JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Influence of external, intrinsic and individual behaviour variables on serum 25(OH)D in a German survey.
J. Photochem. Photobiol. B, Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of the present study was to identify external, intrinsic or behavioural factors that significantly influenced serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations in a German survey. Data from 3061 participants in the Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg, Germany (KORA) F4 survey were used to relate potential determinants to measured mean serum 25(OH)D concentrations using multivariable regression models. The factors significantly associated with hypovitaminosis D (defined as 25(OH)D<25nmolL(-1)) were season (winter, spring and autumn), urban environment and high body mass index. In contrast, times spent in sunny regions, hours per day spent outdoors in the summer as well as additional oral intake were associated with higher 25(OH)D concentrations. These results suggest that mainly ambient UV exposure but also individual behaviour are the most important determinants for personal 25(OH)D concentrations. The analyses further showed that in winter 43% of subjects were vitamin D deficient and 42% insufficient. Even in summer over half the population has insufficient vitamin D status with 8% deficient and 47% insufficient. Therefore measures to mitigate widespread vitamin D insufficiency such as regular short-term sun exposure and/or improved dietary intake/supplementation recommendations by public health bodies need to be considered.
Related JoVE Video
Associations between thyroid hormones and serum metabolite profiles in an euthyroid population.
Metabolomics
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim was to characterise associations between circulating thyroid hormones-free thyroxine (FT4) and thyrotropin (TSH)-and the metabolite profiles in serum samples from participants of the German population-based KORA F4 study. Analyses were based on the metabolite profile of 1463 euthyroid subjects. In serum samples, obtained after overnight fasting (?8), 151 different metabolites were quantified in a targeted approach including amino acids, acylcarnitines (ACs), and phosphatidylcholines (PCs). Associations between metabolites and thyroid hormone concentrations were analysed using adjusted linear regression models. To draw conclusions on thyroid hormone related pathways, intra-class metabolite ratios were additionally explored. We discovered 154 significant associations (Bonferroni p < 1.75 × 10(-04)) between FT4 and various metabolites and metabolite ratios belonging to AC and PC groups. Significant associations with TSH were lacking. High FT4 levels were associated with increased concentrations of many ACs and various sums of ACs of different chain length, and the ratio of C2 by C0. The inverse associations observed between FT4 and many serum PCs reflected the general decrease in PC concentrations. Similar results were found in subgroup analyses, e.g., in weight-stable subjects or in obese subjects. Further, results were independent of different parameters for liver or kidney function, or inflammation, which supports the notion of an independent FT4 effect. In fasting euthyroid adults, higher serum FT4 levels are associated with increased serum AC concentrations and an increased ratio of C2 by C0 which is indicative of an overall enhanced fatty acyl mitochondrial transport and ?-oxidation of fatty acids.
Related JoVE Video
Public perceptions of cohort studies and biobanks in Germany.
Biopreserv Biobank
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cohort studies and biobank projects have led to public discussions in several European countries in the past. In Germany, many medium-sized studies are currently running successfully in terms of respondent rates. However, EU-wide research on general public perceptions of biobanks and cohort studies have shown that Germany is among those countries where people express the highest reluctance for providing body material and other data for research purposes. Because of early efforts of the just-initiated German National Cohort Study, we are able to begin to investigate in greater detail how various groups of people across Germany reflect and discuss the ongoing implementation of cohort studies and biobanking in Germany. Our research is based on 15 focus group discussions in four German regions, as well as on Eurobarometer poll data on biobanking.
Related JoVE Video
Meat and fish consumption and the risk of renal cell carcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal cell cancer (RCC) incidence varies worldwide with a higher incidence in developed countries and lifestyle is likely to contribute to the development of this disease. We examined whether meat and fish consumption were related to the risk of RCC in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). The analysis included 493,179 EPIC participants, recruited between 1992 and 2000. Until December 2008, 691 RCC cases have been identified. Meat and fish consumption was assessed at baseline using country-specific dietary assessment instruments; 24-hour recalls were applied in an 8% subsample for calibration purposes. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Women with a high consumption of red meat (HR?=?1.36, 95% CI 1.14-1.62; calibrated, per 50 g/day) and processed meat (HR?=?1.78, 95% CI 1.05-3.03; calibrated, per 50 g/day) had a higher risk of RCC, while no association existed in men. For processed meat, the association with RCC incidence was prominent in premenopausal women and was lacking in postmenopausal women (p interaction?=?0.02). Neither poultry nor fish consumption were statistically significantly associated with the risk of RCC. The results show a distinct association of red and processed meat consumption with incident RCC in women but not in men. A biological explanation for these findings remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary lignans and inflammatory markers in the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2004 and 2005-2008.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic inflammation has been implicated in the etiology of various chronic diseases. We previously found that certain urinary isoflavones are associated with markers of inflammation. In the present study, we examined the associations of serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) count with lignans, which are more frequent in the Western diet than isoflavones.
Related JoVE Video
Enterolactone concentrations and prognosis after postmenopausal breast cancer: assessment of effect modification and meta-analysis.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously reported that high concentrations of enterolactone, a lignan metabolite, are associated with lower mortality in 1,140 breast cancer patients from Germany. Using an extended set of 2,182 patients aged 50-74 years at diagnosis (2001-2005) and prospectively followed up until 2009, we investigated whether the association with mortality differs by lifestyle factors and tumor characteristics. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using multivariable Cox regression. Potential differential effects by tumor characteristics and lifestyle factors were assessed and a meta-analysis of five studies addressing lignan exposure and breast cancer prognosis was performed to summarize evidence. Median enterolactone concentrations were 17.4 (± 30.5 standard deviation) and 22.9 nmol L(-1) (± 44.8), respectively, for 269 deceased and 1,913 patients still alive. High enterolactone concentrations were significantly associated with lower all-cause mortality (per 10 nmol L(-1) : HR 0.94, 95% CI 0.90-0.98), breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.94, 0.89-0.99), and distant disease-free survival (HR 0.94, 0.90-0.98). Associations were found for stage 0-IIIA but not for stage IIIB-IV disease (p(het) = 0.01) and were stronger in patients with BMI <25 kg m(-2) than those with BMI ? 25 (p(het) = 0.04). In patients with healthy lifestyle (BMI <25, nonsmoker, physically active), the inverse association with all-cause mortality was still apparent (HR 0.92, 0.85-0.99). The meta-analysis yielded significant associations both for all-cause (HR 0.57, 0.42-0.78) and breast cancer-specific mortality (HR 0.54, 0.39-0.75). Our findings show that high lignan exposure is associated with reduced mortality in breast cancer patients. The inverse association observed in this study cannot be entirely explained by a healthy lifestyle.
