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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Quantification of Major Compounds from Ixeris dentata, Ixeris dentata Var. albiflora, and Ixeris sonchifolia and Their Comparative Anti-Inflammatory Activity in Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
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Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the comparative anti-inflammatory activities of Ixeris dentata (ID), Ixeris dentata var. albiflora (IDA), and Ixeris sonchifolia (IS) and to identify the main compounds present in extracts. The anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated through lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Five main compounds consisting of chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, and luteolin were used for simultaneous high-performance liquid chromatography quantification. The total phenolic content present in ID (30?mg/g GAE), IDA (35.33?mg/g GAE), and IS (43.79?mg/g GAE) was correlated to the corresponding LPS-induced NO production inhibitory effect in RAW 264.7 cells as expressed with IC50 values 26.19, 21.43, and 7.59 ?g/mL, respectively. Luteolin 7-O-glucoside was found as the major compound in ID (8.76?mg/g dry weight) and IDA (10.35?mg/g dry weight) and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide was the major compound in IS (34.66?mg/g dry weight). Luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide inhibited LPS-induced NO production with IC50 values of 30 and 4.5 ?M, respectively. Furthermore, luteolin, luteolin 7-O-glucoside, and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2, and t-BHP-induced ROS generation in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These results clearly showed that the anti-inflammatory potential of ID, IDA, and IS extract are primarily due to their contents of luteolin 7-O-glucoside and luteolin 7-O-glucuronide, respectively.
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A nationwide survey of coronary aneurysms with a diameter > 6 mm in Kawasaki disease in Korea.
Pediatr Int
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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We investigated the course of coronary aneurysm with a diameter > 6 mm in Kawasaki disease (KD), as well as related therapeutic trends and prognosis in Korea.
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The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF11 is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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ORF11 (ac11) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved gene with unknown function. To determine the role of ac11 in the baculovirus life cycle, an ac11-knockout mutant of AcMNPV, Ac11KO, was constructed. Northern blot and 5'-RACE analysis revealed that ac11 is an early gene in the life cycle. Microscopy, titration assays, and Western blot analysis revealed that budded viruses (BVs) were not produced in the Ac11KO-transfected Sf9 cells. However, qPCR analysis demonstrated that the deletion of ac11 did not affect viral DNA replication. Furthermore, electron microscopy revealed that there was no nucleocapsid in the cytoplasm or plasma membrane of the Ac11KO-transfected cells, which demonstrates that the defect in BV production from the Ac11KO-transfected cells is due to the inefficient egress of nucleocapsids from the nucleus to the cytoplasm. In addition, the electron microscopy observations showed that the nucleocapsids in the nucleus were not enveloped to form ODVs, and that their subsequent embedding into OBs was also blocked in the Ac11KO-transfected cells, demonstrating that ac11 is required for ODV envelopment. These results therefore demonstrate that ac11 is an early gene that is essential for BV production and ODV envelopment.
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A Drug-Repositioning Screening Identifies Pentetic Acid as a Potential Therapeutic Agent for Suppressing the Elastase-Mediated Virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a Gram-negative bacterium of clinical significance, produces elastase as a predominant exoprotease. Here, we screened a library of chemical compounds currently used for human medication and identified diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA, pentetic acid) as an agent that suppresses the production of elastase. Elastase activity found in the prototype P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 was significantly decreased when grown with a concentration as low as 20 ?M DTPA. Supplementation with Zn(2+) or Mn(2+) ions restored the suppressive effect of DTPA, suggesting that the DTPA-mediated decrease in elastase activity is associated with ion-chelating activity. In DTPA-treated PAO1 cells, transcription of the elastase-encoding lasB gene and levels of the Pseudomonas quinolone signal (PQS), a molecule that mediates P. aeruginosa quorum sensing (QS), were significantly downregulated, reflecting the potential involvement of the PQS QS system in DTPA-mediated elastase suppression. Biofilm formation was also decreased by DTPA treatment. When A549 alveolar type II-like adenocarcinoma cells were infected with PAO1 cells in the presence of DTPA, A549 cell viability was substantially increased. Furthermore, the intranasal delivery of DTPA to PAO1-infected mice alleviated the pathogenic effects of PAO1 cells in the animals. Together, our results revealed a novel function for a known molecule that may help treat P. aeruginosa airway infection.
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Acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase inhibitory activities of the edible brown alga Eisenia bicyclis.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2014
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As part of our ongoing isolation of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibitors from natural marine sources, the bioactivity of the ethanolic extracts from 12 Korean seaweeds were screened for their inhibitory activities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and total reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Eisenia bicyclis exhibited promising inhibitory properties against AChE, BChE and total ROS with inhibition percentages (%) of 68.01 ± 1.37, 95.72 ± 3.80, and 73.20 ± 1.82 at concentrations of 25 µg/mL, respectively. Among the different solvent-soluble fractions obtained from the ethanolic extract, the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction was found to cause the most potent scavenging, or inhibitory activities, against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) and total ROS with the respective IC50 values of 2.48 ± 0.01, 8.70 ± 0.06, and 0.81 ± 0.03 µg/mL. Likewise, the EtOAc fraction also exhibited potent inhibitory activities against AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 2.78 ± 0.07 and 3.48 ± 0.32 µg/mL, respectively. Silica gel column chromatography of the EtOAc fraction yielded a phlorotannin, 974-B, based on the comparison with reported (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopic data. 974-B showed strong scavenging/or inhibitory potential against DPPH, ONOO(-), total ROS, AChE, and BChE with the respective IC50 values of 0.86 ± 0.02, 1.80 ± 0.01, 6.45 ± 0.04, 1.95 ± 0.01, and 3.26 ± 0.08 µM, respectively. These results indicate that the potential of E. bicyclis and its phlorotannin for use in the development of therapeutic or preventive agents of Alzheimer's disease mainly through ChE inhibition and additional antioxidant capacities.
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Bombyx mori nucleopolyhedrovirus bacmid enabling rapid generation of recombinant virus by in vitro transposition.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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A novel recombinant bacmid, bEasyBm, that enables the easy and fast generation of pure recombinant baculovirus without any purification step was constructed. In bEasyBm, attR recombination sites were introduced to facilitate the generation of a recombinant viral genome by in vitro transposition. Moreover, the extracellular RNase gene from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, barnase, was expressed under the control of the Cotesia plutellae bracovirus early promoter to negatively select against the non-recombinant background. The bEasyBm bacmid could only replicate in host insect cells when the barnase gene was replaced with the gene of interest by in vitro transposition. When bEasyBm was transposed with pDualBac-EGFP, the resulting recombinant virus, EasyBm-EGFP, showed high levels of EGFP expression efficiency compared to that of non-purified recombinant virus BmGOZA-EGFP, which was constructed using the bBmGOZA system. In addition, no non-recombinant backgrounds were detected in unpurified EasyBm-EGFP stocks. Based on these results, a high-throughput system for the generation of multiple recombinant viruses at a time was established.
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BACE1 and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of Nelumbo nucifera embryos.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2014
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The aim of the present study was to evaluate the comparative anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) activities of different parts of Nelumbo nucifera (leaves, de-embryo seeds, embryos, rhizomes, and stamens) in order to determine the selectivity and efficient use of its individual components. Anti-AD activities of different parts of N. nucifera were evaluated via inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and ?-site amyloid precursor protein-cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1) along with scavenging activity on peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Among the evaluated parts of N. nucifera, the embryo extract exhibited significant inhibitory potential against BACE1 and BChE as well as scavenging activity against ONOO(-). Thus, the embryo extract was selected for detailed investigation on anti-AD activity using BACE1- and ChEs-inhibitory assays. Among the different solvent-soluble fractions, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol (n-BuOH) fractions showed promising ChEs and BACE1 inhibitory activities. Repeated column chromatography of the CH2Cl2, EtOAc and n-BuOH fractions yielded compounds 1-5, which were neferine (1), liensinine (2), vitexin (3), quercetin 3-O-glucoside (4) and northalifoline (5). Compound 2 exhibited potent inhibitory activities on BACE1, AChE, and BChE with respective IC50 values of 6.37 ± 0.13, 0.34 ± 0.02, and 9.96 ± 0.47 µM. Likewise, compound 1 showed potent inhibitory activities on BACE1, AChE, and BChE with IC50 values of 28.51 ± 4.04, 14.19 ± 1.46, and 37.18 ± 0.59 µM, respectively; the IC50 values of 3 were 19.25 ± 3.03, 16.62 ± 1.43, and 11.53 ± 2.21 µM, respectively. In conclusion, we identified potent ChEs- and BACE1-inhibitory activities of N. nucifera as well as its isolated constituents, which may be further explored to develop therapeutic and preventive agents for AD and oxidative stress related diseases.
