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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical Implication of Highly Sensitive Detection of the BRAFV600E Mutation in Fine-Needle Aspirations According to the Thyroid Bethesda System in Patients With Conventional Papillary Thyroid Carcinoma.
Ann. Otol. Rhinol. Laryngol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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We investigated the additional diagnostic yield of the mutation test and evaluated the frequency of the BRAF mutation in conventional PTC (cPTC) according to ultrasound (US) features and the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC) based on the BRAF(V600E) mutation status.
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Proteomic Analysis of Vestibular Schwannoma: Conflicting Role of Apoptosis on the Pathophysiology of Sporadic Vestibular Schwannoma.
Otol. Neurotol.
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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In this study, we investigated the pathophysiology and mechanism underlying sporadic forms of vestibular schwannoma (VS) by comparing VS tissue with normal nerve tissue using proteomics.
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Meteorological conditions related to the onset of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of meteorological factors on the onset of idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (ISSHL).
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Global identification of target recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor in human ES cells.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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The Microprocessor plays an essential role in canonical miRNA biogenesis by facilitating cleavage of stem-loop structures in primary transcripts to yield pre-miRNAs. Although miRNA biogenesis has been extensively studied through biochemical and molecular genetic approaches, it has yet to be addressed to what extent the current miRNA biogenesis models hold true in intact cells. To address the issues of in vivo recognition and cleavage by the Microprocessor, we investigate RNAs that are associated with DGCR8 and Drosha by using immunoprecipitation coupled with next-generation sequencing. Here, we present global protein-RNA interactions with unprecedented sensitivity and specificity. Our data indicate that precursors of canonical miRNAs and miRNA-like hairpins are the major substrates of the Microprocessor. As a result of specific enrichment of nascent cleavage products, we are able to pinpoint the Microprocessor-mediated cleavage sites per se at single-nucleotide resolution. Unexpectedly, a 2-nt 3' overhang invariably exists at the ends of cleaved bases instead of nascent pre-miRNAs. Besides canonical miRNA precursors, we find that two novel miRNA-like structures embedded in mRNAs are cleaved to yield pre-miRNA-like hairpins, uncoupled from miRNA maturation. Our data provide a framework for in vivo Microprocessor-mediated cleavage and a foundation for experimental and computational studies on miRNA biogenesis in living cells.
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A Fatal Spontaneous Gas Gangrene due to Clostridium perfringens during Neutropenia of Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplantation: Case Report and Literature Review.
Infect Chemother
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Most cases of gas gangrene caused by Clostridium species begin with trauma-related injuries but in rare cases, spontaneous gas gangrene (SGG) can occur when patients have conditions such as advanced malignancy, diabetes, or immunosuppression. Clostridium perfringens, a rare cause of SGG, exists as normal flora of skin and intestines of human. Adequate antibiotics with surgical debridement of infected tissue is the only curative therapeutic management. Mortality rate among adults is reported range of 67-100% and majority of deaths are occurred within 24 hours of onset. We experienced a case of SGG on the trunk, buttock and thigh in a neutropenic patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. His clinical course was rapid and fatal during pre-engraftment neutropenic period of allogeneic stem cell transplantation.
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Effect of multispecies probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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The efficacy of treatment with multispecies probiotics on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and the alterations of gut microbiota in patients who have taken probiotics were investigated.
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Anti-colitic effects of kanjangs (fermented soy sauce and sesame sauce) in dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice.
J Med Food
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the preventive effects of different kanjangs (Korean soy sauces), including acid-hydrolyzed soy sauce (AHSS), fermented soy sauce (FSS), and fermented sesame sauce (FSeS), on 2% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis in C57BL/6J mice. The fermented sauces, particularly FSeS, significantly suppressed DSS-induced body weight loss, increased colon length, and decreased colon weight/length ratios. Histological observations suggested that the fermented sauces prevented edema, mucosal damage, and the loss of crypts induced by DSS compared to the control mice and animals fed AHSS. FSeS and FSS decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?), interferon-? (IFN-?), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17?. mRNA expression of these cytokines as well as that of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon mucosa was also inhibited by the two sauces. Our results suggest that fermented sauces, especially FSeS, exert an anticolitic effect partially by reducing the serum levels of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the mRNA expression of these factors in the colon tissue of mice treated with DSS. However, AHSS did not protect against DSS-induced colitis. In addition, low-dose treatment (4?mL/kg) with the fermented sauces resulted in greater anticolitic effects than consumption of a high quantity (8?mL/kg) of the sauces.
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Prognostic Value of the Ankle-Brachial Index in Patients Undergoing Drug-Eluting Stent Implantation.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2014
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Aim: Limited data are available regarding the prognostic value of the brachial-ankle index (ABI) in patients with a history of drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation. This study sought to determine the relationship between the ABI and coronary events in patients with DES. Methods: A total of 322 patients who underwent both DES implantation and ABI measurement during initial hospitalization were reviewed. Cardiovascular events, including cardiac death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction and coronary revascularization, were assessed. Results: During the mean follow-up period of 298±58 days, there were 32 cases of cardiovascular events (9.9%). The patients with a lower ABI had more events (2.8% in the highest tertile versus?10.3% in the middle tertile versus 16.8% in the lowest tertile, p=0.001). According to the multiple Cox regression analysis, the ABI was independently associated with clinical events (the lowest tertile versus the highest tertile of ABI, hazard ratio: 6.35, 95% confidence interval: 1.37-29.32, p=0.018).?In addition, the cumulative event rate according to the ABI tertile differed significantly in the Kaplan-Meier curves (log-rank p=0.009), whereas the receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis showed a sensitivity and specificity for predicting cardiovascular events of 62.5% and 66.2%, respectively, with an ABI of 1.057 as the best cut-off value. Conclusions: A lower ABI is associated with poorer cardiovascular outcomes in patients with DES implantation. As a simple and non-invasive parameter, the ABI has the benefit of predicting future cardiovascular events in this population.
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Sol-gel transition of nanoparticles/polymer mixtures for sustained delivery of exenatide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Eur J Pharm Biopharm
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The sol-gel transition of nanoparticles (NPs)/polymer mixture in aqueous medium was investigated for the sustained delivery of exenatide to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus. Exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs were prepared using a layer-by-layer approach which utilized the interaction between Pluronics and lipid bilayers as the main driving force for the construction of the multilayer. Pluronic F-127 was the polymer used, and it forms a gel at body temperature. Although the antidiabetic effects of exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs have been demonstrated previously in an animal model, in this work, the attempt was made to demonstrate the extended duration of antidiabetic effects, which was accomplished by localizing the exenatide-loaded NPs in muscular areas in the body through the gelation of Pluronic F-127. Transmittance electron microscopy and dynamic light scattering were used to examine the morphology of the multilayer NPs/polymer mixture. A change in the release pattern of exenatide was observed after gel formation at body temperature, and Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis was performed using native exenatide and a reference biomarker as control to observe whether exenatide extracted from the multilayer NPs and the multilayer NPs/Pluronic F-127 mixture degraded or not. We then observed the antidiabetic effect of exenatide-loaded multilayer NPs/Pluronic F-127 mixture by monitoring blood-glucose levels in db/db mice. In vitro and in vivo correlation was discussed regarding structural variation in the delivery vehicles.
