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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Regulatory Polymorphisms in Human DBH Affect Peripheral Gene Expression and Sympathetic Activity.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Rationale: Dopamine ?-hydroxylase (DBH) catalyzes the conversion of dopamine to norepinephrine in the CNS and peripherally. DBH variants are associated with large changes in circulating DBH and implicated in multiple disorders; yet causal relationships and tissue-specific effects remain unresolved. Objective: To characterize regulatory variants in DBH, effect on mRNA expression, and role in modulating sympathetic tone and disease risk. Methods and Results: Analysis of DBH mRNA in human tissues confirmed high expression in the locus coeruleus (LC) and adrenal gland, but also in sympathetically innervated organs (liver>lung>heart). Allele-specific mRNA assays revealed pronounced allelic expression differences in the liver (2-11-fold) attributable to promoter rs1611115 and exon 2 rs1108580, but only small differences in LC and adrenals. These alleles were also associated with significantly reduced mRNA expression in liver and lung. Although DBH protein is expressed in other sympathetically innervated organs, mRNA levels were too low for analysis. In mice, hepatic Dbh mRNA levels correlated with cardiovascular risk phenotypes. The minor alleles of rs1611115 and rs1108580 were associated with sympathetic phenotypes including angina pectoris. Testing combined effects of these variants suggested protection against myocardial infarction in three separate clinical cohorts. Conclusions: We demonstrate profound effects of DBH variants on expression in two sympathetically innervated organs, liver and lung, but not in adrenals and brain. Preliminary results demonstrate an association of these variants with clinical phenotypes responsive to peripheral sympathetic tone. We hypothesize that in addition to endocrine effects via circulating DBH and norepinephrine, the variants act in sympathetically innervated target organs.
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Liver-directed gene therapy corrects cardiovascular lesions in feline mucopolysaccharidosis type I.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Patients with mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS I), a genetic deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme ?-l-iduronidase (IDUA), exhibit accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in tissues, with resulting diverse clinical manifestations including neurological, ocular, skeletal, and cardiac disease. MPS I is currently treated with hematopoietic stem cell transplantation or weekly enzyme infusions, but these therapies have significant drawbacks for patient safety and quality of life and do not effectively address some of the most critical clinical sequelae, such as life-threatening cardiac valve involvement. Using the naturally occurring feline model of MPS I, we tested liver-directed gene therapy as a means of achieving long-term systemic IDUA reconstitution. We treated four MPS I cats at 3-5 mo of age with an adeno-associated virus serotype 8 vector expressing feline IDUA from a liver-specific promoter. We observed sustained serum enzyme activity for 6 mo at ?30% of normal levels in one animal, and in excess of normal levels in three animals. Remarkably, treated animals not only demonstrated reductions in glycosaminoglycan storage in most tissues, but most also exhibited complete resolution of aortic valve lesions, an effect that has not been previously observed in this animal model or in MPS I patients treated with current therapies. These data point to clinically meaningful benefits of the robust enzyme expression achieved with hepatic gene transfer that extend beyond the economic and quality of life advantages over lifelong enzyme infusions.
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HMG-coenzyme A reductase inhibition, type 2 diabetes, and bodyweight: evidence from genetic analysis and randomised trials.
Daniel I Swerdlow, David Preiss, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Michael V Holmes, Jorgen E L Engmann, Tina Shah, Reecha Sofat, Stefan Stender, Paul C D Johnson, Robert A Scott, Maarten Leusink, Niek Verweij, Stephen J Sharp, Yiran Guo, Claudia Giambartolomei, Christina Chung, Anne Peasey, Antoinette Amuzu, KaWah Li, Jutta Palmen, Philip Howard, Jackie A Cooper, Fotios Drenos, Yun R Li, Gordon Lowe, John Gallacher, Marlene C W Stewart, Ioanna Tzoulaki, Sarah G Buxbaum, Daphne L van der A, Nita G Forouhi, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Yvonne T van der Schouw, Renate B Schnabel, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Růžena Kubinova, Miglė Bacevičienė, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Andrzej Pająk, Romanvan Topor-Madry, Urszula Stepaniak, Sofia Malyutina, Damiano Baldassarre, Bengt Sennblad, Elena Tremoli, Ulf de Faire, Fabrizio Veglia, Ian Ford, J Wouter Jukema, Rudi G J Westendorp, Gert Jan de Borst, Pim A de Jong, Ale Algra, Wilko Spiering, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Olaf H Klungel, Anthonius de Boer, Pieter A Doevendans, Charles B Eaton, Jennifer G Robinson, David Duggan, , John Kjekshus, John R Downs, Antonio M Gotto, Anthony C Keech, Roberto Marchioli, Gianni Tognoni, Peter S Sever, Neil R Poulter, David D Waters, Terje R Pedersen, Pierre Amarenco, Haruo Nakamura, John J V McMurray, James D Lewsey, Daniel I Chasman, Paul M Ridker, Aldo P Maggioni, Luigi Tavazzi, Kausik K Ray, Sreenivasa Rao Kondapally Seshasai, JoAnn E Manson, Jackie F Price, Peter H Whincup, Richard W Morris, Debbie A Lawlor, George Davey Smith, Yoav Ben-Shlomo, Pamela J Schreiner, Myriam Fornage, David S Siscovick, Mary Cushman, Meena Kumari, Nick J Wareham, W M Monique Verschuren, Susan Redline, Sanjay R Patel, John C Whittaker, Anders Hamsten, Joseph A Delaney, Caroline Dale, Tom R Gaunt, Andrew Wong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, Sekar Kathiresan, Berta A Castillo, Pim van der Harst, Eric J Brunner, Anne Tybjaerg-Hansen, Michael G Marmot, Ronald M Krauss, Michael Tsai, Josef Coresh, Ronald C Hoogeveen, Bruce M Psaty, Leslie A Lange, Hakon Hakonarson, Frank Dudbridge, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Mika Kivimäki, Nicholas J Timpson, Claudia Langenberg, Folkert W Asselbergs, Mikhail Voevoda, Martin Bobak, Hynek Pikhart, James G Wilson, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Aroon D Hingorani, Naveed Sattar.
Lancet
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Statins increase the risk of new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus. We aimed to assess whether this increase in risk is a consequence of inhibition of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), the intended drug target.
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In vivo evaluation of adeno-associated virus gene transfer in airways of mice with acute or chronic respiratory infection.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2014
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Abstract Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) often suffer chronic lung infection with concomitant inflammation, a setting that may reduce the efficacy of gene transfer. While gene therapy development for CF often involves viral-based vectors, little is known about gene transfer in the context of an infected airway. In this study, three mouse models were established to evaluate adeno-associated virus (AAV) gene transfer in such an environment. Bordetella bronchiseptica RB50 was used in a chronic, nonlethal respiratory infection in C57BL/6 mice. An inoculum of ?10(5) CFU allowed B. bronchiseptica RB50 to persist in the upper and lower respiratory tracts for at least 21 days. In this infection model, administration of an AAV vector on day 2 resulted in 2.8-fold reduction of reporter gene expression compared with that observed in uninfected controls. Postponement of AAV administration to day 14 resulted in an even greater (eightfold) reduction of reporter gene expression, when compared with uninfected controls. In another infection model, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 was used to infect surfactant protein D (SP-D) or surfactant protein A (SP-A) knockout (KO) mice. With an inoculum of ?10(5) CFU, infection persisted for 2 days in the nasal cavity of either mouse model. Reporter gene expression was approximately ?2.5-fold lower compared with uninfected mice. In the SP-D KO model, postponement of AAV administration to day 9 postinfection resulted in only a two fold reduction in reporter gene expression, when compared with expression seen in uninfected controls. These results confirm that respiratory infections, both ongoing and recently resolved, decrease the efficacy of AAV-mediated gene transfer.
