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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Melanopsin mediates light-dependent relaxation in blood vessels.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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Melanopsin (opsin4; Opn4), a non-image-forming opsin, has been linked to a number of behavioral responses to light, including circadian photo-entrainment, light suppression of activity in nocturnal animals, and alertness in diurnal animals. We report a physiological role for Opn4 in regulating blood vessel function, particularly in the context of photorelaxation. Using PCR, we demonstrate that Opn4 (a classic G protein-coupled receptor) is expressed in blood vessels. Force-tension myography demonstrates that vessels from Opn4(-/-) mice fail to display photorelaxation, which is also inhibited by an Opn4-specific small-molecule inhibitor. The vasorelaxation is wavelength-specific, with a maximal response at ?430-460 nm. Photorelaxation does not involve endothelial-, nitric oxide-, carbon monoxide-, or cytochrome p450-derived vasoactive prostanoid signaling but is associated with vascular hyperpolarization, as shown by intracellular membrane potential measurements. Signaling is both soluble guanylyl cyclase- and phosphodiesterase 6-dependent but protein kinase G-independent. ?-Adrenergic receptor kinase 1 (?ARK 1 or GRK2) mediates desensitization of photorelaxation, which is greatly reduced by GRK2 inhibitors. Blue light (455 nM) regulates tail artery vasoreactivity ex vivo and tail blood blood flow in vivo, supporting a potential physiological role for this signaling system. This endogenous opsin-mediated, light-activated molecular switch for vasorelaxation might be harnessed for therapy in diseases in which altered vasoreactivity is a significant pathophysiologic contributor.
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Intrinsic relationship between enhanced oxygen reduction reaction activity and nanoscale work function of doped carbons.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Nanostructured carbon materials doped with a variety of heteroatoms have shown promising electrocatalytic activity in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). However, understanding of the working principles that underpin the superior ORR activity observed with doped nanocarbons is still limited to predictions based on theoretical calculations. Herein, we demonstrate, for the first time, that the enhanced ORR activity in doped nanocarbons can be correlated with the variation in their nanoscale work function. A series of doped ordered mesoporous carbons (OMCs) were prepared using N, S, and O as dopants; the triple-doped, N,S,O-OMC displayed superior ORR activity and four-electron selectivity compared to the dual-doped (N,O-OMC and S,O-OMC) and the monodoped (O-OMC) OMCs. Significantly, the work functions of these heteroatom-doped OMCs, measured by Kelvin probe force microscopy, display a strong correlation with the activity and reaction kinetics for the ORR. This unprecedented experimental insight can be used to provide an explanation for the enhanced ORR activity of heteroatom-doped carbon materials.
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OxLDL triggers retrograde translocation of arginase2 in aortic endothelial cells via ROCK and mitochondrial processing peptidase.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Increased arginase activity contributes to endothelial dysfunction by competition for l-arginine substrate and reciprocal regulation of nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The rapid increase in arginase activity in human aortic endothelial cells exposed to oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL) is consistent with post-translational modification or subcellular trafficking.
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Transcriptional regulation of endothelial arginase 2 by histone deacetylase 2.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Arginase 2 (Arg2) is a critical target in atherosclerosis because it controls endothelial nitric oxide, proliferation, fibrosis, and inflammation. Regulators of Arg2 transcription in the endothelium have not been characterized. The goal of the current study is to determine the role of specific histone deacetylases (HDACs) in the regulation of endothelial Arg2 transcription and endothelial function.
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Aberrant methylation of the VIM promoter in uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Oncology
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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To identify prognosis-associated methylation markers of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to verify potential clinical correlations.
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Ultrasonographic diaphragmatic motion analysis and its correlation with pulmonary function in hemiplegic stroke patients.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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To evaluate diaphragmatic motion via M-mode ultrasonography and to correlate it with pulmonary function in stroke patients.
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Ethanol production from galactose by a newly isolated Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL17.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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A wild-type yeast strain with a good galactose-utilization efficiency was newly isolated from the soil, and identified and named Saccharomyces cerevisiae KL17 by 18s RNA sequencing. Its performance of producing ethanol from galactose was investigated in flask cultures with media containing various combination and concentrations of galactose and glucose. When the initial galactose concentration was 20 g/L, it showed 2.2 g/L/h of substrate consumption rate and 0.63 g/L/h of ethanol productivity. Although they were about 70 % of those with glucose, such performance of S. cerevisiae KL17 with galactose was considered to be quite high compared with other strains reported to date. Its additional merit was that its galactose metabolism was not repressed by the existence of glucose. Its capability of ethanol production under a high ethanol concentration was demonstrated by fed-batch fermentation in a bioreactor. A high ethanol productivity of 3.03 g/L/h was obtained with an ethanol concentration and yield of 95 and 0.39 g/L, respectively, when the cells were pre-cultured on glucose. When the cells were pre-cultured on galactose instead of glucose, fermentation time could be reduced significantly, resulting in an improved ethanol productivity of 3.46 g/L/h. The inhibitory effects of two major impurities in a crude galactose solution obtained from acid hydrolysis of galactan were assessed. Only 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) significantly inhibited ethanol fermentation, while levulinic acid (LA) was benign in the range up to 10 g/L.
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Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy in a Heterozygous Carrier of Congenital Hereditary Endothelial Dystrophy Type 2 with a Novel Mutation in SLC4A11.