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Papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and adolescents.
Ultrasound Q
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Differentiated thyroid carcinoma is uncommon in children and constitutes 0.5% to 3% of all pediatric malignancies. Few studies have reported imaging findings of childhood papillary thyroid carcinomas. We report 3 cases of papillary thyroid carcinomas in children. Among the 3 patients, the youngest was a 7-year-old girl. In the current report, we describe 2 cases of classic papillary thyroid carcinoma and 1 case of pediatric diffuse sclerosing variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The ultrasonographic features and diagnostic procedures in these pediatric patients are similar to those in adults.
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Association Between Invasively Measured Central Aortic Pressure and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function in Patients Undergoing Coronary Angiography.
Am. J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Because of the invasive nature of catheterization, limited information is available on hemodynamic interaction between the left ventricle and aorta using invasive aortic pressure monitoring. Our aim was to investigate whether parameters of invasively measured central aortic pressure waveform were related with those of left ventricular (LV) diastolic function.
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Vaccination with ErbB-2 peptides prevents cancer stem cell expansion and suppresses the development of spontaneous tumors in MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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ErbB-2 has been implicated as a target for cancer-initiating cells in breast and other cancers. ErbB-2-directed peptide vaccines have been shown to be effective in prevention of spontaneous tumorigenesis of breast in neu transgenic mouse model, and cellular immunity is proposed as a mechanism for the anti-tumor efficacy. However, there has been no explanation as to how immunity suppresses tumorigenesis from the early stage carcinogenesis, when ErbB-2 expression in breast is low. Here, we investigated a peptide-based vaccine, which consists of two MHC class II epitopes derived from murine ErbB-2, to prevent the occurrence of spontaneous tumors in breast and assess immune impact on breast cancer stem cells. Female MMTV-PyMT transgenic mice were immunized with either ErbB-2 peptide vaccine, or a peptide from tetanus toxoid, or PBS in immune adjuvant. ErbB-2 peptides vaccine completely suppressed spontaneous breast tumors, and the efficacy was correlated with antigen-specific T-cell and antibody responses. In addition, immune serum from the mice of ErbB-2 vaccine group had an inhibitory effect on mammosphere-forming capacity and signaling through ErbB-2 and downstream Akt pathway in ErbB-2 overexpressing mouse mammary cancer cells. We provide evidence that multi-epitope class II peptides vaccine suppresses tumorigenesis of breast potentially by inhibiting the growth of cancer stem cells. We also suggest that a strategy of inducing strong immune responses using multi-epitope ErbB-2-directed helper vaccine might be useful in preventing breast cancer recurrence.
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The complete chloroplast genome of Phalaenopsis "Tiny Star"
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Abstract We determined the complete chloroplast DNA sequence of Phalaenopsis "Tiny Star" based on Illumina sequencing. The total length of the chloroplast genome is 148,918?bp long with GC content of 36.7%. It contains 70 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Comparative analysis with the reported orchid chloroplast sequences identified unique InDel variations in the "Tiny Star" chloroplast genome that have potential as genetic markers to investigate the maternal lineage of Phalaenopsis and Doritaenopsis cultivars.
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Effects of korean red ginseng on hearing and blood glucose levels in steroid therapy for sudden sensorineural hearing loss.
Clin Exp Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Korean red ginseng (KRG) has hypoglycemic, antioxidant, antithrombotic, and other beneficial effects in human. The present study evaluate the therapeutic effects of KRG on hearing recovery and glucocorticoid-induced hyperglycemia in patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) undergoing systemic steroid therapy.
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Implication of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in cryptogenic ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) is a predictor for atrial fibrillation (AF). This study was aimed to investigate whether LVDD in cryptogenic ischemic stroke (CS) could be a clue to stroke mechanism.
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Case Report of Pulmonary Sarcoidosis Suspected to be Pulmonary Metastasis in a Patient with Breast Cancer.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Standard endocrine therapy and chemotherapy can induce long-term remission in breast cancer patients; however, breast cancer can recur at any site. Pulmonary nodules with lymphadenopathy in advanced cancer patients are likely to be assumed as metastases. A 44-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer was presented to our institution with abnormal findings on 18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging, which suggested lung metastasis. She had previously been diagnosed with breast cancer (T1N2M0, Stage IIIa, intraductal carcinoma, triple negative cancer). Histological analysis of the mediastinal lymph node biopsy demonstrated sarcoidosis, showing a chronic, non-caseating, granulomatous inflammation. Our case highlights the need for non-malignant diagnoses in those with prior malignancies, and the need for histological evaluations in the event of first recurrence following potentially curative therapy.
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Diagnostic reference levels for panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography of Korean children.
Health Phys
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2014
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Pediatric patients are considered to be more radiosensitive than adults; thus, radiation dose evaluations based on radiologic examinations are particularly important in this population. However, no national diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) are available for pediatric patients in the Republic of Korea. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the usage of panoramic and cephalometric radiography under the National Health Insurance (NHI) scheme and to investigate the current DRLs for child panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiography using dose area product (DAP). DAP values were obtained for standard child exposure settings used routinely by dentists. Analysis was performed on data obtained from 28 panoramic and 20 cephalometric x-ray units for the DAP investigation. DRLs for child panoramic and cephalometric radiography were found to be 95.9 mGy cm and 121.3 mGy cm, respectively. These DRLs are higher than those recommended in the UK and Germany, which indicates that further effort is required to reduce pediatric doses in the Republic of Korea.
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A comparison study of different facial soft tissue analysis methods.
J Craniomaxillofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate several different facial soft tissue measurement methods.
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Can ultrasound be as a surrogate marker for diagnosing a papillary thyroid cancer? Comparison with BRAF mutation analysis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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We investigated the merit of ultrasound (US) features and BRAF(V600E) mutation as an additional study of cytology and compared the diagnostic performances of cytology alone, cytology with US correlation, cytology with BRAFV600E mutation, and a combination of cytology, US, and BRAFV600E mutation all together.
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A Multicenter Randomized Double-Blind Study: Comparison of the Epley, Semont, and Sham Maneuvers for the Treatment of Posterior Canal Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo.
