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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Hemoglobin Stability and Patient Compliance With Darbepoetin Alfa in Peritoneal Dialysis Patients After the Implementation of the Prospective Payment System.
Clin Ther
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Since the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services implemented the End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, dialysis providers have increasingly focused on balancing resource utilization and quality outcomes for the treatment of anemia in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. Limited data exist regarding anemia management outcomes for these patients in US-based dialysis centers after the implementation of the new payment system.
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Quantification of viral proteins of the avian H7 subtype of influenza virus: an isotope dilution mass spectrometry method applicable for producing more rapid vaccines in the case of an influenza pandemic.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Vaccination is the most effective means to prevent influenza and its serious complications. Influenza viral strains undergo rapid mutations of the surface proteins hemagglutinin (HA) and neuraminidase (NA) requiring vaccines to be frequently updated to include current circulating strains. It is nearly impossible to predict which strains will be circulating in the next influenza season. It is, therefore, imperative that the process of producing a vaccine be streamlined and as swift as possible. We have developed an isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) method to quantify HA and NA in H7N7, H7N2, and H7N9 influenza. The IDMS method involves enzymatic digestion of viral proteins and the specific detection of evolutionarily conserved target peptides. The four target peptides that were initially chosen for analysis of the HA protein of H7N2 and H7N7 subtypes were conserved and available for analysis of the H7N9 subtype that circulated in China in the spring of 2013. Thus, rapid response to the potential pandemic was realized. Quantification of a protein is performed by employing multiple peptides to ensure that the enzymatic digestion of the protein is efficient in the region of the target peptides, verify the accuracy of the measurement, and provide flexibility in the case of amino acid changes among newly emerging strains. The IDMS method is an accurate, sensitive, and selective method to quantify the amount of HA and NA antigens in primary liquid standards, crude allantoic fluid, purified virus samples, and final vaccine presentations.
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Urine sodium excretion increased slightly among U.S. adults between 1988 and 2010.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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Little information is available on temporal trends in sodium intake in the U.S. population using urine sodium excretion as a biomarker. Our aim was to assess 1988-2010 trends in estimated 24-h urine sodium (24hUNa) excretion among U.S. adults (age 20-59 y) participating in the cross-sectional NHANES. We used subsamples from a 1988-1994 convenience sample, a 2003-2006 one-third random sample, and a 2010 one-third random sample to comply with resource constraints. We estimated 24hUNa excretion from measured sodium concentrations in spot urine samples by use of calibration equations (for men and women) derived from the International Cooperative Study on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure study. Estimated 24hUNa excretion increased over the 20-y period [1988-1994, 2003-2006, and 2010; means ± SEMs (n): 3160 ± 38.4 mg/d (1249), 3290 ± 29.4 mg/d (1235), and 3290 ± 44.4 mg/d (525), respectively; P-trend = 0.022]. We observed significantly higher mean estimated 24hUNa excretion in each survey period (P < 0.001) for men compared with women (31-33%) and for persons with a higher body mass index (BMI; 32-35% for obese vs. normal weight) or blood pressure (17-26% for hypertensive vs. normal blood pressure). After adjusting for age, sex, and race-ethnicity, temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion remained significant (P-trend = 0.004). We observed no temporal trends in mean estimated 24hUNa excretion among BMI subgroups, nor after adjusting for BMI. Although several limitations apply to this analysis (the use of a convenience sample in 1988-1994 and using estimated 24hUNa excretion as a biomarker of sodium intake), these first NHANES data suggest that mean estimated 24hUNa excretion increased slightly in U.S. adults over the past 2 decades, and this increase may be explained by a shift in the distribution of BMI.
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Urinary concentrations of environmental phenols in pregnant women in a pilot study of the National Children's Study.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Environmental phenols are a group of chemicals with widespread uses in consumer and personal care products, food and beverage processing, and in pesticides. We assessed exposure to benzophenone-3, bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan, methyl- and propyl parabens, and 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol or their precursors in 506 pregnant women enrolled in the National Children's Study (NCS) Vanguard Study. We measured the urinary concentrations of the target phenols by using online solid-phase extraction-isotope dilution high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. NCS women results were compared to those of 524 similar-aged women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2009-2010, and to 174 pregnant women in NHANES 2005-2010. In the NCS women, we found significant racial/ethnic differences (p<0.05) in regression adjusted mean concentrations of benzophenone-3, triclosan, 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol, but not of BPA. Urinary 2,4- and 2,5-dichlorophenol concentrations were highly correlated (r=0.66, p<0.0001). Except for BPA and triclosan, adjusted mean concentrations were significantly different across the 7 study sites. Education was marginally significant for benzophenone-3, triclosan, propyl paraben, and 2,5-dichlorophenol. Urinary concentrations of target phenols in NCS pregnant women and U.S. women and pregnant women were similar. In NCS pregnant women, race/ethnicity and geographic location determined urinary concentrations of most phenols (except BPA), suggesting differential exposures. NCS Main Study protocols should collect urine biospecimens and information about exposures to environmental phenols.