Ophthalmic Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Abstract Purpose: Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) is a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in corneal endothelial cells. CHED can be divided into 2 types by the modes of inheritance; CHED type 1 (CHED1) with autosomal dominant inheritance and CHED type 2 (CHED2) with autosomal recessive inheritance. Mutations in the sodium bicarbonate transporter-like solute carrier family 4 member 11 (SLC4A11) gene result CHED2. Methods: A 37 years old female was clinically diagnosed as CHED2. Peripheral blood from the patient and her family members was obtained under informed consents. Genomic DNA was extracted in their WBCs, and whole exons and exon-intron boundaries of the SLC4A11 gene were amplified using polymerase chain reaction. The amplified materials were analyzed by direct sequencing method. Results: The sequencing results of the SLC4A11 gene showed a novel homozygous mutation in exon 9 (c.1158C?>?A, p.C386*) in the proband with CHED2 phenotype. Her father and sister showing normal cornea were heterozygous carriers of the mutation. Her mother showing late onset Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) also had the same mutation heterozygously. Discussion: We report a novel nonsense mutation of the SLC4A11 gene in the patient with CHED2. In addition, one of heterozygous carriers in this family showed features of late onset FECD. Close clinical ocular examination for the heterozygous carriers should be performed to detect late onset FECD.
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Usefulness of videofluoroscopic swallow study in treacher collins syndrome with cleft palate: a case report.
Ann Rehabil Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
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A 3-year-old girl had multiple anomalies compatible with Treacher Collins Syndrome (TCS). From the neonatal period, sucking was poor, making tube feeding necessary. Excessive saliva was retained in the oral cavity. Nasal leakage caused by the cleft palate was observed when she spoke. The initial videofluoroscopic swallow study (VFSS) showed a poor posterior bolus transit and nasopharyngeal regurgitation. A delayed swallow reflex and bolus stasis at the vallecular and pyriform sinuses were recognized. Based on the VFSS findings, the patient underwent palatoplasty at 20 months of age. At approximately 23 months of age, a follow-up VFSS was performed; poor posterior bolus transit, nasopharyngeal regurgitation, and delayed swallow reflex were not observed. Finally, the patient was able to eat ground or chopped foods and solid foods orally. We deem VFSS to be helpful in deciding the appropriate management of dysphagia in TCS.
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Spontaneous obliteration of right ventricular pseudoaneurysm after blunt chest trauma: diagnosis and follow-up with multidetector CT.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
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Right ventricular (RV) pseudoaneurysm caused by trauma is very rare. We report a case of RV pseudoaneurysm which resolved without surgical treatment in a patient who survived a falling accident. Echocardiography failed to identify the pseudoaneurysm. Electrocardiography-gated CT showed a 17-mm-sized saccular pseudoaneurysm arising from the RV outflow tract with a narrow neck. Follow-up CT after two months showed spontaneous obliteration of the lesion.
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Reduction in cardiovascular risk using a proactive multifactorial intervention is consistent among patients residing in Pacific Asian and non-Pacific Asian regions: a CRUCIAL trial subanalysis.
Vasc Health Risk Manag
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Few trials have compared different approaches to cardiovascular disease prevention among Pacific Asian (PA) populations. The Cluster Randomized Usual Care versus Caduet Investigation Assessing Long-term-risk (CRUCIAL) trial demonstrated that a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) approach (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin) resulted in a greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared with usual care (UC) among hypertensive patients with additional risk factors. One-third of CRUCIAL patients resided in the PA region. The aim of this subanalysis was to compare two approaches to cardiovascular risk factor management (PMI versus UC) among patients residing in PA and non-PA regions.
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Molecular and chemical investigations and comparisons of biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration.
Microsc. Res. Tech.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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This study investigated and compared the ultrastructural and chemical properties of representative biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration: a human amniotic membrane (AM) in a basal plate, a human AM in reflected chorion, a preserved AM, and a human corneo-scleral tissue. Assessments of the morphological differences in the extracellular matrices were evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Massons trichrome (for total collagen), and picrosirius-red (for newly synthesized collagen) staining. Assessments of the changes in the molecular structures and chemical compositions of the biomaterials for ocular surface regeneration were evaluated by Raman spectroscopy. A placental AM (52 %) was a dense and thick collagenous structure compared to a reflected AM (23 %). The spectroscopy did not obtain any structural information for a preserved AM. The cornea group (100 %, control) and sclera group (104 %) showed the collagen lamellae and interfibrillar spacing, and a slight inflammatory reaction with more fibrous and granulomatous tissues. There was a formation of newly synthesized collagen in a placental AM, while there were few collagen components in a reflected AM. Human AM tissues showed consistent Raman spectra and the characteristic collagen bands, similar to the corneal and scleral tissues. Therefore, these findings suggest that human placental AM and reflected AM are structurally suitable for scleral and corneal surface regeneration, respectively, while human placental or preserved AM and reflected AM are molecularly and chemically suitable for corneal and scleral surface regeneration, respectively. Microsc. Res. Tech., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Reduced expression of DKK3 is associated with adverse clinical outcomes of uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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The aim of this study was to assess the expression of DKK3 protein and its target, beta-catenin, in uterine cervical squamous cell carcinoma and to determine potential clinical correlations.
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Independent determinants for presence and degree of left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony in treatment-naive patients with hypertension.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2013
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Prevalence of left ventricular systolic dyssynchrony (LVSD) is over 40% in treatment-naive patients with hypertension and it improves after chronic antihypertensive treatment. These findings might support the hypothesis that blood pressure (BP), BP-derived parameters, central BP, or arterial stiffness would contribute to LVSD. Therefore, we aimed to investigate possible factors associated with LVSD in treatment-naive patients with hypertension.
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Proactive Multifactorial Intervention Strategy Reduces the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease Estimated with Region-Specific Risk Assessment Models in Pacific Asian Patients Participating in the CRUCIAL Trial.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2013
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Despite race, ethnic, and regional differences in cardiovascular disease risk, many worldwide hypertension management guidelines recommend the use of the Framingham coronary heart disease (CHD) risk equation to guide treatment decisions. This subanalysis of the recently published CRUCIAL trial compared the treatment-related reductions in calculated CHD and stroke risk among Pacific Asian (PA) patients using a variety of region-specific risk assessment models. As a result, greater reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides were observed in the proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) arm compared with the usual care arm at Week 52 for PA patients. The relative percentage change in 10-yr CHD risk between baseline and Week 52 in the PMI versus usual care arms was greatest using the NIPPON DATA80 fatal CHD model (LS [least square] mean difference -42.6%), and similar in the SCORE fatal CHD and Framingham total CHD models (LS mean difference -29.4% and -30.8%, respectively). The single-pill based PMI approach is consistently effective in reducing cardiovascular disease risk, evaluated using a variety of risk assessment models. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration number: NCT00407537).