Audiol. Neurootol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2014
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We evaluated the short-term efficacy of Epley, Semont, and sham maneuvers for resolving posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) in a prospective multicenter randomized double-blind controlled study. Subjects were randomly divided into three groups: Epley (36 patients), Semont (32 patients), and sham (Epley maneuver for the unaffected side, 31 patients). Out of 14 institutes which participated in this study, 5 institutes had previous experience of the Epley but not the Semont maneuver and the other 9 had previous experience of both maneuvers. Each maneuver was repeated twice if there was still positional vertigo or nystagmus on day 0, and the presence of nystagmus and vertigo on positional testing were evaluated immediately, 1 day, and 1 week after treatment. After the first maneuver, the Epley group showed a significantly higher resolution rate of positional nystagmus than the Semont or sham groups (63.9, 37.5, and 38.7%, respectively). After the second maneuver, the resolution rate (83.3%) of the Epley group was significantly higher than that (51.6%) of the sham group. At 1 day and 1 week after treatment, the resolution rate of the Epley group was significantly higher than those of the other groups. Similar results were seen for the resolution of positional vertigo. The Epley maneuver showed persistent resolution rates of positional vertigo and nystagmus without a fatigue phenomenon. The Epley maneuver was significantly more effective per maneuver than Semont or sham maneuvers for the short-term treatment of posterior canal BPPV. The Semont maneuver showed a higher success rate than the sham maneuver, but it was not significantly different. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Does papillary thyroid carcinoma have a better prognosis with or without Hashimoto thyroiditis?
Int. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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It has been reported that the BRAF (V600E) mutation is related to a low frequency of background Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT); however, there are not many factors known to be related to the development of HT. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with both papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) and HT show aggressive features, by investigating the clinicopathological features of HT in patients with PTC.
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Anticancer effects of different seaweeds on human colon and breast cancers.
Mar Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Seafoods and seaweeds represent some of the most important reservoirs of new therapeutic compounds for humans. Seaweed has been shown to have several biological activities, including anticancer activity. This review focuses on colorectal and breast cancers, which are major causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women. It also describes various compounds extracted from a range of seaweeds that have been shown to eradicate or slow the progression of cancer. Fucoidan extracted from the brown algae Fucus spp. has shown activity against both colorectal and breast cancers. Furthermore, we review the mechanisms through which these compounds can induce apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. By considering the ability of compounds present in seaweeds to act against colorectal and breast cancers, this review highlights the potential use of seaweeds as anticancer agents.
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Interobserver agreement on the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications on panoramic radiographs.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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This study was performed to investigate the interobserver agreement on the detection of carotid artery calcifications on panoramic radiographs.
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A mixed formulation of lactic Acid bacteria inhibits trinitrobenzene-sulfonic-Acid-induced inflammatory changes of the colon tissue in mice.
J. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are probiotics that provide numerous beneficial effects on the host body, especially on the intestine. Combining several strains of LAB, we prepared a formulation containing four different LAB and studied its anti-inflammatory activity both in vitro and in vivo. The formulation significantly reduced NO production from RAW 264.7 cells treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide, indicating that the formulation might include antiinflammatory activity. The formulation also suppressed inflammatory change induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in mice, where oral or rectal administration of the formulation protected the colon tissue from the damage by TNBS. Expressions of the IL-6 and FasL genes appeared to be down-regulated by the formulation in TNBS-treated colon tissues, suggesting that the suppression of those genes may be involved in the anti-inflammatory activity of the formulation.
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Deviation of landmarks in accordance with methods of establishing reference planes in three-dimensional facial CT evaluation.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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This study aimed to investigate the deviation of landmarks from horizontal or midsagittal reference planes according to the methods of establishing reference planes.
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Two-dimensionally grown single-crystal silicon nanosheets with tunable visible-light emissions.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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Since the discovery of graphene, growth of two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials has greatly attracted attention. However, spontaneous growth of atomic two-dimensional (2D) materials is limitedly permitted for several layered-structure crystals, such as graphene, MoS2, and h-BN, and otherwise it is notoriously difficult. Here we report the gas-phase 2D growth of silicon (Si), that is cubic in symmetry, via dendritic growth and an interdendritic filling mechanism and to form Si nanosheets (SiNSs) of 1 to 13 nm in thickness. Thin SiNSs show strong thickness-dependent photoluminescence in visible range including red, green, and blue (RGB) emissions with the associated band gap energies ranging from 1.6 to 3.2 eV; these emission energies were greater than those from Si quantum dots (SiQDs) of the similar sizes. We also demonstrated that electrically driven white, as well as blue, emission in a conventional organic light-emitting diode (OLED) geometry with the SiNS assembly as the active emitting layers. Tunable light emissions in visible range in our observations suggest practical implications for novel 2D Si nanophotonics.
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Influence of Second- and Third-Degree Heart Block on 30-Day Outcome Following Acute Myocardial Infarction in the Drug-Eluting Stent Era.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the prognostic value of heart block among patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) treated with drug-eluting stents. A total of 13,862 patients with AMI, registered in the nation-wide AMI database from January 2005 to June 2013, were analyzed. Second- (Mobitz type I or II) and third-degree atrioventricular block were considered as heart block in this study. Thirty-day major adverse cardiac events (MACE) including all causes of death, recurrent myocardial infarction, and revascularization were evaluated. Percutaneous coronary intervention with implantation of drug-eluting stent was performed in 89.8% of the patients. Heart block occurred in 378 patients (2.7%). Thirty-day MACE occurred in 1,144 patients (8.2%). Patients with heart block showed worse clinical parameters at initial admission, and the presence of heart block was associated with 30-day MACE in univariate analyses. However, the prognostic impact of heart block was not significant after adjustment of potential confounders (p = 0.489). Among patients with heart block, patients with a culprit in the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery had worse clinical outcomes than those of patients with a culprit in the left circumflex or right coronary artery. LAD culprit was a significant risk factor for 30-day MACE even after controlling for confounders (odds ratio 5.28, 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 22.81, p = 0.026). In conclusion, despite differences in clinical parameters at the initial admission, heart block was not an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE in adjusted analyses. However, a LAD culprit was an independent risk factor for 30-day MACE among patients with heart block.
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Incidence and risk factors of infectious complications related to implantable venous-access ports.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and risk factors of infections associated with implantable venous access ports (IVAPs).
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Reconstitution of internal target volumes by combining four-dimensional computed tomography and a modified slow computed tomography scan in stereotactic body radiotherapy planning for lung cancer.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
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To evaluate the volumetric and geometric differences in the ITVs generated by four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT), a modified slow CT scan, and a combination of these CT methods in lung cancer patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT).
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Modified MVAC as a Second-Line Treatment for Patients with Metastatic Urothelial Carcinoma after Failure of Gemcitabine and Cisplatin Treatment.