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Coptis chinensis alkaloids exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating C/EBP-? and PPAR-?.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Obesity is a complex, multifactorial, and chronic disease that increases the risk for type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease and hypertension, and has become a major worldwide health problem. Developing novel anti-obesity drugs from natural products is a promising solution to the global health problem of obesity. While screening anti-obesity potentials of natural products, the methanol extract of the rhizome of Coptis chinensis (Coptidis Rhizoma) was found to significantly inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid contents in 3T3-L1 cells, as assessed by Oil-Red O staining. Five known alkaloids, berberine, epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, and magnoflorine, were isolated from the n-BuOH fraction of the methanol extract of Coptidis Rhizoma. We determined the chemical structure of these alkaloids through comparisons of published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data. Furthermore, we screened these alkaloids for their ability to inhibit adipogenesis over a range of concentrations (12.5-50 ?M). All five Coptidis Rhizoma alkaloids significantly inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability in a concentration dependent manner. In addition, the five alkaloids significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes including proliferator activated receptor-? (PPAR-?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-? (C/EBP-?). In the present study, we found that the isolated alkaloids inhibited adipogenesis in a dose-dependent manner in 3T3-L1 cells; this inhibition was attributed to their abilities to downregulate the protein levels of the adipocyte marker proteins PPAR-? and C/EBP-?. Thus, these results suggest that Coptidis Rhizoma extract and its isolated alkaloids may be of therapeutic interest with respect to the treatment of obesity.
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Complications of transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy: impact of prebiopsy enema.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-guided biopsy of the prostate is usually safe. However, some patients are hospitalized owing to complications from TRUS biopsy. We identified the risk factors for complications and effective preventive measures for treating complications after TRUS biopsy.
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The effect of novel mutations on the structure and enzymatic activity of unconventional myosins associated with autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss.
Open Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Mutations in five unconventional myosin genes have been associated with genetic hearing loss (HL). These genes encode the motor proteins myosin IA, IIIA, VI, VIIA and XVA. To date, most mutations in myosin genes have been found in the Caucasian population. In addition, only a few functional studies have been performed on the previously reported myosin mutations. We performed screening and functional studies for mutations in the MYO1A and MYO6 genes in Korean cases of autosomal dominant non-syndromic HL. We identified four novel heterozygous mutations in MYO6. Three mutations (p.R825X, p.R991X and Q918fsX941) produce a premature truncation of the myosin VI protein. Another mutation, p.R205Q, was associated with diminished actin-activated ATPase activity and actin gliding velocity of myosin VI in an in vitro analysis. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenicity of this mutation in the MYO6 gene. One missense variant, p.R544W, was found in the MYO1A gene, and in silico analysis suggested that this variant has deleterious effects on protein function. This finding is consistent with the results of protein modelling studies and corroborates the pathogenic effect of this mutation in the MYO6 gene.
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TWIK-1 contributes to the intrinsic excitability of dentate granule cells in mouse hippocampus.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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BackgroundTwo-pore domain K+ (K2P) channels have been shown to modulate neuronal excitability. However, physiological function of TWIK-1, the first identified member of the mammalian K2P channel family, in neuronal cells is largely unknown.ResultsWe found that TWIK-1 proteins were expressed and localized mainly in the soma and proximal dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells (DGGCs) rather than in distal dendrites or mossy fibers. Gene silencing demonstrates that the outwardly rectifying K+ current density was reduced in TWIK-1-deficient granule cells. TWIK-1 deficiency caused a depolarizing shift in the resting membrane potential (RMP) of DGGCs and enhanced their firing rate in response to depolarizing current injections. Through perforant path stimulation, TWIK-1 deficient granule cells showed altered signal input-output properties with larger EPSP amplitude values and increased spiking compared to control DGGCs. In addition, supra-maximal perforant path stimulation evoked a graded burst discharge in 44% of TWIK-1-deficient cells, which implies impairment of EPSP-spike coupling.ConclusionsThese results showed that TWIK-1 is functionally expressed in DGGCs and contributes to the intrinsic excitability of these cells. The TWIK-1 channel is involved in establishing the RMP of DGGCs; it attenuates sub-threshold depolarization of the cells during neuronal activity, and contributes to EPSP-spike coupling in perforant path-to-granule cell synaptic transmission.
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Kinetic and molecular docking studies of loganin and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose from Corni Fructus as therapeutic agents for diabetic complications through inhibition of aldose reductase.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Aldose reductase (AR) is a key enzyme in the polyol pathway that is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. AR inhibitors have been proposed as therapeutic agents for diabetic complications through suppression of sorbitol formation and accumulation. In this study, we evaluated whether two major compounds of Corni Fructus, loganin and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose, had an inhibitory effect on diabetic complications through AR inhibition. Because the iridoid glycoside loganin and the low-molecular-weight polyphenol 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose showed marginal inhibitory activities against rat lens AR (RLAR) and human recombinant AR (HRAR) in inhibition assays, we performed enzyme kinetic analyses and molecular simulation of the interaction of these two compounds with AR to further investigate their potential as inhibitors of diabetic complications. In kinetic analysis using Lineweaver-Burk plots and Dixon plots, loganin and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose were both mixed inhibitors of RLAR with inhibition constants (K i) of 27.99 and 128.68 ??, respectively. Moreover, molecular docking simulation of both compounds demonstrated negative binding energies (Autodock 4.0 = -6.7; -7.5 kcal/mol; Fred 2.0 = -59.4; -63.2 kcal/mol) indicating a high affinity and tight binding capacity for the active site of the enzyme. Iridoid nucleus and aromatic ring systems and glycoside and sedoheptulose moieties were found to bind tightly to the specificity pocket and the anion binding pocket in RLAR through Phe123, His111, Trp21, Tyr49, His111, and Trp112 residues. Our results clearly indicate that loganin and 7-O-galloyl-D-sedoheptulose have great promise for the treatment of diabetic complications through inhibition of AR.
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The coevolutionary period of Wolbachia pipientis infecting Drosophila ananassae and its impact on the evolution of the host germline stem cell regulating genes.
Mol. Biol. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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The endosymbiotic bacteria Wolbachia pipientis is known to infect a wide range of arthropod species yet less is known about the coevolutionary history it has with its hosts. Evidence of highly identical W. pipientis strains in evolutionary divergent hosts suggests horizontal transfer between hosts. For example, Drosophila ananassae is infected with a W. pipientis strain that is nearly identical in sequence to a strain that infects both D. simulans and D. suzukii, suggesting recent horizontal transfer among these three species. However, it is unknown whether the W. pipientis strain had recently invaded all three species or a more complex infectious dynamic underlies the horizontal transfers. Here, we have examined the coevolutionary history of D. ananassae and its resident W. pipientis to infer its period of infection. Phylogenetic analysis of D. ananassae mitochondrial DNA and W. pipientis DNA sequence diversity revealed the current W. pipientis infection is not recent. In addition, we examined the population genetics and molecular evolution of several germline stem cell (GSC) regulating genes of D. ananassae. These studies reveal significant evidence of recent and long-term positive selection at stonewall in D. ananassae, whereas pumillio showed patterns of variation consistent with only recent positive selection. Previous studies had found evidence for adaptive evolution of two key germline differentiation genes, bag of marbles (bam) and benign gonial cell neoplasm (bgcn), in D. melanogaster and D. simulans and proposed that the adaptive evolution at these two genes was driven by arms race between the host GSC and W. pipientis. However, we did not find any statistical departures from a neutral model of evolution for bam and bgcn in D. ananassae despite our new evidence that this species has been infected with W. pipientis for a period longer than the most recent infection in D. melanogaster. In the end, analyzing the GSC regulating genes individually showed two of the seven genes to have evidence of selection. However, combining the data set and fitting a specific population genetic model significant proportion of the nonsynonymous sites across the GSC regulating genes were driven to fixation by positive selection. Clearly the GSC system is under rapid evolution and potentially multiple drivers are causing the rapid evolution.
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Computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses in mammography: combined detection and ensemble classification.
