JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Seroprevalence of rift valley Fever, q Fever, and brucellosis in ruminants on the southeastern shore of lake chad.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract The seroprevalence of Rift Valley fever (RVF), brucellosis, and Q fever among domestic ruminants on the southeastern shore of Lake Chad was studied. The study area consisted of two parts, including mainland and islands. On the mainland, the study was conducted in nine randomly selected villages and camps. On the islands, samples were collected from all four available sites. A total of 985 serum samples were collected and 924 were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for RVF. A total of 561 samples collected from islands were analyzed using ELISA for Q fever and both ELISA and Rose Bengal tests (RBT) for brucellosis. The apparent RVF seroprevalence by species was 37.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] 34.2-41.3) in cattle, 18.8% (95% CI 12.3-25.2) in goats, and 10.8% (95% CI 3.0-18.5) in sheep. For brucellosis and Q fever, only cattle samples from islands were analyzed. For Q fever, the apparent seroprevalence was 7.8% (95% CI 5.6-10.1). For brucellosis, the RBT showed a prevalence of 5.7% (95% CI 3.8-7.6), and ELISA showed 11.9% (95% CI 9.3-14.6) with a kappa value of 0.53 showing a moderate agreement between the two tests. This study confirms the presence of the three diseases in the study area. More research is required to assess the importance for public health and conservation of the Kouri cattle breed.
Related JoVE Video
Diarrhoeal diseases among adult population in an agricultural community Hanam province, Vietnam, with high wastewater and excreta re-use.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the potential health risks of wastewater and excreta use as fertiliser in agriculture, it is still widespread in Vietnam. However, the importance of diarrheal risk in adults' associated with the combined exposures to both excreta and wastewater use in agriculture is largely unknown. This study was carried out to determine diarrhoeal incidence and associated risk factors among the adult population exposed to wastewater and excreta used in agriculture in Hanam province, Vietnam.
Related JoVE Video
The benefits of 'One Health' for pastoralists in Africa.
Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
'One health' is particularly suited to serve mobile pastoralists. Dinka pastoralists in Sudan inspired Calvin Schwabe to coin the term 'one medicine', indicating that there is no difference in paradigm between human and veterinary medicine. Our contemporary definition of 'one health' is any added value in terms of improved health of humans and animals or financial savings or environmental services resulting from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Here we present a summary of 'one health' studies with mobile pastoralists in Africa which were done in research partnership, demonstrating such an added value. Initial joint human and animal health studies revealed higher livestock vaccination coverage than in the pastoralist community, leading to joint animal and human vaccination intervention studies which demonstrated a better access to primary health care services for pastoralists in Chad. Further simultaneous animal and human serological studies showed that camel breeding was associated with human Q-fever seropositivity. In Borana communities in Ethiopia, human cases of Mycobacterium bovis infection could be related to strains isolated from cattle. A challenge remained with regard to how to assess vaccination coverage in mobile populations. With the advent of mobile phones, health and demographic surveillance could be established for mobile pastoralists and their animals. This presents vast possibilities for surveillance and control of human and animal diseases. Pastoralists prefer a 'one health' approach and therefore contribute toward the validation of this concept by showing real added value of the cooperation between human and animal health services.
Related JoVE Video
Representative seroprevalences of human and livestock brucellosis in two Mongolian provinces.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mongolia implemented a brucellosis livestock mass vaccination campaign from 2000 to 2009. However, the number of human cases did not decline since 2004 and the current epidemiological situation in Mongolia was uncertain. The objective of this study was to estimate the representative seroprevalences of humans and livestock in two provinces in view of their comparison with officially reported data. A representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, sheep, goats, cattle, yaks, horses, camels and dogs was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 8054 livestock and dog sera and 574 human sera were collected in Sukhbaatar and Zavkhan provinces. Human and animal sera were tested with the Rose Bengal and ELISA tests. The overall apparent seroprevalence of brucellosis was 27.3% in humans (95% CI 23.7-31.2%), 6.2% (95% CI 5.5-7.1%) in sheep, 5.2% (95% CI 4.4-5.9%) in goats, 16.0% (95% CI 13.7-18.7%) in cattle, 2.5% (95% CI 0.8-7.6%) in camels, 8.3 (95% CI 6.0-11.6%) in horses and 36.4% (95% CI 26.3-48.0%) in dogs. More women than men were seropositive (OR = 1.7; P < 0.0014). Human seroprevalence was not associated with small ruminant and cattle seroprevalence at the nomadic camp (hot ail) level. Annual incidence of clinical brucellosis, inferred from the seroprevalence using a catalytic model, was by a factor of 4.6 (1307/280) in Sukhbaatar and by a factor of 59 (1188/20) in Zavkhan. This represents a 15-fold underreporting of human brucellosis in Mongolia. The lack of access to brucellosis diagnostic testing at the village level hinders rural people from receiving appropriate treatment. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of human and livestock brucellosis in Mongolia. Stringent monitoring and quality control of operational management of a nationwide mass vaccination of small and large ruminants is warranted to assure its effectiveness. More research is needed to understand the complex animal-human interface of brucellosis transmission at different scales from farm to provincial level.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in slaughtered animals in south-eastern Lake Chad area in relation to husbandry practices and seasonal water levels.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fasciolosis has been described in sub-Saharan Africa in many accounts, but the latest reports from Chad are from the 1970s. Mobile pastoralists perceive liver parasites as a significant problem and think that proximity to Lake Chad can lead to infection. This study aimed to assess the importance of liver fluke infections in mobile pastoralists' livestock in the south-eastern Lake Chad region.In 2011, all animals presented at three slaughter slabs near Gredaya in the south-eastern Lake Chad area were examined for infection with Fasciola spp. during routine meat inspections.
Related JoVE Video
Demographic model of the swiss cattle population for the years 2009-2011 stratified by gender, age and production type.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Demographic composition and dynamics of animal and human populations are important determinants for the transmission dynamics of infectious disease and for the effect of infectious disease or environmental disasters on productivity. In many circumstances, demographic data are not available or of poor quality. Since 1999 Switzerland has been recording cattle movements, births, deaths and slaughter in an animal movement database (AMD). The data present in the AMD offers the opportunity for analysing and understanding the dynamic of the Swiss cattle population. A dynamic population model can serve as a building block for future disease transmission models and help policy makers in developing strategies regarding animal health, animal welfare, livestock management and productivity. The Swiss cattle population was therefore modelled using a system of ordinary differential equations. The model was stratified by production type (dairy or beef), age and gender (male and female calves: 0-1 year, heifers and young bulls: 1-2 years, cows and bulls: older than 2 years). The simulation of the Swiss cattle population reflects the observed pattern accurately. Parameters were optimized on the basis of the goodness-of-fit (using the Powell algorithm). The fitted rates were compared with calculated rates from the AMD and differed only marginally. This gives confidence in the fitted rates of parameters that are not directly deductible from the AMD (e.g. the proportion of calves that are moved from the dairy system to fattening plants).