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Reduction in cardiovascular risk using proactive multifactorial intervention versus usual care in younger (< 65 years) and older (? 65 years) patients in the CRUCIAL trial.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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To compare the reduction in calculated Framingham 10 year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk after 52 weeks intervention with a proactive multifactorial intervention (PMI) strategy (based on single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin [SPAA]) versus continuing usual care (UC) (based on investigators best clinical judgment) among younger (<65 years) and older (? 65 years) patients.
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Influence of in vitro biomimicked stem cell niche for regulation of proliferation and differentiation of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells to myocardial phenotypes: serum starvation without aid of chemical agents and prevention of spontaneo
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Niche appears important for preventing the spontaneous differentiation or senescence that cells undergo during in vitro expansion. In the present study, it was revealed that human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) undergo senescence-related differentiation into the myocardial lineage in vitro without any induction treatment. This phenomenon occurred over the whole population of MCSs, much different from conventional differentiation with limited frequency of occurrence, and was accompanied by a change of morphology into large, flat cells with impeded proliferation, which are the representative indications of MSC senescence. By culturing MSCs under several culture conditions, it was determined that induction treatment with 5-azacytidine was not associated with the phenomenon, but the serum-starvation condition, under which proliferation is severely hampered, caused senescence progression and upregulation of cardiac markers. Nevertheless, MSCs gradually developed a myocardial phenotype under normal culture conditions over a prolonged culture period and heterogeneous populations were formed. In perspectives of clinical applications, this must be prevented for fair and consistent outcomes. Hence, the biomimetic niche was constituted for hBM-MSCs by cultivating on a conventionally available extracellular matrix (ECM). Consequently, cells on ECM regained a spindle-shape morphology, increased in proliferation rate by two-fold and showed decreased expression of cardiac markers at both the mRNA and protein levels. In conclusion, the outcome indicates that progression of MSC senescence may occur via myocardial differentiation during in vitro polystyrene culture, and this can be overcome by employing appropriate ECM culture techniques. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural and levulinic acid in acid hydrolysate of agarose by nanofiltration and electrodialysis.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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A two-stage membrane process for the separation of galactose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and levulinic acid (LA) has been proposed. The first step of nanofiltration (NF) is to remove 5-HMF and LA from galactose solution obtained by the hydrolysis of agarose, the main component of red algal galactan for the reduction of its microbial toxicity. 5-HMF and LA are inhibitory to fermentation but at the same time useful compounds themselves with many applications. The second step of electrodialysis (ED) is to separate 5-HMF and LA in the permeate from NF. More than 91% of 5-HMF and up to 62% of LA could be removed from agarose hydrolysate, while galactose was almost completely retained by NF. Further removal of LA was expected to be possible with no loss of galactose by operating the NF process in a diafiltration mode. 5-HMF and LA could be effectively separated from each other by ED.
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Metabolically obese status with normal weight is associated with both the prevalence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease.
Metab. Clin. Exp.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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We evaluated prevalence and severity of angiographic coronary artery disease (CAD) according to groups by metabolically obese (MO) and/or weight status.
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Reproducibility of facial soft tissue thicknesses for craniofacial reconstruction using cone-beam CT images.
J. Forensic Sci.
PUBLISHED: 12-08-2011
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the soft tissue (ST) thicknesses at 31 landmarks using the cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images obtained from 20 adult subjects. Four observers carried out ST thickness measurements using Skull Measure software, and the inter- and intra-observer error rates were evaluated. Only five of 31 landmarks showed significant differences in recorded ST thickness between the observers. When excluding inexperienced observers, only one landmark showed a significant difference between the observers. Regarding the intra-observer reproducibility, the ST thickness measurements at three landmarks showed low correlation coefficients. The results of this study indicate that CBCT images can be used to measure ST thickness with high reproducibility. However, some landmarks need to be redefined to reliably measure ST thickness on CBCT images.
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A novel mutation of the decorin gene identified in a Korean family with congenital hereditary stromal dystrophy.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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To identify mutations in the decorin (DCN) gene in family members with congenital hereditary stromal dystrophy (CHSD).
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Systolic synchrony is impaired in nonleft ventricular hypertrophy of never-treated hypertensive patients.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2011
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The objective of the current study was to confirm the degrees of dyssynchrony in patients with nonleft ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and never-treated hypertension compared with normal controls or patients with LVH and never-treated hypertension.
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Evaluation of the Relationship between Circadian Blood Pressure Variation and Left Atrial Function Using Strain Imaging.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2011
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Non-dippers were reported as showing different left atrial function, compared to dippers, but no study to date investigated the changes in the left atrial function according to the diurnal blood pressure pattern, using tissue Doppler and strain imaging.
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HZE ??Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.
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Long-term clinical outcomes of overlapping heterogeneous drug-eluting stents compared with homogeneous drug-eluting stents.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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To evaluate long-term clinical outcomes of overlapping heterogeneous drug-eluting stents (DES) compared with homogeneous DES.
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Recurrent corneal hypertrophic scar after laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy with mitomycin C treatment.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2011
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To report recurrent corneal hypertrophic scar after laser-assisted subepithelial keratectomy (LASEK) with mitomycin C treatment.