Phys Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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We propose a novel computer-aided detection (CAD) framework of breast masses in mammography. To increase detection sensitivity for various types of mammographic masses, we propose the combined use of different detection algorithms. In particular, we develop a region-of-interest combination mechanism that integrates detection information gained from unsupervised and supervised detection algorithms. Also, to significantly reduce the number of false-positive (FP) detections, the new ensemble classification algorithm is developed. Extensive experiments have been conducted on a benchmark mammogram database. Results show that our combined detection approach can considerably improve the detection sensitivity with a small loss of FP rate, compared to representative detection algorithms previously developed for mammographic CAD systems. The proposed ensemble classification solution also has a dramatic impact on the reduction of FP detections; as much as 70% (from 15 to 4.5 per image) at only cost of 4.6% sensitivity loss (from 90.0% to 85.4%). Moreover, our proposed CAD method performs as well or better (70.7% and 80.0% per 1.5 and 3.5 FPs per image respectively) than the results of mammography CAD algorithms previously reported in the literature.
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Myocardial atrophy in children with mitochondrial disease and Duchenne muscular dystrophy.
Korean J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2014
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Mitochondrial disease (MD) and Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) are often associated with cardiomyopathy, but the myocardial variability has not been isolated to a specific characteristic. We evaluated the left ventricular (LV) mass by echocardiography to identify the general distribution and functional changes of the myocardium in patients with MD or DMD.
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Potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitory compounds from Myristica fragrans.
Nat Prod Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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The anti-cholinesterase activity was evaluated of the ethyl acetate fraction of the methanol extract of Myristica fragrans Houtt (Myristicaceae) seeds and of compounds isolated from it by various chromatographic techniques. The chemical structures of the compounds were determined from spectroscopic analyses (NMR data). Thirteen compounds (1-13) were isolated and identified. Compound 8 { [(7S)-8'-(4'-hydroxy-3'-methoxyphenyl)-7-hydroxypropyl]benzene-2,4-diol) showed the most effective activity with an IC50 value of 35.1 microM, followed by compounds 2 [(8R,8'S)-7'-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-8,8'-dimethyl-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-butane] and 11 (malabaricone C) with IC50 values of 42.1 and 44.0 pM, respectively. This is the first report of significant anticholinesterase properties of M. fragrans seeds. The findings demonstrate that M. fragrans could be used beneficially in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.
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A case of the vibrant soundbridge stapes coupler in patients with mixed hearing loss.
Korean J Audiol
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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The Vibrant Soundbridge (VSB) with stapes clip coupler placement at the stapes head has been used successfully to treat mixed hearing loss. Coupling between the floating mass transducer of the VSB and the stapes head is technically less demanding than incus vibroplasty and is more likely to generate a positive outcome without significantly changing residual hearing or resulting in medical or surgical complications. A 65-year-old man with bilateral mixed hearing loss and chronic otitis media underwent vibroplasty with a stapes clip coupler. Speech discrimination scores in both quiet and noise environments showed better functional gain with the VSB than with the use of a conventional hearing aid. The results of the present case show the feasibility of implanting a VSB with a stapes coupler in patients with mixed hearing loss due to chronic otitis media.
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Carbon- and oxygen-free Cu(InGa)(SSe)? solar cell with a 4.63% conversion efficiency by electrostatic spray deposition.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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We have demonstrated the first example of carbon- and oxygen-free Cu(In,Ga)(SSe)2 (CIGSSe) absorber layers prepared by electrospraying a CuInGa (CIG) precursor followed by annealing, sulfurization, and selenization at elevated temperature. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy showed that the amorphous as-deposited (CIG) precursor film was converted into polycrystalline CIGSSe with a flat-grained morphology after post-treatment. The optimal post-treatment temperature was 300 °C for annealing and 500 °C for both sulfurization and selenization, with a ramp rate of 5 °C/min. The carbon impurities in the precursor film were removed by air annealing, and oxide that was formed during annealing was removed by sulfurization. The fabricated CIGSSe solar cell showed a conversion efficiency of 4.63% for a 0.44 cm(2) area, with Voc = 0.4 V, Jsc = 21 mA/cm(2), and FF = 0.53.
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Inhibition of airway inflammation by the roots of Angelica decursiva and its constituent, columbianadin.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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The roots of Angelica decursiva Fr. Et Sav (Umbelliferae) have been frequently used in traditional medicine as anti-inflammatory, antitussive, analgesic agents and expectorant, especially for treating cough, asthma, bronchitis and upper respiratory tract infections. To establish the scientific rationale for the clinical use of Angelica decursiva and to identify new agents for treating inflammatory lung disorders, pharmacological evaluation of the roots of Angelica decursiva and the isolated constituents was performed.
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Congestive hepatopathy after Fontan operation and related factors assessed by transient elastography.
J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Congestive hepatopathy after a Fontan operation can have a major effect on long-term morbidity. We evaluated congestive hepatopathy in patients with Fontan circulation using transient elastography to determine which risk factors for hepatopathy are related to liver stiffness (LS).
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Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio: novel markers for diagnosis and prognosis in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Dis. Markers
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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We aim to provide useful evidence about the association of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSNHL) and its possibility of emerging as a cheap, reliable, and independent prognostic marker of ISSNHL.
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Dietary vitamin intake correlates with hearing thresholds in the older population: the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Previous animal studies have shown that vitamins may prevent age-related hearing loss. However, no concrete conclusions have been reached about the association between vitamin intake and presbycusis in humans.OBJECTIVE: We investigated the association between dietary vitamin intake and hearing thresholds in adults between 50 and 80 y of age by using data from a large population-based survey.DESIGN: We used data from the 2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A pure-tone audiogram and physical examination of the ear were performed, and vitamin intake was calculated by using the 24-h recall method. Data from 1910 participants were analyzed through univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses.RESULTS: After adjustment for age, sex, smoking, and exposure to occupational and explosive noise, intake of vitamin C correlated with better hearing at midfrequency (2000 and 3000 Hz) (coefficient: -0.012; 95% CI: -0.022, -0.002). Dietary supplement use was positively associated with better hearing at all frequencies. The univariate analysis indicated that dietary intakes of retinol, riboflavin, niacin, and vitamin C were positively correlated with better hearing at most frequencies. In contrast, serum concentrations of vitamin D were associated with worse hearing at mid and high (4000 and 6000 Hz) frequencies.CONCLUSIONS: Dietary intake of vitamin C was associated with better hearing in the older population. Because less than one-half of elderly participants in this study consumed a sufficient amount of vitamins, and vitamin intake decreased with age, we should consider proper diet counseling to prevent hearing decline.
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Identification of Novel Functional Null Allele of SLC26A4 Associated with Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct and Its Possible Implication.
Audiol. Neurootol.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Mutations in the SLC26A4 gene, which encodes pendrin, cause congenital hearing loss as a manifestation of Pendred syndrome (PS) with an iodide organification defect or nonsyndromic enlarged vestibular aqueduct (NSEVA, DFNB4). There have been reports of differences between PS and NSEVA, including their auditory phenotypes and molecular genetic bases. For appropriate genetic diagnosis and counseling, it is important to functionally characterize SLC26A4 variants. In this study, we identified and evaluated a novel null mutation of SLC26A4 and report our method of assessing the pathogenic potential of mutations in SLC26A4, one of the most frequent causative genes of deafness in humans. A 3-year-old female with progressive sensorineural hearing loss and her parents were recruited. They underwent clinical, audiological, radiological and genetic evaluations, which revealed that the female patient had an enlarged vestibular aqueduct and an incomplete partition type II anomaly in the cochlea bilaterally. Sanger sequencing of the SLC26A4 gene was also performed. For a confirmatory genetic diagnosis, we first characterized the anion/base exchange ability of mutant pendrin products in HEK 293 cells and, if necessary, evaluated whether the mutant pendrin traffics to the plasma membrane in COS-7 cells. We also expressed a null function mutant, p.H723R, and a previously documented polymorphism, p.P542R, as controls. The pure tone average was 66 dB HL in the right ear and 75 dB HL in the left ear. Sequencing of SLC26A4 revealed a known pathogenic mutation (p.H723R) and a novel missense variant (p.V510D) as a compound heterozygote. When we expressed the p.V510D mutant pendrin in mammalian cells, the rate constants for Cl(-)/HCO3(-) exchange were 10.96 ± 4.79% compared with those of wild-type pendrin. This figure was comparable to that of p.H723R, indicating p.V510D to be another pathogenic mutation with a null function. The p.V510D pendrin product was shown to be entrapped in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) at 24-30 h after transfection, and not trafficked to the plasma membrane in COS-7 cells, suggesting retention in the ER and abnormal trafficking as the pathogenic mechanism. This was similar to p.H723R, which is a null function founder mutant in this population but is a candidate variant for future drug therapy to rescue the abnormal cell trafficking. Impaired cellular trafficking due to ER retention and abolished exchange activity of the newly detected p.V510D indicates the pathogenic potential of this variant. These missense variants may be good candidate variants for drug therapy if the intrinsic exchange activity is not damaged by the change. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Inhibitory Activities of Palmatine from Coptis chinensis Against Helicobactor pylori and Gastric Damage.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is the most important factor of gastric disease in clinical practice. Moreover, smoking, stress and a poor diet may be additive factors for gastric damage. With these factors, increasing infection of H. pylori triggers gastritis, gastric ulcers and gastric cancer. To develop a new protective agent, we are concerned with plant-derived extract. The extract of Coptis chinensis (C. chinensis) and its constituents were investigated to assess their protective activities against gastric damage. The C. chinensis extract showed a scavenging effect against 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, inhibition of H. pylori colonization and antiulcerogenic activities in rat. In particular, palmatine derived from C. chinensis was found to be the novel protective agent. It is better than the C. chinensis extract, berberine, a well-known constituent of C. chinensis. We suggest that palmatine from the root cortex of C. chinensis may be a good candidate for the development of new pharmaceuticals to prevent gastric disease.