Related JoVE Video
Response in individuals with and without foreign background and application to the National Cohort in Germany: which factors have an effect?
Int J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Response rates in epidemiologic studies vary widely. This study examines response rates of potential study participants according to foreign versus German background and investigates effects of recruitment strategies.
Related JoVE Video
The association between urinary phytoestrogen excretion and components of the metabolic syndrome in NHANES.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, which are still the major cause of death in developed countries.
Related JoVE Video
Association of urinary phytoestrogen concentrations with serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Some clinical trials have shown that high phytoestrogen intake may decrease serum concentrations of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and phytoestrogens may also lower prostate cancer risk. It was the aim of this study to examine the relationship between the serum PSA level and urine phytoestrogen concentration in generally healthy U.S. men. Eight hundred twenty-four men, 40+ yr old without prostate cancer, who participated in the 2001-2004 NHANES surveys, were included in the analysis. The association of total PSA, free PSA, and PSA ratio [free PSA/total PSA * 100] with concentrations of isoflavones and lignans (standardized for urinary creatinine concentration) was examined using multivariable-adjusted linear and logistic regression models. The linear regression analyses showed no clear association between creatinine-standardized urinary phytoestrogen concentrations and serum total or free PSA levels or PSA ratio. However, the odds of having a PSA ratio <15% rose from Quartile 1 to Quartile 4 of isoflavone excretion (odds ratio = 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.28-6.22 for top vs. bottom quartile), but there were no associations with having a PSA ratio <25%. In generally healthy U.S. men, 40+ yr old without a diagnosis of prostate cancer, urinary isoflavone, and lignan concentrations were not associated with serum PSA level.
Related JoVE Video
Urinary Phytoestrogen Levels and Frailty in Older American Women of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002: A Cross-Sectional Study.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Background/Aims: A deficit of various hormones during the process of aging and/or a heightened inflammatory state may be causally linked to the development of frailty. Phytoestrogens as weak estrogens, antioxidants, and anti-inflammatory agents may counteract this process. Methods: In a cross-sectional study including two cycles of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES, i.e. 1999-2002), logistic regression was used to analyze the association between urinary concentrations of isoflavones and lignans and frailty in 600 females aged 50 years or older (median age 66.5 years). Participants were classified as frail (meeting 3 or more of the 5 frailty criteria), prefrail (meeting 1 or 2 of the criteria), or robust (meeting none of the criteria). Four percent were frail. Results: For all of the phytoestrogens considered, the unadjusted OR were lower than 1 but generally not statistically significant aside from the association with O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) (OR = 0.76; 95% CI 0.61-0.92). Multivariate analysis did not attenuate this finding (OR = 0.74; 95% CI 0.61-0.90). Conclusions: This first analysis of the relationship between phytoestrogens and frailty revealed an inverse association between urinary O-DMA levels and frailty in women. However, the number of frail women was low. Although this finding may be confounded or biased, it seems worthwhile to intensify research on the potential preventive effects of O-DMA. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma protein analysis of patients with different B-cell lymphomas using high-content antibody microarrays.
Proteomics Clin Appl
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In this study, plasma samples from a multicentric case-control study on lymphoma were analyzed for the identification of proteins useful for diagnosis.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D and the risk of breast cancer in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition: a nested case-control study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Experimental evidence suggests that vitamin D might play a role in the development of breast cancer. Although the results of case-control studies indicate that circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] is inversely associated with the risk of breast cancer, the results of prospective studies are inconsistent. A case-control study embedded in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) was carried out comprising 1,391 incident breast cancer cases and 1,391 controls. Multivariable conditional logistic regression models did not reveal a significant overall association between season-standardized 25(OH)D levels and the risk of breast cancer (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 1.07 [0.85-1.36], ptrend = 0.67). Moreover, 25(OH)D levels were not related to the risks of estrogen receptor positive tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.67-1.38], ptrend = 0.90) and estrogen receptor negative tumors (ORQ4-Q1 [95% CI]: 0.97 [0.66-1.42], ptrend = 0.98). In hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users, 25(OH)D was significantly inversely associated with incident breast cancer (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.42-0.90], p = 0.01), whereas no significant association was found in HRT nonusers (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.14 [0.80-1.62], p = 0.48). Further, a nonsignificant inverse association was found in women with body mass indices (BMI) < 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 0.83 [0.67-1.03], p = 0.09), as opposed to a borderline significant positive association in women with BMI ? 25 kg/m(2) (ORlog2 [95% CI]: 1.30 [1.0-1.69], p = 0.05). Overall, prediagnostic levels of circulating 25(OH)D were not related to the risk of breast cancer in the EPIC study. This result is in line with findings in the majority of prospective studies and does not support a role of vitamin D in the development of breast cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Calcium intake and serum concentration in relation to risk of cardiovascular death in NHANES III.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence for an association between calcium intake and risk of cardiovascular death remains controversial. By assessing dietary intake, use of supplements, and serum levels of calcium, we aimed to disentangle this link in the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III).
Related JoVE Video
Ecological-level associations between highly processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations: results from a cross-sectional study within the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition (EPIC).
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Elaidic acid is the main unnatural trans fatty acid isomer occurring during partial hydrogenation of vegetable oils used as ingredients for the formulation of processed foods. The main objective is to assess associations between processed food intakes and plasma phospholipid elaidic acid concentrations within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. A cross-sectional study was used to determine fatty acid profiles in 3,003 subjects from 16 centers. Single 24-h dietary recalls (24-HDR) were collected using a standardized computerized interview program. Food intakes were computed according to their degree of processing (moderately/nonprocessed foods, processed staple foods, highly processed foods). Adjusted ecological and individual correlations were calculated between processed food intakes and plasma elaidic acid levels. At the population level, mean intakes of highly processed foods were strongly correlated with mean levels of plasma elaidic acid in men (P = 0.0016) and in women (P = 0.0012). At the individual level, these associations remained but at a much lower level in men (r = 0.08, P = 0.006) and in women (r = 0.09, P = 0.0001). The use of an averaged 24-HDR measure of highly processed food intakes is adequate for predicting mean levels of plasma elaidic acid among European populations.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study identifies a novel susceptibility locus for renal cell carcinoma on 12p11.23.
