Abstract Aims: Small ubiquitin-like modifier type 1 (SUMO-1) has been shown to play a critical role in the dysfunction of the cardiac isoform of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) pump in the setting of heart failure. In cardiac hypertrophy, the role of SUMO-1 has not been defined and our study's goals were to examine the effects of modulating SUMO-1 on the hypertrophic response both in vitro and in vivo and to examine whether oxidative stress (during cardiac hypertrophy) is abrogated by SUMO-1 gene transfer.
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are closely involved in cardiac reprogramming. Although the functional roles of class I and class IIa HDACs are well established, the significance of interclass crosstalk in the development of cardiac hypertrophy remains unclear.
The study investigated the prevalence of the posteromedial drive-through sign in patients undergoing knee arthroscopy and determined its relationship to posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) insufficiency.
Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis.
Chronic pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy is associated with an increased risk of morbidity/mortality, largely due to maladaptive remodeling and dilatation that progresses to dilated cardiomyopathy. Alternative splicing is an important biological mechanism that generates proteomic complexity and diversity. The recent development of next-generation RNA sequencing has improved our understanding of the qualitative signatures associated with alternative splicing in various biological conditions. However, the role of alternative splicing in cardiac hypertrophy is yet unknown. The present study employed RNA-Seq and a bioinformatic approach to detect the RNA splicing regulatory elements involved in alternative splicing during pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. We found GC-rich exonic motifs that regulate intron retention in 5' UTRs and AT-rich exonic motifs that are involved in exclusion of the AT-rich elements that cause mRNA instability in 3' UTRs. We also identified motifs in the intronic regions involved in exon exclusion and inclusion, which predicted splicing factors that bind to these motifs. We found, through Western blotting, that the expression levels of three splicing factors, ESRP1, PTB and SF2/ASF, were significantly altered during cardiac hypertrophy. Collectively, the present results suggest that chronic pressure-overload hypertrophy is closely associated with distinct alternative splicing due to altered expression of splicing factors.
Heart failure is one of the leading causes of sudden death in developed countries. While current therapies are mostly aimed at mitigating associated symptoms, novel therapies targeting the subcellular mechanisms underlying heart failure are emerging. Failing hearts are characterized by reduced contractile properties caused by impaired Ca(2+) cycling between the sarcoplasm and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Sarcoplasmic/ endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase 2a (SERCA2a) mediates Ca(2+) reuptake into the SR in cardiomyocytes. Of note, the expression level and/or activity of SERCA2a, translating to the quantity of SR Ca(2+) uptake, are significantly reduced in failing hearts. Normalization of the SERCA2a expression level by gene delivery has been shown to restore hampered cardiac functions and ameliorate associated symptoms in pre-clinical as well as clinical studies. SERCA2a activity can be regulated at multiple levels of a signaling cascade comprised of phospholamban, protein phosphatase 1, inhibitor-1, and PKC?. SERCA2 activity is also regulated by post-translational modifications including SUMOylation and acetylation. In this review, we will highlight the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of SERCA2a activity and the potential therapeutic modalities for the treatment of heart failure.
Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek], a self-pollinated diploid plant with 2n = 22 chromosomes, is an important legume crop with a high-quality amino acid profile. Sequence variation at the whole-genome level was examined by comparing two mungbean cultivars, Sunhwanokdu and Gyeonggijaerae 5, using Illumina HiSeq sequencing data. More than 40 billion bp from both mungbean cultivars were sequenced to a depth of 72×. After de novo assembly of Sunhwanokdu contigs by ABySS 1.3.2 (N50 = 9,958 bp), those longer than 10 kb were aligned with Gyeonggijaerae 5 reads using the Burrows-Wheeler Aligner. SAMTools was used for retrieving single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) between Sunhwanokdu and Gyeonggijaerae 5, defining the lowest and highest depths as 5 and 100, respectively, and the sequence quality as 100. Of the 305,504 single-base changes identified, 40,503 SNPs were considered heterozygous in Gyeonggijaerae 5. Among the remaining 265,001 SNPs, 65.9 % (174,579 cases) were transitions and 34.1 % (90,422 cases) were transversions. For SNP validation, a total of 42 SNPs were chosen among Sunhwanokdu contigs longer than 10 kb and sharing at least 80 % sequence identity with common bean expressed sequence tags as determined with est2genome. Using seven mungbean cultivars from various origins in addition to Sunhwanokdu and Gyeonggijaerae 5, most of the SNPs identified by bioinformatics tools were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. These genome-wide SNP markers could enrich the current molecular resources and might be of value for the construction of a mungbean genetic map and the investigation of genetic diversity.