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis and risk factor assessment in cattle in rural livestock areas of Govuro District in the Southeast of Mozambique.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (bTB), caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is an infectious disease of cattle that also affects other domestic animals, free-ranging and farmed wildlife, and also humans. In Mozambique, scattered surveys have reported a wide variation of bTB prevalence rates in cattle from different regions. Due to direct economic repercussions on livestock and indirect consequences for human health and wildlife, knowing the prevalence rates of the disease is essential to define an effective control strategy.
Related JoVE Video
The use of mobile phones for demographic surveillance of mobile pastoralists and their animals in Chad: proof of principle.
Glob Health Action
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Demographic information is foundational for the planning and management of social programmes, in particular health services. The existing INDEPTH network surveillance sites are limited to coverage of sedentary populations. Including mobile populations in this approach would be expensive, time consuming and possibly low in accuracy. Very little is known about the demography of mobile pastoralists and their animals, so innovative approaches are urgently needed.
Related JoVE Video
Seroprevalence of Brucellosis and Q-Fever in Southeast Ethiopian Pastoral Livestock.
J Vet Sci Med Diagn
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess seroprevalences of Brucella and C. burnetii in pastoral livestock in southeast Ethiopia, a cross-sectional study was carried out in three livestock species (cattle, camels and goats). The study was conducted from July 2008 to August 2010, and eight pastoral associations (PAs) from the selected districts were included in the study. Sera from a total of 1830 animals, comprising 862 cattle, 458 camels and 510 goats were screened initially with Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT) for Brucella. All RBPT positive and 25% of randomly selected negative sera were further tested by ELISA. These comprise a total of 460 animals (211 cattle, 102 camels and 147 goats). Out of sera from total of 1830 animals, 20% were randomly selected (180 cattle, 90 camels and 98 goats) and tested for C. burnetii using ELISA. The seroprevalences of Brucella was 1.4% (95% confidence interval (CI), 0.8-2.6), 0.9% (95% CI, 0.3-2.7)b and 9.6% (95% CI, 5.2-17.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. Goats and older animals were at higher risk of infection (OR=7.3, 95% CI, 2.8-19.1) and (OR=1.7 95% CI, 0.9-2.9), respectively. Out of 98 RBPT negative camel sera, 12.0% were positive for ELISA. The seroprevalences of C. burnetii were 31.6% (95% CI, 24.7-39.5), 90.0% (95% CI, 81.8-94.7) and 54.2% (95% CI, 46.1-62.1) in cattle, camels and goats, respectively. We found positive animals for C. burnetii test in all tested PAs for all animal species. Being camel and older animal was a risk factor for infection (OR=19.0, 95% CI, 8.9-41.2) and (OR=3.6, 95% CI, 2.0-6.6), respectively. High seropositivity of C. burnetii in all livestock species tested and higher seropositive in goats for Brucella, implies risks of human infection by both diseases. Thus, merit necessity of further study of both diseases in animals and humans in the area.
Related JoVE Video
Towards a science of rabies elimination.
Infect Dis Poverty
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wenwu Yin and co-workers conducted a systematic review on challenges and needs to eliminate rabies in China (Yin et al., 2013 in this journal). Their analysis shows that there is considerable overrepresentation of laboratory and basic epidemiology research. On the other hand, information on effective control activities and policies are nearly absent. Currently we know enough to control and eliminate dog rabies effectively. Continuing basic research while not engaging in the control of rabies appears almost cynical. Why is it not attractive to do research on effective control and elimination? Let us move now from the biological understanding to the science of rabies elimination.
Related JoVE Video
Bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis prevalence in cattle from selected milk cooperatives in Arsi zone, Oromia region, Ethiopia.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) and bovine brucellosis are two important milk-borne zoonoses that have been shown to be prevalent to various degrees in Ethiopian cattle. The study was carried out in four Woredas (districts) around Asella town, Arsi Zone between October 2011 and March 2012 and included 318 small-holders in 13 dairy cooperatives that marketed the delivered milk. The aims of the study were i) to assess the prevalence of the two diseases in cattle in a cross-sectional study, ii) to assess potential risk factors of BTB and brucellosis to humans as well as the knowledge-attitude-practice (KAP) among these farmers towards these diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Differences in primary sites of infection between zoonotic and human tuberculosis: results from a worldwide systematic review.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Whilst global burden estimates for M. tuberculosis infection (MtTB) are well established, accurate data on the contribution of zoonotic TB (zTB) caused by M. bovis or M. caprae to human TB are scarce. The association of M. bovis infection with extrapulmonary tuberculosis has been suggested repeatedly, though there is little scientific evidence available to support this relationship. The present study aimed to determine globally the occurrence of extrapulmonary TB and the primary site (i.e. primary body location affected) of zTB in comparison with MtTB, based on previously published reports. A systematic literature review was conducted in 32 different bibliographic databases, selecting reports on zTB written in English, French, German, Spanish or Portuguese. Data from 27 reports from Africa, America, Europe and the Western Pacific Region were extracted for analyses. Low income countries, in Africa and South-East Asia, were highly underrepresented in the dataset. The median proportion of extrapulmonary TB cases was significantly increased among zTB in comparison with data from registries of Europe and USA, reporting mainly MtTB cases (47% versus 22% in Europe, 73% versus 30% in the USA). These findings were confirmed by analyses of eight studies reporting on the proportions of extrapulmonary TB in comparable populations of zTB and MtTB cases (median 63% versus 22%). Also, disparities of primary sites of extrapulmonary TB between zTB and MtTB were detected. Our findings, based on global data, confirm the widely suggested association between zTB and extrapulmonary disease. Different disability weights for zTB and MtTB should be considered and we recommend separate burden estimates for the two diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence and risk factors for carriage of multi-drug resistant Staphylococci in healthy cats and dogs.