Xifeng Wu, Ghislaine Scelo, Mark P Purdue, Nathaniel Rothman, Mattias Johansson, Yuanqing Ye, Zhaoming Wang, Diana Zelenika, Lee E Moore, Christopher G Wood, Egor Prokhortchouk, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, Jorge R Toro, David Zaridze, Jie Lin, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonilia Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Dana Mates, Viorel Jinga, Vladimír Bencko, Alena Slamova, Ivana Holcatova, Marie Navratilova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Tony Fletcher, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Géraldine Cancel-Tassin, Simone Benhamou, Michelle A Hildebrandt, Xia Pu, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Amy Hutchinson, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Mark Lathrop, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Jian Gu, Paul Brennan, Stephen J Chanock.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the most lethal urologic cancer. Only two common susceptibility loci for RCC have been confirmed to date. To identify additional RCC common susceptibility loci, we conducted an independent genome-wide association study (GWAS). We analyzed 533 191 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with RCC in 894 cases and 1516 controls of European descent recruited from MD Anderson Cancer Center in the primary scan, and validated the top 500 SNPs in silico in 3772 cases and 8505 controls of European descent involved in the only published GWAS of RCC. We identified two common variants in linkage disequilibrium, rs718314 and rs1049380 (r(2) = 0.64, D? = 0.84), in the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor, type 2 (ITPR2) gene on 12p11.23 as novel susceptibility loci for RCC (P = 8.89 × 10(-10) and P = 6.07 × 10(-9), respectively, in meta-analysis) with an allelic odds ratio of 1.19 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.13-1.26] for rs718314 and 1.18 (95% CI: 1.12-1.25) for rs1049380. It has been recently identified that rs718314 in ITPR2 is associated with waist-hip ratio (WHR) phenotype. To our knowledge, this is the first genetic locus associated with both cancer risk and WHR.
Related JoVE Video
Serum enterolactone and prognosis of postmenopausal breast cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lignans--plant-derived compounds with estrogen-dependent and -independent anticarcinogenic properties--have been associated with postmenopausal breast cancer risk, but data are limited regarding their effect on survival. Dietary lignans are metabolized to enterolignans, which are subsequently absorbed and become bioavailable.
Related JoVE Video
Identifying dietary patterns using a normal mixture model: application to the EPIC study.
J Epidemiol Community Health
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Finite mixture models posit the existence of a latent categorical variable and can be used for probabilistic classification. The authors illustrate the use of mixture models for dietary pattern analysis. An advantage of this approach is taking classification uncertainty into account.
Related JoVE Video
Effect of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D on risk for type 2 diabetes may be partially mediated by subclinical inflammation: results from the MONICA/KORA Augsburg study.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) and incident type 2 diabetes and to determine whether the association is mediated by subclinical inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Anthropometry, physical activity and hip fractures in the elderly.
Injury
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hip fractures constitute a major and growing public health problem amongst the elderly worldwide. We examined the association of anthropometry and physical activity with hip fracture incidence in a cohort of elderly Europeans, participants in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) study.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of the obesity genes FTO and MC4R and the type 2 diabetes mellitus gene TCF7L2 for contribution to stroke risk: The Mannheim-Heidelberg Stroke Study.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Studies evaluating genetic markers for vascular risk and risk of stroke are limited, and none of them evaluated obesity genes. The objective was to investigate the genetic markers related to obesity genes FTO and MC4R and the gene of type 2 diabetes mellitus TCF7L2 for their contribution to risk of stroke and transient ischemic attacks (TIA).
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin/mineral supplementation and cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prospectively evaluate the association of vitamin/mineral supplementation with cancer, cardiovascular, and all-cause mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Consumption of meat and fish and risk of lung cancer: results from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence from case-control studies, but less so from cohort studies, suggests a positive association between meat intake and risk of lung cancer. Therefore, this association was evaluated in the frame of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition, EPIC. Data from 478,021 participants, recruited from 10 European countries, who completed a dietary questionnaire in 1992-2000 were evaluated; 1,822 incident primary lung cancer cases were included in the present evaluation. Relative risk estimates were calculated for categories of meat intake using multi-variably adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. In addition, the continuous intake variables were calibrated by means of 24-h diet recall data to account for part of the measurement error. There were no consistent associations between meat consumption and the risk of lung cancer. Neither red meat (RR = 1.06, 95% CI 0.89-1.27 per 50 g intake/day; calibrated model) nor processed meat (RR = 1.13, 95% CI 0.95-1.34 per 50 g/day; calibrated model) was significantly related to an increased risk of lung cancer. Also, consumption of white meat and fish was not associated with the risk of lung cancer. These findings do not support the hypothesis that a high intake of red and processed meat is a risk factor for lung cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary calcium and magnesium intake in relation to cancer incidence and mortality in a German prospective cohort (EPIC-Heidelberg).
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To prospectively evaluate the associations of dietary calcium and magnesium intake with cancer incidence and mortality, data of 24,323 participants of the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC-Heidelberg), who were aged 35-64 years and cancer-free at recruitment (1994-1998), were analyzed using multivariate Cox regression models. After an average follow-up time of 11 years, 2,050 incident cancers were diagnosed and 513 cancer deaths occurred. Dietary calcium intake was inversely but not statistically significantly associated with colorectal cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR] for per 100 mg increase in intake: 0.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.88, 1.02) and lung cancer risk (HR for per 100 mg increase in intake: 0.94; 95% CI: 0.87, 1.02). No statistically significant associations were observed between dietary calcium intake and site-specific or overall cancer incidence or mortality. Dietary magnesium intake was not statistically significantly associated with any of the investigated outcomes. This prospective cohort study provides no strong evidence to support that high dietary calcium and magnesium intake in the intake range observed in a German population may reduce cancer incidence or mortality.
Related JoVE Video
The impact of social status inconsistency on cardiovascular risk factors, myocardial infarction and stroke in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Social inequalities in cardiovascular diseases are well documented. Yet, the relation of social status inconsistency (having different ranks in two or more status indicators like education, occupational position or income) and medical conditions of heart or vessels is not clear. Status inconsistency (SI) is assumed to be stressful, and the association of psychosocial distress and health is well known. Therefore, we aimed to analyze the relationship between cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and status inconsistency. Another target was to assess the influence of behaviour related risk factors on this association.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study of upper aerodigestive tract cancers conducted within the INHANCE consortium.
