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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
rs10865331 associated with susceptibility and disease severity of ankylosing spondylitis in a Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly familial rheumatic disorder and is considered as a chronic inflammatory disease. Genetic factors are involved in the pathogenesis of AS. To identify genes which render people susceptible to AS in a Taiwanese population, we selected six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from previous genome-wide association studies (GWASs) which were associated with AS in European descendants and Han Chinese. To assess whether the six SNPs contributed to AS susceptibility and severity in Taiwanese population, 475 AS patients fulfilling the modified New York Criteria and 527 healthy subjects were recruited. We found that rs10865331 was significantly associated with AS susceptibility and with Bath AS Function Index (BASFI). The AA and AG genotypes of rs10865331 were also significantly associated with a higher erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Our findings provided evidence that rs10865331 is associated AS susceptibility and with disease activity (BASFI) in a Taiwanese population.
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Treat-to-target in spondyloarthritis: implications for clinical trial designs.
Drugs
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is a chronic inflammatory disease involving the spine and peripheral joints, and extra-articular manifestations such as uveitis, psoriasis and bowel inflammation. The treatment goals for SpA are maintenance of physical function, control of disease activity and prevention of radiographic progression. However, unlike the well-established treat-to-target (T2T) guidance in rheumatoid arthritis, the T2T concept for treating SpA is still immature. Clinical evidence of T2T in SpA is still lacking. To develop evidence of T2T in SpA, several research agendas need to be accomplished. Firstly, a well-accepted measureable treatment target needs to be defined through expert consensus. Secondly, a T2T treatment algorithm for monitoring disease activity and adjusting therapies needs to be generated. Finally, well-designed comparative clinical trials to compare this T2T strategy with the current standard of treatment should be conducted to demonstrate long-term benefits and risks. In SpA clinical trials, T2T comparative studies should have a clear disease definition for enrollment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis, axial SpA or non-radiographic axial SpA. Endpoints should be assessment with AS International Working Group criteria for 20% improvement (ASAS20), ASAS40, and the Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Score (ASDAS) with inactive and moderate disease activity at month 3. Long-term efficacy endpoints such as the modified Stoke Ankylosing Spondylitis Spinal Score (mSASSS) of radiographic progression and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) score at 2 years are encouraged. More sensitive assessment tools to detect structural damage and new bone formation, such as low-radiation computerized tomography (CT), are promising.
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Combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise in patients with ankylosing spondylitis: a randomized controlled trial.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Home exercise is often recommended for management of patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS); however, what kind of home exercise is more beneficial for patients with AS has not been determined yet. We aimed to compare the effectiveness of combined home exercise (COMB) and range-of-motion home exercise (ROM) in patients with AS. Nineteen subjects with AS completed either COMB (n = 9) or ROM (n = 10) program. The COMB program included range-of-motion, strengthening, and aerobic exercise while the ROM program consisted of daily range-of-motion exercise only. After exercise instruction, subjects in each group performed home exercise for 3 months. Assessment included cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function test, spinal mobility measurement, chest expansion, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and other functional ability and laboratory tests. After exercise, the COMB group showed significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake (12.3%, P = 0.008) and BASFI (P = 0.028), and the changed score between pre- and postexercise data was significantly greater in the COMB group regarding peak oxygen uptake and BASFI. Significant improvement in finger-to-floor distance after 3-month exercise was found only in the COMB group (P = 0.033). This study demonstrates that a combined home exercise is more effective than range-of-motion home exercise alone in aerobic capacity and functional ability.
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Complementary Usage of Rhodiola crenulata (L.) in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: The Effects on Cytokines and T Cells.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
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Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an inflammatory disease predominantly involving T cells, no study of Rhodiola as an immunomodulator in COPD patients has been reported. In this study, COPD patients took Rhodiola crenulata 500?mg (n?=?38) or placebo (starch/phosphate buffered saline) (n?=?19) daily for 12?weeks and were compared with untreated, age-matched, and sex-matched non-COPD control subjects. Our results showed that serum levels of IL-2, IL-10, and IFN-? in COPD patients before treatment are significantly higher than levels in non-COPD controls (p??0.05). The results suggested that Rhodiola treatment had beneficial antiinflammation effects, lower COPD assessment test score and decreased high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, on COPD patients (p?