Cancer Res Treat
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2014
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There is no established standard second-line chemotherapy for patients with advanced or metastatic urothelial carcinoma (UC) who failed gemcitabine and cisplatin (GC) chemotherapy. This study was conducted in order to investigate the efficacy and toxicity of modified methotrexate, vinblastine, doxorubicin, and cisplatin (MVAC) in patients with metastatic UC previously treated with GC.
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Frequency and evolution of thin-capped fibroatheromas in left main coronary artery as assessed by serial virtual histology intravascular ultrasound analysis.
J Invasive Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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The objective of the current study was to assess thin-capped fibroatheroma (TCFA) of the left main coronary artery (LMCA) and its changes after statin therapy.
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The incidence and predictors of overall adverse effects caused by low dose amiodarone in real-world clinical practice.
Korean J. Intern. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Most current knowledge regarding amiodarone toxicity derives from clinical trials. This study was performed to investigate the incidence and risk factors of overall adverse effects of amiodarone in real-world practice using a large sample size.
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Antioxidative effects of fermented sesame sauce against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in LLC-PK1 porcine renal tubule cells.
Nutr Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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This study was performed to investigate the in vitro antioxidant and cytoprotective effects of fermented sesame sauce (FSeS) against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative damage in renal proximal tubule LLC-PK1 cells.
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Neuregulin-1 induces cancer stem cell characteristics in breast cancer cell lines.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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In breast cancer, neuregulin-1 (NRG1) is known as a ligand for the HER3 receptor, which has no intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. When activated by NRG1 binding, the HER3 receptor forms a heterodimer with other HER family receptors and mediates downstream signaling pathways, leading to multiple effects including growth, proliferation, decreased apoptosis, cellular migration and angiogenesis. Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subgroup of cancer cells, are considered to have features of stem cells such as self-renewal ability and pluripotent differentiation into other types of mature cells. This study showed that NRG1 treatment induced CSC characteristics in breast cancer cell lines. Using breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7, SKBr-3 and MDA-MB 468, changes related to CSC characteristics were analyzed. Flow cytometry was used to analyze changes in CSC fractions in multiple cell lines after NRG1 treatment. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining demonstrated the expression of CSC markers. To confirm that NRG1 treatment acts through the HER3 receptor, inhibition studies using small interfering RNA (siRNA) were performed. In MCF-7 and SKBr-3 cells, increases in the CSC fraction and expression of CSC markers were observed after NRG1 treatment. However, MDA-MB 468 cells showed high intrinsic expression of CSC markers and a high cellular fraction of CSCs, and in these cells, NRG1 treatment caused no significant change in CSC characteristics. Inhibition of the HER3 receptor blocked the NRG1-induced CSC characteristics, indicating that NRG1 functions through the HER3 receptor. The results imply the presence of a mechanism by which the HER receptors, activated by NRG1, contribute to the acquisition of CSC-like characteristics in some types of breast cancer.
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Use of spherical coordinates to evaluate three-dimensional facial changes after orthognathic surgery.
Imaging Sci Dent
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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This study aimed to assess the three-dimensional (3D) facial changes after orthognathic surgery by evaluating the spherical coordinates of facial lines using 3D computed tomography (CT).
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Effect of HIFU treatment on tumor targeting efficacy of docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles.
Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Numerous studies have been performed to identify the microenvironment of solid tumors, which is responsible for the insufficient delivery of anticancer drugs to tumor cells due to the poorly organized vasculature and the increased interstitial fluid pressure. As a result, the extravasation of convection-dependent agents including NPs is severely limited. Therefore, we have demonstrated the feasibility of targeting an enhancement of docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles (NPs) using high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) as an external stimulus-induced clinical system in tumor tissue. The efficient extravasation of NPs into the interior cells in tumor tissue was induced by relatively low HIFU exposure without apparent acute tissue damage. The enhanced targeting of NPs with near-infrared fluorescence dye was observed in tumor-bearing mice with various HIFU exposures. As a result, the greatest accumulation of NPs at the tumor tissue was observed at an HIFU exposure of 20 W/cm(2). However, the tumor tissue above at 20 W/cm(2) appeared to be destroyed and the tumor targetability of NPs was significantly decreased owing to thermal ablation with necrosis, resulting in the destruction of the tumor tissue and the blood vessels. In particular, a cross-sectional view of the tumor tissue verified that the NPs migrated into the middle of the tumor tissue upon HIFU exposure. The preliminary results here demonstrate that HIFU exposure through non-thermal mechanisms can aid with the extravasation of NPs into the interior cells of tumors and increase the therapeutic effect in enhanced and targeted cancer therapy.
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Efficacy of two different self-expanding nitinol stents for atherosclerotic femoropopliteal arterial disease (SENS-FP trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.
Trials
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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There have been few randomized control trials comparing the incidence of stent fracture and primary patency among different self-expanding nitinol stents to date. The SMART™ CONTROL stent (Cordis Corp, Miami Lakes, Florida, United States) has a peak-to-valley bridge and inline interconnection, whereas the COMPLETE™-SE stent (Medtronic Vascular, Santa Rosa, California, United States) crowns have been configured to minimize crown-to-crown interaction, increasing the stent's flexibility without compromising radial strength. Further, the 2011 ESC (European society of cardiology) guidelines recommend that dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a thienopyridine such as clopidogrel should be administered for at least one month after infrainguinal bare metal stent implantation. Cilostazol has been reported to reduce intimal hyperplasia and subsequent repeat revascularization. To date, there has been no randomized study comparing the safety and efficacy of two different antiplatelet regimens, clopidogrel and cilostazol, following successful femoropopliteal stenting.
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Pancreatic adenocarcinosarcoma of monoclonal origin: a case report.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Adenocarcinosarcoma, a neoplasm containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components, is a rare form of a cancer and the pathophysiology is currently poorly understood. Moreover, definitive treatment guidelines for this disease have not yet been established. Pancreatic adenocarcinosarcoma is even more rare and the prognosis is fatal. Here, we report a case of a 77-year-old male with pancreatic adenocarcinosarcoma and metastasis to the liver. The patient presented at our hospital with uncontrolled glucose levels and diabetes mellitus. The patient's laboratory findings were unremarkable with the exception of elevated carbohydrate antigen 19-9 levels. Biopsies of the tumors in the pancreas and the liver revealed two types of tumors: pancreatic adenocarcinoma and a poorly differentiated sarcoma. To determine if KRAS mutations were present, we performed a peptide nucleic acid (PNA) clamp PCR-based assay. DNA sequencing by PNA clamp PCR identified a point mutation in codon 12 of exon 2 within KRAS from both tumor types. Because the KRAS mutation is observed in both tumor components, our findings support a monoclonal tumor origin followed by subsequent divergent differentiation into the sarcomatous and carcinomatous tumor populations. After we considered the patient's status and the late stage of tumor detection, gemcitabine chemotherapy was administered.