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Genome-wide admixture and association study of serum iron, ferritin, transferrin saturation and total iron binding capacity in African Americans.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2014
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Iron is an essential component of many important proteins and enzymes, including hemoglobin, which is responsible for carrying oxygen to the cells. African Americans (AAs) have a greater prevalence of iron deficiency compared with European Americans. We conducted genome-wide admixture-mapping and association studies for serum iron, serum ferritin, transferrin saturation (SAT) and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) in 2347 AAs participating in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS). Follow-up replication analyses for JHS iron-trait associated SNPs were conducted in 329 AA participants in the Healthy Aging in Neighborhoods of Diversity across the Life Span study (HANDLS). Higher estimated proportions of global African ancestry were significantly associated with lower levels of iron (P = 2.4 × 10(-5)), SAT (P = 0.0019) and TIBC (P = 0.042). We observed significant associations (P < 5 × 10(-8)) between serum TIBC levels and two independent SNPs around TF on chromosome 3, the first report of a genome-wide significant second independent signal in this region, and SNPs near two novel genes: HDGFL1 on chromosome 6 and MAF on chromosome 16. We also observed significant associations between ferritin levels and SNPs near GAB3 on chromosome X. We replicated our two independent associations at TF and our association at GAB3 in HANDLS. Our study provides evidence for both shared and unique genetic risk factors that are associated with iron-related measures in AAs. The top two variants in TF explain 11.2% of the total variation in TIBC levels in AAs after accounting for age, gender, body mass index and background ancestry.
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Adeno-Associated Virus 9-Mediated Airway Expression of Antibody Protects Old and Immunodeficient Mice against Influenza Virus.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Influenza causes serious and sometimes fatal disease in individuals at risk due to advanced age or immunodeficiencies. Despite progress in the development of seasonal influenza vaccines, vaccine efficacy in elderly and immunocompromised individuals remains low. We recently developed a passive immunization strategy using an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector to deliver a neutralizing anti-influenza antibody at the site of infection, the nasal airways. Here we show that young, old, and immunodeficient (severe combined immunodeficient [SCID]) mice that were treated intranasally with AAV9 vector expressing a modified version of the broadly neutralizing anti-influenza antibody FI6 were protected and exhibited no signs of disease following an intranasal challenge with the mouse-adapted H1N1 influenza strain A/Puerto Rico/8/1934(H1N1) (PR8) (Mt. Sinai strain). Nonvaccinated mice succumbed to the PR8 challenge due to severe weight loss. We propose that airway-directed AAV9 passive immunization against airborne infectious agents may be beneficial in elderly and immunocompromised patients, for whom there still exists an unmet need for effective vaccination against influenza.
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The special case of gene therapy pricing.
Nat. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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Gene therapy companies that pursue high, one-time payments for their products risk a backlash from payors. A better solution may lie in a pay-for-performance model.
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Association of exome sequences with plasma C-reactive protein levels in >9000 participants.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration is a heritable systemic marker of inflammation that is associated with cardiovascular disease risk. Genome-wide association studies have identified CRP-associated common variants associated in ?25 genes. Our aims were to apply exome sequencing to (1) assess whether the candidate loci contain rare coding variants associated with CRP levels and (2) perform an exome-wide search for rare variants in novel genes associated with CRP levels. We exome-sequenced 6050 European-Americans (EAs) and 3109 African-Americans (AAs) from the NHLBI-ESP and the CHARGE consortia, and performed association tests of sequence data with measured CRP levels. In single-variant tests across candidate loci, a novel rare (minor allele frequency = 0.16%) CRP-coding variant (rs77832441-A; p.Thr59Met) was associated with 53% lower mean CRP levels (P = 2.9 × 10(-6)). We replicated the association of rs77832441 in an exome array analysis of 11 414 EAs (P = 3.0 × 10(-15)). Despite a strong effect on CRP levels, rs77832441 was not associated with inflammation-related phenotypes including coronary heart disease. We also found evidence for an AA-specific association of APOE-?2 rs7214 with higher CRP levels. At the exome-wide significance level (P < 5.0 × 10(-8)), we confirmed associations for reported common variants of HNF1A, CRP, IL6R and TOMM40-APOE. In gene-based tests, a burden of rare/lower frequency variation in CRP in EAs (P ? 6.8 × 10(-4)) and in retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor ? (RORA) in AAs (P = 1.7 × 10(-3)) were associated with CRP levels at the candidate gene level (P < 2.0 × 10(-3)). This inquiry did not elucidate novel genes, but instead demonstrated that variants distributed across the allele frequency spectrum within candidate genes contribute to CRP levels.
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Trans-ethnic meta-analysis of white blood cell phenotypes.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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White blood cell (WBC) count is a common clinical measure used as a predictor of certain aspects of human health, including immunity and infection status. WBC count is also a complex trait that varies among individuals and ancestry groups. Differences in linkage disequilibrium structure and heterogeneity in allelic effects are expected to play a role in the associations observed between populations. Prior genome-wide association study (GWAS) meta-analyses have identified genomic loci associated with WBC and its subtypes, but much of the heritability of these phenotypes remains unexplained. Using GWAS summary statistics for over 50 000 individuals from three diverse populations (Japanese, African-American and European ancestry), a Bayesian model methodology was employed to account for heterogeneity between ancestry groups. This approach was used to perform a trans-ethnic meta-analysis of total WBC, neutrophil and monocyte counts. Ten previously known associations were replicated and six new loci were identified, including several regions harboring genes related to inflammation and immune cell function. Ninety-five percent credible interval regions were calculated to narrow the association signals and fine-map the putatively causal variants within loci. Finally, a conditional analysis was performed on the most significant SNPs identified by the trans-ethnic meta-analysis (MA), and nine secondary signals within loci previously associated with WBC or its subtypes were identified. This work illustrates the potential of trans-ethnic analysis and ascribes a critical role to multi-ethnic cohorts and consortia in exploring complex phenotypes with respect to variants that lie outside the European-biased GWAS pool.
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Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94)
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Whole-exome imputation of sequence variants identified two novel alleles associated with adult body height in African Americans.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Adult body height is a quantitative trait for which genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified numerous loci, primarily in European populations. These loci, comprising common variants, explain <10% of the phenotypic variance in height. We searched for novel associations between height and common (minor allele frequency, MAF ?5%) or infrequent (0.5% < MAF < 5%) variants across the exome in African Americans. Using a reference panel of 1692 African Americans and 471 Europeans from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute's (NHLBI) Exome Sequencing Project (ESP), we imputed whole-exome sequence data into 13 719 African Americans with existing array-based GWAS data (discovery). Variants achieving a height-association threshold of P < 5E-06 in the imputed dataset were followed up in an independent sample of 1989 African Americans with whole-exome sequence data (replication). We used P < 2.5E-07 (=0.05/196 779 variants) to define statistically significant associations in meta-analyses combining the discovery and replication sets (N = 15 708). We discovered and replicated three independent loci for association: 5p13.3/C5orf22/rs17410035 (MAF = 0.10, ? = 0.64 cm, P = 8.3E-08), 13q14.2/SPRYD7/rs114089985 (MAF = 0.03, ? = 1.46 cm, P = 4.8E-10) and 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 (MAF = 0.30; ? = 0.47 cm; P = 4.7E-09). Conditional analyses suggested 5p13.3 (C5orf22/rs17410035) and 13q14.2 (SPRYD7/rs114089985) may harbor novel height alleles independent of previous GWAS-identified variants (r(2) with GWAS loci <0.01); whereas 17q23.3/GH2/rs2006123 was correlated with GWAS-identified variants in European and African populations. Notably, 13q14.2/rs114089985 is infrequent in African Americans (MAF = 3%), extremely rare in European Americans (MAF = 0.03%), and monomorphic in Asian populations, suggesting it may be an African-American-specific height allele. Our findings demonstrate that whole-exome imputation of sequence variants can identify low-frequency variants and discover novel variants in non-European populations.