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Higher expression of whole blood microRNA-21 in patients with ankylosing spondylitis associated with programmed cell death 4 mRNA expression and collagen cross-linked C-telopeptide concentration.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
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Bone loss is a recognized feature of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The binding of microRNA-21 (miR-21) to programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4) could inhibit the expression of PDCD4 and further induce the activation of osteoclasts. In the present study, we compared the difference in miR-21 expression between patients with AS and healthy controls, and evaluated the relationships of miR-21, PDCD4 mRNA, and bone erosion in patients with AS. The influences of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAID) and disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) on the expressions of miR-21 and PDCD4 mRNA in patients with AS were also assessed.
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Aerobic capacity and its correlates in patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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To evaluate aerobic capacity in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and determine possible relationships between aerobic capacity, pulmonary function, and disease-related variables.
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The traditional Chinese medicine prescription patterns of Sjögren?s patients in Taiwan: a population-based study.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Traditional Chinese medicines (TCM), when given for symptom relief, have gained widespread popularity among Sjögren?s patients. The aim of this study was to analyze the utilization of TCM among Sjögren?s patients in Taiwan.
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Regression analysis of multivariate current status data with dependent censoring: application to ankylosing spondylitis data.
Stat Med
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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Multivariate current-status failure time data consist of several possibly related event times of interest, in which the status of each event is determined at a single examination time. If the examination time is intrinsically related to the event times, the examination is referred to as dependent censoring and needs to be taken into account. Such data often occur in clinical studies and animal carcinogenicity experiments. To accommodate for possible dependent censoring, this paper proposes a joint frailty model for event times and dependent censoring time. We develop a likelihood approach using Gaussian quadrature techniques for obtaining maximum likelihood estimates. We conduct extensive simulation studies for investigating finite-sample properties of the proposed method. We illustrate the proposed method with an analysis of patients with ankylosing spondylitis, where the examination time may be dependent on the event times of interest. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Relationship between adiponectin and leptin, and blood lipids in hyperlipidemia patients treated with red yeast rice.
Forsch Komplementmed
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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This study aimed to investigate the possible relationships between adiponectin and leptin, blood lipids such as total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG) as well as other clinical biomarkers in hyperlipidemia patients treated with red yeast rice.
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Associations of the PTPN22 and CTLA-4 genetic polymorphisms with Taiwanese ankylosing spondylitis.
Rheumatol. Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is an autoimmune disease, and the imbalance of peripheral tolerance is involved in its pathogenesis. Importantly, the negative signal of activated T cells plays a crucial role in the balance of peripheral tolerance. It has been postulated that human protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) genes encode proteins that are actively involved in regulating T-cell activation. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of PTPN22 and CTLA-4 genotypes on the occurrence of AS. Genetic polymorphisms of PTPN22 -1123G/C and CTLA-4 +49A/G were identified by polymerase chain reaction for 391 AS patients and 391 healthy controls. Subjects with PTPN22 CC and GC genotypes had a greater risk of AS occurrence than those with PTPN22 GG genotype [relative risk = 1.39, 95 % confidence interval (95 % CI) 1.03-1.88]. Further, subjects with PTPN22 CC/CTLA-4 AA or PTPN22 GC/CTLA-4 AA genotypes had 1.90-fold (95 % CI 1.02-3.49) greater risk of AS development than those with other combinations of PTPN22 and CTLA-4 genotypes. Our findings indicated that PTPN22 -1123G/C and CTLA-4 +49A/G genetic polymorphisms have a combined effect on the development of AS.