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Multiple simple bone cysts of the jaws: review of the literature and report of three cases.
Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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This study contributes three well-documented cases of multiple simple bone cysts (SBCs) of the jaws and reviews previously published cases.
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Cell cycle-dependent regulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA by the Microprocessor complex.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Aurora kinase B regulates the segregation of chromosomes and the spindle checkpoint during mitosis. In this study, we showed that the Microprocessor complex, which is responsible for the processing of the primary transcripts during the generation of microRNAs, destabilizes the mRNA of Aurora kinase B in human cells. The Microprocessor-mediated cleavage kept Aurora kinase B at a low level and prevented premature entrance into mitosis. The cleavage was reduced during mitosis leading to the accumulation of Aurora kinase B mRNA and protein. In addition to Aurora kinase B mRNA, the processing of other primary transcripts of miRNAs were also decreased during mitosis. We found that the cleavage was dependent on an RNA helicase, DDX5, and the association of DDX5 and DDX17 with the Microprocessor was reduced during mitosis. Thus, we propose a novel mechanism by which the Microprocessor complex regulates stability of Aurora kinase B mRNA and cell cycle progression.
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Safety and efficacy of ulthera in the rejuvenation of aging lower eyelids: a pivotal clinical trial.
Aesthetic Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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The changes in the periorbital region are among the most prominent features of the aging process in the lower eyelids. Intense focused ultrasound (IFUS), known as the Ulthera System, was designed to correct this process. The current study assessed the safety and efficacy of the Ulthera System.
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Microchip-based engineering of super-pancreatic islets supported by adipose-derived stem cells.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
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Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is a chronic disorder characterized by targeted autoimmune-mediated destruction of the ? cells of Langerhans within pancreatic islets. Currently, islet transplantation is the only curative therapy; however, donor shortages and cellular damage during the isolation process critically limit the use of this approach. Here, we describe a method for creating viable and functionally potent islets for successful transplantation by co-culturing single primary islet cells with adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in concave microwells. We observed that the ADSCs segregated from the islet cells, eventually yielding purified islet spheroids in the three-dimensional environment. Thereafter, the ADSC-exposed islet spheroids showed significantly different ultrastructural morphologies, higher viability, and enhanced insulin secretion compared to mono-cultured islet spheroids. This suggests that ADSCs may have a significant potential to protect islet cells from damage during culture, and may be employed to improve islet cell survival and function prior to transplantation. In vivo experiments involving xenotransplantation of microfiber-encapsulated spheroids into a mouse model of diabetes revealed that co-culture-transplanted mice maintained their blood glucose levels longer than mono-culture-transplanted mice, and required less islet mass to reverse diabetes. This method for culturing islet spheroids could potentially help overcome the cell shortages that have limited clinical applications and could possibly be developed into a bioartificial pancreas.
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Tyr phosphorylation of PDP1 toggles recruitment between ACAT1 and SIRT3 to regulate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is crucial for glucose homeostasis in mammalian cells. The current understanding of PDC regulation involves inhibitory serine phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by PDH kinase (PDK), whereas dephosphorylation of PDH by PDH phosphatase (PDP) activates PDC. Here, we report that lysine acetylation of PDHA1 and PDP1 is common in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-stimulated cells and diverse human cancer cells. K321 acetylation inhibits PDHA1 by recruiting PDK1, and K202 acetylation inhibits PDP1 by dissociating its substrate PDHA1, both of which are important in promoting glycolysis in cancer cells and consequent tumor growth. Moreover, we identified mitochondrial ACAT1 and SIRT3 as the upstream acetyltransferase and deacetylase, respectively, of PDHA1 and PDP1, while knockdown of ACAT1 attenuates tumor growth. Furthermore, Y381 phosphorylation of PDP1 dissociates SIRT3 and recruits ACAT1 to PDC. Together, hierarchical, distinct posttranslational modifications act in concert to control molecular composition of PDC and contribute to the Warburg effect.
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The effects of metabolic syndrome and its components on arterial stiffness in relation to gender.
J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The influence of gender-dependent metabolic risk factors on arterial stiffness has not been fully determined. This study was performed to investigate the relationship between components of metabolic syndrome and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) according to gender.
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Additional BRAF mutation analysis may have additional diagnostic value in thyroid nodules with "suspicious for malignant" cytology alone even when the nodules do not show suspicious US features.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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The BRAF(V600E) mutation test has been more effective in thyroid nodules with suspicious US features than ones without suspicious features. Therefore, we investigated the role of the BRAF(V600E) mutation as an additional study to cytology in diagnosing a thyroid nodule without suspicious US features. This study was performed at Severance hospital from December 2010 through February 2012. During this period, 2,650 patients with 2,918 nodules underwent FNA with an additional BRAF(V600E) mutation test. Among them, we excluded thyroid nodules with suspicious US features. Finally, 485 thyroid nodules in 466 patients (mean age 50.3 years; range 9-80 years) were included in this study. We compared the differences between patients with malignant and benign thyroid nodules. We evaluated the detection rates of the BRAF(V600E) mutation according to the Bethesda System for Reporting Thyroid Cytopathology (BSRTC). There were 60 (60/485, 12.4 %) malignant and 425 (425/485, 87.6 %) benign nodules. The detection rate of the BRAF(V600E) mutation in thyroid nodules without suspicious US features was only 6.6 % (32/485). Most had malignant cytology (62.5 %, 20/32). For nodules without malignant cytology, only 12 nodules (2.6 %, 12/462) had the BRAF mutation. Among the 12 nodules, nine nodules were suspicious for malignancy on cytology. Additional BRAF mutation analysis shows additional diagnostic value in thyroid nodules with "suspicious for malignant" cytology alone even when the nodules do not show suspicious US features. Therefore, the test should be selectively performed in thyroid nodules without suspicious US features, considering cost-effectiveness as well as diagnostic accuracy.
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Medial epicanthoplasty using the "inside-out" technique.
J Plast Surg Hand Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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The epicanthal fold, a skin remnant covering the medial canthal region, is especially common in Asians. Although numerous surgical techniques for the treatment of the epicanthal fold have been developed, the results.in terms of scars and a natural look remain controversial. In this regard, the authors have developed a new method for medial epicanthoplasty. From January 2005 to December 2011, medial epicanthoplasty was performed on 1132 patients using a technique in which the skin flap inside of the medial epicanthal fold is moved outward (the "Inside-Out" technique). Preoperative and postoperative (2 months) interepicanthal distance was measured. Satisfactory results were achieved in the majority of cases. While nine patients complained of visible scarring after the operation, the scar formation spontaneously resolved within 6 months. This new "Inside-Out" technique for the treatment of the epicanthal fold is easy, simple, and delivers good aesthetic results.