James D McKay, Thérèse Truong, Valerie Gaborieau, Amélie Chabrier, Shu-Chun Chuang, Graham Byrnes, David Zaridze, Oxana Shangina, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Alexandru Bucur, Vladimír Bencko, Ivana Holcatova, Vladimir Janout, Lenka Foretova, Pagona Lagiou, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Simone Benhamou, Christine Bouchardy, Wolfgang Ahrens, Franco Merletti, Lorenzo Richiardi, Renato Talamini, Luigi Barzan, Kristina Kjaerheim, Gary J Macfarlane, Tatiana V Macfarlane, Lorenzo Simonato, Cristina Canova, Antonio Agudo, Xavier Castellsague, Ray Lowry, David I Conway, Patricia A McKinney, Claire M Healy, Mary E Toner, Ariana Znaor, María Paula Curado, Sergio Koifman, Ana Menezes, Victor Wünsch-Filho, Jose Eluf Neto, Leticia Fernández Garrote, Stefania Boccia, Gabriella Cadoni, Dario Arzani, Andrew F Olshan, Mark C Weissler, William K Funkhouser, Jingchun Luo, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Marcin Lener, Dorota Oszutowska, Stephen M Schwartz, Chu Chen, Sherianne Fish, David R Doody, Joshua E Muscat, Philip Lazarus, Carla J Gallagher, Shen-Chih Chang, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Qingyi Wei, Erich M Sturgis, Li-E Wang, Silvia Franceschi, Rolando Herrero, Karl T Kelsey, Michael D McClean, Carmen J Marsit, Heather H Nelson, Marjorie Romkes, Shama Buch, Tomoko Nukui, Shilong Zhong, Martin Lacko, Johannes J Manni, Wilbert H M Peters, Rayjean J Hung, John Mclaughlin, Lars Vatten, Inger Njølstad, Gary E Goodman, John K Field, Triantafillos Liloglou, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Carlos A González, J Ramon Quiros, Carmen Martínez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Nerea Larranaga, Kay-Tee Khaw, Timothy Key, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Antonia Trichopoulou, Jakob Linseisen, Heiner Boeing, Göran Hallmans, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Merethe Kumle, Elio Riboli, Kristjan Välk, Tõnu Vooder, Tõnu Voodern, Andres Metspalu, Diana Zelenika, Anne Boland, Marc Delepine, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Hélène Blanché, Ivo G Gut, Pilar Galán, Simon Heath, Mia Hashibe, Richard B Hayes, Paolo Boffetta, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been successful in identifying common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to etiologically complex disease. We conducted a GWAS to identify common genetic variation involved in susceptibility to upper aero-digestive tract (UADT) cancers. Genome-wide genotyping was carried out using the Illumina HumanHap300 beadchips in 2,091 UADT cancer cases and 3,513 controls from two large European multi-centre UADT cancer studies, as well as 4,821 generic controls. The 19 top-ranked variants were investigated further in an additional 6,514 UADT cancer cases and 7,892 controls of European descent from an additional 13 UADT cancer studies participating in the INHANCE consortium. Five common variants presented evidence for significant association in the combined analysis (p ? 5 × 10??). Two novel variants were identified, a 4q21 variant (rs1494961, p?=?1×10??) located near DNA repair related genes HEL308 and FAM175A (or Abraxas) and a 12q24 variant (rs4767364, p =2 × 10??) located in an extended linkage disequilibrium region that contains multiple genes including the aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene. Three remaining variants are located in the ADH gene cluster and were identified previously in a candidate gene study involving some of these samples. The association between these three variants and UADT cancers was independently replicated in 5,092 UADT cancer cases and 6,794 controls non-overlapping samples presented here (rs1573496-ADH7, p = 5 × 10??); rs1229984-ADH1B, p = 7 × 10??; and rs698-ADH1C, p = 0.02). These results implicate two variants at 4q21 and 12q24 and further highlight three ADH variants in UADT cancer susceptibility.
Related JoVE Video
Serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk by estrogen, progesterone and herceptin 2 receptor status.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Lignans are a group of estrogenic compounds present in plants. Several epidemiological studies proposed that lignans may protect against breast cancer by exerting anticarcinogenic activity. Levels of enterolactone were determined in serum samples of 1,250 cases and 2,164 controls from a large population-based case-control study. We assessed the association between serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk using conditional logistic regression accounting for potential risk and confounding factors. Fractional polynomials were used to determine the function that best fitted the data. Moreover, we assessed heterogeneity by estrogen/progesterone/herceptin (ER/PR/HER2) status of the tumor. Additionally, a meta-analysis with seven further studies addressing enterolactone concentrations and breast cancer risk was performed. Postmenopausal breast cancer risk decreased with increasing serum enterolactone levels [highest compared to lowest quintile: [odds ratio = 0.65; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.52-0.83, p(trend) = < 0.0001]. A significant inverse association for ER+/PR+ as well as ER-/PR- tumors was observed, with a significantly stronger association for ER-/PR- tumors (p(heterogeneity) = 0.03). The association for ER-/PR- tumors did not differ by expression of HER2 (p(heterogeneity) = 0.3). The meta-analysis yielded a significant reduced pooled risk estimate of: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55-0.77) comparing the highest to the lowest quantiles of enterolactone levels. We found strong evidence for a significant inverse association between serum enterolactone and postmenopausal breast cancer risk, which was stronger for ER-PR- than for ER+PR+ tumors but not differential by further expression of HER2. The overall evidence together with other studies supports an inverse association between higher serum enterolactone levels and postmenopausal breast cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Association of hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD) variants and colorectal cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A recent study examined associations of tagging single nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), showing rs8752, rs2612656 and a haplotype [comprising both of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)] in the hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD) gene to be positively associated with CRC risk. In the present study, we attempted to replicate these single marker and haplotype associations, using 1795 CRC cases and 1805 controls from the German Darmkrebs: Chancen der Verhütung durch Screening study (DACHS). In addition to rs8752 and rs2612656, HPGD tagSNPs rs9312555, rs17360144 and rs7349744 were genotyped for haplotype analyses. Except for a marginally significant inverse association of HPGD rs8752 with CRC risk [odds ratio (OR) = 0.85; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.74, 0.98; P = 0.03], none of the analyzed tagSNPs showed any association with CRC. Subset analyses for colon and rectal cancers yielded similar, yet non-significant risk estimates at all five loci. Also, none of the haplotypes was found to be associated with CRC, colon or rectal cancers. However, rs8752 was significantly associated with a decreased risk of CRC among individuals with a body mass index < 30 (OR = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.70, 0.95, P = 0.01) as well as among smokers (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.61, 0.90, P = 0.003). Yet, our data do not support the previously reported associations of HPGD tagSNPs and risk of CRC.
Related JoVE Video
Occupation and risk of lymphoma: a multicentre prospective cohort study (EPIC).
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence suggests that certain occupations and related exposures may increase the risk of malignant lymphoma. Farming, printing and paper industry, wood processing, meat handling and processing, welding, shoe and leather manufacturing and teaching profession are among the categories that have been implicated in previous studies. The relationship between occupation and malignant lymphoma has been investigated in a large European prospective study.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of selenium status and polymorphisms in selenoprotein genes on prostate cancer risk in a prospective study of European men.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Evidence for an association between selenium status and prostate cancer risk is still inconclusive. Anticarcinogenic effects of selenium are supposedly mediated through cellular protective and redox properties of selenoenzymes in vivo. We evaluated the association between serum selenium status and prostate cancer risk in a population with relative low selenium concentrations considering effect modification by genetic variants in selenoprotein genes.