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Efficacy and safety of herbal medicine yun-cai tea in the treatment of hyperlipidemia: A double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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OBJECTIVE: Animal studies have demonstrated a lipid-modulating effect of yun-cai tea. However, little is known about the lipid-lowering effect in humans. The aim of this study was to evaluate the lipid lowering effects and safety of yun-cai tea in patients with elevated lipid levels in a human clinical trial. METHODS: This was a 12-week, randomly assigned, parallel-group, double-blind, and placebo-controlled pilot clinical study. Sixty primary hyperlipidemia patients were included and randomly assigned to the yun-cai tea group (30 patients) and the placebo group (30 patients), for 8 weeks of treatment and 4 weeks of follow-up. The primary endpoint was changes in plasma low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) at 8 weeks. The secondary endpoints included total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG). RESULTS: Our results revealed no statistically significant differences in LDL-C and TC between the two groups. Despite the lack of a statistically significant difference in the level of TG between the two groups, a declining trend was noted. A significant reduction of TG was observed in the yun-cai tea group at week 8, compared to baseline (P=0.048). The incidence of stomach discomfort, gastroesophageal reflux, diarrhea, and constipation was slightly higher in the yun-cai tea group. No other significant adverse events were found. CONCLUSIONS: It is unlikely that yun-cai tea used had a blood lipid reduction effect. Further larger scale clinical trials with a longer duration and larger dose are necessary.
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Association study of polymorphisms rs4552569 and rs17095830 and the risk of ankylosing spondylitis in a Taiwanese population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. However, the development of anklosing spondylitis is unclear. Human leukocyte antigens HLA-B27 and ERAP1 have been widely reported to be associated with AS susceptibility. A recent genome-wide association study (GWAS) showed that two new susceptibility loci between EDIL3 and HAPLN1 at 5q14.3 (rs4552569) and within ANO6 at 12q12 (rs17095830) contribute to the risk of AS in Han Chinese. In this study, we enrolled 475 AS patients and 475 healthy subjects to assess whether these genetic variations contribute to the susceptibility and the severity of AS in the Taiwanese population. The correlation between genetic polymorphisms, AS activity indexes, (namely, BASDAI, BASFI and BAS-G) and AS complications (uveitis and inflammatory bowel disease) were tested using the markers, rs4552569 and rs17095830. Although no association between rs4552569/rs17095830 genetic polymorphisms and AS susceptibility/severity was found, a significant association between rs17095830 and inflammatory bowel disease was observed in a Taiwanese population.
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Association of IL-12B genetic polymorphism with the susceptibility and disease severity of ankylosing spondylitis.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Interleukin 23 (IL-23) stimulates the differentiation of T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are involved in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Binding of IL-23 to the IL-23 receptor complex activates Janus kinases 2 and tyrosine kinase 2, which phosphorylate IL-23R and subsequently promote the transcription of the IL-17 gene. IL-12B encodes a p40 subunit common to IL-12 and IL-23. We evaluated the effects of IL-12B and IL-23R genotype on the occurrence and clinical features of AS.
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Effects of genetic polymorphisms of programmed cell death 1 and its ligands on the development of ankylosing spondylitis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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There is a known association of imbalanced peripheral tolerance and autoimmune diseases. The binding of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) with its ligands 1 and 2 (PD-L1 and PD-L2) inhibits T-cell proliferation through a negative signal via recruitment of src homology 2-domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase 2. Therefore we evaluated the effect of the PD-1, PD-L1 and PD-L2 genotypes on the occurrence of AS in a population of Taiwanese patients.
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A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of Fufang Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) as add-on antihypertensive therapy in Taiwanese patients with uncontrolled hypertension.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2011
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Hypertension generally requires the use of a combination therapy to achieve the satisfactory control of blood pressure. A traditional Chinese herb, Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza), has been shown to have cardioprotective effects in animals and humans. The study investigated the add-on effect of Fufang Danshen extract capsule in Taiwanese hypertensive patients with uncontrolled blood pressure. This was a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized, single-center study clinical trial. Fifty-five patients with uncontrolled mild to moderate hypertension were enrolled under current conventional antihypertensive treatment, randomized equally to receive a Fufang Danshen capsule (formula mixture) 1000?mg twice-daily or a placebo capsule for 12?weeks. Primary endpoints were the control rate and the response rate. By ITT analysis at week 12, the control rates were 25.5% in the Fufang Danshen group and 7.3% in the control group (p?=?0.016). The response rates were 45.6% in the Fufang Danshen group and 38.2% in the placebo group (p?=?0.946). A significant reduction of systolic blood pressure at week 12 was noted in the Fufang Danshen group compared with the placebo group (13.8 vs 4.2?mmHg, p?=?0.005). A decrease of pulse rate was also noted in the Fufang Danshen group (- 3.2 vs +2.7/min, p?=?0.027). Adverse events were not statistically different between the two groups. It was concluded that Fufang Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) extract reduced systolic blood pressure and pulse rate, and was well tolerated in patients with hypertension.