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Successful reduction of off-target hERG toxicity by structural modification of a T-type calcium channel blocker.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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To obtain an optimized T-type calcium channel blocker with reduced off-target hERG toxicity, we modified the structure of the original compound by introducing a zwitterion and reducing the basicity of the nitrogen. Among the structurally modified compounds we designed, compounds 5 and 6, which incorporate amides in place of the original compound's amines, most appreciably alleviated hERG toxicity while maintaining T-type calcium channel blocking activity. Notably, the benzimidazole amide 5 selectively blocked T-type calcium channels without inhibiting hERG (hERG/T-type?220) and L-type channels (L-type/T-type=96), and exhibited an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in rats.
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Lysine acetylation activates 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase to promote tumor growth.
Mol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Although the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway is important for tumor growth, how 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6PGD) in this pathway is upregulated in human cancers is unknown. We found that 6PGD is commonly activated in EGF-stimulated cells and human cancer cells by lysine acetylation. Acetylation at K76 and K294 of 6PGD promotes NADP(+) binding to 6PGD and formation of active 6PGD dimers, respectively. Moreover, we identified DLAT and ACAT2 as upstream acetyltransferases of K76 and K294, respectively, and HDAC4 as the deacetylase of both sites. Expressing acetyl-deficient mutants of 6PGD in cancer cells significantly attenuated cell proliferation and tumor growth. This is due in part to reduced levels of 6PGD products ribulose-5-phosphate and NADPH, which led to reduced RNA and lipid biosynthesis as well as elevated ROS. Furthermore, 6PGD activity is upregulated with increased lysine acetylation in primary leukemia cells from human patients, providing mechanistic insights into 6PGD upregulation in cancer cells.
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Reliability of the classification and treatment of dislocations of the acromioclavicular joint.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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We evaluated interobserver and intraobserver reliability of the classification and treatment of acromioclavicular (AC) joint dislocations and assessed the impact of adding 3-dimensional computed tomography (3D CT) on the reliability of classification and treatment choice.
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Real-time elastography in the evaluation of diffuse thyroid disease: a study based on elastography histogram parameters.
Ultrasound Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of quantitative histogram parameters using real-time tissue elastography (RTE) in the diagnosis of patients with diffuse thyroid disease. One hundred and sixteen patients (mean age, 43.7 ± 10.97 y) who had undergone pre-operative staging ultrasonography and RTE were included. For each patient, 11 parameters were obtained from RTE images, from which the "elastic index" was calculated. Diagnostic performance of the elastic index and that of the 11 parameters on RTE were calculated and compared. Of the 116 patients, 31 had diffuse thyroid disease and 85 had normal thyroid parenchyma. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (A(z)) of MEAN (average relative value) elasticity was high (0.737), without significant differences from other elasticity values. Diagnostic performance of the elastic index was higher than the MEAN, A(z) = 0.753, without significance (p = 0.802). In conclusion, RTE using the elastic index was found to have good diagnostic performance and may be useful in the diagnosis and management of patients with diffuse thyroid disease.
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Fabrication of a metal-ceramic crown to fit an existing partial removable dental prosthesis using ceramic pressed to metal technique: a clinical report.
J Adv Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Fabricating a crown to retrofit an existing abutment tooth for a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) is one of the most time-consuming and labor-intensive clinical procedures. In particular, when the patient is concerned with esthetic aspects of restoration, the task of fabricating becomes more daunting. Many techniques for the fabrication of all-metallic or metal-ceramic crowns have been discussed in the literature. This article was aimed to describe a simple fabrication method in which a retrofitting crown was fabricated for a precise fit using a ceramic-pressed-to-metal system.
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Accurate sequential detection of primary tumor and metastatic lymphatics using a temperature-induced phase transition nanoparticulate system.
Int J Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Primary tumor and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics have emerged as new targets for anticancer therapy, given that these are difficult to treat using traditional chemotherapy. In this study, docetaxel-loaded Pluronic nanoparticles with Flamma (FPR-675, fluorescence molecular imaging dye; DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs) were prepared using a temperature-induced phase transition for accurate detection of metastatic lymphatics. Significant accumulation was seen at the primary tumor and in metastatic lymph nodes within a short time. Particle size, maximum drug loading capacity, and drug encapsulation efficiency of the docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs were approximately 10.34±4.28 nm, 3.84 wt%, and 94±2.67 wt%, respectively. Lymphatic tracking after local and systemic delivery showed that DTX/FPR-675 Pluronic NPs were more potent in tumor-bearing mice than in normal mice, and excised mouse lymphatics showed stronger near-infrared fluorescence intensity on the tumor-bearing side than on the non-tumor-bearing side at 60 minutes post-injection. In vivo cytotoxicity and efficacy data for the NPs demonstrated that the systemically administered NPs caused little tissue damage and had minimal side effects in terms of slow renal excretion and prolonged circulation in tumor-bearing mice, and rapid renal excretion in non-tumor-bearing mice using an in vivo real-time near-infrared fluorescence imaging system. These results clearly indicate that docetaxel-loaded Pluronic NPs could provide a strategy to achieve effective cancer therapy by simultaneous delivery to primary tumors, tumor lymphatics, and tumor-associated metastatic lymphatics.
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Complete Genome Sequence of Pediococcus pentosaceus Strain SL4.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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Pediococcus pentosaceus SL4 was isolated from a Korean fermented vegetable product, kimchi. We report here the whole-genome sequence (WGS) of P. pentosaceus SL4. The genome consists of a 1.79-Mb circular chromosome (G+C content of 37.3%) and seven distinct plasmids ranging in size from 4 kb to 50 kb.
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Cell cycle-dependent SUMO-1 conjugation to nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA).
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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Covalent conjugation of proteins with small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) plays a critical role in a variety of cellular functions including cell cycle control, replication, and transcriptional regulation. Nuclear mitotic apparatus protein (NuMA) localizes to spindle poles during mitosis, and is an essential component in the formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles. Here we show that NuMA is a target for covalent conjugation to SUMO-1. We find that the lysine 1766 residue is the primary NuMA acceptor site for SUMO-1 conjugation. Interestingly, SUMO modification of endogenous NuMA occurs at the entry into mitosis and this modification is reversed after exiting from mitosis. Knockdown of Ubc9 or forced expression of SENP1 results in impairment of the localization of NuMA to mitotic spindle poles during mitosis. The SUMOylation-deficient NuMA mutant is defective in microtubule bundling, and multiple spindles are induced during mitosis. The mitosis-dependent dynamic SUMO-1 modification of NuMA might contribute to NuMA-mediated formation and maintenance of mitotic spindle poles during mitosis.