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The CDCs Second National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population is a valuable tool for researchers and policy makers.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2013
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The CDCs National Report on Biochemical Indicators of Diet and Nutrition in the U.S. Population (Nutrition Report) is a serial publication that provides ongoing assessment of the populations nutritional status. The Nutrition Report presents data on blood and urine biomarker concentrations (selected water- and fat-soluble vitamins and nutrients, trace elements, dietary bioactive compounds) from a representative sample of the population participating in the NHANES. The Second Nutrition Report (released in 2012) contains reference information (means and percentiles) for 58 biomarkers measured during all or part of 2003-2006, stratified by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Where available, we presented cutoff-based prevalence data during 2003-2006 and data on changes in biomarker concentrations or prevalence since 1999. Blood vitamin concentrations were generally higher in older (? 60 y) than in younger (20-39 y) adults and lower in Mexican Americans and non-Hispanic blacks than in non-Hispanic whites. Nearly 80% of Americans (aged ? 6 y) were not at risk of deficiencies in any of the 7 vitamins studied (vitamins A, B-6, B-12, C, D, and E and folate). Deficiency rates varied by age, sex, and race-ethnicity. Approximately 90% of women (aged 12-49 y) were not at risk of iron deficiency, but only 68% were not at risk of deficiencies in iron and all 7 vitamins. Young women (20-39 y) had median urine iodine concentrations bordering on insufficiency. First-time data are presented on plasma concentrations of 24 saturated and mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids. Tabulation and graphical presentation of NHANES data in the Second Nutrition Report benefits those organizations involved in developing and evaluating nutrition policy.
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Immune complex disease with a lupus-like pattern of deposition in an antinuclear antibody-negative patient.
Am. J. Kidney Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-14-2013
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Immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis can be caused by a multitude of disease processes and may manifest in a variety of histologic patterns. Lupus nephritis is an immune complex disease, the diagnosis of which requires that the affected patient have systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In the absence of SLE, the finding of glomerulonephritis with certain patterns of immune complex deposition characteristic of lupus nephritis has been referred to as lupus-like glomerulonephritis. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgA, IgM, complement C3, and C1q deposition in glomerular immune deposits is one such pattern. We report a case of immune complex disease in a primarily membranous distribution with mesangial, subendothelial, and tubular basement membrane deposits with IgG, IgA, IgM, C3, and C1q deposition in a patient with proteinuria, photosensitive dermatitis, and a positive lupus anticoagulant test. The patient had 3 of the clinical criteria for SLE, thus failing to meet the diagnosis based on the American College of Rheumatology definition. In this case, a diagnosis of lupus-like glomerulonephritis was made after other causes of membranous glomerulopathy were excluded. This teaching case highlights the broad differential diagnosis of this pattern of injury and reviews similar cases in the literature.
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Design of online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) hyphenated systems for quantitative analysis of small organic compounds in biological matrices.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2011
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Three online solid phase extraction-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method examples are presented where two different types of chromatographic columns or solvent systems were coupled to meet specific analytical objectives: (i) SPE of target analytes by restricted access media from high ionic strength urine matrix was coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS conditions accommodating high ionization potentials of the analytes (urinary bisphenol A and other phenolic derivatives); (ii) strong cation exchange SPE of analytes of diverse polarity and pK(a) was coupled with reversed phase LC-MS/MS analysis (urinary atrazine metabolites); (iii) pre-concentration of low pg per sample analytes by weak anion exchange SPE was hyphenated with ion pair LC-MS analysis (intracellular nucleotide triphosphate analogs). With these examples we suggest a conductive generic work flow for the development of online SPE-LC-MS methods and show how advanced commercial LC devices and software allow for the design of complex yet highly versatile analytical separation systems suited to the unique physicochemical properties of the target analytes.
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Quantification of botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A and B from serum using mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2011
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNT) are the deadliest agents known. Previously, we reported an endopeptidase activity based method (Endopep-MS) that detects and differentiates BoNT serotypes A-G. This method uses serotype specific monoclonal antibodies and the specific enzymatic activity of BoNT against peptide substrates which mimic the toxins natural target. Cleavage products from the reaction are detected by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We have now developed a multiple reaction monitoring method to quantify the biological activity of BoNT serotypes A (BoNT/A) and B (BoNT/B) present in 0.5 mL of serum using electrospray mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification for each serotype is 1 mouse intraperitoneal lethal dose (MIPLD(50)) corresponding to 31 pg of BoNT/A and 15 pg of BoNT/B in this study. This method was applied to serum from rhesus macaques with inhalational botulism following exposure to BoNT/B, showing a maximum activity of 6.0 MIPLD(50)/mL in surviving animals and 653.6 MIPLD(50)/mL in animals that died in the study. The method detects BoNT/B in serum 2-5 h after exposure and up to 14 days. This is the first report of a quantitative method with sufficient sensitivity, selectivity, and low sample size requirements to measure circulating BoNT activity at multiple times during the course of botulism.
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Discovery of a novel enzymatic cleavage site for botulinum neurotoxin F5.