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Association of ORAI1 haplotypes with the risk of HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. The aetiology of ankylosing spondylitis is still unclear. Previous studies have indicated that genetics factors such as human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 associates to AS susceptibility. We carried out a case-control study to determine whether the genetic polymorphisms of ORAI1 gene, a major component of store-operated calcium channels that involved the regulation of immune system, is a susceptibility factor to AS in a Taiwanese population. We enrolled 361 AS patients fulfilled the modified New York criteria and 379 controls from community. Five tagging single nucleotides polymorphisms (tSNPs) at ORAI1 were selected from the data of Han Chinese population in HapMap project. Clinical statuses of AS were assessed by the Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI), Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index (BASFI), and Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Index (BAS-G). Our results indicated that subjects carrying the minor allele homozygote (CC) of the promoter SNP rs12313273 or TT homozygote of the SNP rs7135617 had an increased risk of HLA-B27 positive AS. The minor allele C of 3UTR SNP rs712853 exerted a protective effect to HLA-B27 positive AS. Furthermore, the rs12313273/rs7135617 pairwise allele analysis found that C-G (OR 1.69, 95% CI 1.27, 2.25; p?=?0.0003) and T-T (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.36, 2.27; p<0.0001) haplotypes had a significantly association with the risk of HLA-B27-positive AS in comparison with the T-G carriers. This is the first study that indicate haplotypes of ORAI1 (rs12313273 and rs7135617) are associated with the risk of HLA-B27 positive AS.
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In vivo Th1 and Th2 cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution and its major constituent, salidroside.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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Although Rhodiola rosea (L.) is used widely and disseminated in Oriental medicine, its in vivo effects on cytokine modulation remain unclear. Among the biologically active components of Rhodiola rosea, salidroside was suggested to be the most active compound. The objectives of this study were to assess the toxicity and cytokine modulation effects of Rhodiola rosea standardised solution (RRSS) and salidroside. Quantitative high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis determined the content of salidroside in RRSS to be 4.39% (w/v). Groups of Balb/c mice were fed daily with different doses of RRSS or salidroside, with CAPE or distilled water used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The acute and subacute toxicity tests did not reveal weight differences, pathological changes, or abnormalities in liver or kidney function indices among the treated groups. Ovalbumin-primed mouse cytokine assays demonstrated that both T helper (Th1) (IL-2 and IFN-?) and Th2 (IL-4 and IL-10) cytokines were significantly increased by feeding with RRSS in a dose- and time-dependent manner (p?
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Osteoprotegerin genetic polymorphisms and age of symptom onset in ankylosing spondylitis.
Rheumatology (Oxford)
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2010
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Osteoporosis is one of the recognized features of AS. It is known that RANK ligand (RANKL), which binds to RANK, can cause the activation of bone resorption. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) also competes with RANK by binding to RANKL and inhibiting bone absorption. Therefore, we designed a case-control study to evaluate the association between occurrence and clinical features of AS and RANK, RANKL and OPG genetic polymorphisms.
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The effectiveness of exercise therapy for ankylosing spondylitis: a review.
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2009
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Exercise therapy is an important component of current standard therapy for patients with ankylosing spondylitis. The purpose of this review is to provide important guidelines when prescribing exercises by reviewing articles evaluating the effectives and usefulness of exercise therapy in patients with ankylosing spondylosis.
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Genetic polymorphisms of stromal interaction molecule 1 associated with the erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein in HLA-B27 positive ankylosing spondylitis patients.
PLoS ONE
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammation of the sacroiliac joints, spine and peripheral joints. The development of ankylosing spondylitis is still unclear. Genetics factors such as human leukocyte antigen HLA-B27 and ERAP1 have been widely reported to associate to AS susceptibility. In this study, we enrolled 361 AS patients and selected four tagging single nucleotides polymorphisms (tSNPs) at STIM1 gene. The correlation between STIM1 genetic polymorphisms and AS activity index (BASDAI, BASFI, BAS-G) as well as laboratory parameters of inflammation (erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP)) were tested. Our results indicated that HLA-B27 positive AS patients who are carrying the minor allele homozygous G/G genotype of SNP rs3750996 significantly associated with a higher level of ESR in serum. Furthermore, rs3750996/rs3750994 pairwise allele analysis indicated that G-C haplotypes also significantly correlated with higher level of ESR as well as CRP. These findings provide a better understanding of STIM1 genetic contribution to the pathogenesis of AS.