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The prometastatic ribosomal S6 kinase 2-cAMP response element-binding protein (RSK2-CREB) signaling pathway up-regulates the actin-binding protein fascin-1 to promote tumor metastasis.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Metastasis is the leading cause of death in patients with breast, lung, and head and neck cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying metastases in these cancers remain unclear. We found that the p90 ribosomal S6 kinase 2 (RSK2)-cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) pathway is commonly activated in diverse metastatic human cancer cells, leading to up-regulation of a CREB transcription target Fascin-1. We also observed that the protein expression patterns of RSK2 and Fascin-1 correlate in primary human tumor tissue samples from head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Moreover, knockdown of RSK2 disrupts filopodia formation and bundling in highly invasive cancer cells, leading to attenuated cancer cell invasion in vitro and tumor metastasis in vivo, whereas expression of Fascin-1 significantly rescues these phenotypes. Furthermore, targeting RSK2 with the small molecule RSK inhibitor FMK-MEA effectively attenuated the invasive and metastatic potential of cancer cells in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Taken together, our findings for the first time link RSK2-CREB signaling to filopodia formation and bundling through the up-regulation of Fascin-1, providing a proinvasive and prometastatic advantage to human cancers. Therefore, protein effectors of the RSK2-CREB-Fascin-1 pathway represent promising biomarkers and therapeutic targets in the clinical prognosis and treatment of metastatic human cancers.
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Analysis of sphenoid sinus in the operative plane of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery using computed tomography.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2013
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Recently, the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for sphenoid sinus or intracranial lesion has gained more popularity and the study of the surgical anatomy and relationships of the sphenoid sinus has gained increased significance. The aim of this study was to clarify the anatomical features of the sphenoid sinus including surrounding structures as seen in the operative view of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. The various distances in the sphenoid sinus as well as the relationships between the sphenoid sinus ostium (SO) and important structures such as the optic canal (OC) and carotid artery (CA) according to the presence of Onodi cell (sphenoethmoidal cell; Onodi group vs. non-Onodi group) were assessed using multiplanar and three-dimensional model of CT scans in 100 patients. The SO was more inferior in Onodi group and located superior to the lowest point of the sella. The horizontal distance from the SO to sella was approximately 13 or 14 mm depending on the existence of Onodi cells. Regardless of Onodi cell, the whole course of the OC in the sinus ran superolaterally to inferomedially in the endoscopic view. However, Onodi cell made the angles from the SO to OC larger. In Onodi group, the CA was located from the SO in a superolateral direction, but in non-Onodi group, the CA was located from the SO in the inferolateral direction. This study provides anatomical information about the sphenoid sinus, with important surgical distances between the SO and surrounding structures measured, which is essential to avoid complications during transsphenoidal surgery.
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Arthroscopic repair of massive contracted rotator cuff tears: aggressive release with anterior and posterior interval slides do not improve cuff healing and integrity.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2013
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Few studies of large-to-massive contracted rotator cuff tears have examined the arthroscopic complete repair obtained by a posterior interval slide and whether the clinical outcomes or structural integrity achieved are better than those after partial repair without the posterior interval slide.
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Proximity of the maxillary artery to the mandibular ramus: An anatomic study using three-dimensional reconstruction of computer tomography.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The maxillary artery (MA) is the main source of brisk bleeding during maxillectomy and procedures in the subcondylar portion of the mandible. The purpose of the study was to investigate the relationship between the MA and the mandible in the infratemporal fossa. The CT scans of 100 patients were retrospectively evaluated. The distances from the MA to bony landmarks were assessed in a three-dimensional model of the CT scan. In the cases where the MA was lateral to the LP [164 of 200 MAs (82%)], the mean shortest distances from the MA to the apex of the coronoid and condyle and the deepest portion of the mandibular notch were 13.6?±?1.6 mm, 21.3?±?2.0 mm, and 3.6?±?1.0 mm, respectively. The contact point between the MA and medial surface of the mandible was measured and found to be 3.6?±?2.2 mm posterior and 1.7?±?1.4 mm inferior relative to the deepest portion of the mandibular notch. In the cases where the MA was medial to the LP [36 of 200 MAs (18%)], the mean shortest distances from the MA to the apex of the coronoid and condyle and the deepest portion of the mandibular notch were 19.5?±?2.5 mm, 20.7?±?2.4 mm, and 16.3?±?3.7 mm, respectively. The studied measurements will help guide surgeons to determine the anatomy of the operative field in relation to the MA and minimize risks of injuring the vessel. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor characteristics, and recurrence in patients with early breast cancer.
Am. J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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The balance in the immune system between immune surveillance against non-self-antigens and tolerance of self-antigens is known to be associated with the prognosis of breast cancer patients. However, immunologic signals in tumor microenvironment according to biological characteristics of cancer cells have not been clearly elucidated. CD4(+) T cells, CD8(+) T cells, and forkhead box P3-positive (Foxp3) regulatory T cells (Tregs) are the main keys for immune surveillance and tolerance, respectively. We evaluated the correlations between the immunologic balance and tumor characteristics and their impact on recurrence.
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2-Phenylbenzofuran derivatives alleviate mitochondrial damage via the inhibition of ?-amyloid aggregation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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To obtain modulators for reducing mitochondrial damage by the inhibition of A? oligomer formation, 2-phenylbenzofuran derivatives were designed and prepared. Their inhibitory activity against A? fibril formation was screened using ThT fluorescence assay, and the effect of derivatives on mitochondrial function was evaluated using JC-1 and MTT assay. 2-Phenylbenzofuran derivatives with dimethylamino group at p-position had an excellent inhibitory activity against A? fibril formation. Particularly, compound 19m alleviated mitochondrial damage remarkably and possessed protective effects against A?-induced cytotoxicity.
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Additional value of lateral tissue Doppler imaging in the assessment of diastolic dysfunction among subjects with pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow.
Cardiovasc Ultrasound
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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There has been a lack of research on further stratification of subjects who have pseudonormal pattern of mitral inflow. The study aim was to clarify 2 different groups with different diastolic function grades among these subjects using lateral tissue Doppler imaging (TDI).
