse transcriptase gene, at least three must be present simultaneously in order to diminish etravirine activity. Recent studies of the prevalence of resistance in large databases of patients already exposed to nevirapine and efavirenz show that more than three-quarters of strains will still be sensitive to etravirine in both the southern and northern hemispheres. The first data on rilpivirine resistance are encouraging, but still too preliminary.
Related JoVE Video
Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-sparing regimen (nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor + protease inhibitor) was more likely associated with resistance comparing to nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor + n
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The use of nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) + protease inhibitor regimen for the treatment of antiretroviral-naive patients was less successful than classical nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) based regimen and associated with more resistance for protease inhibitors and NNRTIs. The selection for NNRTI resistance was particularly observed in patients with high viral load (>100 000 copies/ml) and low efavirenz trough levels (<1100 ng/ml). Contrary to the results observed in trials evaluating mono or dual protease inhibitors strategies, gag gene mutations were not involved in the low efficacy of this strategy. The NNRTI + protease inhibitor strategy should not be recommended as an antiretroviral first-line regimen, particularly in patients with high viral load at baseline.
Related JoVE Video
Protease inhibitor resistance analysis in the MONARK trial comparing first-line lopinavir-ritonavir monotherapy to lopinavir-ritonavir plus zidovudine and lamivudine triple therapy.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The MONARK study was a pilot randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy to those of LPV/r-zidovudine-lamivudine triple therapy for antiretroviral-naïve human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1)-infected patients. Resistance testing was performed at the time of initial screening and at the time of virological failure (defined to include low-level viremia with >50 and <400 HIV-1 virus RNA copies/ml of plasma). Changes from the baseline sequences, including mutations noted on the 2008 International AIDS Society-USA list of resistance-associated protease mutations, were considered. Drug resistance testing was performed for 38 patients (5 of 53 on triple therapy and 33 of 83 on monotherapy). By week 96 (W96), virus samples from 18 of 33 patients in the monotherapy arm showed changes from baseline sequences, and 5 of these patients had viruses with major protease inhibitor (PI) resistance-associated mutations (M46I at W40, L76V at W48, M46I and L76V at W48, L10F and V82A at W72, and L76V at W84). Data on virus phenotypes detected at the time of initial screening and the time of virological failure were available for four patients in whom major PI resistance mutations developed, and these data revealed a mean increase of 2.2-fold (range, 0.75- to 4.6-fold) in the LPV 50% inhibitory concentration. All three patients in whom the L76V PI resistance mutation developed were infected with HIV-1 subtype CRF02_AG. In the triple-therapy group, no major PI resistance mutation was selected among the three patients with protease changes by W48. No association between the baseline CD4 cell count and the viral load, the W4 and final viral loads, or the final LPV trough concentration and the emergence of a major PI resistance mutation was found. Major PI resistance-associated mutations were detected in 5 (6%) of 83 patients treated with LPV/r monotherapy, suggesting that LPV/r monotherapy is an inappropriate first option. The mutation L76V may be considered in further studies of lopinavir resistance.
Related JoVE Video
High frequency of X4/DM-tropic viruses in PBMC samples from patients with primary HIV-1 subtype-B infection in 1996-2007: the French ANRS CO06 PRIMO Cohort Study.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To estimate the frequency of viruses with X4 or dual-X4/DM tropism from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 390 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype-B patients diagnosed at the time of primary HIV-1 infection (PHI) between 1996 and 2007 and enrolled in the PRIMO Cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Greater decrease in bone mineral density with protease inhibitor regimens compared with nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor regimens in HIV-1 infected naive patients.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the change in bone mineral density (BMD) at specific sites in patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in a substudy of the ANRS 121 trial.
Related JoVE Video
Prognostic factors for virological response in antiretroviral therapy-naive patients in the MONARK Trial randomized to ritonavir-boosted lopinavir alone.
Antivir. Ther. (Lond.)
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MONARK is a pilot randomized trial comparing the safety and efficacy of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r) monotherapy to a standard triple-drug regimen as initial therapy. The primary endpoint was virological response (VR) defined as viral load (VL)<400 copies/ml at week 24 and VL<50 copies/ml at week 48. The objective of this study was to determine prognostic factors of VR in patients receiving LPV/r monotherapy.
Related JoVE Video
Increasing HIV-1 non-B subtype primary infections in patients in France and effect of HIV subtypes on virological and immunological responses to combined antiretroviral therapy.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyze the time trends of the viral subtype distributions according to gender, risk group, and geographical origin of the patients in 1128 primary human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection (PHI), diagnosed in France (1996-2010). To study whether the viral diversity had an impact on the virological and immunological responses in patients initiating combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) soon after infection.
Related JoVE Video
Twelve months of routine HIV screening in 6 emergency departments in the Paris area: results from the ANRS URDEP study.
PLoS ONE
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In October 2009 the French National Authority for Health recommended that HIV testing be proposed at least once to all persons aged 15 to 70 years in all healthcare settings. We examined whether routine HIV screening with a rapid test in emergency departments (EDs) was feasible without dedicated staff, and whether newly diagnosed persons could be linked to care.