J. Vet. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the distribution of commensal staphylococcal species and determined the prevalence of multi-drug resistance in healthy cats and dogs. Risk factors associated with the carriage of multi-drug resistant strains were explored. Isolates from 256 dogs and 277 cats were identified at the species level using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time of flight mass spectrometry. The diversity of coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) was high, with 22 species in dogs and 24 in cats. Multi-drug resistance was frequent (17%) and not always associated with the presence of the mecA gene. A stay in a veterinary clinic in the last year was associated with an increased risk of colonisation by multi-drug resistant Staphylococci (OR = 2.4, 95% CI: 1.1˜5.2, p value LRT = 0.04). When identifying efficient control strategies against antibiotic resistance, the presence of mechanisms other than methicillin resistance and the possible role of CNS in the spread of resistance determinants should be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Zoonotic Mycobacterium bovis-induced tuberculosis in humans.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed to estimate the global occurrence of zoonotic tuberculosis (TB) caused by Mycobacterium bovis or M. caprae infections in humans by performing a multilingual, systematic review and analysis of relevant scientific literature of the last 2 decades. Although information from many parts of the world was not available, data from 61 countries suggested a low global disease incidence. In regions outside Africa included in this study, overall median proportions of zoonotic TB of ?1.4% in connection with overall TB incidence rates ?71/100,000 population/year suggested low incidence rates. For countries of Africa included in the study, we multiplied the observed median proportion of zoonotic TB cases of 2.8% with the continental average overall TB incidence rate of 264/100,000 population/year, which resulted in a crude estimate of 7 zoonotic TB cases/100,000 population/year. These generally low incidence rates notwithstanding, available data indicated substantial consequences of this disease for some population groups and settings.
Related JoVE Video
Cost estimate of bovine tuberculosis to ethiopia.
Curr. Top. Microbiol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
While bovine tuberculosis (BTB) has been eliminated in some industrialized countries, it prevails worldwide, particularly in Africa. In Ethiopia, BTB is prevalent as numerous studies have shown its occurrence in livestock and in abattoirs but it has not been demonstrated in wildlife and only very few cases have been found in humans. The objective of this study is to estimate the cost of BTB to Ethiopia with the aim of informing Ethiopian policy on options for BTB control. BTB in livestock affects both animal productivity and herd demographic composition. The Livestock Development Planning System (LDPS2, FAO) was modified to allow for stochastic simulation of parameters. We performed an incremental cost of disease analysis, comparing livestock production with and without BTB. For the rural scenario we considered an endemically stable 4 % comparative intradermal test (CIDT) prevalence and for the urban scenario an endemically stable 32 % CIDT prevalence among cattle. The net present value of rural Ethiopian livestock products in 2005 is estimated at 65.7 billion (thousand million) Ethiopian Birr (95 % Confidence Interval (CI) 53.8-77.7 billion Birr), which is the equivalent of 7.5 billion US$ (95 %CI 6.1-8.9 billion US$) at a rate of 8.7 Birr per US$ in 2005. The cost of BTB ranges from 646 million Birr (75.2 million US$) in 2005 to 3.1 Billion Birr in 2011 (358 million US$) but is within the range of uncertainty of our estimate and can thus not be distinguished from zero. The cost of disease in the urban livestock production ranges from 5 to 42 million Birr (500,000-4.9 million US$) between 2005 and 2011 but is also within the range of uncertainty of our estimate. Our study shows no measurable loss in asset value or cost of disease due to BTB in rural and urban production systems in Ethiopia. This does not mean that there is not a real cost of disease, but the variability of the productivity parameters and prices are high and would require more precise estimates. This study does not preclude in any way the urgent need to control BTB in the urban dairy herd of Addis Ababa for other than financial reasons.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterial lineages causing pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, Ethiopia.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Molecular typing of 964 specimens from patients in Ethiopia with lymph node or pulmonary tuberculosis showed a similar distribution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains between the 2 disease manifestations and a minimal role for M. bovis. We report a novel phylogenetic lineage of M. tuberculosis strongly associated with the Horn of Africa.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular epidemiology and antibiotic susceptibility of livestock Brucella melitensis isolates from Naryn Oblast, Kyrgyzstan.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of human brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan has been increasing in the last years and was identified as a priority disease needing most urgent control measures in the livestock population. The latest species identification of Brucella isolates in Kyrgyzstan was carried out in the 1960s and investigated the circulation of Brucella abortus, B. melitensis, B. ovis, and B. suis. However, supporting data and documentation of that experience are lacking. Therefore, typing of Brucella spp. and identification of the most important host species are necessary for the understanding of the main transmission routes and to adopt an effective brucellosis control policy in Kyrgyzstan. Overall, 17 B. melitensis strains from aborted fetuses of sheep and cattle isolated in the province of Naryn were studied. All strains were susceptible to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, gentamicin, rifampin, ofloxacin, streptomycin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin. Multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis showed low genetic diversity. Kyrgyz strains seem to be genetically associated with the Eastern Mediterranean group of the Brucella global phylogeny. We identified and confirmed transmission of B. melitensis to cattle and a close genetic relationship between B. melitensis strains isolated from sheep sharing the same pasture.
Related JoVE Video
Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections associated with wastewater and human excreta use in agriculture in Vietnam.
Parasitol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We assessed the risk of helminth infections in association with the use of wastewater and excreta in agriculture in Hanam province, northern Vietnam. In two cross-sectional surveys, we obtained samples from 1,425 individuals from 453 randomly selected households. Kato-Katz thick smear and formalin-ether concentration techniques were used for helminth diagnosis in two stool samples per person. Socio-demographic and water, sanitation and hygiene related characteristics, including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater management, were assessed with a questionnaire.
Related JoVE Video
Representative seroprevalences of brucellosis in humans and livestock in Kyrgyzstan.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Kyrgyzstan reported 77.5 new human brucellosis cases per 100,000 people in 2007, which is one of the highest incidences worldwide. In Kyrgyzstan, the currently used diagnostic tests in humans and animals are the Rose Bengal Test and the Huddleson test. A national representative cross-sectional study using cluster sampling proportional to size in humans, cattle, sheep, and goats was undertaken to assess the apparent seroprevalence in humans and animals. A total of 4,936 livestock sera and 1,774 human sera were tested in Naryn, Chuy, and Osh Oblasts. The overall apparent seroprevalences of brucellosis were 8.8% in humans (95% CI 4.5-16.5), 2.8% (95% CI 1.6-4.9%) in cattle, 3.3% (95% CI 1.5-6.9%) in sheep, and 2.5% (95% CI 1.4-4.5%) in goats. Naryn Oblast had the highest seroprevalences in humans and sheep. More men than women were seropositive (OR = 1.96; P < 0.001). Human seroprevalence was significantly associated with small ruminant seroprevalence but not with cattle seroprevalence. Annual incidence of human brucellosis exposure, measured by serological tests, was more than ten times higher than the annual incidence of reported clinical brucellosis cases. This indicates an under-reporting of human brucellosis cases, even if only a fraction of seropositive people have clinical symptoms. In conclusion, this study confirms the high seroprevalence of brucellosis in Kyrgyzstan and warrants rapid effective intervention, among others, by mass vaccination of sheep and goats but also of cattle.