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Rapidly Progressive Cardiac Manifestation of Behçets Disease Involving Conduction System and Aortic Valve.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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Cardiac conduction system impairment is a rare clinical manifestation of Behçets disease. We report a patient who showed 1st degree atrioventricular block at first presentation, and showed aggravated finding of 3rd degree atrioventricular block on five months later. His cardiac manifestation finally developed to acute severe aortic regurgitation on six months later from his first cardiac manifestation. We observed this rapid progression during 6 months and successfully improved symptom and disease severity of the patient with treatment targeting Behçets disease.
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Computed tomographic analysis of the esophagus, left atrium, and pulmonary veins: implications for catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation.
J Interv Card Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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The aim of this study was to investigate the anatomic relationship around the left atrium (LA) and to provide clinical information to help avoid the risk of an atrio-esophageal fistula during atrial fibrillation (AF) ablation.
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Dyssynchrony contributes to false-positive myocardial perfusion SPECT results in patients with stable angina.
Eur J Echocardiogr
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2011
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We designed this study to evaluate the possibility that dyssynchrony might lead to false-positive myocardial perfusion single photon emission computed tomography myocardial perfusion image (MPS) results in stable angina patients.
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Relationship between plasma adiponectin, retinol-binding protein 4 and uric Acid in hypertensive patients with metabolic syndrome.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2011
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Adipokines have been suggested for their potential use in tracking the clinical progress in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (MS). To investigate the relationship between the serum levels of adipokines {adiponectin and retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4)} and the serum level of uric acid in hypertensive (HTN) patients with MS.
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Feasibility of producing ethanol from food waste.
Waste Manag
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2011
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Food waste generated in Korea is rich in carbohydrate as high as 65% of total solids. Using the food waste, the feasibility of ethanol production was investigated in a lab-scale fermentor. Pretreatment with hydrolyzing enzymes including carbohydrase, glucoamylase, cellulase and protease were tested for hydrolysis of food waste. The carbohydrase was able to hydrolyze and produce glucose with a glucose yield of 0.63 g glucose/g total solid. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation by using carbohydrase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were conducted in the batch mode. For separated hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF), ethanol concentration reached at the level corresponding to an ethanol yield of 0.43 g ethanol/g total solids. For simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF), the ethanol yield was 0.31 g ethanol/g total solids. During the continuous operation of SHF, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 1.18 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.3g ethanol/g total solids. For SSF process, the volumetric ethanol production rate was 0.8 g/lh with an ethanol yield of 0.2g ethanol/g total solids.
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Proactive multiple cardiovascular risk factor management compared with usual care in patients with hypertension and additional risk factors: the CRUCIAL trial.
Curr Med Res Opin
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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To investigate whether a proactive multifactorial risk factor intervention strategy using single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10, 10/10?mg) in addition to other antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy, as required, resulted in greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared with usual care (UC) after 52-weeks treatment.
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Apixaban in patients with atrial fibrillation.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2011
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Vitamin K antagonists have been shown to prevent stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation. However, many patients are not suitable candidates for or are unwilling to receive vitamin K antagonist therapy, and these patients have a high risk of stroke. Apixaban, a novel factor Xa inhibitor, may be an alternative treatment for such patients.
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CT color mapping of the arterial enhancement fraction of VX2 carcinoma implanted in rabbit liver: comparison with perfusion CT.
AJR Am J Roentgenol
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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The purpose of this study was to compare the arterial enhancement fraction (AEF) calculated at multiphasic liver CT with the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) measured with cine mode perfusion CT.
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Norm references of fat-free mass index and fat mass index and subtypes of obesity based on the combined FFMI-%BF indices in the Korean adults aged 18-89 yr.
Obes Res Clin Pract
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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Summary: Objective: To establish reference values for fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI), and percent body fat (%BF) in a large Korean adult group of apparently healthy subjects, and to analyze the characteristics of body composition indices among the subtypes of obesity in Korean adults.Subjects and methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 1275 community-dwelling healthy Koreans, 504 men and 771 women, aged 18-89 years. Body composition parameters were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. FFMI (FFM/height squared) and FMI (FM/height squared) were calculated, and then three subtypes of obesity were divided by FFMI; underlean (or sarcopenic), proportional, and heavy (or muscular) obesity.Results: The reference values (5th-95th percentile) of the reference group (18-59 yr) for the FFMI was 16.3-22.3 kg/m(2) in men and 13.3-17.8 kg/m(2) in women. The %BF increased with age because of the reduction of FFM. Due to lower FFMI in the oldest men, they had the lowest BMI while FMI and BMI of Korean women increased with age like Caucasian women. The %BF among three subtypes of obesity was similar while FMI and BMI were increased as FFMI increased. The prevalence of underlean obesity in men was more than double in women.Conclusion: It is essential to analyze FFMI as well as %BF because %BF alone cannot explain the effects of ageing on FFM and the characteristics of subtypes of obesity. This is the first study to present DXA-determined age- and sex-specific percentiles for body composition indices in Korean adults. These reference values may be useful for clinical evaluation of body composition and nutritional status for Korean adults.
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Optimal antithrombotic strategy in patients with atrial fibrillation after coronary stent implantation.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2011
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Little evidence is available on the optimal antithrombotic therapy following percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the outcomes of antithrombotic treatment strategies in AF patients who underwent PCI.
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Prognosis of heart failure patients with reduced and preserved ejection fraction and coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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The long-term prognosis of patients with heart failure with preserved left ventricular ejection fraction (HFPEF) and coexistent chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been previously investigated. The primary aim of this study was to determine whether the long-term prognosis of HFPEF patients with COPD differs from that of heart failure patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (HFREF) and COPD. The secondary aim was to identify independent predictors of event-free survival in patients with HF and COPD.
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Potential of nucleofected human MSCs for insulin secretion.