FEBS Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2011
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism by cleaving proteins necessary for nerve transmission. There are seven serotypes of BoNT, A-G, characterized by their response to antisera. Many serotypes are further distinguished into differing subtypes based on amino acid sequence, some of which result in functional differences. Our laboratory previously reported that all tested subtypes within each serotype have the same site of enzymatic activity. Recently, three new subtypes of BoNT/F; /F3, /F4, and /F5, were reported. Here, we report that BoNT/F5 cleaves substrate synaptobrevin-2 in a different location than the other BoNT/F subtypes, between (54)L and (55)E. This is the first report of cleavage of synaptobrevin-2 in this location.
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Simultaneous quantification of hemagglutinin and neuraminidase of influenza virus using isotope dilution mass spectrometry.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 08-29-2011
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Influenza vaccination is the primary method for preventing influenza and its severe complications. Licensed inactivated vaccines for seasonal or pandemic influenza are formulated to contain a preset amount of hemagglutinin (HA), the critical antigen to elicit protection. There is currently no regulatory method that quantifies neuraminidase (NA), the other major membrane-bound protein thought to have protective capability. This is primarily due to the limitations both in sensitivity and in selectivity of current means to quantify these antigens. Current methods to establish the HA concentration of vaccines rely on indirect measurements that are subject to considerable experimental variability. We present a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) method for the absolute quantification of viral proteins in a complex mixture. Through use of an isotope dilution approach, HA and NA from viral subtypes H1N1, H3N2, and B were determined both directly and rapidly. Three peptides of each subtype were used in the analysis of HA to ensure complete digestion of the protein and accuracy of the measurement. This method has been applied to purified virus preparations, to monovalent bulk concentrates, to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines, and even crude allantoic fluid with improved speed, sensitivity, precision, and accuracy. Detection of 1 ?g/mL of protein is easily obtained using this method. The sensitivity of the method covers the range expected in vaccine preparations, including adjuvant-based vaccine. This LC/MS/MS approach substantially increases the selectivity, accuracy and precision used to quantify the amount of viral proteins in seasonal and pandemic influenza vaccines and reduce the time and effort to deliver influenza vaccines for public health use during the next influenza pandemic.
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Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins /B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/B antibodies.
BMC Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2011
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Botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs), extremely toxic proteins which can induce respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care or death. Treatment for botulism includes administration of antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication; therefore, rapid determination of human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory reported on Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based activity method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We also demonstrated that antibody-capture is effective for purification and concentration of BoNTs from complex matrices such as clinical samples. However, some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the enzymatic activity of BoNT, so the choice of antibody for toxin extraction is critical.
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Quantification of immunoreactive viral influenza proteins by immunoaffinity capture and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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An immunocapture isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IC-IDMS) method was developed to quantify antibody-bound influenza hemagglutinins (HA) in trivalent influenza vaccines (TIV). Currently, regulatory potency requirements for TIV require HA quantification based on the single radial immunodiffusion (SRID) assay, which is time-consuming, laborious, and requires production of large quantities of reagents globally. In IC-IDMS, antiserum to the HA of interest captured viral proteins that were in the correct conformation to be recognized by the antibodies. The captured proteins were digested, and evolutionarily conserved tryptic peptides were quantified using isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. IC-IDMS relies on antibody-antigen binding similar to SRID but incorporates the accuracy and precision of IDMS. Polyclonal antibodies (pAb-H3) prepared by injection of sheep with purified H3 HA captured 82.9% (55.26 fmol/?L) of the total H3 HA (66.69 fmol/?L) from the commercial TIV and 93.6% (57.23 fmol/?L) of the total H3 HA (61.14 fmol/?L) in purified virus. While other HA (H1, B), neuraminidase (N1, N2, NB), viral matrix proteins, and nucleoproteins were also captured by this antiserum, our results were not affected due to the specificity of the mass spectrometer. IC-IDMS is an accurate, precise, sensitive, and selective method to measure antibody-bound HA in purified virus and commercial vaccines.
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Detection and quantification of ricin in beverages using isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2011
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The toxic plant protein ricin has gained notoriety due to wide availability and potential use as a bioterrorism agent, with particular concern for food supply contamination. We have developed a sensitive and selective mass spectrometry-based method to detect ricin in tap water, 2% milk, apple juice, and orange juice. Ricin added to beverage matrices was extracted using antibody-bound magnetic beads and digested with trypsin. Absolute quantification was performed using isotope dilution mass spectrometry with a linear ion trap operating in product-ion-monitoring mode. The method allows for identification of ricin A chain and B chain and for distinction of ricin from ricin agglutinin within a single analytical run. Ricin-bound beads were also tested for deadenylase activity by incubation with a synthetic ssDNA oligomer. Depurination of the substrate by ricin was confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). This method was used successfully to extract ricin from each beverage matrix. The activity of recovered ricin was assessed, and quantification was achieved, with a limit of detection of 10 fmol/mL (0.64 ng/mL).