Related JoVE Video
One health in Switzerland: a visionary concept at a crossroads?
Swiss Med Wkly
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
One Health stands for the health of humans, animals and the environment. There is only one health in our entire ecosystem, and the equation for its promotion is in interdisciplinary cooperation. One Health benefits from synergies to generate added value and is a promising strategy to strengthen health systems. A growing number of One Health conferences worldwide bear witness to a spirit of optimism which should result in the implementation of a sustainable One Health policy globally, regionally, nationally and locally. The purpose of this study was to investigate the opportunities for implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. Between April and August 2010, semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 key experts selected from among the leading personalities in the Swiss health system. The experts confirmed the potential of the One Health concept for Switzerland. Barriers such as cultural differences, absence of evidence, federal structures and a relatively low degree of suffering were identified and a road map established, including research activities, capacity-building and a stakeholder approach to joint preparation and tailored implementation of the One Health concept in Switzerland. These data suggest that One Health can support the opinion leaders in their quest for solutions. The detailed and unbiased description of potential barriers and a clear guide for a step-by-step action plan represent suggestions for a realistic way forward. Experience gained and lessons learnt in Switzerland may be of interest to other countries and help communicate and promote the One Health concept.
Related JoVE Video
Identification of an African Bacillus anthracis lineage that lacks expression of the spore surface-associated anthrose-containing oligosaccharide.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The surfaces of Bacillus anthracis endospores expose a pentasaccharide containing the monosaccharide anthrose, which has been considered for use as a vaccine or target for specific detection of the spores. In this study B. anthracis strains isolated from cattle carcasses in African countries where anthrax is endemic were tested for their cross-reactivity with monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for anthrose-containing oligosaccharides. Unexpectedly, none of the isolates collected in Chad, Cameroon, and Mali were recognized by the MAbs. Sequencing of the four-gene operon encoding anthrose biosynthetic enzymes revealed the presence of premature stop codons in the aminotransferase and glycosyltransferase genes in all isolates from Chad, Cameroon, and Mali. Both immunological and genetic findings suggest that the West African isolates are unable to produce anthrose. The anthrose-deficient strains from West Africa belong to a particular genetic lineage. Immunization of cattle in Chad with a locally produced vaccine based on anthrose-positive spores of the B. anthracis strain Sterne elicited an anti-carbohydrate IgG response specific for a synthetic anthrose-containing tetrasaccharide as demonstrated by glycan microarray analysis. Competition immunoblots with synthetic pentasaccharide derivatives suggested an immunodominant role of the anthrose-containing carbohydrate in cattle. In West Africa anthrax is highly endemic. Massive vaccination of livestock in this area has taken place over long periods of time using spores of the anthrose-positive vaccine strain Sterne. The spread of anthrose-deficient strains in this region may represent an escape strategy of B. anthracis.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors for Entamoeba histolytica infection in an agricultural community in Hanam province, Vietnam.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Entamoeba histolytica is an important protozoan intestinal infection in resource-poor settings, including Vietnam. The study objective was to assess risk factors of E. histolytica infection in a community in Vietnam, where wastewater and human excreta are used in agriculture. A case-control study was conducted among residents of Hanam province, Northern Vietnam. Cases (n = 46) infected with E. histolytica and non-infected controls (n = 138) were identified in a cross-sectional survey among 794 randomly selected individuals and matched for age, sex and place of residence. Potential risk factors including exposure to human and animal excreta and household wastewater were assessed with a questionnaire.
Related JoVE Video
Reconstructing the 2003/2004 H3N2 influenza epidemic in Switzerland with a spatially explicit, individual-based model.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
world has not faced a severe pandemic for decades, except the rather mild H1N1 one in 2009, pandemic influenza models are inherently hypothetical and validation is, thus, difficult. We aim at reconstructing a recent seasonal influenza epidemic that occurred in Switzerland and deem this to be a promising validation strategy for models of influenza spread.
Related JoVE Video
Prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in pastoral cattle herds in the Oromia region, southern Ethiopia.
Trop Anim Health Prod
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) was conducted in pastoral cattle herds in southern Ethiopia, from February to August 2008 using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test. The prevalence of BTB and the risk factors for having positive reactor herds were assessed in four pastoral associations in two districts of southern Ethiopia, namely Goro-Dola with 242 cattle in 16 herds and Liben with 231 cattle in 15 herds. A herd was considered positive if there was at least one reactor animal in a herd. The test results were interpreted based on the Office Internationale des Epizooties recommended 4-mm and a recently suggested 2-mm cut-off. The apparent individual animal prevalence of tuberculin reactors was 5.5% (95% confidence interval (CI), 4.0-8.0%) and 7.0% (95% CI, 5.0-10.0%), whereas the true prevalence estimate was 4.4% (95% CI, 0.8-8.0%) and 6.1% (95% CI, 2.6-9.5%), when using the 4-mm and the 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. The overall herd apparent prevalence of tuberculin reactor animals was 41.9% (95% CI, 24.9-60.9%) and 48.4% (95% CI, 30.2-66.9%) with the 4-mm and 2-mm cut-offs, respectively. A positive tuberculin test was associated with the age of animals and the main drinking water sources during dry seasons. In order to investigate the public health risks and the epidemiological importance of BTB in the area, we recommend to include other livestock species (camels and goats) as well as humans in future studies.
Related JoVE Video
Bovine tuberculosis at a cattle-small ruminant-human interface in Meskan, Gurage region, Central Ethiopia.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in Ethiopian cattle. The aim of this study was to assess BTB prevalence at an intensive contact interface in Meskan Woreda (district) in cattle, small ruminants and suspected TB-lymphadenitis (TBLN) human patients.
Related JoVE Video
European 1: a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis.