J Tissue Eng Regen Med
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2010
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The goal of this experiment was to generate insulin-producing human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) as a therapeutic source for type I diabetes mellitus, which is caused by insulin deficiency due to the destruction of islet ? cells. In various trials for the treatment of type I diabetes, cell-based therapy using adult stem cells is considered to be one of the most useful candidates for the treatment. In this experiment, a non-viral method called nucleofection was used to transfect hMSCs with pEGFP-C2 and furin-cleavable human preproinsulin gene (hPPI) to produce insulin-secreting cells as surrogate ? cells. Transfection efficiency was determined using flow cytometry analysis. Expression and production of insulin were tested using RT-PCR and ELISA. The expression, production and maturation of insulin from the genetically engineered hMSCs showed an increase when compared with a non-transfected control group. Insulin expression from hMSCs using nucleofection in this study has shown the potential for type I diabetes therapy. For further study, an evaluation for in vivo experiments and clinical applications must be supplemented.
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Passive smoking in never-smokers is associated with increased plasma homocysteine levels.
Int Heart J
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2010
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Smoking is associated with increased plasma homocysteine levels, and both are associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. However, little information is available on the effects of passive smoking on the level of homocysteine in nonsmokers. We analyzed the data of self-reported never-smokers (aged > or = 20 years, n = 3,232), who were from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. We quantified the passive nicotine exposure by dividing the never-smokers into quartiles as based on the serum cotinine values. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to determine any independent relationships between serum cotinine concentration and levels of homocysteine, vitamin B12, and folate. An elevated homocysteine level was defined as a concentration greater than the 80th percentile. A reduced folate or vitamin B12 level was defined as a concentration less than the 20th percentile.After adjusting for age, gender, body mass index, race, folate and vitamin B12 levels, increased cotinine levels (quartile III and IV) were found to be associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. There was a strong nonlinear increase in the serum homocysteine levels across the quartiles of cotinine. Multivariate analysis showed that age, male gender, non-Caucasian, low levels of folate and vitamin B12, and increased serum cotinine (quartile II-IV) were independently associated with elevated homocysteine levels. In conclusion, these findings indicate that passive smoke exposure in never-smokers is positively and independently associated with plasma homocysteine levels in a dose-dependent manner. These findings may help further determine the link between passive smoking and cardiovascular events.
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Bilateral comparison of conventional epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis and lamellar epithelial debridement for moderate to high myopia.
Cornea
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2010
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To compare early postoperative pain and visual outcomes after conventional epithelial laser in situ keratomileusis and lamellar epithelial debridement (LED) procedures used to treat myopia.
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Decreased S-nitrosylation of tissue transglutaminase contributes to age-related increases in vascular stiffness.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2010
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Although an age-related decrease in NO bioavailability contributes to vascular stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesize that NO constrains the activity of the matrix crosslinking enzyme tissue transglutaminase (TG2) via S-nitrosylation in young vessels, a process that is reversed in aging.
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Coronary flow reserve is a comprehensive indicator of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with chest pain and normal coronary angiogram.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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The aim of the present study was to analyze the parameters related to baseline coronary flow velocity (CFV) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) using Doppler transthoracic echocardiography (TTE), and to assess their associations with components of the Framingham risk score (FRS), which estimates 10-year risk of coronary heart disease, in subjects with chest pain and a normal coronary angiogram.
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Development and analysis of a collagen-based hemostatic adhesive.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2010
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Commercially available hemostatic-adhesive has the risk of disease transmission because it is derived from a plasma component. The purpose of this study is to manufacture a new hemostatic adhesive and evaluate its performances.
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Early postoperative pain and visual outcomes following epipolis-laser in situ keratomileusis and photorefractive keratectomy.
Korean J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
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To compare early postoperative pain and visual outcomes after epipolis-laser in situ keratomileusis (epi-LASIK) and photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) in the treatment of myopia.
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Therapeutic potential of bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells differentiated with growth-factor-free coculture method in liver-injured rats.
Tissue Eng Part A
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2010
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Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) differentiation by growth factors may be improper due to possibility of clinical risk. We have previously developed a growth-factor-free coculture method and observed rat MSCs differentiated into hepatic progenitor cells. This study was aimed to validate hepatic differentiation potential in vivo. MSCs from bone marrow of green fluorescent protein-transgenic Sprague-Dawley rats were cocultured with hepatocytes from normal Sprague-Dawley rats, sharing growth-factor-free media. After 14 days, cells were implanted into the spleen of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-injured rats and kept for 4 weeks. Fibrosis remarkably decreased in CCl4/cocultured MSC at weeks 1, 3, and 4. Immunohistochemistry revealed that albumin, alpha-fetoprotein, and cytokeratin 19 (CK19) expression was high in CCl4/cocultured MSC only at week 1. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot revealed that CCl4/cocultured MSC had reduced alpha-fetoprotein expression at week 4, whereas CK18 and CK19 exhibited stronger expression. Albumin in CCl4/cocultured MSC increased at week 4 only in protein level. We assume that cocultured MSCs had stayed at hepatic progenitor stage until week 3, and differentiated into hepatocytes or bile-ductal epithelial cells afterward. Hepatic progenitor cells from MSC differentiation in the growth-factor-free coculture system may contribute to the therapeutic effect for liver disease in vivo.
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The effect of nanotubular titanium surfaces on osteoblast differentiation.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2010
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The biological response of fetal rat calvarial cells on a TiO2 nanotubular surface (Ti-NT) was evaluated by cell viability assay, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. The cell viability assay showed no significant difference between the Ti-NT and smooth titanium surfaces (Ti-S). Ti-NT had better cellular responses with regard to the ALP activity and bone-associated markers, such as bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin mRNA than Ti-S. These results suggest that Ti-NT stimulate the differentiation into osteoblasts of fetal rat calvarial cells, potentially contributing to rapid osseointegration.