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Identification of a novel nonsynonymous mutation of EYA1 disrupting splice site in a Korean patient with BOR syndrome.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2014
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The EYA1 gene is known as the causative gene of BOR (Branchio-oto-renal) syndrome which is a genetic disorder associated with branchial cleft cysts of fistulae, hearing loss, ear malformation, and renal anomalies. Although approximately 40% of patients with BOR syndrome have mutations in the EYA1 gene and over 130 disease-causing mutations in EYA1 have been reported in various populations, only a few mutations have been reported in Korean families. In this study, genetic analysis of the EYA1 gene was performed in a Korean patient diagnosed with BOR syndrome and his parents. A de novo novel missense mutation, c.418G>A, located at the end of exon 6, changed glycine to serine at amino acid position 140 (p.G140S) and was suspected to affect normal splicing. Our in vitro splicing assay demonstrated that this mutation causes exon 6 skipping leading to frameshift and truncation of the protein to result in the loss of eyaHR. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report revealing that a missense mutation in the exon disturbs normal splicing as a result of a substitution of the last nucleotide of an exon in EYA1.
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The effects of C-glycosylation of luteolin on its antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory activities.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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To investigate the effect of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin, the structure-activity relationships of luteolin and a pair of isomeric C-glycosylated derivatives orientin and isoorientin, were evaluated. We investigated the effects of C-glycosylation on the antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD), anti-diabetic and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its two C-glycosides via in vitro assays of peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), total reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydraxyl (DPPH), aldose reductase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), and ?-site amyloid precursor cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and cellular assays of NO production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)/cyclooxygenase-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. Of the three compounds, isoorientin showed the highest scavenging activity against DPPH, NO, and ONOO(-), while luteolin was the most potent inhibitor of ROS generation. In addition, luteolin showed the most potent anti-AD activity as determined by its inhibition of AChE, BChE, and BACE1. With respect to anti-diabetic effects, luteolin exerted the strongest inhibitory activity against PTP1B and rat lens aldose reductase. Luteolin also inhibited NO production and iNOS protein expression in LPS-stimulated macrophages, while orientin and isoorientin were inactive at the same concentrations. The effects of C-glycosylation at different positions of luteolin may be closely linked to the intensity and modulation of antioxidant, anti-AD, anti-diabetic, and anti-inflammatory effects of luteolin and its C-glycosylated derivatives.
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Vicenin 2 isolated from Artemisia capillaris exhibited potent anti-glycation properties.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Vicenin 2, isolated from a traditionally used medicinal plant Artemisia capillaris, is a 6,8-di-C-glucoside of apigenin which has been previously reported to possess a wide variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and hepatoprotective. However, there have not been any reports concerning its anti-diabetic potential until now. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of vicenin 2 via ?-glucosidase, protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), and advanced glycation end products (AGE) formation inhibitory assays. Vicenin 2 strongly inhibited ?-glucosidase, PTP1B, and RLAR in the corresponding assays. In addition, vicenin 2 inhibited the formation of both fluorescent AGE and nonfluorescent AGE, e.g., CML, as well as the level of fructosamine in glucose-fructose-induced bovine serum albumin (BSA) glycation. In the test system, vicenin 2 suppressed glycation-induced protein oxidation by attenuating the formation of protein carbonyl groups as well as by inhibiting the modification of protein thiol groups. Moreover, vicenin 2 was found to be a potent inhibitor of glycation-induced formation of amyloid cross-? structures in BSA. Taken together, vicenin 2 might be a useful lead for the development of multiple target-oriented therapeutic modalities for the treatment of diabetes and diabetes-associated complications.
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Emergent Recanalization with Stenting for Acute Stroke due to Athero-Thrombotic Occlusion of the Cervical Internal Carotid Artery : A Single Center Experience.
J Korean Neurosurg Soc
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical efficacy of emergent carotid angioplasty and stenting (CAS) for acute stroke due to athero-thrombotic occlusion of the cervical internal carotid artery (ICA).
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Changes in patient characteristics of infective endocarditis with congenital heart disease: 25 years experience in a single institution.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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The profile of infective endocarditis (IE) has changed and is now showing an increasing prevalence of IE among congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. We studied the change of clinical profiles of IE over the past 25 years in patients with CHD at a single institution.
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Biochemical and toxicological properties of two acetylcholinesterases from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We examined the molecular and enzymatic properties of two acetylcholinesterases (AChEs; ClAChE1 and ClAChE2) from the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by activity staining and Western blotting revealed that ClAChE1 is the main catalytic enzyme and is abundantly expressed in various tissues. Both ClAChEs existed in dimeric form connected by a disulfide bridge and were attached to the membrane via a glycophosphatidylinositol anchor. To determine their kinetic and inhibitory properties, both ClAChE1 and ClAChE2 were in vitro expressed in Sf9 cells using a baculovirus expression system. ClAChE1 showed higher catalytic efficiency toward acetylcholine, supporting the hypothesis that ClAChE1 plays a major role in postsynaptic transmission. An inhibition assay revealed that ClAChE1 is generally more sensitive to organophosphates and carbamates examined although ClAChE2 was >4000-fold more sensitive to malaoxon than ClAChE1. The relatively higher correlation between the in vitro ClAChE1 inhibition and the in vivo toxicity suggested that ClAChE1 is the more relevant toxicological target for organophosphates and carbamates. Although the physiological function of ClAChE2 remains to be elucidated, ClAChE2 also appears to have neuronal functions, as judged by its tissue distribution and molecular and kinetic properties. Our findings help expand our knowledge on insect AChEs and their toxicological properties.
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Autoimmunity as a Candidate for the Etiopathogenesis of Meniere's Disease: Detection of Autoimmune Reactions and Diagnostic Biomarker Candidate.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Meniere's disease is an inner ear disorder that can manifest as fluctuating vertigo, sensorineural hearing loss, tinnitus, and aural fullness. However, the pathologic mechanism of Meniere's disease is still unclear. In this study, we evaluated autoimmunity as a potential cause of Meniere's disease. In addition we tried to find useful biomarker candidates for diagnosis. We investigated the protein composition of human inner ear fluid using liquid column mass spectrometry, the autoimmune reaction between circulating autoantibodies in patient serum and multiple antigens using the Protoarray system, the immune reaction between patient serum and mouse inner ear tissues using western blot analysis. Nine proteins, including immunoglobulin and its variants and interferon regulatory factor 7, were found only in the inner ear fluid of patients with Meniere's disease. Enhanced immune reactions with 18 candidate antigens were detected in patients with Meniere's disease in Protoarray analysis; levels of 8 of these antigens were more than 10-fold higher in patients than in controls. Antigen-antibody reactions between mouse inner ear proteins with molecular weights of 23-48 kDa and 63-75 kDa and patient sera were detected in 8 patients. These findings suggest that autoimmunity could be one of the pathologic mechanisms behind Meniere's disease. Multiple autoantibodies and antigens may be involved in the autoimmune reaction. Specific antigens that caused immune reactions with patient's serum in Protoarray analysis can be candidates for the diagnostic biomarkers of Meniere's disease.
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Genetic analysis of genes related to tight junction function in the korean population with non-syndromic hearing loss.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Tight junctions (TJs) are essential components of eukaryotic cells, and serve as paracellular barriers and zippers between adjacent tissues. TJs are critical for normal functioning of the organ of Corti, a part of the inner ear that causes loss of sensorineural hearing when damaged. To investigate the relation between genes involved in TJ function and hereditary loss of sensorineural hearing in the Korean population, we selected the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes as candidates for gene screening of 135 Korean individuals. The TJP2 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal dominant non-syndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL), lies at the DFNA51 locus on chromosome 9. The CLDN14 gene, mutation of which causes autosomal recessive non-syndromic hearing loss (ARNSHL), lies at the DFNB29 locus on chromosome 21. In the present study, we conducted genetic analyses of the TJP2 and CLDN14 genes in 87 unrelated patients with ADNSHL and 48 unrelated patients with either ARNSHL or potentially sporadic hearing loss. We identified two pathogenic variations, c.334G>A (p.A112T) and c.3562A>G (p.T1188A), and ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TJP2 gene. We found eight non-pathogenic variations in the CLDN14 gene. These findings indicate that, whereas mutation of the TJP2 gene might cause ADNSHL, CLDN14 is not a major causative gene for ARNSHL in the Korean population studied. Our findings may improve the understanding of the genetic cause of non-syndromic hearing loss in the Korean population.