Infect. Genet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have identified a globally important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis by deletion analysis of over one thousand strains from over 30 countries. We initially show that over 99% of the strains of M. bovis, the cause of bovine tuberculosis, isolated from cattle in the Republic of Ireland and the UK are closely related and are members of a single clonal complex marked by the deletion of chromosomal region RDEu1 and we named this clonal complex European 1 (Eu1). Eu1 strains were present at less than 14% of French, Portuguese and Spanish isolates of M. bovis but are rare in other mainland European countries and Iran. However, strains of the Eu1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in former trading partners of the UK (USA, South Africa, New Zealand, Australia and Canada). The Americas, with the exception of Brazil, are dominated by the Eu1 clonal complex which was at high frequency in Argentina, Chile, Ecuador and Mexico as well as North America. Eu1 was rare or absent in the African countries surveyed except South Africa. A small sample of strains from Taiwan were non-Eu1 but, surprisingly, isolates from Korea and Kazakhstan were members of the Eu1 clonal complex. The simplest explanation for much of the current distribution of the Eu1 clonal complex is that it was spread in infected cattle, such as Herefords, from the UK to former trading partners, although there is evidence of secondary dispersion since. This is the first identification of a globally dispersed clonal complex M. bovis and indicates that much of the current global distribution of this important veterinary pathogen has resulted from relatively recent International trade in cattle.
Related JoVE Video
Random demographic household surveys in highly mobile pastoral communities in Chad.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Reliable demographic data is a central requirement for health planning and management, and for the implementation of adequate interventions. This study addresses the lack of demographic data on mobile pastoral communities in the Sahel.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of pet contact as a risk factor for carriage of multidrug-resistant staphylococci in nursing home residents.
Am J Infect Control
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pets, often used as companionship and for psychological support in the therapy of nursing home residents, have been implicated as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria. We investigated the importance of pets as reservoirs of multidrug-resistant (MDR) staphylococci in nursing homes.
Related JoVE Video
African 2, a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis epidemiologically important in East Africa.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis isolated at high frequency from cattle in Uganda, Burundi, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. We have named this related group of M. bovis strains the African 2 (Af2) clonal complex of M. bovis. Af2 strains are defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf2) and can be identified by the absence of spacers 3 to 7 in their spoligotype patterns. Deletion analysis of M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Mali, Chad, Nigeria, Cameroon, South Africa, and Mozambique did not identify any strains of the Af2 clonal complex, suggesting that this clonal complex of M. bovis is localized in East Africa. The specific spoligotype pattern of the Af2 clonal complex was rarely identified among isolates from outside Africa, and the few isolates that were found and tested were intact at the RDAf2 locus. We conclude that the Af2 clonal complex is localized to cattle in East Africa. We found that strains of the Af2 clonal complex of M. bovis have, in general, four or more copies of the insertion sequence IS6110, in contrast to the majority of M. bovis strains isolated from cattle, which are thought to carry only one or a few copies.
Related JoVE Video
Mycobacterium algericum sp. nov., a novel rapidly growing species related to the Mycobacterium terrae complex and associated with goat lung lesions.
Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A previously undescribed, rapid-growing, non-chromogenic Mycobacterium isolate from a goat lung lesion in Algeria is reported. Biochemical and molecular tools were used for its complete description and showed its affiliation to the Mycobacterium terrae complex. 16S rRNA, rpoB and hsp65 gene sequences were unique. Phylogenetic analyses showed a close relationship with M. terrae sensu stricto and Mycobacterium senuense. Culture and biochemical characteristics were generally similar to those of M. terrae and M. senuense. However, in contrast to M. terrae and M. senuense, the isolate was positive for urease production and had faster growth. The mycolic acid profile was distinct from those of M. terrae and M. senuense, thus further supporting the new taxonomic position of the isolate. We propose the name Mycobacterium algericum sp. nov. for this novel species. The type strain is TBE 500028/10(T) (?= Bejaia(T)?= CIP 110121(T)?= DSM 45454(T)).
Related JoVE Video
[Evaluation of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) isolates of Mycobacterium bovis in Algeria].
Ann. Biol. Clin. (Paris)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The discriminatory potency of variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR), based on 7 loci (MIRU 26, 27 and 5 ETRs A, B, C, D, E) was assayed on Mycobacterium bovis strains obtained from samples due to tuberculosis in two slaughterhouses in Algeria. The technique of MIRU-VNTR has been evaluated on 88 strains of M. bovis and one strain of M. caprea and shows 41 different profiles. Results showed that the VNTR were highly discriminatory with an allelic diversity of 0.930 when four loci (ETR A, B, C and MIRU 27) were highly discriminatory (h>0.25) and three loci (ETR D and E MIRU 26) moderately discriminatory (0.11
Related JoVE Video
Bovine tuberculosis at the wildlife-livestock-human interface in Hamer Woreda, South Omo, Southern Ethiopia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) is endemic in cattle in the Ethiopian Highlands but no studies have been done so far in pastoralists in South Omo. This study assessed the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) at an intensive interface of livestock, wildlife and pastoralists in Hamer Woreda (South Omo), Ethiopia. A cross-sectional survey including a comparative intradermal skin testing (CIDT) was conducted in 499 zebu cattle and 186 goats in 12 settlements. Sputum samples from 26 symptomatic livestock owners were cultured for TB. Fifty-one wildlife samples from 13 different species were also collected in the same area and tested with serological (lateral flow assay) and bacteriological (culture of lymph nodes) techniques. Individual BTB prevalence in cattle was 0.8% (CI: 0.3%-2%) with the >4 mm cut-off and 3.4% (CI: 2.1%-5.4%) with the >2 mm cut-off. Herd prevalence was 33.3% and 83% when using the >4 and the >2 mm cut-off respectively. There was no correlation between age, sex, body condition and positive reactors upon univariate analysis. None of the goats were reactors for BTB. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were detected in 50% of the wildlife cultures, 79.2% of which were identified as Mycobacterium terrae complex. No M. bovis was detected. Twenty-seven percent of tested wildlife were sero-positive. Four sputum cultures (15.4%) yielded AFB positive colonies among which one was M. tuberculosis and 3 non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM). The prevalence of M. avium-complex (MAC) was 4.2% in wildlife, 2.5% in cattle and 0.5% in goats. In conclusion, individual BTB prevalence was low, but herd prevalence high in cattle and BTB was not detected in goats, wildlife and humans despite an intensive contact interface. On the contrary, NTMs were highly prevalent and some Mycobacterium spp were more prevalent in specific species. The role of NTMs in livestock and co-infection with BTB need further research.
Related JoVE Video
Stray dog population demographics in Jodhpur, India following a population control/rabies vaccination program.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Animal Birth Control (ABC) is a program by which stray dogs are sterilized and vaccinated against rabies with the aim of controlling both dog population size and rabies. Population size and demographics of stray dogs were measured before and after implementation of an ABC program in Jodhpur, India. Dog population size declined (p<0.05) in three of five areas surveyed, showed a decreasing trend (p>0.05) in 1 area, and remained stable in 1 area between 2005 and 2007. By 2007, 61.8-86.5% of the free-roaming dog population was surgically sterilized and vaccinated for rabies in the areas surveyed. In March-May, 2007, adults comprised 80-96% of the free-roaming dog population, while subadults and puppies comprised 0-18 and 0-4%, respectively. The male:female ratio among dogs>3 months old was 1.4:1. A population demographic model predicted that at the current level of sterilization/rabies vaccination, vaccination coverage would remain above 70%, and the dog population would decrease by 69% reaching stability after 13-18 years. A surgical sterilization coverage under 40% would maintain the dog population at current levels.