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In a subgroup of high-risk Asians, telmisartan was non-inferior to ramipril and better tolerated in the prevention of cardiovascular events.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Results of the recently published ONTARGET study (The Ongoing Telmisartan Alone and in Combination with Ramipril Global Endpoint Trial) showed that telmisartan (80 mg/day) was non-inferior to ramipril (10 mg/day) in reducing cardiovascular events. Clinicians in Asia doubt tolerability of these doses for their patients. We therefore analyzed data from this study and a parallel study TRANSCEND (Telmisartan Randomized Assessment Study in ACE Intolerant Subjects with Cardiovascular Disease). Our objectives were to compare Asians and non-Asians with respect to the following: 1) Effectiveness of telmisartan vs. ramipril in reducing cardiovascular events;2) Proportions who reached the full dose of telmisartan, ramipril or placebo; and3) Proportions of overall discontinuations, and discontinuations due to adverse effects.
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A transthoracic echocardiographic follow-up study after catheter ablation of atrial fibrillation: can we detect pulmonary vein stenosis by transthoracic echocardiography?
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2010
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While pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) is an effective curative procedure for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF), pulmonary vein (PV) stenosis is a potential complication which may lead to symptoms that are often unrecognized. The aim of this study was to compare differences between ablation sites in pulmonary venous flow (PVF) measured by transthoracic Doppler echocardiography (TTE) before and after PVI.
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Relation between C-reactive protein, homocysteine levels, fibrinogen, and lipoprotein levels and leukocyte and platelet counts, and 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease among healthy adults in the USA.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2010
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The association between systemic inflammation and the estimated 10-year risk for coronary artery disease (CAD) according to the Framingham risk score is largely unknown. In this study, 6,371 participants in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) aged 40 to 79 years, who had no histories of heart attack, stroke, peripheral artery disease, or diabetes mellitus, were categorized into groups at low (<10%), intermediate (10% to 20%), and high (>20%) risk according to 10-year risk for CAD, calculated using the Framingham risk score modified by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. After adjustments for age, gender, race, body mass index, and co-morbidities, participants at high risk were more likely to have elevated circulating C-reactive protein levels (>/=2.2 mg/L: adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.61, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.30 to 2.01, p <0.0001; >10.0 mg/L: OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.93, p = 0.034). The high-risk group had circulating fibrinogen, homocysteine, leukocyte, and platelet levels that were 20.98 mg/dl (95% CI 12.53 to 29.43, p <0.0001), 1.54 mumol/L (95% CI 0.76 to 2.32, p = 0.002), 0.90 mumol/L (95% CI 0.36 to 1.43, p = 0.001), 910/microl (95% CI 670 to 1,160, p <0.0001), and 10,220/microl (95% CI 2,830 to 17,610, p <0.0001) higher, respectively, than in those in the low-risk group. There was also a dose-dependent increase in circulating levels of inflammatory markers across the categories of CAD risk. In conclusion, these findings indicate that low-grade systemic inflammation and hyperhomocysteinemia were present in participants with high 10-year risk for CAD.
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Comparison of in situ excision and whole-globe recovery of corneal tissue in a large, single eye bank series.
Am. J. Ophthalmol.
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2010
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To compare the quality of corneal tissue after 2 different procurement techniques, whole-globe enucleation and in situ excision.
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Design and rationale of a real-life study to compare treatment strategies for cardiovascular risk factors: the CRUCIAL study.
Postgrad Med
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2010
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The CRUCIAL trial was designed to compare the relative reduction in calculated Framingham coronary heart disease risk when a multiple risk factor intervention strategy, based on single-pill amlodipine besylate/atorvastatin calcium, was compared with a usual-care strategy. Eligible patients had treated or untreated hypertension, >or=3 additional cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline total cholesterol
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Dietary inhibition of xanthine oxidase attenuates radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2010
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Radiation exposure is associated with the development of various cardiovascular diseases. Although irradiation is known to cause elevated oxidant stress and chronic inflammation, both of which are detrimental to vascular function, the molecular mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We previously demonstrated that radiation causes endothelial dysfunction and increased vascular stiffness by xanthine oxidase (XO) activation. In this study, we investigated whether dietary inhibition of XO protects against radiation-induced vascular injury. We exposed 4-mo-old rats to a single dose of 0 or 5 Gy gamma radiation. These rats received normal drinking water or water containing 1 mM oxypurinol, an XO inhibitor. We measured XO activity and superoxide production in rat aorta and demonstrated that both were significantly elevated 2 wk after radiation exposure. However, oxypurinol treatment in irradiated rats prevented aortic XO activation and superoxide elevation. We next investigated endothelial function through fluorescent measurement of nitric oxide (NO) and vascular tension dose responses. Radiation reduced endothelium-dependent NO production in rat aorta. Similarly, endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the aorta of irradiated rats was significantly attenuated compared with the control group. Dietary XO inhibition maintained NO production at control levels and prevented the development of endothelial dysfunction. Furthermore, pulse wave velocity, a measure of vascular stiffness, increased by 1 day postirradiation and remained elevated 2 wk after irradiation, despite unchanged blood pressures. In oxypurinol-treated rats, pulse wave velocities remained unchanged from baseline throughout the experiment, signifying preserved vascular health. These findings demonstrate that XO inhibition can offer protection from radiation-induced endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular complications.
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Pentraxin 3 as a novel marker predicting congestive heart failure in subjects with acute coronary syndrome.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2010
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Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) was shown to be elevated in the acute phase of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) and to have prognostic significance in AMI patients. The aim of this study was to estimate whether the value of PTX3 could be used as a prognostic biomarker, with the global registry of acute coronary events (GRACE) risk assessment tool, in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS).
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The effect of cilostazol on stent thrombosis after drug-eluting stent implantation.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2010
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Placement of drug-eluting stents (DES) can be complicated by stent thrombosis; prophylactic antiplatelet therapy has been used to prevent such events. We evaluated the efficacy of cilostazol with regard to stent thrombosis as adjunctive antiplatelet therapy.