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AAV vectors expressing LDLR gain-of-function variants demonstrate increased efficacy in mouse models of familial hypercholesterolemia.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2014
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Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder that arises because of loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia is a candidate for gene therapy using adeno-associated viral vectors. Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) and inducible degrader of LDLR (IDOL) negatively regulate LDLR protein and could dampen adeno-associated viral vector encoded LDLR expression.
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Association between alcohol and cardiovascular disease: Mendelian randomisation analysis based on individual participant data.
Michael V Holmes, Caroline E Dale, Luisa Zuccolo, Richard J Silverwood, Yiran Guo, Zheng Ye, David Prieto-Merino, Abbas Dehghan, Stella Trompet, Andrew Wong, Alana Cavadino, Dagmar Drogan, Sandosh Padmanabhan, Shanshan Li, Ajay Yesupriya, Maarten Leusink, Johan Sundström, Jaroslav A Hubacek, Hynek Pikhart, Daniel I Swerdlow, Andrie G Panayiotou, Svetlana A Borinskaya, Chris Finan, Sonia Shah, Karoline B Kuchenbaecker, Tina Shah, Jorgen Engmann, Lasse Folkersen, Per Eriksson, Fulvio Ricceri, Olle Melander, Carlotta Sacerdote, Dale M Gamble, Sruti Rayaprolu, Owen A Ross, Stela McLachlan, Olga Vikhireva, Ivonne Sluijs, Robert A Scott, Vera Adamkova, Leon Flicker, Frank M van Bockxmeer, Christine Power, Pedro Marques-Vidal, Tom Meade, Michael G Marmot, José M Ferro, Sofia Paulos-Pinheiro, Steve E Humphries, Philippa J Talmud, Irene Mateo Leach, Niek Verweij, Allan Linneberg, Tea Skaaby, Pieter A Doevendans, Maarten J Cramer, Pim van der Harst, Olaf H Klungel, Nicole F Dowling, Anna F Dominiczak, Meena Kumari, Andrew N Nicolaides, Cornelia Weikert, Heiner Boeing, Shah Ebrahim, Tom R Gaunt, Jackie F Price, Lars Lannfelt, Anne Peasey, Růžena Kubinova, Andrzej Pająk, Sofia Malyutina, Mikhail I Voevoda, Abdonas Tamosiunas, Anke H Maitland-van der Zee, Paul E Norman, Graeme J Hankey, Manuela M Bergmann, Albert Hofman, Oscar H Franco, Jackie Cooper, Jutta Palmen, Wilko Spiering, Pim A de Jong, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy, André G Uitterlinden, M Arfan Ikram, Ian Ford, Elina Hyppönen, Osvaldo P Almeida, Nicholas J Wareham, Kay-Tee Khaw, Anders Hamsten, Lise Lotte N Husemoen, Anne Tjønneland, Janne S Tolstrup, Eric Rimm, Joline W J Beulens, W M Monique Verschuren, N Charlotte Onland-Moret, Marten H Hofker, S Goya Wannamethee, Peter H Whincup, Richard Morris, Astrid M Vicente, Hugh Watkins, Martin Farrall, J Wouter Jukema, James Meschia, L Adrienne Cupples, Stephen J Sharp, Myriam Fornage, Charles Kooperberg, Andrea Z LaCroix, James Y Dai, Matthew B Lanktree, David S Siscovick, Eric Jorgenson, Bonnie Spring, Josef Coresh, Yun R Li, Sarah G Buxbaum, Pamela J Schreiner, R Curtis Ellison, Michael Y Tsai, Sanjay R Patel, Susan Redline, Andrew D Johnson, Ron C Hoogeveen, Hakon Hakonarson, Jerome I Rotter, Eric Boerwinkle, Paul I W de Bakker, Mika Kivimäki, Folkert W Asselbergs, Naveed Sattar, Debbie A Lawlor, John Whittaker, George Davey Smith, Kenneth Mukamal, Bruce M Psaty, James G Wilson, Leslie A Lange, Ajna Hamidovic, Aroon D Hingorani, Børge G Nordestgaard, Martin Bobak, David A Leon, Claudia Langenberg, Tom M Palmer, Alex P Reiner, Brendan J Keating, Frank Dudbridge, Juan P Casas, .
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2014
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To use the rs1229984 variant in the alcohol dehydrogenase 1B gene (ADH1B) as an instrument to investigate the causal role of alcohol in cardiovascular disease.
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Loss-of-function mutations in APOC3, triglycerides, and coronary disease.
N. Engl. J. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Plasma triglyceride levels are heritable and are correlated with the risk of coronary heart disease. Sequencing of the protein-coding regions of the human genome (the exome) has the potential to identify rare mutations that have a large effect on phenotype.
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Formation of newly synthesized adeno-associated virus capsids in the cell nucleus.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) particles inside the nucleus of a HEK 293 cell are shown by electron microscopy. Cells have been triple-transfected for vector production and were analyzed for capsid formation three days later. Newly assembled particle are visible as seemingly unstructured conglomerates or crystal-like arrays.
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Leveraging population admixture to characterize the heritability of complex traits.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
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Despite recent progress on estimating the heritability explained by genotyped SNPs (h(2)g), a large gap between h(2)g and estimates of total narrow-sense heritability (h(2)) remains. Explanations for this gap include rare variants or upward bias in family-based estimates of h(2) due to shared environment or epistasis. We estimate h(2) from unrelated individuals in admixed populations by first estimating the heritability explained by local ancestry (h(2)?). We show that h(2)? = 2FSTC?(1 - ?)h(2), where FSTC measures frequency differences between populations at causal loci and ? is the genome-wide ancestry proportion. Our approach is not susceptible to biases caused by epistasis or shared environment. We applied this approach to the analysis of 13 phenotypes in 21,497 African-American individuals from 3 cohorts. For height and body mass index (BMI), we obtained h(2) estimates of 0.55 ± 0.09 and 0.23 ± 0.06, respectively, which are larger than estimates of h(2)g in these and other data but smaller than family-based estimates of h(2).
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Intrathecal Gene Therapy Corrects CNS Pathology in a Feline Model of Mucopolysaccharidosis I.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2014
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Enzyme replacement therapy has revolutionized the treatment of the somatic manifestations of lysosomal storage diseases (LSD), although it has been ineffective in treating central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of these disorders. The development of neurotrophic vectors based on novel serotypes of adeno-associated viruses (AAV) such as AAV9 provides a potential platform for stable and efficient delivery of enzymes to the CNS. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of intrathecal delivery of AAV9 expressing ?-l-iduronidase (IDUA) in a previously described feline model of mucopolysaccharidosis I (MPS I). A neurological phenotype has not been defined in these animals, so our analysis focused on the biochemical and histological CNS abnormalities characteristic of MPS I. Five MPS I cats were dosed with AAV9 vector at 4-7 months of age and followed for 6 months. Treated animals demonstrated virtually complete correction of biochemical and histological manifestations of the disease throughout the CNS. There was a range of antibody responses against IDUA in this cohort which reduced detectable enzyme without substantially reducing efficacy; there was no evidence of toxicity. This first demonstration of the efficacy of intrathecal gene therapy in a large animal model of a LSD should pave the way for translation into the clinic.Molecular Therapy (2014); doi:10.1038/mt.2014.135.