Related JoVE Video
Contacts between poultry farms, their spatial dimension and their relevance for avian influenza preparedness.
Geospat Health
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ongoing economic losses by and exposure of humans to highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) in poultry flocks across Asia and parts of Africa and Europe motivate also outbreak-free countries such as Switzerland to invest in preparedness planning. Country-specific population data on between-farm contacts are required to anticipate probable patterns of pathogen spread. Information is scarce; in particular on how strongly small, non-commercial poultry farms are involved in between-farm contacts. We aimed to identify between-farm contacts of interest for HPAI spread at both commercial and non-commercial farms in a non-outbreak situation: whether or not commercial and non-commercial farms were involved in poultry and person movements and shared resources by company integration. Focus was on poultry movements for the purpose of purchase, sale and poultry show visits, their spatial dimension, their frequencies and the farm types they connected. Of the total 49,437 recorded poultry farms in Switzerland, 95% had less than 500 birds. The farm number resulted in densities of up to 8 poultry farms per km2 and a median number of 47 neighbour farms within a 3 km radius around the farms. Person movements and shared resources were identified in 78% of the surveyed farms (93% among commercials, 67% among non-commercials). Poultry trading movements over extensive spatial ranges were stated at 65% (79% among commercials, 55% among non-commercials). Movement frequencies depended on farm specialization and were higher for commercial than for non-commercial farms except for poultry show visits. Estimates however for the entire population revealed 3.5 times higher chances of a poultry purchase, and 14.6 times higher chances of exhibiting birds at poultry shows occurring in a given time by a farm smaller than 500 birds (non-commercial farm) than by a larger (commercial) farm. These findings indicate that both commercial and non-commercial farms are involved in neighbourhood and remote between-farm contacts relevant to HPAI spread. It is necessary to include all poultry farms, irrespective of their size and purpose in both livestock registration and disease surveillance systems, as well as in transmission models for poultry and zoonotic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Bayesian receiver operating characteristic estimation of multiple tests for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine tuberculosis (BTB) today primarily affects developing countries. In Africa, the disease is present essentially on the whole continent; however, little accurate information on its distribution and prevalence is available. Also, attempts to evaluate diagnostic tests for BTB in naturally infected cattle are scarce and mostly complicated by the absence of knowledge of the true disease status of the tested animals. However, diagnostic test evaluation in a given setting is a prerequisite for the implementation of local surveillance schemes and control measures.
Related JoVE Video
Improving environmental sanitation, health, and well-being: a conceptual framework for integral interventions.
Ecohealth
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We introduce a conceptual framework for improving health and environmental sanitation in urban and peri-urban areas using an approach combining health, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural assessments. The framework takes into account the three main components: i) health status, ii) physical environment, and iii) socioeconomic and cultural environment. Information on each of these three components can be obtained by using standard disciplinary methods and an innovative combination of these methods. In this way, analyses lead to extended characterization of health, ecological, and social risks while allowing the comprehensive identification of critical control points (CCPs) in relation to biomedical, epidemiological, ecological, and socioeconomic and cultural factors. The proposed concept complements the conventional CCP approach by including an actor perspective that considers vulnerability to risk and patterns of resilience. Interventions deriving from the comprehensive analysis consider biomedical, engineering, and social science perspectives, or a combination of them. By this way, the proposed framework jointly addresses health and environmental sanitation improvements, and recovery and reuse of natural resources. Moreover, interventions encompass not only technical solutions but also behavioral, social, and institutional changes which are derived from the identified resilience patterns. The interventions are assessed with regards to their potential to eliminate or reduce specific risk factors and vulnerability, enhance health status, and assure equity. The framework is conceptualized and validated for the context of urban and peri-urban settings in developing countries focusing on waste, such as excreta, wastewater, and solid waste, their influence on food quality, and their related pathogens, nutrients, and chemical pollutants.
Related JoVE Video
Comparative assessment of fluorescence polarization and tuberculin skin testing for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in Chadian cattle.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effective surveillance of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) in developing countries where reliable data on disease prevalence is scarce or absent is a precondition for considering potential control options. We conducted a slaughterhouse survey to assess for the first time the burden of BTB in Southern Chad. Altogether, 954 slaughter animals were consecutively sampled and tested using the single intra-dermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, a recently developed fluorescence polarization assay (FPA) and routine abattoir meat inspection after slaughter. Gross visible lesions were detected in 11.3% (CI: 9.4-13.5%) of the animals examined and they were mostly located in the lymph nodes and the lung. Significantly more Mbororo zebus (15.0%) were affected by lesions than Arab zebus (9.9%; OR=2.20, CI: 1.41-3.41%; p<0.001). Of all animals tested, 7.7% (CI: 6.2-9.6%) reacted positively to SICCT if OIE guidelines were applied. However, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis using Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) infected animals as the positive population and lesion negative animals as the negative population, revealed a better SICCT performance if the cut-off value was decreased to >2mm. SICCT reactor prevalence rose to 15.5% (CI: 13.3-18.0%) and FPA did not perform better than SICCT, when this setting adapted cut-off was applied.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular characterization of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from cattle slaughtered at two abattoirs in Algeria.
BMC Vet. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bovine Tuberculosis is prevalent in Algeria despite governmental attempts to control the disease. The objective of this study was to conduct, for the first time, molecular characterization of a population sample of Mycobacterium bovis strains isolated from slaughter cattle in Algeria. Between August and November 2007, 7250 animals were consecutively screened at the abattoirs of Algiers and Blida. In 260 animals, gross visible granulomatous lesions were detected and put into culture. Bacterial isolates were subsequently analysed by molecular methods.
Related JoVE Video
Risk factors of bovine tuberculosis in cattle in rural livestock production systems of Ethiopia.