Related JoVE Video
Switching to darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg once-daily containing regimen maintains virological control in fully suppressed pre-treated patients infected with HIV-1.
J. Med. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to evaluate the switch to once-daily darunavir/ritonavir 800/100 mg in treatment-experienced patients with suppressed HIV-1 replication on a twice-daily ritonavir-boosted protease-inhibitor (bid PI/r) containing regimen, that is in a setting where genotypic resistance test cannot be performed. In this open label, non-comparative, multicenter study, patients on a bid PI/r-containing triple combination, with suppressed viral replication, were switched to once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg containing triple combination. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with plasma HIV-RNA?< 50 copies/ml 24 weeks after the switch. Intensive darunavir pharmacokinetic evaluation was performed at Week 4 (W4) in 11 patients. Eighty-five patients were enrolled. All had HIV-RNA?< 50 copies/ml at screening with a pre-exposure to a median of 2 PI/r (1-5). By intent-to-treat analysis (missing = failure), 78/85 patients (92%, 95% CI [83;96]) maintained an HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at W24. Seven patients experienced protocol-defined treatment failure between baseline and W24: Two had confirmed low-level viral rebound, one discontinued study treatment for adverse event, three withdrew their consent, and one was lost to follow-up. By on-treatment analysis, 78/80 patients (97%, 95% CI [91;99]) maintained an HIV-RNA < 50 copies/ml at W24. Results were similar at Week 48. The median area under the darunavir plasma concentration-time curve measured in 11 patients was 61,380 ng hr/ml; darunavir median trough concentration 1,340 ng/ml and darunavir half-life was 12.2 hr. Tolerability of once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg was excellent. Optimally suppressed, treatment-experienced patients can switch safely from a twice-daily PI/r regimen to a once-daily darunavir/r 800/100 mg containing regimen.
Related JoVE Video
Lack of benefit of 3-month intensification with enfuvirtide plus optimized background regimen (OBR) versus OBR alone in patients with multiple therapeutic failures: the INNOVE study.
J. Med. Virol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the virological efficacy of a 3-month short-course intensification with enfuvirtide (ENF) associated with an optimized background regimen (OBR) in treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 with multiple therapeutic failures. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label multicenter trial including patients infected with HIV-1 and harboring a multi-resistant virus that was still susceptible to at least 2 active compounds. Patients were randomized (1:1) to receive OBR?+?ENF or OBR alone. ENF was discontinued at Week 12. The primary endpoint was the proportion of patients with plasma viral load <50?copies/ml at Week 24. Fifteen patients were randomized into the OBR group and 14 into the OBR?+?ENF group with a median viral load of 4.1?log(10) ?copies/ml and a median CD4+ cell count of 346 cells/mm(3) . The primary endpoint was achieved in 93% (14/15) and 79% (11/14) of patients, respectively. Eighty-seven percent (13/15) of patients had a viral load <50 copies/ml as soon as Week 12 in the OBR group and 79% (11/14) in the OBR?+?ENF group. At Week 12, the median CD4+ cell count was 327 in the OBR and 437 in the OBR?+?ENF groups and at Week 24 they were comparable. Intensification with ENF had no significant impact on PBMCs HIV-DNA levels. A 3-month short-course intensified treatment with ENF did not improve Week-24 virological response in treatment-experienced patients infected with HIV-1 harboring resistant viruses that were still susceptible to two antiretroviral drugs.
Related JoVE Video
Maraviroc intensification of stable antiviral therapy in HIV-1-infected patients with poor immune restoration: MARIMUNO-ANRS 145 study.
J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To address the ability of a 24-week Maraviroc (MVC) intensification of a stable antiretroviral therapy (cART) to significantly increase the CD4 cell count slope.
Related JoVE Video
Immunovirologic control 24 months after interruption of antiretroviral therapy initiated close to HIV seroconversion.
Arch. Intern. Med.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There is interest in whether a short course of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) at the time of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroconversion could induce long-term immunologic control after its interruption. We aimed to determine the time of virologic rebound after interruption of treatment initiated close to HIV seroconversion and to identify potential cases of posttreatment controllers (PTCs) in the CASCADE (Concerted Action on Seroconversion to AIDS and Death in Europe) Collaboration.
Related JoVE Video
Boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy as a maintenance strategy: an observational study.
AIDS
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to determine the effectiveness of boosted protease inhibitor monotherapy (BPIMT) initiated as a maintenance strategy in routine care and identify predictive factors of failure.
Related JoVE Video
Erythrocyte and plasma ribavirin concentrations in the assessment of early and sustained virological responses to pegylated interferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin in patients coinfected with hepatitis C virus and HIV.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the relationship between erythrocyte and plasma ribavirin concentrations in hepatitis C virus (HCV)/HIV-coinfected patients, and to correlate ribavirin exposure with early and sustained virological response (EVR and SVR) and haemoglobin level reductions.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.