Related JoVE Video
Plasma cytokines and future risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): a case-control study nested in the Italian European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 05-25-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recently, biological markers related to the immune system such as cytokines have been studied to further understand the etiology of non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL). However, to date, there are no studies that have studied cytokine levels prospectively in relation to NHL risk in the general population.
Related JoVE Video
Region-specific nutrient intake patterns exhibit a geographical gradient within and between European countries.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Until recently, the study of nutrient patterns was hampered at an international level by a lack of standardization of both dietary methods and nutrient databases. We aimed to describe the diversity of nutrient patterns in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study at population level as a starting point for future nutrient pattern analyses and their associations with chronic diseases in multi-center studies. In this cross-sectional study, 36,034 persons aged 35-74 y were administered a single, standardized 24-h dietary recall. Intake of 25 nutrients (excluding intake from dietary supplements) was estimated using a standardized nutrient database. We used a graphic presentation of mean nutrient intakes by region and sex relative to the overall EPIC means to contrast patterns within and between 10 European countries. In Mediterranean regions, including Greece, Italy, and the southern centers of Spain, the nutrient pattern was dominated by relatively high intakes of vitamin E and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), whereas intakes of retinol and vitamin D were relatively low. In contrast, in Nordic countries, including Norway, Sweden, and Denmark, reported intake of these same nutrients resulted in almost the opposite pattern. Population groups in Germany, The Netherlands, and the UK shared a fatty acid pattern of relatively high intakes of PUFA and SFA and relatively low intakes of MUFA, in combination with a relatively high intake of sugar. We confirmed large variability in nutrient intakes across the EPIC study populations and identified 3 main region-specific patterns with a geographical gradient within and between European countries.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-analyses of lignans and enterolignans in relation to breast cancer risk.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidemiologic studies that examined whether lignans, the most important class of phytoestrogens in the Western diet, protect against breast cancer have yielded inconsistent results.
Related JoVE Video
Leptin plasma levels in the general population: influence of age, gender, body weight and medical history.
Protein Pept. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The polypeptide leptin exerts a multitude of regulatory functions. It has been implicated in the pathophysiology of inflammatory, metabolic and psychiatric disorders and has been found to be differentially expressed in men and women. Although a clear increase of leptin levels with age has been repeatedly observed in men, the association of leptin levels and age in women is an issue of scientific discussion. To investigate the association of age, gender, body mass index (BMI) and selected diseases with plasma levels of leptin in 551 adults randomly chosen from the Bavarian population, we assessed subjects characteristics, lifestyle, and medical history including life time history of frequent diseases and performed blood sampling and standardized anthropometric measurements. Leptin plasma levels were measured using a Radioimmunoassay. Leptin levels were significantly higher in women as compared to men and this difference persisted even after controlling for differences in age or BMI. Leptin levels increased across the age groups in both men and women. Controlling for differences in BMI substantially attenuated the influence of age on leptin levels. In women, age was no longer significantly associated with leptin levels after controlling for BMI. With regard to medical history, hyperuricemia and gout were significantly associated with higher leptin levels, even after controlling for BMI, whereas subjects with high blood pressure or dyslipoproteinemia showed higher leptin levels only if the BMI was not considered as control variable. The BMI and its influence on the interrelations of gender, age and leptin should be considered when interpreting leptin levels.
Related JoVE Video
Consistency of vitamin and/or mineral supplement use and demographic, lifestyle and health-status predictors: findings from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cross-sectional studies suggest that dietary supplement use is associated with favourable demographic and lifestyle factors and certain health conditions. However, factors that affect the consistency of supplement use have not been investigated in prospective cohort studies. The aim of the present study was to seek baseline demographic, lifestyle and health-status predictors of subsequent consistent vitamin and/or mineral supplement use. A total of 8968 men and 10,672 women of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Heidelberg cohort, who answered the supplement-use questions in the baseline survey and two follow-up surveys, were categorised into three groups: consistent, inconsistent and never users. At baseline, 28.5 % of men and 38.6 % of women reported vitamin and/or mineral supplement use. After a median follow-up of 8.5 years, 14.6 % of men and 22.9 % of women were consistent users. During follow-up, 36.0 % of male and 26.6 % of female initial users stopped supplement use, whereas 27.8 % of male and 39.4 % of female initial non-users started supplement use. Women were more likely to be consistent users than men. Older age (? 50 years), lower BMI (< 25 kg/m2) and self-reported hyperlipidaemia were common predictors of consistent use for both sexes. Additional predictors included higher educational level for men, and being more physically active and higher lifetime alcohol consumption for women. Consistent users had the highest intake of dairy products, fish, fruits and vegetables, and wine but the lowest intake of total meat. We concluded that supplement use is a fairly unstable behaviour in free-living individuals. Individuals with a favourable lifestyle and healthier diet are more likely to show consistent supplementation.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma identifies two susceptibility loci on 2p21 and 11q13.3.