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Tramadol/acetaminophen combination as add-on therapy in the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis.
Clin. Rheumatol.
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This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablets (Ultracet®) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). This was a 12-week, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Sixty patients with active AS according to the Modified New York Criteria were enrolled. Active disease was defined by Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Disease Activity Index (BASDAI) for more than 3 at randomization. Subjects were randomized equally into two groups: the treatment group received aceclofenac plus Ultracet® one tablet twice a day, and the control group received aceclofenac plus placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was a difference of Assessment in Ankylosing Spondylitis (ASAS20) response criteria between two groups at week 12. At week 12, ASAS20 was achieved by 53.3 % of the aceclofenac plus Ultracet group and 31 % of the aceclofenac alone group (p?=?0.047). For the pain visual analogue scale at week 12, there was a reduction of 45.6 % in aceclofenac plus Ultracet group and 25.7 % in the aceclofenac alone group (p?=?0.087). There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in BASDAI, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Functional Index, Bath Ankylosing Spondylitis Global Index, Physician Global Assessment, spinal mobility, ESR, hs-CRP, and Ankylosing Spondylitis Quality of Life Questionnaire. A slight increase in total adverse events was noted with dizziness (7.5 vs 1.5 %), vertigo (4.5 vs 1.5 %), and nausea/vomiting (6 vs 0 %) in the Ultracet arm compared to placebo. The tramadol 37.5 mg/acetaminophen 325 mg combination tablet (Ultracet®) might has additional effect to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in the treatment of patients with ankylosing spondylitis. It showed marginal benefit in pain and disease activity. However, a slight increase in minor adverse events was noted.
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Survival analysis of late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a cohort study in China.
Clin. Rheumatol.
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The aim of this study is to explore the survival rate and risk factors of mortality in patients with late-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in a large cohort. Clinical presentations, disease activity, organ damage scores, autoantibody profile, and mortality data were obtained retrospectively from late-onset SLE patients (onset age ?50 years) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009. The risk factors of organ damage were evaluated by the chi-square test and logistic regression. The cumulative rate of survival was calculated by Kaplan-Meier method, and factors predictive of mortality were studied by Cox proportion hazard regression model. A total of 158 patients (132 female and 26 male) were studied. The average onset age was 58.66 ± 6.38 years and mean disease duration was 63.85 ± 48.17 months. One hundred and four patients had organ damage at the time of data analysis. Hematological system and kidney involvement were most common. Central nervous system involvement was relatively rare. In univariate logistic analysis, associations were found between SLE disease activity index (SLEDAI) at diagnosis (OR = 1.133, P = 0.001); renal involvement (OR = 2.441, P = 0.009) and edema (OR = 2.812, P = 0.003) were associated with organ damage. And SLEDAI at diagnosis (OR = 1.103, P = 0.034) was independent factor for organ damage in multivariate logistic regression. During the follow-up, 64 patients (51 female and 13 male) died. Five-, 10-, and 15-year survival rates were 80.4, 56.5, and 31.7 %, respectively. Median survival time was 123 months. The analysis of Cox proportion hazard regression model showed that age at disease onset (OR = 1.069, P = 0.002), compliance of medical care (OR = 3.282, P = 0.001), and SLEDAI at diagnosis (OR = 1.091, P = 0.003) were independent risk factors of mortality. Late-onset SLE has a poor long-term prognosis. Infection is the major cause of death in patients with late-onset lupus. Disease activity, medical care, and onset age are strongly related to death of late-onset SLE.
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Plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate is not associated with inflammatory and immune responses after adjusting for serum albumin in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a preliminary study.
Ann. Nutr. Metab.
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Plasma pyridoxal 5-phosphate (PLP) has been shown to be associated with inflammatory and immune responses.Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune and chronic systemic inflammatory disease and patients with RA have lower plasma PLP levels. We studied the relationship between plasma PLP and inflammatory or immune responses in patients with RA.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.