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Comparison of MALDI-TOF-MS and HPLC-ESI-MS/MS for endopeptidase activity-based quantification of Anthrax lethal factor in serum.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Diagnosing and treating anthrax at the earliest stage of disease is critical. We developed a method to diagnose anthrax at early stages of infection by detecting anthrax lethal factor (LF) at the attomol/mL level in plasma or serum. This method uses antibody capture and quantification of LF endoproteinase activity by isotope dilution matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). Many public health laboratories do not use MALDI-TOF-MS; thus, we have adapted the LF method for detection by electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem MS (MS/MS), which allowed comparison of both MS platforms for LF quantification. Calibration curves were linear from 0.05-2.5 ng/mL when measured after 2 h and from 0.005-1.0 ng/mL after 18 h incubation time. The limit of detection was 0.005 ng/mL using a 200 ?L sample. The coefficient of variation for quality control samples was 6-12% for both MS platforms. Samples used to perform cross-validation included 158 serum samples from a study in rabbits exposed to anthrax spores by inhalation. Some were treated with anthrax immune globulin before exposure. Concentrations measured by ESI-MS/MS matched those by MALDI-TOF-MS with p = 0.99 (r(2) = 0.997) and -0.25% mean relative difference (±9% standard deviation). This study shows that isotope dilution MALDI-TOF-MS is a robust and precise quantitative MS platform.
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Studies on botulinum neurotoxins type /C1 and mosaic/DC using Endopep-MS and proteomics.
FEMS Immunol. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2011
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are very potent toxins and category A biological threat agents. BoNT serotypes /C1 and /D affect birds and mammals and can be potentially lethal to humans. We have previously described the usefulness of the Endopep-MS method to detect the activity of BoNT A through G. This report was followed by the application of the method to clinical samples. The activity of the BoNT serotypes associated with human disease (/A, /B, /E, and /F) was successfully detected. However, BoNT/C and /D require different conditions for fast substrate cleavage, and a comprehensive description of a method to study BoNT/C and /D has not yet been reported. This work describes a new, optimized version of the Endopep-MS method to detect BoNTs /C1 and /DC either spiked directly in 20 ?L of reaction buffer or spiked in a larger volume of buffer and further extracted using antibody-coated magnetic beads. It was found that the incubation temperature at 42 °C was more effective for both toxin serotypes, but each toxin serotype has an optimum cleavage pH. Additionally, we describe for the first time a proteomics study using a fast trypsin digestion method and label-free quantification of these toxin serotypes.
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Analysis of active ricin and castor bean proteins in a ricin preparation, castor bean extract, and surface swabs from a public health investigation.
Forensic Sci. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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In late February 2008, law enforcement officials in Las Vegas, Nevada, discovered in a hotel room, a copy of The Anarchist Cookbook, suspected castor beans and a "white powder" thought to be a preparation of ricin. Ricin is a deadly toxin from the seed of the castor bean plant (Ricinus communis). The United States regulates the possession, use, and transfer of ricin and it is the only substance considered a warfare agent in both the Chemical and the Biological Weapons Conventions. Six samples obtained from the hotel room were analyzed by laboratories at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention using a panel of biological and mass spectrometric assays. The biological assays (real time-PCR, time resolved fluorescence and cytotoxicity) provided presumptive evidence of active ricin in each of the samples. This initial screen was followed by an in-depth analysis using a novel, state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based ricin functional assay and high sensitivity tandem mass spectrometry for protein identification. Mass spectrometric analysis positively identified ricin and confirmed that in each of the samples it was enzymatically active. The tandem mass spectrometry analysis used here is the most selective method available to detect ricin toxin. In each sample, ricin was unequivocally identified along with other R. communis plant proteins, including the highly homologous protein RCA120. Although database searches using tandem mass spectra acquired from the samples indicated that additional controlled substances were not present in these samples, the mass spectrometric results did provide extensive detail about the sample contents. To the best of our knowledge following a review of the available literature, this report describes the most detailed analysis of a white powder for a public health or forensic investigation involving ricin.
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Different substrate recognition requirements for cleavage of synaptobrevin-2 by Clostridium baratii and Clostridium botulinum type F neurotoxins.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2010
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause botulism, which can be fatal if it is untreated. BoNTs cleave proteins necessary for nerve transmission, resulting in paralysis. The in vivo protein target has been reported for all seven serotypes of BoNT, i.e., serotypes A to G. Knowledge of the cleavage sites has led to the development of several assays to detect BoNT based on its ability to cleave a peptide substrate derived from its in vivo protein target. Most serotypes of BoNT can be subdivided into subtypes, and previously, we demonstrated that three of the currently known subtypes of BoNT/F cleave a peptide substrate, a shortened version of synaptobrevin-2, between Q58 and K59. However, our research indicated that Clostridium baratii type F toxin did not cleave this peptide. In this study, we detail experiments demonstrating that Clostridium baratii type F toxin cleaves recombinant synaptobrevin-2 in the same location as that cleaved by proteolytic F toxin. In addition, we demonstrate that Clostridium baratii type F toxin can cleave a peptide substrate based on the sequence of synaptobrevin-2. This peptide substrate is an N-terminal extension of the original peptide substrate used for detection of other BoNT/F toxins and can be used to detect four of the currently known BoNT/F subtypes by mass spectrometry.