Mark P Purdue, Mattias Johansson, Diana Zelenika, Jorge R Toro, Ghislaine Scelo, Lee E Moore, Egor Prokhortchouk, Xifeng Wu, Lambertus A Kiemeney, Valerie Gaborieau, Kevin B Jacobs, Wong-Ho Chow, David Zaridze, Vsevolod Matveev, Jan Lubiński, Joanna Trubicka, Neonila Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Jolanta Lissowska, Peter Rudnai, Eleonóra Fabiánová, Alexandru Bucur, Vladimír Bencko, Lenka Foretova, Vladimir Janout, Paolo Boffetta, Joanne S Colt, Faith G Davis, Kendra L Schwartz, Rosamonde E Banks, Peter J Selby, Patricia Harnden, Christine D Berg, Ann W Hsing, Robert L Grubb, Heiner Boeing, Paolo Vineis, Francoise Clavel-Chapelon, Domenico Palli, Rosario Tumino, Vittorio Krogh, Salvatore Panico, Eric J Duell, José Ramón Quirós, Maria-Jose Sanchez, Carmen Navarro, Eva Ardanaz, Miren Dorronsoro, Kay-Tee Khaw, Naomi E Allen, H Bas Bueno-de-Mesquita, Petra H M Peeters, Dimitrios Trichopoulos, Jakob Linseisen, Börje Ljungberg, Kim Overvad, Anne Tjønneland, Isabelle Romieu, Elio Riboli, Anush Mukeria, Oxana Shangina, Victoria L Stevens, Michael J Thun, W Ryan Diver, Susan M Gapstur, Paul D Pharoah, Douglas F Easton, Demetrius Albanes, Stephanie J Weinstein, Jarmo Virtamo, Lars Vatten, Kristian Hveem, Inger Njølstad, Grethe S Tell, Camilla Stoltenberg, Rajiv Kumar, Kvetoslava Koppova, Olivier Cussenot, Simone Benhamou, Egbert Oosterwijk, Sita H Vermeulen, Katja K H Aben, Saskia L van der Marel, Yuanqing Ye, Christopher G Wood, Xia Pu, Alexander M Mazur, Eugenia S Boulygina, Nikolai N Chekanov, Mario Foglio, Doris Lechner, Ivo Gut, Simon Heath, Hélène Blanché, Amy Hutchinson, Gilles Thomas, Zhaoming Wang, Meredith Yeager, Joseph F Fraumeni, Konstantin G Skryabin, James D McKay, Nathaniel Rothman, Stephen J Chanock, Mark Lathrop, Paul Brennan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We conducted a two-stage genome-wide association study of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in 3,772 affected individuals (cases) and 8,505 controls of European background from 11 studies and followed up 6 SNPs in 3 replication studies of 2,198 cases and 4,918 controls. Two loci on the regions of 2p21 and 11q13.3 were associated with RCC susceptibility below genome-wide significance. Two correlated variants (r² = 0.99 in controls), rs11894252 (P = 1.8 × 10??) and rs7579899 (P = 2.3 × 10??), map to EPAS1 on 2p21, which encodes hypoxia-inducible-factor-2 alpha, a transcription factor previously implicated in RCC. The second locus, rs7105934, at 11q13.3, contains no characterized genes (P = 7.8 × 10?¹?). In addition, we observed a promising association on 12q24.31 for rs4765623, which maps to SCARB1, the scavenger receptor class B, member 1 gene (P = 2.6 × 10??). Our study reports previously unidentified genomic regions associated with RCC risk that may lead to new etiological insights.
Related JoVE Video
Intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines and the risk of prostate cancer in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterocyclic amines (HCA) are positively associated with prostate cancer risk in animal models. Because of mostly inconsistent results of epidemiological studies, we examined the association between intake of HCA and prostate cancer risk.
Related JoVE Video
Related JoVE Video
Effect of dietary fatty acid intake on prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the association between fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary glucosinolate intake, polymorphisms in selected biotransformation enzymes, and risk of prostate cancer.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A protective role of glucosinolates in prostate cancer development might be mediated by the induction of biotransformation enzymes. These enzymes, enhancing the elimination of carcinogens from the body, are known to be polymorphic. Therefore, we evaluated whether a possible association between glucosinolate intake and prostate cancer risk is modified by polymorphisms in GSTT1, GSTM1, GSTA1, GSTP1, or NOQ1 genes. A case-control study including 248 prostate cancer cases and 492 matched controls was nested in the prospective European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Heidelberg cohort. At baseline, participants provided dietary and lifestyle data and blood samples, which were used for genotyping and measurement of serum glutathione S-transferase-alpha concentration. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were calculated by conditional logistic regression. We found an inverse association of glucosinolate intake with prostate cancer risk (adjusted odds ratio, 0.72 per 10 mg/d increment; 95% confidence interval, 0.53-0.96). Stratification by genotype showed significantly reduced risks for subjects with wild-type of NQO1 (C609T) compared with CT or TT carriers (P(interaction) = 0.04). Those with deletions in both GSTM1 and GSTT1 genes combined had a significantly reduced risk with increasing glucosinolate intake (P(interaction) = 0.01). There was no effect modification of glucosinolate intake and cancer risk by GSTA1 (G-52A) or GSTP1 (A313G) genotype, but serum glutathione S-transferase-alpha concentrations were inversely associated with prostate cancer. This study showed that the inverse association between glucosinolate intake and prostate cancer risk was modified by NQO1 (C609T) and GSTM1 and GSTT1 deletion polymorphisms. This information will help to further elucidate the mechanism of action of potentially protective substances in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism as risk factors for gastric adenocarcinoma in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B vitamins and polymorphisms in genes coding for enzymes involved in one-carbon metabolism may affect DNA synthesis and methylation and thereby be implicated in carcinogenesis. Previous data on vitamins B2 and B6 and genetic polymorphisms other than those involving MTHFR as risk factors for gastric cancer (GC) are sparse and inconsistent. In this case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort, cases (n = 235) and controls (n = 601) were matched for study center, age, sex, and time of blood sampling. B2 and B6 species were measured in plasma, and the sum of riboflavin and flavin mononucleotide was used as the main exposure variable for vitamin B2 status, whereas the sum of pyridoxal 5-phosphate, pyridoxal, and 4-pyridoxic acid was used to define vitamin B6 status. In addition, we determined eight polymorphisms related to one-carbon metabolism. Relative risks for GC risk were calculated with conditional logistic regression, adjusted for Helicobacter pylori infection status and smoking status. Adjusted relative risks per quartile (95% confidence interval, P(trend)) were 0.85 (0.72-1.01, 0.06) for vitamin B2 and 0.78 (0.65-0.93, <0.01) for vitamin B6. Both relations were stronger in individuals with severe chronic atrophic gastritis. The polymorphisms were not associated with GC risk and did not modify the observed vitamin-cancer associations. In summary, results from this large European cohort study showed an inverse association between vitamin B2 and GC risk, which is borderline significant, and a significant inverse association between vitamin B6 and GC risk.
Related JoVE Video
Polymorphisms in fatty-acid-metabolism-related genes are associated with colorectal cancer risk.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common malignant tumor and the fourth leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The crucial role of fatty acids for a number of important biological processes suggests a more in-depth analysis of inter-individual differences in fatty acid metabolizing genes as contributing factor to colon carcinogenesis. We examined the association between genetic variability in 43 fatty acid metabolism-related genes and colorectal risk in 1225 CRC cases and 2032 controls participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Three hundred and ninety two single-nucleotide polymorphisms were selected using pairwise tagging with an r(2) cutoff of 0.8 and a minor allele frequency of >5%. Conditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios and corresponding 95% confidence intervals. Haplotype analysis was performed using a generalized linear model framework. On the genotype level, hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase 15-(NAD) (HPGD), phospholipase A2 group VI (PLA2G6) and transient receptor potential vanilloid 3 were associated with higher risk for CRC, whereas prostaglandin E receptor 2 (PTGER2) was associated with lower CRC risk. A significant inverse association (P < 0.006) was found for PTGER2 GGG haplotype, whereas HPGD AGGAG and PLA2G3 CT haplotypes were significantly (P < 0.001 and P = 0.003, respectively) associated with higher risk of CRC. Based on these data, we present for the first time the association of HPGD variants with CRC risk. Our results support the key role of prostanoid signaling in colon carcinogenesis and suggest a relevance of genetic variation in fatty acid metabolism-related genes and CRC risk.