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Increased mucosal CD4+ T cell activation in rhesus macaques following vaccination with an adenoviral vector.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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The possibility that vaccination with adenovirus (AdV) vectors increased mucosal T cell activation remains a central hypothesis to explain the potential enhancement of HIV acquisition within the Step trial. Modeling this within rhesus macaques is complicated because human adenoviruses, including human adenovirus type 5 (HAdV-5), are not endogenous to macaques. Here, we tested whether vaccination with a rhesus macaque-derived adenoviral vector (simian adenovirus 7 [SAdV-7]) enhances mucosal T cell activation within rhesus macaques. Following intramuscular SAdV-7 vaccination, we observed a pronounced increase in SAdV-7-specific CD4(+) T cell responses in peripheral blood and, more dramatically, in rectal mucosa tissue. Vaccination also induced a significant increase in the frequency of activated memory CD4(+) T cells in SAdV-7- and HAdV-5-vaccinated animals in the rectal mucosa but not in peripheral blood. These fluctuations within the rectal mucosa were also associated with a pronounced decrease in the relative frequency of naive resting CD4(+) T cells. Together, these results indicate that peripheral vaccination with an AdV vector can increase the activation of mucosal CD4(+) T cells, potentially providing an experimental model to further evaluate the role of host-vector interactions in increased HIV acquisition after AdV vector vaccination.
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T wave inversions in leads with ST elevations in patients with acute anterior ST elevation myocardial infarction is associated with patency of the infarct related artery.
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Following reperfusion therapy, early T wave inversions (TWI) have been shown to be a marker of successful reperfusion. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of TWI on the presenting ECG with spontaneous reperfusion as assessed by coronary angiography in patients with ST elevation (STE) myocardial infarction (STEMI).
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The structure of AAVrh32.33, a novel gene delivery vector.
J. Struct. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2014
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The Adeno-associated viruses (AAVs) are being developed as gene delivery vectors for therapeutic clinical applications. However, the host antibody immune response directed against their capsid, prevalent in ?40-70% of the general population, depending on serotype, negatively impacts efficacy. AAVrh32.33, a novel vector developed from rhesus macaques isolates, has significantly lower seroprevalence in human populations compared to AAV2 and AAV8, which are both in clinical use. To better understand the capsid determinants of this differential immune response to AAVrh32.33, its structure was determined by X-ray crystallography to 3.5 Å resolution. The capsid viral protein (VP) structure conserves the eight-stranded ?-barrel core and ?A helix reported for other parvoviruses and the distinct capsid surface topology of the AAVs: a depression at the icosahedral twofold axis, three protrusions surrounding the threefold axis, and a depression surround a cylindrical channel at the fivefold axis. A comparison to AAV2, AAV4, and AAV8, to which AAVrh32.33 shares ?61%, ?81%, and ?63% identity, respectively, identified differences in previously defined AAV VP structurally variable regions (VR-1 to VR-IX) which function as receptor attachment, transduction efficiency, and/or antigenic determinants. This structure thus provides a 3D platform for capsid engineering in ongoing efforts to develop AAVrh32.33, as well as other AAV serotypes, for tissue targeted gene-therapy applications with vectors that can evade pre-existing antibody responses against the capsid. These features are required for full clinical realization of the promising AAV gene delivery system.
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Challenges in using ¹?F-fluorodeoxyglucose-PET-CT to define a biological radiotherapy boost volume in locally advanced pancreatic cancer.
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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The best method of identifying regions within pancreatic tumours that might benefit from an increased radiotherapy dose is not known. We investigated the utility of pre-treatment FDG-PET in predicting the spatial distribution of residual metabolic activity following chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC).
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Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic associations across phenotypes and might explain a part of MetS correlated genetic architecture. These findings warrant further functional investigation.
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AAV8 capsid variable regions at the two-fold symmetry axis contribute to high liver transduction by mediating nuclear entry and capsid uncoating.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) is a promising vector for liver-directed gene therapy. Although efficient uncoating of viral capsids has been implicated in AAV8?s robust liver transduction, much about the biology of AAV8 hepatotropism remains unclear. Our study investigated the structural basis of AAV8 liver transduction efficiency by constructing chimeric vector capsids containing sequences derived from AAV8 and AAV2 - a highly homologous yet poorly hepatotropic serotype. Engineered vectors containing capsid variable regions (VR) VII & IX from AAV8 in an AAV2 backbone mediated near AAV8-like transduction in mouse liver, with higher numbers of chimeric genomes detected in whole liver cells and isolated nuclei. Interestingly, chimeric capsids within liver nuclei also uncoated similarly to AAV8 by 6 weeks after administration, in contrast with AAV2, of which a significantly smaller proportion were uncoated. This study links specific AAV capsid regions to the transduction ability of a clinically relevant AAV serotype.
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Assessment of perfusion and wall-motion abnormalities and transient ischemic dilation in regadenoson stress cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging.
Int J Cardiovasc Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Vasodilator first-pass stress cardiac magnetic resonance perfusion imaging [stress cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)] is a reliable, noninvasive method for evaluating myocardial ischemia; however, it does not routinely evaluate metrics such as wall-motion abnormality (WMA) and transient ischemic dilation (TID). Using the new selective A2A adenosine receptor agonist regadenoson, we tested a novel protocol for assessing perfusion defects, WMA, and TID in a single stress CMR session. We evaluated 29 consecutive patients who presented for clinically indicated regadenoson stress CMR. Immediately before and after the regadenoson stress perfusion sequence, we obtained baseline and post-stress cine images in the short-axis orientation to detect worsening or newly developed WMAs. This approach also allowed evaluation of TID. Delayed-enhancement imaging was performed in the standard orientations. All patients tolerated the procedure well. Thirteen patients (45 %) had perfusion abnormalities, and four patients developed TID. Seven patients had WMAs, and three of them also had TID. Patients with TID ± WMAs had multivessel disease documented by coronary angiography. By using regadenoson to assess myocardial ischemia during stress CMR, perfusion defects, WMAs, and TID can be evaluated in a single imaging session. To our knowledge, we are the first to describe this novel approach in a vasodilator stress CMR study.
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Intramuscular Injection of AAV8 in Mice and Macaques Is Associated with Substantial Hepatic Targeting and Transgene Expression.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Intramuscular (IM) administration of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has entered the early stages of clinical development with some success, including the first approved gene therapy product in the West called Glybera. In preparation for broader clinical development of IM AAV vector gene therapy, we conducted detailed pre-clinical studies in mice and macaques evaluating aspects of delivery that could affect performance. We found that following IM administration of AAV8 vectors in mice, a portion of the vector reached the liver and hepatic gene expression contributed significantly to total expression of secreted transgenes. The contribution from liver could be controlled by altering injection volume and by the use of traditional (promoter) and non-traditional (tissue-specific microRNA target sites) expression control elements. Hepatic distribution of vector following IM injection was also noted in rhesus macaques. These pre-clinical data on AAV delivery should inform safe and efficient development of future AAV products.