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Developmental changes of ENaC expression and function in the inner ear of pendrin knock-out mice as a perspective on the development of endolymphatic hydrops.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Pendrin mutations cause enlarged vestibular aqueducts and various degrees of sensorineural hearing loss. The selective abolition of pendrin causes dilation of the membranous labyrinth known as endolymphatic hydrops, loss of the endocochlear potential, and consequently loss of hearing function. Because Na+ transport is one of the most important driving forces for fluid transport, the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is believed to play an important role in fluid volume regulation in the inner ear. Therefore, the dysfunction of Na+ transport through ENaC by the acidification of endolymph in Pendred syndrome is one of the potential causes of endolymphatic hydrops. We investigated the changes of ENaC expression and function during the development of the pendrin knock-out mouse. In the cochlea, the expression of ? and ?ENaC was significantly increased at P56 in Pds-/- mice compared with Pds+/+ mice. In the vestibule, the expression of ?ENaC was significantly increased at P56, and ?ENaC expression significantly increased from P6 to P56 in Pds-/- mice. The ENaC-dependent trans-epithelial current was not significantly different between Pds+/+ and Pds-/- mice in Reissner's membrane or the saccular extramacular roof epithelium at P0, but the current was significantly increased in Pds-/- mice at P56 compared with Pds+/+ mice. These findings indicate that the expression and function of ENaC were enhanced in Pds-/- mice after the development of endolymphatic hydrops as a compensatory mechanism. This result provides insight into the role of Na+ transport in the development and regulation of endolymphatic hydrops due to pendrin mutations.
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Is there a deafness duration limit for cochlear implants in post-lingual deaf adults?
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-28-2013
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Abstract Conclusion: Patients with post-lingual deafness should not be excluded from cochlear implantation (CI) on the basis of duration of deafness. We found that the prognosis was favorable in patients who developed deafness after adolescence, even in those with extremely long-term deafness. Objectives: CI is an effective treatment for post-lingual deafness. However, it remains unclear whether CI would benefit patients with extremely long-term deafness. We evaluated the auditory performance after CI of patients who had been deaf for more than 30 years. Methods: The study enrolled 81 adults with post-lingual deafness. Speech perception tests were performed preoperatively and 12 months postoperatively, and factors affecting the postoperative auditory performance were investigated. The subjects were divided into groups according to the duration of deafness and the postoperative speech perception scores were compared. Results: A marked improvement in the open-set speech perception scores (mono/disyllabic words and sentences) after implantation was seen in all groups, and no significant difference in the improvement in speech perception scores was observed among the groups. Age at onset of deafness was closely related to the postoperative performance, and patients who had lost their hearing before adolescence performed poorly.
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Enlarged cochlear aqueducts: a potential route for CSF gushers in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueducts.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
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We investigated whether the size of the cochlear aqueduct (CA) is increased in patients with enlarged vestibular aqueducts (EVAs) compared with individuals with normal inner ear anatomy. Furthermore, we assessed whether the size of the CA is related to the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) gusher during cochlear implantation (CI) surgery.
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Phlorotannins isolated from the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera exert anti-adipogenic activity on 3T3-L1 adipocytes by downregulating C/EBP? and PPAR?
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2013
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The dramatic increase in obesity-related diseases emphasizes the need to elucidate the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying fat metabolism. Inhibition of adipocyte differentiation has been suggested to be an important strategy for preventing or treating obesity. In our previous study, we characterized an Ecklonia stolonifera extract and non-polar fractions thereof, including dichloromethane and ethyl acetate fractions. We showed that these fractions inhibited adipocyte differentiation and lipid formation/accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes, as assessed by Oil Red O staining. As part of our ongoing search for anti-obesity agents derived from E. stolonifera, in this work, we characterized five known phlorotannins, including phloroglucinol, eckol, dieckol, dioxinodehydroeckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol A, all of which were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of E. stolonifera. We determined the chemical structures of these phlorotannins through comparisons of published nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectral data. Furthermore, we screened these phlorotannins for their abilities to inhibit adipogenesis over a range of concentrations (12.5-100?M). Of these five phlorotannins, phloroglucinol, eckol, and phlorofucofuroeckol A significantly concentration-dependently inhibited lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 cells without affecting cell viability. In addition, the five isolated phlorotannins also significantly reduced the expression levels of several adipocyte marker genes, including proliferator activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), although they did so to different extents. These results suggest that the molecular weight of a phlorotannin is an important factor affecting its ability to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and modulate the expression levels of adipocyte marker genes.
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QTc Prolongation after Ventricular Septal Defect Repair in Infants.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Prolonging of the corrected QT interval (QTc) has been reported after cardiac surgery in some studies. However, there have not been many studies on infant open cardiac surgery for ventricular septal defect (VSD) repair. This study was performed to define the changes in QTc and to find related post-surgery factors in this patient group.
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Simultaneous quantification and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of flavonoids in Polygonum aviculare L. herb.
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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The plant Polygonum aviculare L. (Polygonaceae) is an annual herbaceous plant which is known to be beneficial for treating gastroduodenal ulcer, hypertension, diarrhea, hemorrhage, and hemorrhoids. Ten phenolic compounds, including nine flavonoids (myricetin, quercetin, kaempferol, myricitrin, desmanthin-1, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, avicularin, juglanin), and gallic acid were used for simultaneous HPLC quantification and peroxynitrite-scavenging assay. Simultaneous quantification of these substances were performed on five extracts (EtOH-, MeOH-, 70% MeOH-, 30% MeOH-, and H2O extracts) as well as on the three fractions (Et2O-, EtOAc-, and BuOH fractions), under the condition of a Capcell Pak C18 column (5?m, 250mm×4.6mm i.d.) and a gradient elution of 0.05% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) and MeOHCH3CN (60:40). Of the three fractions, the EtOAc fraction displayed the highest content of flavonoids (sum, 208.9mg/g) with the strongest peroxynitrite-scavenging activity (IC50, 2.68?g/mL). The activities of the eight compounds (myricitrin, isoquercitrin, avicularin, quercitrin, myricetin, desmanthin-1, quercetin, and kaempferol) were comparable to that of the positive control (l-penicillamine; IC50: 1.03?g/mL). These results suggest that folkloric medicinal uses of P. aviculare are mainly attributed to flavonoids, such as particularly highly contained myricetin, myricitrin, and desmanthin-1.
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Efficacy of percutaneous nephrostomy tube during ureteroscopy for upper ureter stone management.
J. Endourol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Preoperative percutaneous nephrostomy (PCN) has been commonly performed for patients with urinary stones complicated with pyelonephritis or obstructive uropathy; in fact, a considerable number of patients undergo ureteroscopic removal of stone (URS) in the presence of a PCN. We assessed the effectiveness of PCN during URS in the management of upper ureteral stones.
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Cholinesterase inhibitors from the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Inhibition of cholinesterase has been proposed to be a therapeutic target for the treatment of Alzheimers diseases. In our preliminary screening study on the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity, an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the roots of Harpagophytum procumbens (Pedaliaceae) was found to inhibit AChE activity at the concentration of 100 ?g/mL. Ten compounds (1-10) were isolated from the active fraction and evaluated for their inhibitory effect on AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE). Among the isolates, verbascosides (5, 6, and 8) containing a caffeoyl and a 3,4-dihydroxyphenethyl groups in their structures, showed effective AChE inhibitory activity and also possessed BChE inhibitory activity. The findings suggest that verbascoside derivatives may be partially related to the anti-Alzheimer effect of this medicinal plant.