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Tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) in smokers in the United States: NHANES 2007-2008.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2010
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The tobacco-specific carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), a metabolite of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNA) 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), has been measured in urine samples from all participants aged 6 years and older from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007-2008. Participants with a serum cotinine concentration of ? 10 ng/mL were identified as tobacco users, primarily cigarette smokers. Regression models were developed to calculate geometric mean NNAL concentrations adjusted for serum cotinine, urinary creatinine, cigarettes per day, and Federal Trade Commission tar values of the cigarettes smoked. Significant differences were found by gender (p=0.003) and race/ethnicity (p=0.022 for non-Hispanic white versus non-Hispanic black smokers), but not by menthol type of the cigarettes. Females and non-Hispanic white smokers had the highest adjusted means for urinary NNAL (353 and 336 pg/mL, respectively). The results from this study demonstrated significant relationships between NNAL concentrations and serum cotinine (p<0.001) and urine creatinine (p<0.001). The joint effect of linear and quadratic terms for number of cigarettes smoked per day was also statistically significant (p=0.001). In addition to addressing current NNK exposure levels, these results will form a baseline for future estimates of tobacco users exposure to this carcinogen.
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Urine concentrations of a tobacco-specific nitrosamine carcinogen in the U.S. population from secondhand smoke exposure.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2010
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The tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) and its reduction product in the body, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL), are potent pulmonary carcinogens. We have measured total NNAL in the U.S. population of tobacco users and nonsmokers exposed to secondhand smoke.
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Extraction of BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F with a single, high affinity monoclonal antibody for detection of botulinum neurotoxin by Endopep-MS.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2010
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care or death. The best treatment for botulism includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which are most effective when administered early in the course of the intoxication. Early confirmation of human exposure to any serotype of BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, we focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating the seven serotypes (BoNT/A-G) in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F (the four serotypes that commonly affect humans) in clinical samples. We have previously reported the success of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. However, to check for any one of the four serotypes of BoNT/A, /B, /E, or /F, each sample is split into 4 aliquots, and tested for the specific serotypes separately. The discovery of a unique monoclonal antibody that recognizes all four serotypes of BoNT/A, /B, /E and /F allows us to perform simultaneous detection of all of them. When applied in conjunction with the Endopep-MS assay, the detection limit for each serotype of BoNT with this multi-specific monoclonal antibody is similar to that obtained when using other serotype-specific antibodies.
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Mass spectrometric analysis of multiple pertussis toxins and toxoids.
J. Biomed. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Bordetella pertussis (Bp) is the causative agent of pertussis, a vaccine preventable disease occurring primarily in children. In recent years, there has been increased reporting of pertussis. Current pertussis vaccines are acellular and consist of Bp proteins including the major virulence factor pertussis toxin (Ptx), a 5-subunit exotoxin. Variation in Ptx subunit amino acid (AA) sequence could possibly affect the immune response. A blind comparative mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of commercially available Ptx as well as the chemically modified toxoid (Ptxd) from licensed vaccines was performed to assess peptide sequence and AA coverage variability as well as relative amounts of Ptx subunits. Qualitatively, there are similarities among the various sources based on AA percent coverages and MS/MS fragmentation profiles. Additionally, based on a label-free mass spectrometry-based quantification method there is differential relative abundance of the subunits among the sources.
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Kinetics of lethal factor and poly-D-glutamic acid antigenemia during inhalation anthrax in rhesus macaques.
Infect. Immun.
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2009
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Systemic anthrax manifests as toxemia, rapidly disseminating septicemia, immune collapse, and death. Virulence factors include the anti-phagocytic gamma-linked poly-d-glutamic acid (PGA) capsule and two binary toxins, complexes of protective antigen (PA) with lethal factor (LF) and edema factor. We report the characterization of LF, PA, and PGA levels during the course of inhalation anthrax in five rhesus macaques. We describe bacteremia, blood differentials, and detection of the PA gene (pagA) by PCR analysis of the blood as confirmation of infection. For four of five animals tested, LF exhibited a triphasic kinetic profile. LF levels (mean +/- standard error [SE] between animals) were low at 24 h postchallenge (0.03 +/- 1.82 ng/ml), increased at 48 h to 39.53 +/- 0.12 ng/ml (phase 1), declined at 72 h to 13.31 +/- 0.24 ng/ml (phase 2), and increased at 96 h (82.78 +/- 2.01 ng/ml) and 120 h (185.12 +/- 5.68 ng/ml; phase 3). The fifth animal had an extended phase 2. PGA levels were triphasic; they were nondetectable at 24 h, increased at 48 h (2,037 +/- 2 ng/ml), declined at 72 h (14 +/- 0.2 ng/ml), and then increased at 96 h (3,401 +/- 8 ng/ml) and 120 h (6,004 +/- 187 ng/ml). Bacteremia was also triphasic: positive at 48 h, negative at 72 h, and positive at euthanasia. Blood neutrophils increased from preexposure (34.4% +/- 0.13%) to 48 h (75.6% +/- 0.08%) and declined at 72 h (62.4% +/- 0.05%). The 72-h declines may establish a "go/no go" turning point in infection, after which systemic bacteremia ensues and the hosts condition deteriorates. This study emphasizes the value of LF detection as a tool for early diagnosis of inhalation anthrax before the onset of fulminant systemic infection.