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Insight into the interactions between novel isoquinolin-1,3-dione derivatives and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 combining QSAR and molecular docking.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Several small-molecule CDK inhibitors have been identified, but none have been approved for clinical use in the past few years. A new series of 4-[(3-hydroxybenzylamino)-methylene]-4H-isoquinoline-1,3-diones were reported as highly potent and selective CDK4 inhibitors. In order to find more potent CDK4 inhibitors, the interactions between these novel isoquinoline-1,3-diones and cyclin-dependent kinase 4 was explored via in silico methodologies such as 3D-QSAR and docking on eighty-one compounds displaying potent selective activities against cyclin-dependent kinase 4. Internal and external cross-validation techniques were investigated as well as region focusing, bootstraping and leave-group-out. A training set of 66 compounds gave the satisfactory CoMFA model (q2?=?0.695, r2?=?0.947) and CoMSIA model (q2?=?0.641, r2?=?0.933). The remaining 15 compounds as a test set also gave good external predictive abilities with r2pred values of 0.875 and 0.769 for CoMFA and CoMSIA, respectively. The 3D-QSAR models generated here predicted that all five parameters are important for activity toward CDK4. Surflex-dock results, coincident with CoMFA/CoMSIA contour maps, gave the path for binding mode exploration between the inhibitors and CDK4 protein. Based on the QSAR and docking models, twenty new potent molecules have been designed and predicted better than the most active compound 12 in the literatures. The QSAR, docking and interactions analysis expand the structure-activity relationships of constrained isoquinoline-1,3-diones and contribute towards the development of more active CDK4 subtype-selective inhibitors.
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An AAV vector-mediated gene delivery approach facilitates reconstitution of functional human CD8+ T cells in mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In the present study, a novel adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector-mediated gene delivery approach was taken to improve the reconstitution of functional CD8(+) T cells in humanized mice, thereby mimicking the human immune system (HIS). Human genes encoding HLA-A2 and selected human cytokines (A2/hucytokines) were introduced to an immune-deficient mouse model [NOD/SCID/IL2r?(null) (NSG) mice] using AAV serotype 9 (AAV9) vectors, followed by transplantation of human hematopoietic stem cells. NSG mice transduced with AAV9 encoding A2/hucytokines resulted in higher levels of reconstitution of human CD45(+) cells compared to NSG mice transduced with AAV9 encoding HLA-A2 alone or HLA-A2-transgenic NSG mice. Furthermore, this group of HIS mice also mounted the highest level of antigen-specific A2-restricted human CD8(+) T-cell response upon vaccination with recombinant adenoviruses expressing human malaria and HIV antigens. Finally, the human CD8(+) T-cell response induced in human malaria vaccine-immunized HIS mice was shown to be functional by displaying cytotoxic activity against hepatocytes that express the human malaria antigen in the context of A2 molecules. Taken together, our data show that AAV vector-mediated gene delivery is a simple and efficient method to transfer multiple human genes to immune-deficient mice, thus facilitating successful reconstitution of HIS in mice. The HIS mice generated in this study should ultimately allow us to swiftly evaluate the T-cell immunogenicity of various human vaccine candidates in a pre-clinical setting.
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Increased Burden of Cardiovascular Disease in Carriers of APOL1 Genetic Variants.
Circ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-30-2013
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Two distinct alleles in the gene encoding apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1), a major component of HDL, confer protection against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection and also increase risk for chronic kidney disease (CKD). Approximately 14% of African-Americans carry two APOL1 risk alleles, accounting for the high CKD burden in this population.
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Biodistribution of AAV8 Vectors Expressing Human Low-Density Lipoprotein Receptor in a Mouse Model of Homozygous Familial Hypercholesterolemia.
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2013
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Abstract Recombinant adeno-associated viral vectors based on serotype 8 (AAV8) transduce liver with superior tropism following intravenous (IV) administration. Previous studies conducted by our lab demonstrated that AAV8-mediated transfer of the human low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) gene driven by a strong liver-specific promoter (thyroxin-binding globulin [TBG]) leads to high level and persistent gene expression in the liver. The approach proved efficacious in reducing plasma cholesterol levels and resulted in the regression of atherosclerotic lesions in a murine model of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (hoFH). Prior to advancing this vector, called AAV8.TBG.hLDLR, to the clinic, we set out to investigate vector biodistribution in an hoFH mouse model following IV vector administration to assess the safety profile of this investigational agent. Although AAV genomes were present in all organs at all time points tested (up to 180 days), vector genomes were sequestered mainly in the liver, which contained levels of vector 3 logs higher than that found in other organs. In both sexes, the level of AAV genomes gradually declined and appeared to stabilize 90 days post vector administration in most organs although vector genomes remained high in liver. Vector loads in the circulating blood were high and close to those in liver at the early time point (day 3) but rapidly decreased to a level close to the limit of quantification of the assay. The results of this vector biodistribution study further support a proposed clinical trial to evaluate AAV8 gene therapy for hoFH patients.
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HIV-1 suppression and durable control by combining single broadly neutralizing antibodies and antiretroviral drugs in humanized mice.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Effective control of HIV-1 infection in humans is achieved using combinations of antiretroviral therapy (ART) drugs. In humanized mice (hu-mice), control of viremia can be achieved using either ART or by immunotherapy using combinations of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs). Here we show that treatment of HIV-1-infected hu-mice with a combination of three highly potent bNAbs not only resulted in complete viremic control but also led to a reduction in cell-associated HIV-1 DNA. Moreover, lowering the initial viral load by coadministration of ART and immunotherapy enabled prolonged viremic control by a single bNAb after ART was withdrawn. Similarly, a single injection of adeno-associated virus directing expression of one bNAb produced durable viremic control after ART was terminated. We conclude that immunotherapy reduces plasma viral load and cell-associated HIV-1 DNA and that decreasing the initial viral load enables single bNAbs to control viremia in hu-mice.
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Vector sequences are not detected in tumor tissue from research subjects with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency who previously received adenovirus gene transfer.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2013
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A 66-year-old woman heterozygous for a mutation in the ornithine transcarbamylase gene (Otc) participated in a phase I gene therapy trial for OTC deficiency. She received an adenovirus (Ad) vector expressing the functional OTC gene by intraportal perfusion. Fourteen years later she developed and subsequently died of hepatocellular carcinoma. A second subject, a 45-year-old woman, enrolled in the same trial presented with colon cancer 15 years later. We sought to investigate a possible association between the development of a tumor and prior adenoviral gene transfer in these two subjects. We developed and validated a sensitive nested polymerase chain reaction assay for recovering recombinant Ad sequences from host tissues. Using this method, we could not detect any Ad vector DNA in either tumor or normal tissue from the two patients. Our results are informative in ruling out the possibility that the adenoviral vector might have contributed to the development of cancer in those two subjects.
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Usefulness of T Wave Inversion in Leads With ST Elevation on the Presenting Electrocardiogram to Predict Spontaneous Reperfusion in Patients With Anterior ST Elevation Acute Myocardial Infarction.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Inversion of the T waves (T-) in electrocardiographic leads with ST-segment elevation after the initiation of reperfusion therapy is considered a sign of reperfusion. However, the significance of T- on presentation before the initiation of reperfusion therapy is unclear. The aim of this study was to assess whether T- on presentation predicts patency of the infarct-related artery in patients with acute ST-segment elevation myocardial infarctions (STEMIs) who undergo primary percutaneous interventions. The medical records, electrocardiograms, and angiographic findings of 209 consecutive patients who underwent emergent coronary angiography as part of primary percutaneous coronary intervention protocol activation for STEMI were reviewed. A total of 179 patients (86%) had positive T waves (T+), 16 (8%) had biphasic T waves (T+/-), and 14 (7%) had T-. Patency of the infarct-related artery (Thrombolysis In Myocardial Infarction [TIMI] flow grades 2 and 3) was seen in 64.3% of the patients in the T- group compared with only 31.2% in the T+/- group and 19.0% in the T+ group (p <0.001). Among patients with anterior STEMI, patency of the infarct-related artery was seen in all 7 patients in the T- group, compared with 50% of the 4 patients in the T+/- group and 10.1% of the 79 patients in the T+ group (p <0.001). There were no significant differences in TIMI flow grade among the groups in patients with nonanterior STEMIs (p = 0.985). In conclusion, T- in the leads with maximal ST-segment elevation on the presenting electrocardiogram was associated with higher prevalence of patency of the infarct-related artery before intervention (64.3%), especially in patients with anterior STEMIs (100%).