The histidine-rich Ca(2+)-binding protein (HRC) is located in the lumen of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and exhibits high-capacity Ca(2+)-binding properties. Overexpression of HRC in the heart resulted in impaired SR Ca(2+) uptake and depressed relaxation through its interaction with SERCA2a. However, the functional significance of HRC in overall regulation of calcium cycling and contractility is not currently well defined. To further elucidate the role of HRC in vivo under physiological and pathophysiological conditions, we generated and characterized HRC-knockout (KO) mice. The KO mice were morphologically and histologically normal compared to wild-type (WT) mice. At the cellular level, ablation of HRC resulted in significantly enhanced contractility, Ca(2+) transients, and maximal SR Ca(2+) uptake rates in the heart. However, after-contractions were developed in 50 % of HRC-KO cardiomyocytes, compared to 11 % in WT mice under stress conditions of high-frequency stimulation (5 Hz) and isoproterenol application. A parallel examination of the electrical activity revealed significant increases in the occurrence of Ca(2+) spontaneous SR Ca(2+) release and delayed afterdepolarizations with ISO in HRC-KO, compared to WT cells. The frequency of Ca(2+) sparks was also significantly higher in HRC-KO cells with ISO, consistent with the elevated SR Ca(2+) load in the KO cells. Furthermore, HRC-KO cardiomyocytes showed significantly deteriorated cell contractility and Ca(2+)-cycling caused possibly by depressed SERCA2a expression after transverse-aortic constriction (TAC). Also HRC-null mice exhibited severe cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis, pulmonary edema and decreased survival after TAC. Our results indicate that ablation of HRC is associated with poorly regulated SR Ca(2+)-cycling, and severe pathology under pressure-overload stress, suggesting an essential role of HRC in maintaining the integrity of cardiac function.
Peripheral or central nerve injury often leads to neuropathic pain. Although ketamine and pregabalin are first line options for the treatment of neuropathic pain, their clinical application is limited due to side effects such as sedation, dizziness and somnolence. We designed this study to determine whether the intrathecal (i.t.) co-treatment with ketamine and pregabalin at sub-effective low doses would elicit a sufficient pain relief without producing side effect in a neuropathic pain mouse model. At day 7 after chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve, dose dependent effects of i.t. ketamine (3, 10, 30, 100?µg) or i.t. pregabalin (10, 30, 100?µg) on mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were measured. For combination treatment, 3 or 10?µg of ketamine and 30?µg of pregabalin were selected because these doses of drugs were not effective on neuropathic pain. Interestingly, combined i.t. treatment groups (ketamine 3?µg+pregabalin 30?µg and ketamine 10?µg+pregabalin 30?µg) produced strong analgesia on neuropathic pain although these doses of ketamine and pregabalin alone are not effective. Moreover, rota rod test revealed that normal motor function was not affected by combined treatment while i.t. ketamine at doses above 10?µg showed a significant motor dysfunction. Results of this study suggested that i.t. co-treatment with ketamine and pregabalin at sub-effect low doses may be a useful therapeutic method for the treatment of neuropathic pain patients.
The calcium-transporting ATPase ATP2A2, also known as SERCA2a, is a critical ATPase responsible for Ca(2+) re-uptake during excitation-contraction coupling. Impaired Ca(2+) uptake resulting from decreased expression and reduced activity of SERCA2a is a hallmark of heart failure. Accordingly, restoration of SERCA2a expression by gene transfer has proved to be effective in improving cardiac function in heart-failure patients, as well as in animal models. The small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) can be conjugated to lysine residues of target proteins, and is involved in many cellular processes. Here we show that SERCA2a is SUMOylated at lysines 480 and 585 and that this SUMOylation is essential for preserving SERCA2a ATPase activity and stability in mouse and human cells. The levels of SUMO1 and the SUMOylation of SERCA2a itself were greatly reduced in failing hearts. SUMO1 restitution by adeno-associated-virus-mediated gene delivery maintained the protein abundance of SERCA2a and markedly improved cardiac function in mice with heart failure. This effect was comparable to SERCA2A gene delivery. Moreover, SUMO1 overexpression in isolated cardiomyocytes augmented contractility and accelerated Ca(2+) decay. Transgene-mediated SUMO1 overexpression rescued cardiac dysfunction induced by pressure overload concomitantly with increased SERCA2a function. By contrast, downregulation of SUMO1 using small hairpin RNA (shRNA) accelerated pressure-overload-induced deterioration of cardiac function and was accompanied by decreased SERCA2a function. However, knockdown of SERCA2a resulted in severe contractile dysfunction both in vitro and in vivo, which was not rescued by overexpression of SUMO1. Taken together, our data show that SUMOylation is a critical post-translational modification that regulates SERCA2a function, and provide a platform for the design of novel therapeutic strategies for heart failure.