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Simultaneous analysis and peroxynitrite-scavenging activity of galloylated flavonoid glycosides and ellagic acid in Euphorbia supina.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2013
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The herbs of Euphorbia supina (Euphorbiaceae) have been used to treat hemorrhage, chronic bronchitis, hepatitis, jaundice, diarrhea, gastritis, and hemorrhoids as a medicinal herb. This work is aimed to qualitatively and quantitatively analyze the polyphenols with peroxynitrite-scavenging activities. The eight compounds: gallic acid, methyl gallate, avicularin, astragalin, juglanin, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, astragalin 6?-gallate, and ellagic acid, were isolated from E. supina and used for HPLC analysis and peroxynitrite (ONOO(-))-scavenging assay. Simultaneous analysis of the eight compounds was performed on MeOH extract and its fractions. The contents in MeOH extract and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities of the dimer of gallic acid, ellagic acid (15.64 mg/g; IC50 0.89 ?M), and two galloylated flavonoid glycosides, astragalin 6?-gallate (13.72 mg/g; IC50 1.43 ?M) and isoquercitrin 6?-gallate (16.99 mg/g; IC50 1.75 ?M), were high, compared to other compounds. The legendary uses of E. supina could be attributed to the high content of polyphenols, particularly ellagic acid, isoquercitrin 6?-gallate, and astragalin 6?-gallate as active principles.
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Dissemination of metallo-?-lactamase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa of sequence type 235 in Asian countries.
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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To investigate the epidemiological traits of metallo-?-lactamase (MBL)-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MPPA) clinical isolates collected by the Asian Network for Surveillance of Resistant Pathogens (ANSORP).
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Anti-adipogenic activity of the edible brown alga Ecklonia stolonifera and its constituent fucosterol in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.
Arch. Pharm. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Fucosterol is a sterol metabolite of brown algae and regulates genes involved with cholesterol homeostasis. As a part of our continuous search for anti-obesity agents from natural marine sources, the anti-adipogenic activities of Ecklonia stolonifera and its sterol, fucosterol, were evaluated for the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation and lipid formation. Oil Red O staining was used to evaluate triglyceride contents in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes primed by differentiation medium (DM) I and DM II. The methanolic extract of E. stolonifera showed strong anti-adipogenic activity, and was thus fractionated with several solvents. Among the tested fractions, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) fraction was found to be the most active fraction, with significant inhibition (40.5 %) of intracellular lipid accumulation at a non-toxic concentration, followed by the ethyl acetate fraction (30.2 %) at the same concentration, while the n-butanol and water fractions did not show inhibitory activity within the tested concentrations. The strong anti-adipogenic CH2Cl2-soluble fraction was further purified by a repeated chromatography to yield fucosterol. Fucosterol reduced lipid contents in a concentration-dependent manner without showing any cytotoxicity. Fucosterol treatment also yielded a decrease in the expression of the adipocyte marker proteins peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?) in a concentration-dependent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that fucosterol inhibits expression of PPAR? and C/EBP?, resulting in a decrease of lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes, indicating that the potential use of E. stolonifera and its bioactive fucosterol as an anti-obesity agent.
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Effects of C-glycosylation on anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimers disease and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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Apigenin has gained particular interests in recent years as a beneficial and health promoting agent because of its low intrinsic toxicity. Vitexin and isovitexin, naturally occurring C-glycosylated derivatives of apigenin, have been known to possess potent anti-diabetic, anti-Alzheimers disease (anti-AD), and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study was designed to investigate the anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potential of apigenin and its two C-glycosylated derivatives, vitexin and isovitexin by in vitro assays including rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), ?-site amyloid precursor (APP) cleaving enzyme 1 (BACE1), and nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 cells. Among them, isovitexin was found as the most potent inhibitor against RLAR, HRAR, AGE, AChE, and BChE while vitexin showed the most potent PTP1B inhibitory activity. Despite the relatively weak anti-diabetic and anti-AD potentials, apigenin showed powerful antiinflammatory activity by inhibiting NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression while vitexin and isovitexin were inactive. Therefore, it could be speculated that C-glycosylation of apigenin at different positions might be closely linked to relative intensity of anti-diabetic, anti-AD, and anti-inflammatory potentials.
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Relationship between electrically evoked auditory brainstem response and auditory performance after cochlear implant in patients with auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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To analyze the pattern of electrically evoked auditory brainstem response (EABR) in auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) patients and to compare their performances with controls.
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Correlation of cochlear nerve size and auditory performance after cochlear implantation in postlingually deaf patients.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2013
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Cochlear implantation (CI) yields outstanding results in postlingual deafness, but outcomes of auditory performance after CI are variable. Thus far, it has been difficult to accurately predict patient prognoses after CI.
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Kinetics and molecular docking studies of an anti-diabetic complication inhibitor fucosterol from edible brown algae Eisenia bicyclis and Ecklonia stolonifera.
Chem. Biol. Interact.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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In the present study, we investigated the anti-diabetic potential of fucosterol by evaluating the ability of this compound to inhibit rat lens aldose reductase (RLAR), human recombinant aldose reductase (HRAR), protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), and ?-glucosidase. Fucosterol displayed moderate inhibitory activity against RLAR, HRAR, and PTP1B. However, it showed weak or no activity against AGE formation and ?-glucosidase. In addition, our kinetic study revealed that fucosterol showed a mixed type inhibition against RLAR and HRAR, while it noncompetitively inhibited PTP1B. Since fucosterol inhibited aldose reductase (AR), it holds great promise for use in the treatment of diabetic complications. Therefore, we predicted the 3D structure of AR in rat and human using the Autodock program to simulate binding between AR and fucosterol and evaluate the binding site-directed inhibition of AR by fucosterol. Results of the docking simulations of fucosterol demonstrated negative binding energies (-8.2 kcal/mol for RLAR and -8.5 kcal/mol for HRAR), which indicated a higher affinity and tighter binding capacity of fucosterol for the active site of the enzyme. In particular, the hydrophobic ring system and the aliphatic side chain of fucosterol were found to be tightly bound in a specificity pocket through apolar amino acid residues on AR, while the anion binding site on AR interacts with the 3-hydroxyl group and the double bond on the side chain of fucosterol. The results of the present study clearly demonstrated the potential of using fucosterol for the management and treatment of diabetes and diabetes-associated complications.
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Genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 gene in the Korean population with autosomal recessive nonsyndromic hearing loss.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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The TMPRSS3 gene (DFNB8/10), which encodes a transmembrane serine protease, is a common hearing loss gene in several populations. Accurate functions of TMPRSS3 in the hearing pathway are still unknown, but TMPRSS3 has been reported to play a crucial role in inner ear development or maintenance. To date, 16 pathogenic mutations have been identified in many countries, but no mutational studies of the TMPRSS3 gene have been conducted in the Korean hearing loss population. In this study, we performed genetic analysis of TMPRSS3 in 40 unrelated Korean patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss to identify the aspect and frequency of TMPRSS3 gene mutations in the Korean population. A total of 22 variations were detected, including a novel variant (p.V291L) and a previously reported pathogenic mutation (p.A306T). The p.A306T mutation which has been detected in only compound heterozygous state in previous studies was identified in homozygous state for the first time in this study. Moreover, the clinical evaluation identified bilateral dilated vestibules in the patient with p.A306T mutation, and it suggested that p.A306T mutation of the TMPRSS3 gene might be associated with vestibular anomalies. In conclusion, this study investigated that only 2.5% of patients with autosomal recessive hearing loss were related to TMPRSS3 mutations suggesting low prevalence of TMPRSS3 gene in Korean hearing loss population. Also, it will provide the information of genotype-phenotype correlation to understand definite role of TMPRSS3 in the auditory system.
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Anti-inflammatory activity of edible brown alga Eisenia bicyclis and its constituents fucosterol and phlorotannins in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 macrophages.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Although individual phlorotannins contained in the edible brown algae have been reported to possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, the responsible components of Eisenia bicyclis have yet to be fully studied. Thus, we evaluated their anti-inflammatory activity via inhibition against production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) and tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS), along with suppression against expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in RAW 264.7 cells. The anti-inflammatory activity potential of the methanolic extract and its fractions of E. bicyclis was in the order of dichloromethane>methanol>ethyl acetate>n-butanol. The strong anti-inflammatory dichloromethane fraction was further purified to yield fucosterol. From the ethyl acetate fraction, six known phlorotannins were isolated: phloroglucinol, eckol, dieckol, 7-phloroeckol, phlorofucofuroeckol A and dioxinodehydroeckol. We found that these compounds, at non-toxic concentrations, dose-dependently inhibited LPS-induced NO production. Fucosterol also inhibited t-BHP-induced ROS generation and suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2. These results indicate that E. bicyclis and its constituents exhibited anti-inflammatory activity which might attribute to inhibition of NO and ROS generation and suppression of the NF-?B pathway and can therefore be considered as a useful therapeutic and preventive approach to various inflammatory and oxidative stress-related diseases.