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Imputation of coding variants in African Americans: better performance using data from the exome sequencing project.
Bioinformatics
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Although the 1000 Genomes haplotypes are the most commonly used reference panel for imputation, medical sequencing projects are generating large alternate sets of sequenced samples. Imputation in African Americans using 3384 haplotypes from the Exome Sequencing Project, compared with 2184 haplotypes from 1000 Genomes Project, increased effective sample size by 8.3-11.4% for coding variants with minor allele frequency <1%. No loss of imputation quality was observed using a panel built from phenotypic extremes. We recommend using haplotypes from Exome Sequencing Project alone or concatenation of the two panels over quality score-based post-imputation selection or IMPUTE2s two-panel combination.
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Enhancing the utility of adeno-associated virus gene transfer through inducible tissue-specific expression.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The ability to regulate both the timing and specificity of gene expression mediated by viral vectors will be important in maximizing its utility. We describe the development of an adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vector with tissue-specific gene regulation, using the ARGENT dimerizer-inducible system. This two-vector system based on AAV serotype 9 consists of one vector encoding a combination of reporter genes from which expression is directed by a ubiquitous, inducible promoter and a second vector encoding transcription factor domains under the control of either a heart- or liver-specific promoter, which are activated with a small molecule. Administration of the vectors via either systemic or intrapericardial injection demonstrated that the vector system is capable of mediating gene expression that is tissue specific, regulatable, and reproducible over induction cycles. Somatic gene transfer in vivo is being considered in therapeutic applications, although its most substantial value will be in basic applications such as target validation and development of animal models.
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Self-reactive CFTR T cells in humans: implications for gene therapy.
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2013
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Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common autosomal recessive lethal disorders affecting white populations of northern European ancestry. To date there is no cure for CF. Life-long treatments for CF are being developed and include gene therapy and the use of small-molecule drugs designed to target specific cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutations. Irrespective of the type of molecular therapy for CF, which may include gene replacement, exon skipping, nonsense suppression, or molecular correctors, because all of these modulate gene expression there is an inherent risk of activation of T cells against the wild-type version of CFTR. Here we report the validation of the human interferon-? enzyme-linked immunospot assay and its application for the analysis of CFTR-specific T cell responses in patients with CF and in non-CF subjects. We found non-CF subjects with low levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in the United States and several patients with CF with low to high levels of self-reactive CFTR-specific T cells in both the United States and the United Kingdom.
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Genetics of coronary artery calcification among African Americans, a meta-analysis.
BMC Med. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the major cause of death in the United States. Coronary artery calcification (CAC) scores are independent predictors of CHD. African Americans (AA) have higher rates of CHD but are less well-studied in genomic studies. We assembled the largest AA data resource currently available with measured CAC to identify associated genetic variants.
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Gene-environment interaction between SCN5A-1103Y and hypokalemia influences QT interval prolongation in African Americans: The Jackson Heart Study.
Am. Heart J.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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African-American ancestry, hypokalemia, and QT interval prolongation on the electrocardiogram are all risk factors for sudden cardiac death (SCD), but their interactions remain to be characterized. SCN5A-1103Y is a common missense variant, of African ancestry, of the cardiac sodium channel gene. SCN5A-1103Y is known to interact with QT-prolonging factors to promote ventricular arrhythmias in persons at high risk for SCD, but its clinical impact in the general African-American population has not been established.
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Intranasal antibody gene transfer in mice and ferrets elicits broad protection against pandemic influenza.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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The emergence of a new influenza pandemic remains a threat that could result in a substantial loss of life and economic disruption worldwide. Advances in human antibody isolation have led to the discovery of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that have broad neutralizing activity against various influenza strains, although their direct use for prophylaxis is impractical. To overcome this limitation, our approach is to deliver antibody via adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors to the site of initial infection, which, for respiratory viruses such as influenza, is the nasopharyngeal mucosa. AAV vectors based on serotype 9 were engineered to express a modified version of the previously isolated broadly neutralizing mAb to influenza A, FI6. We demonstrate that intranasal delivery of AAV9.FI6 into mice afforded complete protection and log reductions in viral load to 100 LD?? (median lethal dose) of three clinical isolates of H5N1 and two clinical isolates of H1N1, all of which have been associated with historic human pandemics (including H1N1 1918). Similarly, complete protection was achieved in ferrets challenged with lethal doses of H5N1 and H1N1. This approach serves as a platform for the prevention of natural or deliberate respiratory diseases for which a protective antibody is available.
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Mapping the structural determinants responsible for enhanced T cell activation to the immunogenic adeno-associated virus capsid from isolate rhesus 32.33.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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Avoiding activation of immunity to vector-encoded proteins is critical to the safe and effective use of adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors for gene therapy. While commonly used serotypes, such as AAV serotypes 1, 2, 7, 8, and 9, are often associated with minimal and/or dysfunctional CD8(+) T cell responses in mice, the threshold for immune activation appears to be lower in higher-order species. We have modeled this discrepancy within the mouse by identifying two capsid variants with differential immune activation profiles: AAV serotype 8 (AAV8) and a hybrid between natural rhesus isolates AAVrh32 and AAVrh33 (AAVrh32.33). Here, we aimed to characterize the structural determinants of the AAVrh32.33 capsid that augment cellular immunity to vector-encoded proteins or those of AAV8 that may induce tolerance. We hypothesized that the structural domain responsible for differential immune activation could be mapped to surface-exposed regions of the capsid, such as hypervariable regions (HVRs) I to IX of VP3. To test this, a series of hybrid AAV capsids was constructed by swapping domains between AAV8 and AAVrh32.33. By comparing their ability to generate transgene-specific T cells in vivo versus the stability of transgene expression in the muscle, we confirmed that the functional domain lies within the VP3 portion of the capsid. Our studies were able to exclude the regions of VP3 which are not sufficient for augmenting the cellular immune response, notably, HVRs I, II, and V. We have also identified HVR IV as a region of interest in conferring the efficiency and stability of muscle transduction to AAVrh32.33.
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Multiple recombinant adeno-associated viral vector serotypes display persistent in vivo gene expression in vector-transduced rat stifle joints.