A new heuristic approach was undertaken for the establishment of a core set for the diversity research of rice. As a result, 107 entries were selected from the 10 368 characterized accessions. The core set derived using this new approach provided a good representation of the characterized accessions present in the entire collection. No significant differences for the mean, range, standard deviation and coefficient of variation of each trait were observed between the core and existing collections. We also compared the diversity of core sets established using this Heuristic Core Collection (HCC) approach with those of core sets established using the conventional clustering methods. This modified heuristic algorithm can also be used to select genotype data with allelic richness and reduced redundancy, and to facilitate management and use of large collections of plant genetic resources in a more efficient way.
This study aimed at developing alternative vitrification solutions, modified either from the original PVS2 vitrification solution by increasing glycerol and sucrose and/or decreasing dimethylsulfoxide and ethylene glycol concentration, or from the original PVS3 vitrification solution by decreasing glycerol and sucrose concentration. The application of these vitrification solutions to two model species, i.e. garlic and chrysanthemum in a droplet-vitrification procedure, revealed that PVS3 and variants were superior to PVS2 and variants and that most PVS2 variants were comparable to the original PVS2. Both species were sensitive to chemical toxicity of permeating cryoprotectants and chrysanthemum was also sensitive to osmotic stress. The lower recovery of cryopreserved garlic shoot apices dehydrated with PVS2 and variants compared with those dehydrated with PVS3 and variants seemed attributed to cytotoxicity of the vitrification solutions tested as well as to insufficient protection against freezing injury. Chrysanthemum shoot tips were very sensitive to both chemical toxicity and osmotic stress and therefore, induction of cytotoxity tolerance during preconditioning was required for successful cryopreservation. The present study revealed that some of the PVS2 variants tested which have increased glycerol and sucrose and/or decreased dimethylsulfoxide and ethylene glycol concentration can be applied when explants are of medium size, tolerant to chemical toxicity and moderately sensitive to osmotic stress. PVS3 and variants can be used widely when samples are heterogeneous, of large size and/or very sensitive to chemical toxicity and tolerant to osmotic stress.
We developed and characterized 36 polymorphic microsatellite markers for the oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus). In total, 169 alleles were identified with an average of 4.7 alleles per locus. Values for observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities ranged from 0.027 to 0.946 and from 0.027 to 0.810, respectively. Nineteen loci deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Significant (P<0.05) excess heterozygosity was observed at nine loci. Linkage disequilibrium (LD) was significant (P<0.05) between pairs of locus alleles. Cluster analysis revealed that five species of genus Pleurotus made a distinct group, and the individual cultivars were grouped into major five groups from G-1 to G-5. The diverse cultivars of P. ostreatus were discriminated and the other four species revealed a different section in the UPGMA tree. These microsatellite markers proved to be very useful tools for genetic studies, including assessment of the diversity and population structure of P. ostreatus.
The numbers of SSR markers and their utilization have not been determined and investigated as extensively in Fagopyrum species as compared to other crop species. The current report presents 136 new SSR markers in Fagopyrum esculentum ssp. esculentum and their application to related species in the genus Fagopyrum. Of the 136 SSRs, 10 polymorphic SSR markers were utilized in a genetic diversity analysis of a common buckwheat population consisting of 41 accessions of diverse origin. The study showed observed (H(O)) and expected (H(E)) heterozygosities ranging from 0.071 to 0.924 (mean = 0.53) and from 0.073 to 0.902 (mean = 0.412), respectively. Forty-one of the 136 SSRs amplified sequences in other Fagopyrum species, including the cymosum and urophyllum groups. The phylogenetic relationships revealed using the SSRs was consistent with results obtained using other marker systems, with one exception. The sequence and diversity information obtained using these new SSRs and their cross-transferability to related Fagopyrum species will increase our understanding of genetic structures and species relationships within the Fagopyrum genus.