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Effect of mobile phase pH and organic content on LC-MS analysis of nucleoside and nucleotide HIV reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
J Chromatogr Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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The HIV-1 reverse transcriptase inhibitors tenofovir (TFV), emtricitabine (FTC), and lamivudine (3TC) are widely used in the treatment of HIV-1-infected persons and are now being considered as chemoprophylactic drugs for the prevention of sexual HIV transmission. Assays that measure these drugs after either oral or topical application are critical to the understanding of the pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs and allow a rational design of chemoprophylaxis modalities for evaluation in macaque models and human trials. We developed a high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS) method for sensitive measurement of FTC, 3TC, and TFV in plasma from macaques. To achieve detection limits of 10 pg on column, the plasma analytes were measured using acidic mobile phase and positive electrospray ionization MS-MS detection. However, this caused various chromatographic peak distortions, which were minimized by using mobile phase additives that induced ion-pairing interactions. Chromatographic peak tailing was minimized by adjusting the organic mobile phase concentration while considering the simultaneous effect of organic content on buffer and analyte pKa. Injection solution interferences were corrected by chromatographic peak focusing using column switching. The final method provides simultaneous measurement of all three analytes with a wide linear range of 1-3000 ng/mL using 0.1 mL plasma (10 pg on column) and coefficients of variation from 5% to 15% in the high ng/mL concentration range and from 16% to 20% in the low ng/mL concentration range.
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Amino acid analysis of peptides using isobaric-tagged isotope dilution LC-MS/MS.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2009
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Protein quantification using stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry requires the quantification of specific peptides unique to the protein of interest. Since these peptides are used as calibration standards, accurate and precise measurement of these target peptides is critical. This peptide measurement has typically been made by amino acid analysis (AAA) using absorbance or fluorescence detection methods. This approach can be limited to only a few amino acids, is often not traceable to high-quality reference standards, and not uncommonly has coefficients of variation (CVs) that exceed 10%. We report here an isobaric-tagged isotope dilution mass spectrometry method for AAA that provides excellent sensitivity, specificity, and precision; utilizes a broad range of amino acids; and uses U.S. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) amino acid standards for an accuracy base. The average CV for the method applied to three different peptides with measurements on 7 different days was 3.57% (range 2.72-4.20%). We applied this method to the quantification of three NIST standard peptides and hemagglutinin, an influenza virus surface protein.
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Increases in tobacco exposure biomarkers measured in non-smokers exposed to sidestream cigarette smoke under controlled conditions.
Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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National surveys of the exposure of non-smokers to secondhand smoke based on serum cotinine analyses have consistently identified certain groups within the population including children, males and non-Hispanic Blacks as having relatively greater exposure. Although these differences in mean serum cotinine concentrations probably represent differences in exposure of individuals in their daily lives, it is also possible that metabolic or other differences in response might influence the results. To better define the nature of those findings, we have examined the response of 40 non-smokers including both men and women and African-Americans and whites to sidestream (SS) cigarette smoke generated by a smoking machine under controlled conditions. In this study, participants were exposed to aged, diluted SS smoke (ADSS) generated in an environmental chamber with a mean air nicotine concentration of 140 microg m(-3) and 8.6 ppm CO for 4 h. Salivary cotinine was measured every 30 min, and serum cotinine samples were taken prior to, and 2 h after exposure. Urinary nicotine metabolites and NNAL, a tobacco-specific nitrosamine, and 4-aminobiphenyl (4-AB) haemoglobin adducts were also measured prior to and 2 h following the exposure. Under these uniform, controlled conditions, we found a similar response to ADSS smoke exposure among all the participants. In all cases a significant increase in biomarker concentration was noted following exposure, and the short-term increases in salivary cotinine concentration were quite similar at approximately 12 pg ml(-1) min(-1) among the groups. In this small study, no significant differences by gender or race were seen in the mean increases observed in cotinine, NNAL or 4-AB adducts following 4 h of exposure. Thus, our results are most consistent with a relatively uniform response in tobacco biomarker concentrations following short-term exposure to ADSS tobacco smoke, and suggest that biomarker measurements are capable of effectively indicating increases in exposure among groups of non-smokers.