Prev. Vet. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study shows a representative stratified cluster sample survey of the prevalence of comparative intradermal tuberculin test in cattle from four regions in Ethiopia. Using a cut-off for positivity of 2 mm, it assesses possible risk factors for tuberculin-positive reaction in cattle. Seventy-three villages in 24 kebeles (administrative units) were randomly selected, from which 2216 cattle from 780 owners were tested. In addition, 450 of these cattle owners were interviewed for risk factor assessment. Ninety-nine percent of the tested cattle in this rural livestock production system were traditional zebus. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bovine tuberculosis (BTB)e was 3%, with the highest found in Meskan Mareko, in Central Ethiopia (7.9%) and the lowest in Woldia, in the North East edge of the Rift Valley (1.2%). Generalised Linear Mixed Models (GLMM) with random effect on kebeles was used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors and human tuberculosis (TB) infection. Purchase of cattle and presence of other livestock in the herd were statistically significant, with OR: 1.7, p-values of 0.03 and OR: 2, p = 0.05, respectively. Family members diagnosed with TB or showing clinical signs of extra-pulmonary TB (EPTB) were reported in 86 households (19%). None of the assessed potential risk factors of disease transmission between cattle and human (food consumption, livestock husbandry and presence of BTB-positive cattle) were statistically significant.
Related JoVE Video
[Epidemiologic and clinical aspects of toxic waste poisoning in Abidjan].
Sante
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the nights of 19 to 21 August, 2006, highly toxic waste products were dumped at various sites in Abidjan, and numerous cases of poisoning were reported to the health authorities, who were unprepared for such a problem. The research group on Environment and Health in Urban Environment from the Swiss Center of Scientific Research and its partners at the Swiss Tropical Institute undertook this study whose objectives were to: describe the epidemiologic profile of the people poisoned; identify the main clinical symptoms and the risk factors for poisoning; and recommend steps to attenuate the effects and to prevent intermediate- and long-term consequences.
Related JoVE Video
African 1, an epidemiologically important clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis dominant in Mali, Nigeria, Cameroon, and Chad.
J. Bacteriol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We have identified a clonal complex of Mycobacterium bovis present at high frequency in cattle in population samples from several sub-Saharan west-central African countries. This closely related group of bacteria is defined by a specific chromosomal deletion (RDAf1) and can be identified by the absence of spacer 30 in the standard spoligotype typing scheme. We have named this group of strains the African 1 (Af1) clonal complex and have defined the spoligotype signature of this clonal complex as being the same as the M. bovis BCG vaccine strain but with the deletion of spacer 30. Strains of the Af1 clonal complex were found at high frequency in population samples of M. bovis from cattle in Mali, Cameroon, Nigeria, and Chad, and using a combination of variable-number tandem repeat typing and spoligotyping, we show that the population of M. bovis in each of these countries is distinct, suggesting that the recent mixing of strains between countries is not common in this area of Africa. Strains with the Af1-specific deletion (RDAf1) were not identified in M. bovis isolates from Algeria, Burundi, Ethiopia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Tanzania, and Uganda. Furthermore, the spoligotype signature of the Af1 clonal complex has not been identified in population samples of bovine tuberculosis from Europe, Iran, and South America. These observations suggest that the Af1 clonal complex is geographically localized, albeit to several African countries, and we suggest that the dominance of the clonal complex in this region is the result of an original introduction into cows naïve to bovine tuberculosis.
Related JoVE Video
Towards a One Health research and application tool box.
Vet. Ital.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The One Medicine concept by Calvin Schwabe has seen an unprecedented revival in the last decade and has evolved towards One Health conceptual thinking, emphasising epidemiology and public health. Pathologists rightly recall the contribution of their discipline by close genomic relationship of animals and humans e.g. in cancer genetics. We need to change our us versus them perspective towards a perspective of shared risk between humans and animals. Professional organisations have declared their adhesion, governments have created joint public and animal health working groups and numerous research and surveillance programmes have been incepted as demonstrated on the One Health Initiative website. Above all these beneficial developments, we should not forget however, that there remains a huge divide between human and veterinary medicine borne from unprecedented (over) specialisation of disciplines and increasingly reductionist approaches to scientific inquiry. What is required now is a radical paradigm shift in our approach to global public health with practical approaches and hands-on examples to facilitate its application and accelerating necessary leverage of One Health. We propose elements of an open tool box translating the One Health concept into practical methods in the fields of integrated disease surveillance, joint animal-human epidemiological studies and health services development, which we hope might serve as a discussion basis for mutually agreed practical cooperation between human and animal health with special emphasis on developing countries.
Related JoVE Video
From two medicines to One Health and beyond.
Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We first review historic and conceptual background to integrative thinking in medicine. Lacking a general theory of One Health, we provide an operational definition of One Health and its leverage as: any added value in terms of human and animal health, financial savings or environmental benefit from closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors at all levels of organisation. Examples of such added value of One Health are given from the fields of health systems, nutrition and zoonoses control in Africa and Asia. One Health must become main-stream rather than a new discipline or new association; it should just become normal that practitioners and professionals in the health, animal and environment sectors work together as closely as possible. Current and future challenges in financing clean energy, migration flows, food security and global trade further warrant rethinking of human and animal health services. A conceptual outlook relates health as an outcome of human-environment systems called health in social-ecological systems. The paper ends with an outlook on the operationalisation of One Health and its future potential, specifically also in industrialised countries.
Related JoVE Video
Intersectoral collaboration between the medical and veterinary professions in low-resource societies: The role of research and training institutions.
Comp. Immunol. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Neglected zoonoses continue to significantly affect human health in low-resource countries. A symposium was organised in Antwerp, Belgium, on 5 November 2010 to evaluate how intersectoral collaboration among educational and research institutions could improve the situation.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical manifestations of human brucellosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objectives of this systematic review, commissioned by WHO, were to assess the frequency and severity of clinical manifestations of human brucellosis, in view of specifying a disability weight for a DALY calculation.
Related JoVE Video
Domestic dog demographic structure and dynamics relevant to rabies control planning in urban areas in Africa: the case of Iringa, Tanzania.
BMC Vet. Res.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mass vaccinations of domestic dogs have been shown to effectively control canine rabies and hence human exposure to rabies. Knowledge of dog population demography is essential for planning effective rabies vaccination programmes; however, such information is still rare for African domestic dog populations, particularly so in urban areas. This study describes the demographic structure and population dynamics of a domestic dog population in an urban sub-Saharan African setting. In July to November 2005, we conducted a full household-level census and a cross-sectional dog demography survey in four urban wards of Iringa Municipality, Tanzania. The achievable vaccination coverage was assessed by a two-stage vaccination campaign, and the proportion of feral dogs was estimated by a mark-recapture transect study.
Related JoVE Video
Global burden of human brucellosis: a systematic review of disease frequency.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This report presents a systematic review of scientific literature published between 1990-2010 relating to the frequency of human brucellosis, commissioned by WHO. The objectives were to identify high quality disease incidence data to complement existing knowledge of the global disease burden and, ultimately, to contribute towards the calculation of a Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY) estimate for brucellosis.