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The Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF78 is essential for budded virus production and general occlusion body formation.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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ORF78 (ac78) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a baculovirus core gene of unknown function. To determine the role of ac78 in the baculovirus life cycle, an AcMNPV mutant with ac78 deleted, Ac78KO, was constructed. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that ac78 is a late gene in the viral life cycle. After transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Ac78KO produced a single-cell infection phenotype, indicating that no infectious budded viruses (BVs) were produced. The defect in BV production was also confirmed by both viral titration and Western blotting. However, viral DNA replication was unaffected, and occlusion bodies were formed. An analysis of BVs and occlusion-derived viruses (ODVs) revealed that AC78 is associated with both forms of the virions and is an envelope structural protein. Electron microscopy revealed that AC78 also plays an important role in the embedding of ODV into the occlusion body. The results of this study demonstrate that AC78 is a late virion-associated protein and is essential for the viral life cycle.
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Intrafamilial phenotypic variability in families with biallelic SLC26A4 mutations.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
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Enlarged vestibular aqueduct (EVA) and hearing loss are known to be caused by SLC26A4 mutations, but large phenotypic variability exists among patients with biallelic SLC26A4 mutations. Intrafamilial phenotypic variability was analyzed in multiplex EVA families carrying biallelic SLC26A4 mutations to identify the contribution of SLC26A4 mutations and other genetic or environmental factors influencing the clinical manifestations.
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Compartmentalized oxidative stress in dopaminergic cell death induced by pesticides and complex I inhibitors: Distinct roles of superoxide anion and superoxide dismutases.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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The loss of dopaminergic neurons induced by the parkinsonian toxins paraquat, rotenone, and 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP(+)) is associated with oxidative stress. However, controversial reports exist regarding the source/compartmentalization of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and its exact role in cell death. We aimed to determine in detail the role of superoxide anion (O2(•-)), oxidative stress, and their subcellular compartmentalization in dopaminergic cell death induced by parkinsonian toxins. Oxidative stress and ROS formation were determined in the cytosol, intermembrane (IMS), and mitochondrial matrix compartments, using dihydroethidine derivatives and the redox sensor roGFP, as well as electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. Paraquat induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in both the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix prior to cell death. MPP(+) and rotenone primarily induced an increase in ROS and oxidative stress in the mitochondrial matrix. No oxidative stress was detected at the level of the IMS. In contrast to previous studies, overexpression of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) or copper/zinc SOD (CuZnSOD) had no effect on alterations in ROS steady-state levels, lipid peroxidation, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (??m), and dopaminergic cell death induced by MPP(+) or rotenone. In contrast, paraquat-induced oxidative stress and cell death were selectively reduced by MnSOD overexpression, but not by CuZnSOD or manganese-porphyrins. However, MnSOD also failed to prevent ??m loss. Finally, paraquat, but not MPP(+) or rotenone, induced the transcriptional activation of the redox-sensitive antioxidant response elements (ARE) and nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-?B). These results demonstrate a selective role of mitochondrial O2(•-) in dopaminergic cell death induced by paraquat, and show that toxicity induced by the complex I inhibitors rotenone and MPP(+) does not depend directly on mitochondrial O2(•-) formation.
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How is the peri-patch myocardium in ventricular septal defect patch repair?
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Strain rate (SR) and strain (?) in tissue Doppler imaging provide new noninvasive measurements of myocardial function, independent of heart motion. This study assesses the extent of peri-patch regional myocardial function after patch repair of ventricular septal defect (VSD). Myocardial SR and ? were recorded from the peri-patch myocardium and remote septum from patch area in 18 patients (1 month to 4 years of age, mean 2.3 years). Distance between the patch and the point of returning to remote normal strain (?) profile was measured. Compared to the remote myocardial region, peri-patch myocardium had decreased peak longitudinal SR (-3.8 ± 2.1s(-1) vs. -5.3 ± 3.3s(-1), p<0.05), delayed time to peak longitudinal SR (144 ± 59 ms vs. 110 ± 46 ms, p<0.05), decreased peak ? (longitudinal, -20.8 ± 8.1% vs. -28.7 ± 11.1%; radial, 20.1 ± 16.3% vs. 34.3 ± 22.4%, p<0.01), and delayed time to peak ? (longitudinal, 314 ± 80 ms vs. 241 ± 63 ms; radial, 329 ± 99 ms vs. 265 ± 78 ms, p<0.0001). The mean distance from the patch to the remote patch ? curve was 2.55 ± 0.77 mm.
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Revision cochlear implantation with different electrodes can cause incomplete electrode insertion and poor performance.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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To review our experiences with revision cochlear implantation (CI), to assess revision CI efficacy, and to find factors that cause incomplete electrode insertion.
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Transformation of Beauveria bassiana to produce EGFP in Tenebrio molitor for use as animal feed additives.
FEMS Microbiol. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Efforts are underway to develop more effective and safer animal feed additives. Entomopathogenic fungi can be considered practical expression platforms of functional genes within insects which have been used as animal feed additives. In this work, as a model, the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) gene was expressed in yellow mealworms, Tenebrio molitor by highly infective Beauveria bassiana ERL1170. Among seven test isolates, ERL1170 treatment showed 57.1% and 98.3% mortality of mealworms 2 and 5 days after infection, respectively. The fungal transformation vector, pABeG containing the egfp gene, was inserted into the genomic DNA of ERL1170 using the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method. This resulted in the generation of the transformant, Bb-egfp#3, which showed the highest level of fluorescence. Bb-egfp#3-treated mealworms gradually turned dark brown, and in 7-days mealworm sections showed a strong fluorescence. This did not occur in the wild-type strain. This work suggests that further valuable proteins can be efficiently produced in this mealworm-based fungal expression platform, thereby increasing the value of mealworms in the animal feed additive industry.
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The Comparison between the Echocardiographic Data to the Cardiac Catheterization Data on the Diagnosis, Treatment, and Follow-Up in Patients Diagnosed as Pulmonary Valve Stenosis.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Isolated pulmonary valve stenosis (PS) makes up 6-9% of all congenital heart defects among children. The initial gold standard for diagnosis, follow-up of PS is by echocardiography. However, the most accurate diagnosis still remains to be measurement of the pressure gradient through transcatheterization. The purpose of this study is to compare the difference between the echocardiographic data to the cardiac catheterization data on the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up in patients diagnosed as PS, and to see what parameters should be closely monitored.
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Genetic analysis of auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder in the Korean population.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) is caused by dys-synchronous auditory neural response as a result of impairment of the functions of the auditory nerve or inner hair cells, or synapses between inner hair cells and the auditory nerve. To identify a causative gene causing ANSD in the Korean population, we conducted gene screening of the OTOF, DIAPH3, and PJVK genes in 19 unrelated Korean patients with ANSD. A novel nonsense mutation (p.Y1064X) and a known pathogenic mutation (p.R1939Q) of the OTOF gene were identified in a patient as compound heterozygote. Pedigree analysis for these mutations showed co-segregation of mutation genotype and the disease in the family, and it supported that the p.Y1064X might be a novel genetic cause of autosomal recessive ANSD. A novel missense variant p.K1017R (c.3050A>G) in the DIAPH3 gene was also identified in the heterozygous state. In contrast, no mutation was detected in the PJVK gene. These results indicate that no major causative gene has been reported to date in the Korean population and that pathogenic mutations in undiscovered candidate genes may have an effect on ANSD.
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Limitations of hearing screening in newborns with PDS mutations.
Int. J. Pediatr. Otorhinolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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SLC26A4 (PDS) mutations are common cause of congenital hearing loss in East Asia. Hearing loss caused by PDS mutations tends to have delayed presentation; thus universal newborn hearing screening (UNHS) can be less effective in these patients. We examined the efficiency of newborn hearing screening test in patients with bi-allelic PDS mutations.
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Existence of lysogenic bacteriophages in Bacillus thuringiensis type strains.
J. Invertebr. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We screened the existence of bacteriophages in 67 Bacillus thuringiensis type strains by phage DNA extraction and PCR using phage terminase small subunit (TerS)-specific primers to the supernatants and the precipitated pellets of Bt cultures, and by transmission electron microscopy. The various bacteriophages were observed from the supernatants of 22 type strains. Ten type strains showed the extracted phage DNAs and the amplified fragment by TerS PCR but 12 type strains showed only the phage DNAs. Their morphological characteristic suggests that they belong to Family Siphoviridae which had a long tail and symmetrical head.
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Complete genomic sequences and comparative analysis of Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus isolated in Korea.