Related JoVE Video
Association of plasma phytosterol concentrations with incident coronary heart disease Data from the CORA study, a case-control study of coronary artery disease in women.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Phytosterols have been proposed to be atherogenic. This research investigates whether plasma concentrations of phytosterols correlate with the manifestation of coronary heart disease.
Related JoVE Video
The association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum undercarboxylated osteocalcin is modulated by vitamin K epoxide reductase genotype.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vitamin K acts as a cofactor during the gamma-carboxylation of vitamin K-dependent proteins. Undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) is a suggested biomarker of vitamin K status. The +2255 polymorphism of the vitamin K epoxide reductase gene (VKORC1) was shown to be associated with the recycling rate of the active form of vitamin K. We investigated the association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC and hypothesized that this association might vary by VKORC1 genotype. ucOC and total intact osteocalcin (iOC) concentrations were quantified using specific ELISA tests in serum samples of 548 male and female participants (aged 18-81 years) of the Bavarian Food Consumption Survey II. ucOC was expressed relative to iOC (ucOC/iOC ratio). Dietary intake of vitamin K (phylloquinone and menaquinones) was estimated from three 24 h dietary recalls using previously published food composition data. The association between dietary vitamin K intake and ucOC/iOC ratio was analysed using linear and non-linear regression models. Median intakes of phylloquinone/menaquinones were 83.4/37.6 microg/d in men and 79.6/29.8 microg/d in women, respectively. As expected, vitamin K intake was significantly inversely associated with the ucOC/iOC ratio. The ucOC/iOC ratio differed significantly across variants of the +2255 polymorphism in the VKORC1 gene. Stratification by VKORC1+2255 genotype revealed that only in carriers of the GG genotype (39 % of all participants) did the ucOC/iOC ratio significantly decrease with increasing intake of vitamin K. Thus, the results show that the inverse association between dietary vitamin K intake and serum ucOC depends on a functionally relevant allelic variant of the VKORC1 gene.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin D receptor and calcium sensing receptor polymorphisms and the risk of colorectal cancer in European populations.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Increased levels of vitamin D and calcium may play a protective role in colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. It has been suggested that these effects may be mediated by genetic variants of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and the calcium sensing receptor (CASR). However, current epidemiologic evidence from European populations for a role of these genes in CRC risk is scarce. In addition, it is not clear whether these genes may modulate CRC risk independently or by interaction with blood vitamin D concentration and level of dietary calcium intake. A case-control study was conducted nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. CRC cases (1,248) were identified and matched to 1,248 control subjects. Genotyping for the VDR (BsmI: rs1544410; Fok1: rs2228570) and CASR (rs1801725) genes was done by Taqman, and serum vitamin D (25OHD) concentrations were measured. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the incidence rate ratio (RR). Compared with the wild-type bb, the BB genotype of the VDR BsmI polymorphism was associated with a reduced risk of CRC [RR, 0.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.59-0.98). The association was observed for colon cancer (RR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.45-0.95) but not rectal cancer (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.62-1.49). The Fok1 and CASR genotypes were not associated with CRC risk in this study. No interactions were noted for any of the polymorphisms with serum 25OHD concentration or level of dietary calcium. These results confirm a role for the BsmI polymorphism of the VDR gene in CRC risk, independent of serum 25OHD concentration and dietary calcium intake.
Related JoVE Video
Vitamin E intake in relation to allergic sensitization and IgE serum concentration.
Cent. Eur. J. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A protective role of dietary vitamin E intake on disorders related to the immune system, such as allergic diseases, has been suggested. However, results from epidemiological studies are conflicting.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary glucosinolate intake and risk of prostate cancer in the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glucosinolates (GLS) are secondary plant metabolites occurring in cruciferous vegetables. Their biologically active break-down products show cancer preventive properties in animal and cell studies. So far, epidemiologic studies, using consumption of cruciferous vegetables as proxy for GLS intake, yielded inconsistent results. Here, we evaluated the association between dietary intake of GLS in comparison with consumption data of GLS-containing foods and the risk of prostate cancer. The study population comprised 11,405 male participants of the prospective EPIC-Heidelberg cohort study. During a mean follow-up time of 9.4 years, 328 incident cases of prostate cancer occurred. At recruitment, habitual food consumption was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire, and intake of individual GLS was estimated by means of a newly compiled database on food content of GLS. Adjusted hazard ratios (HR) for prostate cancer were calculated using the Cox proportional hazard model. Median daily intake of total GLS was 7.9 mg/day (interquartile range 5.1-11.9 mg/day). The risk of prostate cancer decreased significantly over quartiles of total GLS intake (multivariate HR [4th vs. 1st quartile] 0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97, p(trend) 0.03). Associations with GLS-containing food intake were weaker. Among GLS subgroups, aliphatic GLS showed the strongest inverse association with cancer risk. Analyses stratified by tumor stage and grade gave hint to inverse associations for localized and low-grade cancers. This study shows an inverse association between dietary intake of GLS and the risk of prostate cancer. Because this is the first prospective study using individual GLS intake data, confirmation in other studies is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
Evidence for an association between genetic variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 ( FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte membranes.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study gives further evidence for the recently found association between variants of the fatty acid desaturase 1 fatty acid desaturase 2 (FADS1 FADS2) gene cluster and PUFA in blood phospholipids and explores this association for cellular fatty acids in erythrocyte membranes. In a subgroup of adults participating in the Bavarian Nutrition Survey II, a cross-sectional population-based study conducted in Bavaria, Germany, allelic variation in three selected loci of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster was analysed and used for haplotype construction. Associations with plasma phospholipid PUFA (n 163) and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes (n 535) were investigated by regression analysis. All haplotypes of the original five-loci haplotypes of our previous study could be replicated. In addition, associations with serum phospholipid PUFA were confirmed in the present data set. Although less pronounced, associations between FADS1 FADS2 haplotypes and PUFA in erythrocyte membranes, particularly arachidonic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, could be established. We provide the first replication of the association of the FADS1 FADS2 gene cluster with PUFA in blood phospholipids. For the first time, such associations were also shown for PUFA in cell membranes.
Related JoVE Video
A new FFQ designed to measure the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in children.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present paper describes the systematic development of an FFQ to assess the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in school-aged children. In addition, a validation study applying 24 h dietary recalls was performed.
Related JoVE Video
Dietary intake of meat and meat-derived heterocyclic aromatic amines and their correlation with DNA adducts in female breast tissue.