Related JoVE Video
Exploring prospects of novel drugs for tuberculosis.
Drug Des Devel Ther
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tuberculosis remains a disease with an enormous impact on public health worldwide. With the continuously increasing epidemic of drug-resistant tuberculosis, new drugs are desperately needed. However, even for the treatment of drug-sensitive tuberculosis, new drugs are required to shorten the treatment duration and thereby prevent development of drug resistance. Within the past ten years, major advances in tuberculosis drug research have been made, leading to a considerable number of antimycobacterial compounds which are now in the pipeline. Here we discuss a number of these novel promising tuberculosis drugs, as well as the discovery of two new potential drug targets for the development of novel effective drugs to curb the tuberculosis pandemic, ie, the coronin 1 and protein kinase G pathways. Protein kinase G is secreted by mycobacteria and is responsible for blocking lysosomal delivery within the macrophage. Coronin 1 is responsible for activating the phosphatase, calcineurin, and thereby preventing phagosome-lysosome fusion within the macrophage. Blocking these two pathways may lead to rapid killing of mycobacteria.
Related JoVE Video
Zoonotic transmission of tuberculosis between pastoralists and their livestock in South-East Ethiopia.
Ecohealth
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite huge global efforts in tuberculosis (TB) control, pastoral areas remain under-investigated. During two years sputum and fine needle aspirate (FNA) specimens were collected from 260 Ethiopian pastoralists of Oromia and Somali Regional States with suspected pulmonary TB and from 32 cases with suspected TB lymphadenitis. In parallel, 207 suspected tuberculous lesions were collected from cattle, camels and goats at abattoirs. All specimens were processed and cultured for mycobacteria; samples with acid-fast stained bacilli (AFB) were further characterized by molecular methods including genus and deletion typing as well as spoligotyping. Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) were sequenced at the 16S rDNA locus. Culturing of AFB from human sputum and FNA samples gave a yield of 174 (67%) and 9 (28%) isolates, respectively. Molecular typing was performed on 173 of these isolates and 160 were confirmed as Mycobacterium tuberculosis, three as M. bovis, and the remaining 10 were typed as NTMs. Similarly, 48 AFB isolates (23%) yielded from tuberculous lesions of livestock, of which 39 were molecular typed, including 24 M. bovis and 4 NTMs from cattle, 1 M. tuberculosis and 1 NTM from camels and 9 NTMs from goats. Isolation of M. bovis from humans and M. tuberculosis from livestock suggests transmission between livestock and humans in the pastoral areas of South-East Ethiopia.
Related JoVE Video
A one health framework for estimating the economic costs of zoonotic diseases on society.
Ecohealth
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This article presents an integrated epidemiological and economic framework for assessing zoonoses using a "one health" concept. The framework allows for an understanding of the cross-sector economic impact of zoonoses using modified risk analysis and detailing a range of analytical tools. The goal of the framework is to link the analysis outputs of animal and human disease transmission models, economic impact models and evaluation of risk management options to gain improved understanding of factors affecting the adoption of risk management strategies so that investment planning includes the most promising interventions (or sets of interventions) in an integrated fashion. A more complete understanding of the costs of the disease and the costs and benefits of control measures would promote broader implementation of the most efficient and effective control measures, contributing to improved animal and human health, better livelihood outcomes for the poor and macroeconomic growth.
Related JoVE Video
Exposure to toxic waste containing high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide illegally dumped in Abidjan, Côte dIvoire.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
On August 2006, a cargo ship illegally dumped 500 t of toxic waste containing high concentrations of hydrogen sulphide in numerous sites across Abidjan. Thousands of people became ill. Seventeen deaths were associated with toxic waste exposure.
Related JoVE Video
Quantification of diarrhea risk related to wastewater contact in Thailand.
Ecohealth
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Wastewater reuse contributes to closing the nutrient recycling loop as a sustainable way of managing water resources. Bangkok has over a thousand man-made drainage and irrigation canals for such purposes. Its use for agricultural and recreational purposes has a long tradition in rural and peri-urban areas. However, the continuation of these practices is increasingly questioned since potential health risks are an issue if such practices are not appropriately managed. The microbial and chemical quality of canal water has considerably deteriorated over the last decade, mainly because of discharged, untreated domestic and industrial wastewater. It is important to understand the health risks of wastewater reuse and identify risky behaviors from the most highly exposed actors promote the safe use of wastewater. This study assessed diarrhea infection risks caused by the use of and contact with wastewater in Klong Luang municipality, a peri-urban setting in Northern Bangkok, using quantitative microbial risk assessment. Wastewater samples were collected from canals, sewers at household level, and vegetables grown in the canals for consumption. Samples were also collected from irrigation water from the agricultural fields. Two protozoa, Giardia lamblia and Entamoeba histolytica, were quantified and analyzed by real-time PCR, exposure assessment was conducted, and finally, the risk of infection due to contact with wastewater in different scenarios was calculated. The results showed that canal water and vegetables were heavily contaminated with G. lamblia and E. histolytica. Infection risk was high in tested scenarios and largely exceeded the acceptable risk given by WHO guidelines.
Related JoVE Video
Low prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in Somali pastoral livestock, southeast Ethiopia.
Trop Anim Health Prod
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A cross-sectional study of bovine tuberculosis (BTB) detected by the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CIDT) was conducted in livestock of the Somali region in southeast Ethiopia--in four pastoral associations from January to August 2009. In 94 herds, each of 15 cattle, camels, and goats was tested per herd leading to a total of 1,418 CIDT tested animals, with 421 cattle, 479 camels, and 518 goats. A herd was considered positive if it had at least one reactor. Prevalence per animal species was calculated using a xtgee model for each species. The individual animal prevalence was 2.0% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.5-8.4], 0.4% (95% CI, 0.1-3%), and 0.2% (95% CI, 0.03-1.3) in cattle, camels, and goats, respectively. Prevalence of avian mycobacterium purified protein derivative (PPD) reactors in cattle, camels, and goats was 0.7% (95% CI, 0.2-2.0%), 10.0% (95% CI, 7.0-14.0%), and 1.9 (95% CI, 0.9-4.0%), respectively, whereby camels had an odds ratio of 16.5 (95% CI, 5.0-55.0) when compared to cattle. There was no significant difference between livestock species in BTB positivity. In the present study, the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis was low in Somali pastoral livestock in general and in camels and goats in particular. The high proportion of camel reactors to avian PPD needs further investigation of its impact on camel production.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.