Hum Gene Ther Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Our aim was to investigate serotype-specific cell and tissue-transduction tropisms, transgene expression levels and longevity, and immunogenicity of candidate rAAV serotypes in rat osteochondral cells, tissues, and stifle joints. In vitro, we used six rAAV serotypes and two promoters to transduce synoviocytes and chondrocytes. Serotypes rAAV2/5 and 2/2 yielded the highest transduction efficiency 4 days after transduction. No differences were detected between cytomegalovirus and chicken ?-actin promoters. In vivo, intra-articular injection was used to introduce four rAAV serotypes into 4-month-old rats in the left stifle joint. Eleven months later, serotype 2/5 vector, diluted with saline or surfactant, was injected into the right stifle joint of the same rats. Rats were analyzed up to 12 months after initial injection. Bioluminescence was detected at 7 days and all serotypes tested displayed bioluminescence above controls after 1 year in the left stifle. Gene expression was detected in the right stifle joints of all rats with the exception of rats previously injected with serotype 2/5. We observed no difference irrespective of whether the luciferin was injected subcutaneously or intraperitoneally. However, surfactant-diluted vectors led to increased gene expression compared with saline-diluted vectors. Cell- and tissue-specific transduction was observed in rat stifles injected with an nLacZ-containing rAAV. Transduction was greatest in stromal tissues and mesenchymal cell types. Exposure to a specific serotype did not inhibit subsequent transduction with a different serotype at a second vector injection. Including surfactant as a vector diluent increased gene expression within the stifle joint and should be considered for in vivo gene therapy applications.
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Recombinant adeno-associated virus integration sites in murine liver after ornithine transcarbamylase gene correction.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Recombinant adeno-associated viruses (rAAVs) have been tested in humans and other large mammals without adverse events. However, one study of mucopolysaccharidosis VII correction in mice showed repeated integration of rAAV in cells from hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus, suggesting possible insertional mutagenesis. In contrast, another study found no association of rAAV integration with HCC, raising questions about the generality of associations between liver transformation and integration at Dlk1-Dio3. Here we report that in rAAV-treated ornithine transcarbamylase (Otc)-deficient mice, four examples of integration sites in Dlk1-Dio3 could be detected in specimens from liver nodule/tumors, confirming previous studies of rAAV integration in the Dlk1-Dio3 locus in the setting of another murine model of metabolic disease. In one case, the integrated vector was verified to be present at about one copy per cell, consistent with clonal expansion. Another verified integration site in liver nodule/tumor tissue near the Tax1bp1 gene was also detected at about one copy per cell. The Dlk1-Dio3 region has also been implicated in human HCC and so warrants careful monitoring in ongoing human clinical trials with rAAV vectors.
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AAV8 Induces Tolerance in Murine Muscle as a Result of Poor APC Transduction, T Cell Exhaustion, and Minimal MHCI Upregulation on Target Cells.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2013
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Following gene transfer of adeno-associated virus 2/8 (AAV2/8) to the muscle, C57BL/6 mice show long-term expression of a nuclear-targeted LacZ (nLacZ) transgene with minimal immune activation. Here, we show that pre-exposure to AAV2/8 can also induce tolerance to the more immunogenic AAV2/rh32.33 vector, preventing otherwise robust T-cell activation and allowing stable transgene expression. Depletion and adoptive transfer studies showed that a suppressive factor was not sufficient to account for AAV2/8-induced tolerance, whereas further characterization of the T-cell population showed upregulation of the exhaustion markers PD1, 2B4, and LAG3. Furthermore, systemic administration of Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands at the time of AAV2/rh32.33-administration broke AAV2/8-induced tolerance, restoring T-cell activation and ?-gal clearance. As such, AAV2/8 transduction appears to lack the inflammatory signals necessary to prime a functional cytotoxic T-cell response. Inadequate T-cell priming could be explained upstream by AAV2/8s poor transduction and activation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). Immunohistochemical analysis indicates that AAV2/8 transduction also fails to upregulate major histocompatibility complex class I (MHCI) expression on the surface of myocytes, rendering transduced cells poor targets for T-cell-mediated destruction. Overall, AAV2/8-induced tolerance in the muscle is multifactorial, spanning from poor APC transduction and activation to the subsequent priming of functionally exhausted T-cells, while simultaneously avoiding upregulation of MHCI on potential targets.
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Human Treg responses allow sustained recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated transgene expression.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors have shown promise for the treatment of several diseases; however, immune-mediated elimination of transduced cells has been suggested to limit and account for a loss of efficacy. To determine whether rAAV vector expression can persist long term, we administered rAAV vectors expressing normal, M-type ?-1 antitrypsin (M-AAT) to AAT-deficient subjects at various doses by multiple i.m. injections. M-specific AAT expression was observed in all subjects in a dose-dependent manner and was sustained for more than 1 year in the absence of immune suppression. Muscle biopsies at 1 year had sustained AAT expression and a reduction of inflammatory cells compared with 3 month biopsies. Deep sequencing of the TCR V? region from muscle biopsies demonstrated a limited number of T cell clones that emerged at 3 months after vector administration and persisted for 1 year. In situ immunophenotyping revealed a substantial Treg population in muscle biopsy samples containing AAT-expressing myofibers. Approximately 10% of all T cells in muscle were natural Tregs, which were activated in response to AAV capsid. These results suggest that i.m. delivery of rAAV type 1-AAT (rAAV1-AAT) induces a T regulatory response that allows ongoing transgene expression and indicates that immunomodulatory treatments may not be necessary for rAAV-mediated gene therapy.
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Advancing translational research through the NHLBI Gene Therapy Resource Program (GTRP).
Hum Gene Ther Clin Dev
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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Abstract Translational research is a lengthy, complex, and necessary endeavor in order to bring basic science discoveries to clinical fruition. The NIH offers several programs to support translational research including an important resource established specifically for gene therapy researchers-the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Gene Therapy Resource Program (GTRP). This paper reviews the core components of the GTRP and describes how the GTRP provides researchers with resources that are critical to advancing investigational gene therapy products into clinical testing.
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Single nucleotide polymorphisms in cholesteryl ester transfer protein gene and recurrent coronary heart disease or mortality in patients with established atherosclerosis.
Am. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
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It is not known whether genetic variants in the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) gene are associated with recurrent coronary heart disease events or mortality in secondary prevention patients. Among 3,717 patients with acute coronary syndrome or coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) enrolled in a prospective genetic registry, we evaluated whether CETP gene variants previously shown to be associated with reduced CETP activity and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol increase ("A" allele for both TaqIB [rs708272] and rs12149545) are associated with a reduction in recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), recurrent revascularization, or death. At 4.5 years of follow-up, 439 recurrent MI, 698 recurrent revascularizations, and 756 deaths occurred. Using an additive model of inheritance, the "A" allele for rs708272 was not associated with recurrent MI (hazard ratio [HR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.78 to 1.17 for AG; HR 0.89, 95% CI 0.67 to 1.19 for AA; compared with GG genotype), recurrent revascularization (HR 1.13, 95% CI 0.95 to 1.33 for AG; HR 1.05, 95% CI 0.84 to 1.32 for AA), or mortality (HR 1.02, 95% CI 0.86 to 1.19 for AG; HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.37 for AA) in the overall cohort. Similar results were seen for the "A" allele for rs12149545. In the CABG subgroup, AG genotype for rs708272 was associated with an increased mortality (HR 1.38, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.79) compared with GG genotype. Results remained consistent using dominant model of inheritance. In conclusion, genetic CETP variants were not associated with recurrent MI or recurrent revascularization in overall cohort with a possible mortality increase in patients who underwent CABG.