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Levels in the U.S. population of those persistent organic pollutants (2003-2004) included in the Stockholm Convention or in other long range transboundary air pollution agreements.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2009
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We report human serum levels of selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) categorized by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity from a statistically representative sampling of the U.S. population during 2003 and 2004. The serum levels are for several chemicals listed in the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants, in the Geneva Convention on Long-Range Transboundary Air Pollution, or in both. Population data for each chemical are described by geometric means and percentiles and are categorized by age, sex, and race/ ethnicity. At the 90th and 95th percentile, the dioxin total toxic equivalency (TEQ), using the 2005 toxic equivalency factors (TEFs) for all persons 12 years of age and older was 30.9 pg/g lipid (95% confidence interval (CI): 28.2-33.9 pg/g lipid) and 37.8 pg/g lipid (95% CI: 35.3-43.4 pg/g lipid), respectively. At both the 90th and 95th percentiles total TEQ increased significantly with increasing age. The population geometric mean (GM) for the total PCB concentration (sum of 35 congeners) for all persons 12 years of age and older was 0.820 ng/g whole-weight (95% CI: 0.782-0.863 ng/g whole-weight) and 134.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 128.9-140.0 ng/g lipid). The population 95th percentile for the total PCB concentration for all persons 12 years of age and older was 3.53 ng/g whole-weight (95% CI: 3.23-3.92 ng/g whole-weight) and 531 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 498-570 ng/g lipid). The concentrations of aldrin, endrin, gamma-HCH, and o,p-DDT were
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Extraction and inhibition of enzymatic activity of botulinum neurotoxins/A1, /A2, and /A3 by a panel of monoclonal anti-BoNT/A antibodies.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2009
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are extremely potent toxins that are capable of causing death or respiratory failure leading to long-term intensive care. Treatment includes serotype-specific antitoxins, which must be administered early in the course of the intoxication. Rapidly determining human exposure to BoNT is an important public health goal. In previous work, our laboratory focused on developing Endopep-MS, a mass spectrometry-based endopeptidase method for detecting and differentiating BoNT/A-G serotypes in buffer and BoNT/A, /B, /E, and /F in clinical samples. We have previously reported the effectiveness of antibody-capture to purify and concentrate BoNTs from complex matrices, such as clinical samples. Because some antibodies inhibit or neutralize the activity of BoNT, the choice of antibody with which to extract the toxin is critical. In this work, we evaluated a panel of 16 anti-BoNT/A monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) for their ability to inhibit the in vitro activity of BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3 complex as well as the recombinant LC of A1. We also evaluated the same antibody panel for the ability to extract BoNT/A1, /A2, and /A3. Among the mAbs, there were significant differences in extraction efficiency, ability to extract BoNT/A subtypes, and inhibitory effect on BoNT catalytic activity. The mAbs binding the C-terminal portion of the BoNT/A heavy chain had optimal properties for use in the Endopep-MS assay.
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Targeted N-linked glycosylation analysis of H5N1 influenza hemagglutinin by selective sample preparation and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2009
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Using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) analysis of deglycosylated and intact glycopeptides from tryptic digests of whole influenza virus, we determined that the six predicted N-linked glycosylation sites within the N-terminal ectodomain of hemagglutinin (HA) from three selected H5N1 strains are occupied. The use of selective sample preparation strategies, including solid-phase extraction (SPE) of glycopeptides via hydrazide capture chemistry as well as hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), sufficiently reduced sample complexity to allow determination of occupied glycosylation sites. The specific amino acid sequence of the tryptic glycopeptides for the identified sites varied slightly among strains, but the overall locations of the occupied glycosylation sites were conserved in the protein sequence. We used this knowledge of glycosylation site occupation to examine the glycans attached to these occupied sites on HA for a reassortant H5N1 strain grown in embryonated chicken eggs. By applying mass spectrometry-based methodologies for examining glycosylation to the study of influenza virus proteins, we can better understand the effect that this post-translational modification has upon the virulence and antigenicity of emerging strains.
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Optimization of digestion parameters for protein quantification.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2009
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We present a rapid and efficient in-solution enzymatic digestion protocol suitable for mass spectrometry-based absolute protein quantification techniques. The digestion method employs RapiGest SF (an acid-labile surfactant), an excess amount of modified trypsin (enzyme-to-substrate ratio of 2.5:1), and an incubation time of 2 h. No reduction/alkylation reagents are used. Digestion parameters were varied systematically to monitor their effect on rate and completeness of digestion. To demonstrate the general applicability of the method, the optimization was done using a viral hemagglutinin (HA) as a model protein and then applied to ricin, a potent protein toxin extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). The parameters that were optimized included incubation time, concentration of RapiGest SF, enzyme-to-substrate ratio, and incubation temperature. The optimization was done by comparing the yields from two protein-specific peptides originating from two different sites of the HA protein. The analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in multiple reaction monitoring mode using isotopically labeled peptide standards for quantification.
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Trends in blood lead levels and blood lead testing among US children aged 1 to 5 years, 1988-2004.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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To evaluate trends in childrens blood lead levels and the extent of blood lead testing of children at risk for lead poisoning from national surveys conducted during a 16-year period in the United States.
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On-line coupling of anion exchange and ion-pair chromatography for measurement of intracellular triphosphate metabolites of reverse transcriptase inhibitors.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2009
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We developed an automated on-line weak anion exchange (WAX) solid-phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with ion-pair (IP) chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) detection for quantitatively measuring triphosphorylated metabolites of three reverse transcriptase inhibitors (RTI). The administered pro-drugs were Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF), Emtricitabine (FTC) and Lamivudine (3TC). Their intracellular metabolites Tenofovir-diphosphate (TFV-DP), Emtricitabine-triphosphate (FTC-TP), and Lamivudine-triphosphate (3TC-TP) were measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). We coupled the WAX and IP chromatography systems using a combination of 6-port and 10-port switching valves, and we mixed the WAX elute with 1,5-dimethyl-hexyl-amine before IP chromatography separation. Multiple waste outlets allowed for eliminating potential matrix components interfering with MS/MS detection. Limits of detection were 9, 200 and 75 pg per sample for TFV-DP (448/176 m/z), FTC-TP (488/130 m/z) and 3TC-TP (468/119 m/z), respectively.
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Improved detection of botulinum neurotoxin serotype A by Endopep-MS through peptide substrate modification.