Mutagenesis
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
It was the aim of this study to examine the association of the consumption of meat in general, meat prepared by different cooking methods and the dietary intake of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCA) with the level of DNA adducts in the breast tissue of women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. Dietary intake of meat and HCA were assessed via questionnaire in 44 women undergoing reduction mammoplasty. DNA adduct analysis in breast tissue was performed by (32)P-postlabelling analysis. Spearman rank correlation coefficients (r) were calculated to examine the association of meat consumption and dietary HCA intake with tissue DNA adduct levels. A median DNA adduct level of 18.45 (interquartile range 12.81-25.65) per 10(9) nucleotides in breast tissue was observed; median HCA intake was 40.43 ng/day (interquartile range 19.55-102.33 ng/day). Total HCA intake (r = 0.33, P = 0.03), consumption of fried meat (r = 0.39, P = 0.01), beef (r = 0.32, P = 0.03) and processed meat (r = 0.51, P = 0.0004) were statistically significantly correlated with the level of DNA adducts in breast tissue. The detected DNA adducts could not be confirmed to be specific HCA-derived DNA adducts by comparison with external standards, using the (32)P-postlabelling assay. We observed strong correlations of dietary HCA intake and consumption of fried and processed meat with DNA adduct levels in breast tissue of 44 women. Since the detected DNA adducts were not necessarily specific only for HCA, it is possible that HCA intake is a surrogate of other genotoxic substances, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, in meat prepared at high temperatures.
Related JoVE Video
Socio-demographic characteristics of participation in the opportunistic German cervical cancer screening programme: results from the EPIC-Heidelberg cohort.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To analyse participation in the German cervical cancer screening programme by socio-demographic characteristics.
Related JoVE Video
Lifestyle factors, obesity and the risk of colorectal adenomas in EPIC-Heidelberg.
Cancer Causes Control
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated the association of lifestyle and obesity with colorectal adenoma risk in a prospective setting.
Related JoVE Video
Smoking and risk for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: analysis of the EPIC cohort.
Ann. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cigarette smoking has been reported as "probable" risk factor for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), a poorly understood disease in terms of aetiology. The extensive longitudinal data of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) were used to evaluate age-specific mortality rates from ALS and the role of cigarette smoking on the risk of dying from ALS.
Related JoVE Video
Lifetime and baseline alcohol intake and risk of cancer of the upper aero-digestive tract in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the upper aero-digestive tract. In contrast, the role of lifetime exposure to alcohol with regard to risk of SCC is not well established. Historical data on alcohol use are available in 271,253 participants of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). During 2,330,381 person years, 392 incident SCC cases (279 men and 113 women) were identified. Cox regression was applied to model sex-specific associations between lifetime alcohol intake and SCC risk adjusting for potential confounders including smoking. Compared to men who drank 0.1-6.0 g/day alcohol at lifetime, the relative risks (RR) for developing SCC were significantly increased for men who drank 30.1-60.0 g/day (RR 1.65, 95% confidence interval:1.00-2.71), 60.1-96.0 g/day (RR 2.20, 95%CI 1.23-3.95), and >96.0 g/day, (RR 4.63, 95% CI 2.52-8.48), and for former drinkers (RR 4.14, 95%CI 2.38-7.19). These risk estimates did not considerably change when baseline alcohol intake was analyzed. Compared to women who drank 0.1-6.0 g/day alcohol intake at lifetime, the RR were significantly increased for women who drank >30 g/d (RR 6.05, 95%CI 2.98-12.3). Applying similar categories, the relative risk for baseline alcohol intake was 3.26 (95%CI 1.82-5.87). We observed a stronger association between alcohol intake at lifetime and risk of SCC in women compared to men (p for interaction = 0.045). The strong dose-response relation for lifetime alcohol use underscores that alcohol is an important risk factor of SCC of the upper aero-digestive tract throughout life.
Related JoVE Video
Serum vitamin D and risk of prostate cancer in a case-control analysis nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Results from the majority of studies show little association between circulating concentrations of vitamin D and prostate cancer risk, a finding that has not been demonstrated in a wider European population, however. The authors examined whether vitamin D concentrations were associated with prostate cancer risk in a case-control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (1994-2000). Serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D were measured in 652 prostate cancer cases matched to 752 controls from 7 European countries after a median follow-up time of 4.1 years. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios for prostate cancer risk in relation to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D after standardizing for month of blood collection and adjusting for covariates. No significant association was found between 25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of prostate cancer (highest vs. lowest quintile: odds ratio = 1.28, 95% confidence interval: 0.88, 1.88; P for trend = 0.188). Subgroup analyses showed no significant heterogeneity by cancer stage or grade, age at diagnosis, body mass index, time from blood collection to diagnosis, or calcium intake. In summary, the results of this large nested case-control study provide no evidence in support of a protective effect of circulating concentrations of vitamin D on the risk of prostate cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Heterocyclic aromatic amine intake increases colorectal adenoma risk: findings from a prospective European cohort study.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs), which arise from cooking meat and fish at high temperatures, may increase the risk of colorectal adenomas. Conversely, flavonoids might counteract the negative effects of HCAs.
Related JoVE Video
Double-strand break DNA repair genotype predictive of later mortality and cancer incidence in a cohort of non-smokers.
DNA Repair (Amst.)
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We followed-up for mortality and cancer incidence 1088 healthy non-smokers from a population-based study, who were characterized for 22 variants in 16 genes involved in DNA repair pathways. Follow-up was 100% complete. The association between polymorphism and mortality or cancer incidence was analyzed using Cox Proportional Hazard regression models. Ninety-five subjects had died in a median follow-up time of 78 months (inter-quartile range 59-93 months). None of the genotypes was clearly associated with total mortality, except variants for two Double-Strand Break DNA repair genes, XRCC3 18067 C>T (rs#861539) and XRCC2 31479 G>A (rs#3218536). Adjusted hazard ratios were 2.25 (1.32-3.83) for the XRCC3 C/T genotype and 2.04 (1.00-4.13) for the T/T genotype (reference C/C), and 2.12 (1.14-3.97) for the XRCC2 G/A genotype (reference G/G). For total cancer mortality, the adjusted hazard ratios were 3.29 (1.23-7.82) for XRCC3 C/T, 2.84 (0.81-9.90) for XRCC3 T/T and 3.17 (1.21-8.30) for XRCC2 G/A. With combinations of three or more adverse alleles, the adjusted hazard ratio for all cause mortality was 17.29 (95% C.I. 8.13-36.74), and for all incident cancers the HR was 5.28 (95% C.I. 2.17-12.85). Observations from this prospective study suggest that polymorphisms of genes involved in the repair of DNA double-strand breaks significantly influence the risk of cancer and non-cancer disease, and can influence mortality.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.