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YKL-40 expression could be a poor prognostic marker in the breast cancer tissue.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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YKL-40 is a glycoprotein involved in cellular growth, migration, and the inflammatory process. Elevation in serum levels of YKL-40 has been associated with worse prognosis in various cancers, including breast cancer. Given that the clinical significance of YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissue is unclear, we aimed to determine the prognostic value of YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissue using immunohistochemistry. We performed tissue microarray (TMA) analysis of 425 breast cancer tissues collected during operation. Immunohistochemical staining was performed to measure expression of YKL-40 and several breast cancer biomarkers, such as aldehyde dehyadrogenase1, TGF-beta, and Gli-1 as well as hormonal receptor and Her-2/neu status. Statistical analysis of the relationship of YKL-40 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was performed for 390 TMA samples. YKL-40 was expressed to varying degrees in 84.9 % of breast cancer tissues. YKL-40 expression was correlated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor negativity and was positively correlated with TGF-beta and Gli-1 expression. Strong YKL-40 expression was associated with a larger proportion of Her-2/neu-enriched and basal-like tumors. The results of this study demonstrate that YKL-40 expression in breast cancer tissues is associated with hormone receptor negativity and Her-2/neu-enriched molecular subtypes of breast cancer, and therefore could be considered a poor prognostic predictor.
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Predictive factors influencing facial nerve outcomes in surgery for small-sized vestibular schwannoma.
Acta Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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The most important predictive factor of facial nerve outcome in surgery for small-sized vestibular schwannoma (VS) is the adhesion between the tumor and the facial nerve.
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A study on the prevention of salmonella infection by using the aggregation characteristics of lactic Acid bacteria.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Salmonella is one of the major pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning. This study investigated whether heat-killed as well as live Lactobacillus protects host animal against Salmonella infection. Live and heat-killed Lactobacillusacidophilus was administered orally to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2 weeks before the rats were inoculated with Salmonella. Rise in body temperature was moderate in the group that was treated with heat-killed bacteria as compared to the Salmonella control group. The mean amount of feed intake and water consumption of each rat in the heat-killed bacteria group were nearly normal. The number of fecal Salmonellae was comparable between the live and the heat-killed L. acidophilus groups. This finding shows that L. acidophilus facilitates the excretion of Salmonella. Moreover, the levels of pro inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-1 beta, in the heat-killed L. acidophilus group were significantly lower when compared to the levels in the Salmonella control group. These results indicate that nonviable lactic acid bacteria also could play an important role in preventing infections by enteric pathogens such as Salmonella.
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In Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Clostridium difficile.
Toxicol Res
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2013
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Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has become a significant threat to public health. Although broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy is the primary treatment option for CDI, its use has evident limitations. Probiotics have been proved to be effective in the treatment of CDI and are a promising therapeutic option for CDI. In this study, 4 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely, Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR5), Lactococcuslactis (SL3), Bifidobacterium breve (BR3), and Bifidobacterium lactis (BL3) were evaluated for their anti-C. difficile activity. Co-culture incubation of C. difficile (10(6) and 10(10) CFU/ml) with each strain of LAB indicated that SL3 possessed the highest antimicrobial activity over a 24-hr period. The cell-free supernatants of the 4 LAB strains exhibited MIC50 values between 0.424 mg/ml (SL3) and 1.318 (BR3) mg/ml. These results may provide a basis for alternative therapies for the treatment of C. difficile-associated gut disorders.
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Age-related changes of the larynx and trachea assessed by three-dimensional computed tomography in children: Application to endotracheal intubation and bronchoscopy.
Clin Anat
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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The purpose of this study was to establish normative data of laryngotracheal dimensions and shape and to evaluate differences associated with age and sex using three-dimensional (3D) imaging. A total of 120 patients (64 boys and 56 girls) were included. Subjects were divided into four groups: Group 1 (0-2 years), Group 2 (3-7 years), Group 3 (8-13 years), and Group 4 (14-20 years). Using 3D image processing software, the laryngeal volume (LV), tracheal volume (TV), anteroposterior diameter at the glottis, cross-sectional area (CSA) at the subglottis, and laryngeal angle (LA) of the thyroid laminae were measured. Parameters of laryngotracheal volume and size were positively correlated with age, whereas the LA was inversely correlated with age. The LV, TV, CSA-3 mm, and CSA-5?mm exhibited a growth spurt in Groups 2 and 3. The LA decreased at a faster rate in Group 1 (P?=?0.012). In Groups 1 and 2, there were no differences between genders for each laryngotracheal segmentation or plane. However, gender differences in the TV of Group 3 were statistically significant (P?=?0.030). In Group 4, gender differences of all airway parameters were evident. Volume and other dimensions of the laryngotracheal airway increase with age. There was a significant increase in the LV, TV, CSA-3 mm, and CSA-5?mm in Groups 2 and 3. The LA correlated negatively with age in the Group 1. Significant sex dimorphisms are evident in Group 4. Clin. Anat., 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Effect of korean herbal medicine combined with a probiotic mixture on diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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Introduction. Although combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics is gaining popularity for controlling diarrhea-dominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) symptoms, few studies have investigated its clinical effects. Materials and Methods. Fifty-three patients with D-IBS were randomly allocated into 1 of the following 4 groups: herbal medicine (Gwakhyangjeonggisan; GJS) plus probiotics (Duolac7S; DUO), GJS plus placebo DUO, placebo GJS plus DUO, and placebo GJS plus placebo DUO. The study period consisted of a 2-week run-in, 8 weeks of administration, and 2 weeks of follow-up. The primary outcomes were weekly adequate relief (AR) of overall IBS symptoms and the proportion of responders (PR) during the administration period. The secondary outcomes included individual IBS symptoms, stool assessment, and quality of life. Changes of intestinal microbiota and intestinal permeability were also analyzed. Results and Discussion. Weekly AR was not different among the 4 groups throughout the treatment period. However, the 3 treatment groups exhibited significant improvements in PR compared to the findings in the placebo group. In the intestinal microbiota assessment, herbal medicine and probiotics synergistically increased beneficial bacteria counts. Conclusion. Combination therapy with herbal medicine and probiotics appears to relieve overall IBS symptoms by synergistically increasing beneficial intestinal microbe counts.
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Graft tension of the posterior cruciate ligament using a finite element model.
Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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The aim of the study was to analyse the change in length and tension of the reconstructed single-bundle posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) with three different femoral tunnels at different knee flexion angles by use of three-dimensional finite element method.
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Simultaneously Presented Acute Ischemic Stroke and Non-ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction in a Patient with Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.
Korean Circ J
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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Although atrial fibrillation is the most frequent cause of embolic stroke, coronary embolism from atrial fibrillation is a very rare cause of acute myocardial infarction. Therefore, simultaneously presented acute ischemic stroke and acute myocardial infarction due to atrial fibrillation in the same patient has not been documented. The present report describes the case of a 58-year-old man with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation who initially presented with a large cerebral infarction due to embolic occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery. Four hours after the diagnosis of cerebral embolism, he was subsequently diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction due to concurrent coronary embolism. He underwent successful coronary revascularization with a drug-eluting stent. The possibility of combined coronary embolism as a rare etiology should be kept in mind when a patient with acute embolic stroke presents, especially when there is evidence of acute myocardial infarction.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.