In this study, we examined the antinociceptive effect of Cyperi rhizoma (CR) and Corydalis tuber (CT) extracts using a chronic constriction injury-induced neuropathic pain rat model. After the ligation of sciatic nerve, neuropathic pain behavior such as mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia were rapidly induced and maintained for 1 month. Repeated treatment of CR or CT (per oral, 10 or 30 mg/kg, twice a day) was performed either in induction (day 0~5) or maintenance (day 14~19) period of neuropathic pain state. Treatment of CR or CT at doses of 30 mg/kg in the induction and maintenance periods significantly decreased the nerve injury-induced mechanical allodynia. In addition, CR and CT at doses of 10 or 30 mg/kg alleviated thermal heat hyperalgesia when they were treated in the maintenance period. Finally, CR or CT (30 mg/kg) treated during the induction period remarkably reduced the nerve injury-induced phosphorylation of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit (pNR1) in the spinal dorsal horn. Results of this study suggest that extracts from CR and CT may be useful to alleviate neuropathic pain.
Cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA2a) plays a crucial role in Ca(2+) handling in cardiomyocytes. Phospholamban (PLB) is an endogenous inhibitor of SERCA2a and its inhibitory activity is enhanced via dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1). Therefore, the inhibition of PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of PLB might be an efficient strategy for the restoration of reduced SERCA2a activity in failing hearts. We sought to develop decoy peptides that would mimic phosphorylated PLB and thus competitively inhibit the PP1-mediated dephosphorylation of endogenous PLB. The phosphorylation sites Ser16 and Thr17 are located within the flexible loop region (amino acids 14-22) of PLB. We therefore synthesized a 9-mer peptide derived from this region (?PLB-wt) and two pseudo-phosphorylated peptides where Ser16 was replaced with Glu (?PLB-SE) or Thr17 was replaced with Glu (?PLB-TE). These peptides were coupled to the cell-permeable peptide TAT to facilitate cellular uptake. Treatment of adult rat cardiomyocytes with ?PLB-SE or ?PLB-TE, but not with ?PLB-wt, significantly elevated the phosphorylation levels of PLB at Ser16 and Thr17. This increased phosphorylation of PLB correlated with an increase in contractile parameters in vitro. Furthermore, the perfusion of isolated rat hearts with ?PLB-SE or ?PLB-TE, but not with ?PLB-wt, significantly improved left ventricular developed pressure that had been previously impaired by ischemia. These data indicate that ?PLB-SE and ?PLB-TE efficiently prevented dephosphorylation of PLB by serving as decoys for PP1. Therefore, these peptides may provide an effective modality to regulate SERCA2a activity in failing hearts.
Protein kinase C (PKC)-interacting cousin of thioredoxin (PICOT) has distinct anti-hypertrophic and inotropic functions. We have previously shown that PICOT exerts its anti-hypertrophic effect by inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signaling through its C-terminal glutaredoxin domain. However, the mechanism underlying the inotropic effect of PICOT is unknown. The results of protein pull-down experiments showed that PICOT directly binds to the catalytic domain of PKC? through its N-terminal thioredoxin-like domain. Purified PICOT protein inhibited the kinase activity of PKC? in vitro, which indicated that PICOT is an endogenous inhibitor of PKC?. The inhibition of PKC? activity with a PKC?-specific pseudosubstrate peptide inhibitor was sufficient to increase the cardiac contractility in vitro and ex vivo. Overexpression of PICOT or inhibition of PKC? activity down-regulated PKC? activity, which led to the elevation of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) 2a activity, concomitant with the increased phosphorylation of phospholamban (PLB). Overexpression of PICOT or inhibition of PKC? activity also down-regulated protein phosphatase (PP) 2A activity, which subsequently resulted in the increased phosphorylation of troponin (Tn) I and T, key myofilament proteins associated with the regulation of contractility. PICOT appeared to inhibit PP2A activity through the disruption of the functional PKC?/PP2A complex. In contrast to the overexpression of PICOT or inhibition of PKC?, reduced PICOT expression resulted in up-regulation of PKC? and PP2A activities, followed by decreased phosphorylation of PLB, and TnI and T, respectively, supporting the physiological relevance of these events. Transgene- or adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated overexpression of PICOT restored the impaired contractility and prevented further morphological and functional deterioration of the failing hearts. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that PICOT exerts its inotropic effect by negatively regulating PKC? and PP2A activities through the inhibition of PKC? activity. This finding provides a novel insight into the regulation of cardiac contractility.
Although increased levels of myocardial receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-?B ligand (RANKL) have been reported in heart failure, the role of this pathway in mediating activation of inflammatory pathways during myocardial remodelling is less well understood. This study sought to determine the role of myocardial RANKL in regulating cytokine expression.
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