Anal. Biochem.
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) are a family of seven toxin serotypes that are the most toxic substances known to humans. Intoxication with BoNT causes flaccid paralysis and can lead to death if untreated with serotype-specific antibodies. Supportive care, including ventilation, may be necessary. Rapid and sensitive detection of BoNT is necessary for timely clinical confirmation of clinical botulism. Previously, our laboratory developed a fast and sensitive mass spectrometry (MS) method termed the Endopep-MS assay. The BoNT serotypes are rapidly detected and differentiated by extracting the toxin with serotype-specific antibodies and detecting the unique and serotype-specific cleavage products of peptide substrates that mimic the sequence of the BoNT native targets. To further improve the sensitivity of the Endopep-MS assay, we report here the optimization of the substrate peptide for the detection of BoNT/A. Modifications on the terminal groups of the original peptide substrate with acetylation and amidation significantly improved the detection of BoNT/A cleavage products. The replacement of some internal amino acid residues with single or multiple substitutions led to further improvement. An optimized peptide increased assay sensitivity 5-fold with toxin spiked into buffer solution or different biological matrices.
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Two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography separation and tandem mass spectrometry detection of atrazine and its metabolic and hydrolysis products in urine.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
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Atrazine [6-chloro-N-ethyl-N-(1-methylethyl)-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine] is the most widely used herbicide in the United States. In recent years, there has been controversy about atrazines potential endocrine/reproductive and neurological adverse effects in wildlife and humans. The controversy triggered several environmental and epidemiologic studies, and it generated needs for sensitive and selective analytical methods for the quantification of atrazine, atrazine metabolites, and degradation or hydrolysis products. We developed a two-dimensional high performance liquid chromatography (2D-HPLC) method with isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry detection to measure atrazine in urine, along with 11 atrazine metabolites and hydrolysis products, including 6-chloro (Cl), 6-mercapto (Mer) and 6-hydroxy (OH) derivatives, and their desethyl, desisopropyl and diamino atrazine analogs (DEA, DIA and DAA, respectively). The 2D-HPLC system incorporated strong cation exchange and reversed phase separation modes. This versatile approach can be used for the quantitative determination of all 12 compounds in experimental animals for toxicological studies. The method requires only 10 ?L of urine, and the limits of detection (LODs) range from 10 to 50 ?g/L. The method can also be applied to assess atrazine exposure in occupational settings by measurement of 6-Cl and 6-Mer analogs, which requires only 100 ?L of urine with LODs of 1-5 ?g/L. Finally, in combination with automated off-line solid phase extraction before 2D-HPLC, the method can also be applied in non-occupational environmental exposure studies for the determination of -6-Cl and 6-Mer metabolites, using 500 ?L of urine and LODs of 0.1-0.5 ?g/L.
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Subtyping botulinum neurotoxins by sequential multiple endoproteases in-gel digestion coupled with mass spectrometry.
Anal. Chem.
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Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is one of the most toxic substances known. BoNT is classified into seven distinct serotypes labeled A-G. Among individual serotypes, researchers have identified subtypes based on amino acid variability within a serotype and toxin variants with minor amino acid sequence differences within a subtype. BoNT subtype identification is valuable for tracing and tracking bacterial pathogens. A proteomics approach is useful for BoNT subtyping since botulism is caused by botulinum neurotoxin and does not require the presence of the bacteria or its DNA. Enzymatic digestion and peptide identification using tandem mass spectrometry determines toxin protein sequences. However, with the conventional one-step digestion method, producing sufficient numbers of detectable peptides to cover the entire protein sequence is difficult, and incomplete sequence coverage results in uncertainty in distinguishing BoNT subtypes and toxin variants because of high sequence similarity. We report here a method of multiple enzymes and sequential in-gel digestion (MESID) to characterize the BoNT protein sequence. Complementary peptide detection from toxin digestions has yielded near-complete sequence coverage for all seven BoNT serotypes. Application of the method to a BoNT-contaminated carrot juice sample resulted in the identification of 98.4% protein sequence which led to a confident determination of the toxin subtype.
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De novo subtype and strain identification of botulinum neurotoxin type B through toxin proteomics.
Anal Bioanal Chem
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Botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) cause the disease botulism, which can be lethal if untreated. There are seven known serotypes of BoNT, A-G, defined by their response to antisera. Many serotypes are distinguished into differing subtypes based on amino acid sequence, and many subtypes are further differentiated into toxin variants. Previous work in our laboratory described the use of a proteomics approach to distinguish subtype BoNT/A1 from BoNT/A2 where BoNT identities were confirmed after searching data against a database containing protein sequences of all known BoNT/A subtypes. We now describe here a similar approach to differentiate subtypes BoNT/B1, /B2, /B3, /B4, and /B5. Additionally, to identify new subtypes or hitherto unpublished amino acid substitutions, we created an amino acid substitution database covering every possible amino acid change. We used this database to differentiate multiple toxin variants within subtypes of BoNT/B1 and B2. More importantly, with our amino acid substitution database, we were able to identify a novel BoNT/B subtype, designated here as BoNT/B7. These techniques allow for subtype and strain level identification of both known and unknown BoNT/B rapidly with no DNA required.
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