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Comparison of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy, Fibrosis and Dysfunction According to Various Disease Mechanisms such as Hypertension, Diabetes Mellitus and Chronic Renal Failure.
J Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2009
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Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) has been known as an important predictor of prognosis of cardiovascular disease. Carboxy-terminal propeptide of procollagen type I (PIP) is related with myocardial fibrosis. We sought to analyze the differences in the characteristics of LVH, myocardial fibrosis, and LV functions among hypertension (HBP), diabetes mellitus (DM) and chronic renal failure (CRF).
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Arginase inhibition restores NOS coupling and reverses endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffness in old rats.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2009
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There is increasing evidence that upregulation of arginase contributes to impaired endothelial function in aging. In this study, we demonstrate that arginase upregulation leads to endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) uncoupling and that in vivo chronic inhibition of arginase restores nitroso-redox balance, improves endothelial function, and increases vascular compliance in old rats. Arginase activity in old rats was significantly increased compared with that shown in young rats. Old rats had significantly lower nitric oxide (NO) and higher superoxide (O2(-)) production than young. Acute inhibition of both NOS, with N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and arginase, with 2S-amino- 6-boronohexanoic acid (ABH), significantly reduced O2(-) production in old rats but not in young. In addition, the ratio of eNOS dimer to monomer in old rats was significantly decreased compared with that shown in young rats. These results suggest that eNOS was uncoupled in old rats. Although the expression of arginase 1 and eNOS was similar in young and old rats, inducible NOS (iNOS) was significantly upregulated. Furthermore, S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 was significantly elevated in old rats. These findings support our previously published finding that iNOS nitrosylates and activates arginase 1 (Santhanam et al., Circ Res 101: 692-702, 2007). Chronic arginase inhibition in old rats preserved eNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio and significantly reduced O2(-) production and enhanced endothelial-dependent vasorelaxation to ACh. In addition, ABH significantly reduced vascular stiffness in old rats. These data indicate that iNOS-dependent S-nitrosylation of arginase 1 and the increase in arginase activity lead to eNOS uncoupling, contributing to the nitroso-redox imbalance, endothelial dysfunction, and vascular stiffness observed in vascular aging. We suggest that arginase is a viable target for therapy in age-dependent vascular stiffness.
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Changes of higher-order aberrations with the use of various mydriatics.
Ophthalmic Physiol Opt
PUBLISHED: 08-03-2009
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Advances in corneal refractive surgery have allowed ophthalmologists to correct ocular higher-order aberrations. To obtain more information on the ocular aberrations generated from the optical axis, mydriasis is required. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in higher-order aberrations with the use of various mydriatics. Higher-order aberrations were measured in 21 eyes of 21 subjects (age range 24-37 years; 13 males, 8 females). Repeated measurements were conducted before and after the installation of three different mydriatics: 10% phenylephrine, 1% tropicamide, or 1% cyclopentolate. At a pupil size of 6 mm, the average root mean square value of higher-order aberrations (HO-RMS) was 0.430 mum in undilated eyes, and 0.413, 0.410, and 0.477 mum after installation of phenylephrine, tropicamide, and cyclopentolate, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences in the HO-RMS between the four conditions. There was a significant difference in the spherical aberration between the undilated or phenylephrine-treated eyes, compared to those treated with tropicamide or cyclopentolate. Cycloplegic mydriatics seemed to shift spherical aberration in a positive direction. These results suggest that mydriatics may affect higher-order aberrations, especially spherical aberration, and this should be considered when performing wavefront analysis and when correcting wavefront errors.
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Impaired opening of the upper esophageal sphincter in patients with medullary infarctions.
Dysphagia
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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The aim of this study was to report on nine dysphagic patients with medullary infarction and to evaluate swallowing characteristics based on the location of the lesions.We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of these nine patients. The medullary lesions were midlateral (three patients), dorsolateral (one patient), inferodorsolateral (four patients), and paramedian (one patient). The levels of the lesions were upper (four patients), middle (two patients), upper and middle (two patients), and middle and lower medulla (one patient). Dysphagia after medullary infarction was more common in patients with upper or middle medullary level and dorsolateral medullary level lesions. The common findings on videofluoroscopic swallowing studies in patients with lateral medullary infarctions were impaired upper esophageal sphincter opening, aspiration from pyriform sinuses residue caused by pharyngeal weakness, and multiple swallowing to clear boluses from the pharynx to the esophagus. In patients with medullary infarctions, the lesion levels and loci and their related clinical findings can be useful in predicting dysphagia and aspiration. Because severe dysphagia with serious complication is very common in patients with medullary infarctions, active diagnostic and therapeutic approaches are needed.
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Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activation attenuates cardiac fibrosis in type 2 diabetic rats: the effect of rosiglitazone on myocardial expression of receptor for advanced glycation end products and of connective tissue growth factor.
Basic Res. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2009
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Receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) play a key role in diabetic myocardial fibrosis, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) activation has been reported to reduce RAGE and CTGF expression. This study investigated the effects of the PPAR-gamma agonist, rosiglitazone, on myocardial expression of RAGE and CTGF, extent of cardiac fibrosis, and left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Twenty-week-old T2D rats were randomized to treatment with either 20 weeks of rosiglitazone (20 mg/kg) or saline (n = 10 in each group). Serial echocardiographic examinations were performed just before randomization (20 weeks) and at study completion (40 weeks). Fibrosis extent and RAGE and CTGF expression were assessed in previously imaged hearts by picrosirius red staining, and by real-time reverse transcriptase-coupled polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunoblotting, respectively. Results of the latter assessments were further validated by immunohistochemical staining. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly improved E/A ratio in serial echocardiography assessment, and reduced LV collagen volume fraction as demonstrated by picrosirius red staining. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblots of myocardial tissue from rosiglitazone-treated rats revealed reduced RAGE and CTGF mRNA and protein signals compared to those of saline-treated T2D rats, which were consistent with reduced proportions of myocardial RAGE and CTGF staining in the hearts of T2D rats. PPAR-gamma agonist therapy reduces cardiac fibrosis and improves LV diastolic dysfunction as assessed by serial echocardiographic imaging. Suppression of RAGE and CTGF expression in the diabetic myocardium appears to contribute to the antifibrotic effect of rosiglitazone. These results support the potential of PPAR-gamma agonists as antifibrotic agents in diabetic cardiomyopathy.