Virus Genes
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Mamestra brassicae nucleopolyhedrovirus-K1 (MabrNPV-K1) was isolated from naturally infected M. brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in Korea. The full genome sequences of MabrNPV-K1 were determined, analysed and compared to those of other baculoviruses. The MabrNPV-K1 genome consisted of 152,710 bp and had an overall G + C content of 39.9%. Computer-assisted analysis predicted 158 open reading frames (ORFs) of 150 nucleotides or greater that showed minimal overlap. Two inhibitor of apoptosis (iap) and six baculovirus repeated ORFs were interspersed in the MabrNPV-K1 genome. The unique MabrNPV-K1 ORF133 was identified in the MabrNPV-K1 genome that was not previously reported in baculoviruses. The gene content and arrangement in MabrNPV-K1 had the highest similarity with those of Helicoverpa armigera MNPV (HearMNPV) and Mamestra configurata NPV-B (MacoNPV-B), and their shared homologous genes were 99% collinear. The MabrNPV-K1 genome contained four homologous repeat regions (hr1, hr2, hr3 and hr4) that accounted for 3.3% of the genome. The genomic positions of the four MabrNPV-K1 hr regions were conserved among those of HearMNPV and MacoNPV-B. The gene parity plot, percent identity of the gene homologues and a phylogenetic analysis suggested that these three viruses are closely related not only to each other but also to the same virus strains rather than different virus species.
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A systematic survey of carbonic anhydrase mRNA expression during mammalian inner ear development.
Dev. Dyn.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Carbonic anhydrases (CAs), which catalyze CO(2) hydration to bicarbonate and protons, have been suggested to regulate potassium homeostasis and endocochlear potential in the mammalian cochlea. Sixteen mammalian CA isozymes are currently known. To understand the specific roles of CA isozymes in the inner ear, a systematic survey was conducted to reveal temporal and spatial expression patterns of all 16 CA isozymes during inner ear development.
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Functional characterization of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus ORF43 and phenotypic changes of ORF43-knockout mutant.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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ORF43 (ac43) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is a highly conserved baculovirus gene of unknown function. To investigate the role of ac43 in the baculovirus lifecycle, we constructed an ac43-deleted mutant AcMNPV, Ac43KO. After transfection into Spodoptera frugiperda cells, Ac43KO produced polyhedra much larger in size than those of wild-type AcMNPV. Interestingly, some of the nucleocapsids were singly enveloped in the polyhedrin matrix while the nucleocapsids of AcMNPV are known to be multiply enveloped. Furthermore, Ac43KO led to a defect in the transcription and expression of polyhedrin, which resulted in reduced occlusion body production. However, Ac43KO did not affect production of budded virus as there was no remarkable difference in budded virus titer. These results suggest that ac43 plays an important role in the expression of polyhedrin, the morphogenesis of occlusion body, and the assembly of virions occluded in occlusion bodies.
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A rapid method for simultaneous screening of multi-gene mutations associated with hearing loss in the Korean population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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Hearing loss (HL) is a congenital disease with a high prevalence, and patients with hearing loss need early diagnosis for treatment and prevention. The GJB2, MT-RNR1, and SLC26A4 genes have been reported as common causative genes of hearing loss in the Korean population and some mutations of these genes are the most common mutations associated with hearing loss. Accordingly, we developed a method for the simultaneous detection of seven mutations (c.235delC of GJB2, c.439A>G, c.919-2A>G, c.1149+3A>G, c.1229C>T, c.2168A>G of SLC26A4, and m.1555A>G of the MT-RNR1 gene) using multiplex SNaPshot minisequencing to enable rapid diagnosis of hereditary hearing loss. This method was confirmed in patients with hearing loss and used for genetic diagnosis of controls with normal hearing and neonates. We found that 4.06% of individuals with normal hearing and 4.32% of neonates were heterozygous carriers. In addition, we detected that an individual is heterozygous for two different mutations of GJB2 and SLC26A4 gene, respectively and one normal hearing showing the heteroplasmy of m.1555A>G. These genotypes corresponded to those determined by direct sequencing. Overall, we successfully developed a robust and cost-effective diagnosis method that detects common causative mutations of hearing loss in the Korean population. This method will be possible to detect up to 40% causative mutations associated with prelingual HL in the Korean population and serve as a useful genetic technique for diagnosis of hearing loss for patients, carriers, neonates, and fetuses.
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Prevalence and associated factors for four sexually transmissible microorganisms in middle-aged men receiving general prostate health checkups: a polymerase chain reaction-based study in Korea.
Korean J Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2013
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To investigate the prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG), Mycoplasma genitalium (MG), and Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) in first-voided urine samples and to determine the factors associated with positivity for sexually transmissible microorganisms in healthy, middle-aged Korean men.
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Genetic analysis of the CHD7 gene in Korean patients with CHARGE syndrome.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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CHARGE syndrome is an autosomal dominant congenital disorder known to be caused by the haploinsufficiency of the CHD7 gene. Heterozygous mutations in the CHD7 gene have been identified in approximately 60-70% of patients clinically diagnosed with CHARGE syndrome. Although there have been many reports on the mutational spectrum of the CHD7 gene in patients with CHARGE syndrome worldwide, little is known about this syndrome in the Korean population. In this study, three Korean patients with CHARGE syndrome including one patient with Patau syndrome were evaluated for genetic analysis of the CHD7 gene using direct sequencing of all 38 exons and the flanking intronic regions. One nonsense and two novel missense mutations were identified in the CHD7 gene. Clinical symptoms caused by the missense mutations were much milder compared to the nonsense mutation, confirming the previously determined genotype-phenotype correlation in CHARGE syndrome. Our study demonstrates the importance of mutational screening of CHD7 in patients who have been diagnosed with other syndromes but display clinical features of CHARGE syndrome.
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Transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect using amplatzer ductal occluder.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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To show that transcatheter closure of perimembranous ventricular septal defect (PMVSD) with the Amplatzer ductal occluder (ADO, AGA Medical Corp, Plymouth, Minnesota) is a safe and effective treatment option.
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Mutational analysis of EYA1, SIX1 and SIX5 genes and strategies for management of hearing loss in patients with BOR/BO syndrome.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Branchio-oto-renal (BOR) or branchio-otic (BO) syndrome is one of the most common forms of autosomal dominant syndromic hearing loss. Mutations in EYA1, SIX1 and SIX5 genes have been associated with BOR syndrome. In this study, clinical and genetic analyses were performed in patients with BOR/BO syndrome focusing on auditory manifestations and rehabilitation.
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Bumblebee venom serine protease increases fungal insecticidal virulence by inducing insect melanization.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Insect-killing (entomopathogenic) fungi have high potential for controlling agriculturally harmful pests. However, their pathogenicity is slow, and this is one reason for their poor acceptance as a fungal insecticide. The expression of bumblebee, Bombus ignitus, venom serine protease (VSP) by Beauveria bassiana (ERL1170) induced melanization of yellow spotted longicorn beetles (Psacothea hilaris) as an over-reactive immune response, and caused substantially earlier mortality in beet armyworm (Spodopetra exigua) larvae when compared to the wild type. No fungal outgrowth or sporulation was observed on the melanized insects, thus suggesting a self-restriction of the dispersal of the genetically modified fungus in the environment. The research is the first use of a multi-functional bumblebee VSP to significantly increase the speed of fungal pathogenicity, while minimizing the dispersal of the fungal transformant in the environment.
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Hyper-enhanced production of foreign recombinant protein by fusion with the partial polyhedrin of nucleopolyhedrovirus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To enhance the production efficiency of foreign protein in baculovirus expression systems, the effects of polyhedrin fragments were investigated by fusion expressing them with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP). Recombinant viruses were generated to express EGFP fused with polyhedrin fragments based on the previously reported minimal region for self-assembly and the KRKK nuclear localization signal (NLS). Fusion expressions with polyhedrin amino acids 19 to 110 and 32 to 110 lead to localization of recombinant protein into the nucleus and mediate its assembly. The marked increase of EGFP by these fusion expressions was confirmed through protein and fluorescence intensity analyses. The importance of nuclear localization for enhanced production was shown by the mutation of the NLS within the fused polyhedrin fragment. In addition, when the polyhedrin fragment fused with EGFP was not localized in the nucleus, some fragments increased the production of protein. Among these fragments, some degradation of only the fused polyhedrin was observed in the fusion of amino acids 19 to 85 and 32 to 85. The fusion of amino acids 32 to 85 may be more useful for the enhanced and intact production of recombinant protein. The production of E2 protein, which is a major antigen of classical swine fever virus, was dramatically increased by fusion expression with polyhedrin amino acids 19 to 110, and its preliminary immunogenicity was verified using experimental guinea pigs. This study suggests a new option for higher expression of useful foreign recombinant protein by using the partial polyhedrin in baculovirus.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.