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Successful radiofrequency catheter ablation for wolff-Parkinson-white syndrome within the neck of a coronary sinus diverticulum.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2009
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Posteroseptal accessory pathways are often associated with coronary sinus diverticula. These diverticula contain myocardial coats which serve as a bypass tract. We report a 54-year-old woman who underwent radiofrequency (RF) catheter ablation for Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome. The surface electrocardiography (ECG) demonstrated pre-excitation, indicating a posteroseptal accessory pathway. A catheter ablation via a transaortic approach failed to ablate the accessory pathway. Coronary sinus venography revealed the presence of a diverticulum near the ostium. An electrogram in the neck of the diverticulum showed the coronary sinus myocardial extension potential, which was successfully ablated by delivery of RF energy.
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High echogenic thickening of proximal coronary artery predicts the far advanced coronary atherosclerosis.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2009
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Detection of subclinical, nonobstructive coronary artery disease will require the evaluation of coronary arterial walls and external coronary diameter in order to detect increases in arterial wall thickness and compensatory remodeling before luminal narrowing. We assessed the meaning of high echogenic thickening (HET) on transthoracic coronary echogram of proximal coronary arteries and evaluated whether HET predicts the severity of coronary artery disease on angiogram.
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Removal of potassium chloride by nanofiltration from ion-exchanged solution containing potassium clavulanate.
Bioprocess Biosyst Eng
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
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In this study, nanofiltration with NF200 membrane was employed to remove KCl from ion-exchanged solutions containing potassium clavulanate. The pore radius of NF200 membrane was estimated to be around 0.39 nm. The effects of operating pressure on separation performance were investigated in a range of 100-400 psig. The influences of cross-flow velocity (0.14-0.70 cm/s), temperature (4-25 degrees C), and feed composition were also investigated. In all experiments, clavulanate rejection showed high levels from 0.91 to 0.99, while chloride rejection ranged from 0.06 to 0.54. In a case at an operating pressure of 50 psig and 25 degrees C, as much as 94% of clavulanate was retained while 94% of chloride was removed, indicating that NF200 membrane was a suitable choice for selectively removing KCl. NF200 membrane also showed a stable performance in the operational stability test with an ion-exchanged solution obtained by treating actual fermentation broth.
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Inhibition of mitochondria-dependent apoptosis by 635-nm irradiation in sodium nitroprusside-treated SH-SY5Y cells.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2009
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Nitric oxide (NO) is a major factor contributing to the loss of neurons in ischemic stroke, demyelinating diseases, and other neurodegenerative disorders. NO not only functions as a direct neurotoxin, but also combines with superoxide (O(2)(-)) by a diffusion-controlled reaction to form peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)), a species that contributes to oxidative signaling and cellular apoptosis. However, the mechanism by which ONOO(-) induces apoptosis remains unclear, although subsequent formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has been suggested. The aim of this study was to further investigate the triggers of the apoptotic pathway using O(2)(-) scavenging with light irradiation to block ONOO(-) production. Antiapoptotic effects of light irradiation in sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-treated SH-SY5Y cells were assayed by reduction of 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, DNA fragmentation, flow cytometry, Western blot, and caspase activity assays. In addition, NO, total ROS, O(2)(-), and ONOO(-) levels were measured to observe changes in NO and its possible involvement in radical induction. Cell survival was reduced to approximately 40% of control levels by SNP treatment, and this reduction was increased to 60% by low-level light irradiation. Apoptotic cells were observed in the SNP-treated group, but the frequency of these was reduced in the irradiation group. NO, O(2)(-), total ROS, and ONOO(-) levels were increased after SNP treatment, but O(2)(-), total ROS, and ONOO(-) levels were decreased after irradiation, despite the high NO concentration induced by SNP treatment. Cytochrome c was released from mitochondria of SNP-treated SH-SY5Y cells, but not of irradiated cells, resulting in a decrease in caspase-3 and -9 activity in SNP-treated cells. Finally, these results show that 635-nm irradiation, by promoting the scavenging of O(2)(-), protected against neuronal death through blocking the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway induced by ONOO(-) synthesis.
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The measurement of opening angle and orifice area of a bileaflet mechanical valve using multidetector computed tomography.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2009
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The aim of this study was to assess mechanical valve function using 64-slice multidetector computed tomography (MDCT).
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Target organ status in white-coat hypertensives: usefulness of serum procollagen type I propeptide in the respect of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction.
Circ. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2009
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Myocardial fibrosis is a feature of diastolic dysfunction and target organ damage, which was compared among subjects with normotension (NT), white-coat hypertension (WCH) and essential hypertension (EH). Serum procollagen type I propeptide (PIP) level was assessed as a marker of diastolic dysfunction in WCH.
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Acute changes in cardiac synchrony and output according to RV pacing sites in Koreans with normal cardiac function.
Echocardiography
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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The synchrony of the pacing heart can be affected by the right ventricular (RV) pacing site and is crucial to cardiac function in pacemaker recipients. We evaluated the acute changes in cardiac synchrony according to the RV pacing sites in normal systolic functioning subjects with normal QRS.
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Significance of inflammatory markers in diabetic patients with stable coronary artery disease.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2009
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Patients with diabetes are prone to coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the majority of diabetic patients show normal coronary arteries. We examined differences in the clinical aspects of diabetic patients with insignificant and with significant stenosis of the coronary artery.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.