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The Role of Apoptosis in Immune Hyporesponsiveness Following AAV8 Liver Gene Transfer.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Gene therapy provides a significant opportunity to treat a variety of inherited and acquired diseases. However, adverse immune responses toward the adeno-associated virus (AAV) antigens may limit its success. The mechanisms responsible for immunity or tolerance toward AAV-encoded transgene products remain poorly defined. Studies in mice demonstrate that AAV2/8 gene transfer to liver is associated with immunological hyporesponsiveness toward both AAV vector and antigenic transgene product. To evaluate the role of activation-induced cell death (AICD) and cytokine withdrawal (intrinsic cell death) in the deletion of mature T lymphocytes, we compared immunological responses in hepatic AAV2/8 transfer in murine recipients lacking the Fas receptor, and recipients overexpressing Bcl-xL, to WT murine counterparts. Prolonged transgene expression was dependent on both Fas signaling and Bcl-xL-regulated apoptosis in T cells. Abrogation of intrinsic cell death enhanced Th1 responses, whereas AICD functioned to limit neutralizing antibody production toward AAV2/8. In addition, immune hyporesponsiveness and stable transgene expression was dependent on upregulation of FasL expression on transduced hepatocytes and a corresponding apoptosis of infiltrating Fas (+) cells. These data provide evidence that both AICD and apoptosis due to cytokine withdrawal of lymphocytes are essential for immune hyporesponsiveness toward hepatic AAV2/8-encoded transgene product in the setting of liver gene transfer.Molecular Therapy (2013); 21 12, 2227-2235. doi:10.1038/mt.2013.94.
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CpG-depleted adeno-associated virus vectors evade immune detection.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2013
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Due to their efficient transduction potential, adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors are leading candidates for gene therapy in skeletal muscle diseases. However, immune responses toward the vector or transgene product have been observed in preclinical and clinical studies. TLR9 has been implicated in promoting AAV-directed immune responses, but vectors have not been developed to circumvent this barrier. To assess the requirement of TLR9 in promoting immunity toward AAV-associated antigens following skeletal muscle gene transfer in mice, we compared immunological responses in WT and Tlr9-deficient mice that received an AAV vector with an immunogenic capsid, AAVrh32.33. In Tlr9-deficient mice, IFN-? T cell responses toward capsid and transgene antigen were suppressed, resulting in minimal cellular infiltrate and stable transgene expression in target muscles. These findings suggest that AAV-directed immune responses may be circumvented by depleting the ligand for TLR9 (CpG sequences) from the vector genome. Indeed, we found that CpG-depleted AAVrh32.33 vectors could establish persistent transgene expression, evade immunity, and minimize infiltration of effector cells. Thus, CpG-depleted AAV vectors could improve outcome of clinical trials of gene therapy for skeletal muscle disease.
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Association between preoperative diuretic use and in-hospital outcomes after cardiac surgery.
Cardiovasc Ther
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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There is a paucity of evidence on the association between preoperative diuretics use and outcomes following cardiac surgery. We hypothesized that diuretic use prior to cardiac surgery will be associated with adverse in-hospital clinical outcomes.
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Gene therapy for rare diseases: summary of a national institutes of health workshop, september 13, 2012.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2013
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Gene therapy has shown clinical efficacy for several rare diseases, using different approaches and vectors. The Gene Therapy for Rare Diseases workshop, sponsored by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Office of Biotechnology Activities and Office of Rare Diseases Research, brought together investigators from different disciplines to discuss the challenges and opportunities for advancing the field including means for enhancing data sharing for preclinical and clinical studies, development and utilization of available NIH resources, and interactions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
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Assessing the phenotypic effects in the general population of rare variants in genes for a dominant Mendelian form of diabetes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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Genome sequencing can identify individuals in the general population who harbor rare coding variants in genes for Mendelian disorders and who may consequently have increased disease risk. Previous studies of rare variants in phenotypically extreme individuals display ascertainment bias and may demonstrate inflated effect-size estimates. We sequenced seven genes for maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) in well-phenotyped population samples (n = 4,003). We filtered rare variants according to two prediction criteria for disease-causing mutations: reported previously in MODY or satisfying stringent de novo thresholds (rare, conserved and protein damaging). Approximately 1.5% and 0.5% of randomly selected individuals from the Framingham and Jackson Heart Studies, respectively, carry variants from these two classes. However, the vast majority of carriers remain euglycemic through middle age. Accurate estimates of variant effect sizes from population-based sequencing are needed to avoid falsely predicting a substantial fraction of individuals as being at risk for MODY or other Mendelian diseases.
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Pitfalls in diagnosing ST elevation among patients with acute myocardial infarction.
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Objectives: Patients with ST elevation (STE) in ? 2 leads or ST depression (STD) confined to V?-V? are defined as potential STE myocardial infarction (STEMI). We evaluated the incidence of missed STEMI over an 11-month period. Methods: Consecutive patients with a discharge diagnosis of non STEMI were retrospectively evaluated. Clinical data, ECG and angiographic data were reviewed. Results: Of the 198 patients screened, 140 were included. Forty-nine patients (35%) met the STEMI criteria: 6 (12%) had STD confined to V?-V?, 20 (41%) had STD in V?-V?, 7 (14%) had STE in V?-V?, 2 (4%) had STE in I and aVL, 11 (22%) had STE in inferior leads, and 6 (12%) had STE in V?-V?. Conclusions: A significant percentage of patients met STEMI ECG criteria. A large number of patients with STD in V?-V? had angiographic evidence compatible with inferolateral (posterior) STEMI equivalent.
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Urinary prostasin excretion is associated with adiposity in nonhypertensive African-American adolescents.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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Metabolic abnormalities in obesity can overstimulate the renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and subsequently lead to blood pressure (BP) elevation. Prostasin, a membrane-bound/secretive serine protease, is thought to activate ENaC via the proteolytic cleavage of the channel. Our specific aim was to explore whether there is a relationship between adiposity and urinary prostasin excretion at the population level.
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A systematic evaluation of miRNA:mRNA interactions involved in the migration and invasion of breast cancer cells.
J Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2013
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In this study we performed a systematic evaluation of functional miRNA-mRNA interactions associated with the invasiveness of breast cancer cells using a combination of integrated miRNA and mRNA expression profiling, bioinformatics prediction, and functional assays. Analysis of the miRNA expression identified 11 miRNAs that were differentially expressed, including 7 down-regulated (miR-200c, miR-205, miR-203, miR-141, miR-34a, miR-183, and miR-375) and 4 up-regulated miRNAs (miR-146a, miR-138, miR-125b1 and miR-100), in invasive cell lines when compared to normal and less invasive cell lines. Transfection of miR-200c, miR-205, and miR-375 mimics into MDA-MB-231 cells led to the inhibition of in vitro cell migration and invasion. The integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression identified 35 known and novel target genes of miR-200c, miR-205, and mir-375, including CFL2, LAMC1, TIMP2, ZEB1, CDH11, PRKCA, PTPRJ, PTPRM, LDHB, and SEC23A. Surprisingly, the majority of these genes (27 genes) were target genes of miR-200c, suggesting that miR-200c plays a pivotal role in regulating the invasiveness of breast cancer cells. We characterized one of the target genes of miR-200c, CFL2, and demonstrated that CFL2 is overexpressed in aggressive breast cancer cell lines and can be significantly down-regulated by exogenous miR-200c. Tissue microarray analysis further revealed that CFL2 expression in primary breast cancer tissue correlated with tumor grade. The results obtained from this study may improve our understanding of the role of these candidate miRNAs and their target genes in relation to breast cancer invasiveness and ultimately lead to the identification of novel biomarkers associated with prognosis.
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AAV9 targets cone photoreceptors in the nonhuman primate retina.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Transduction of retinal pigment epithelial cells with an adeno-associated viral vector (AAV) based on serotype 2 has partially corrected retinal blindness in Leber congenital amaurosis type 2. However, many applications of gene therapy for retinal blindness rely on the efficient transduction of rod and cone photoreceptor which is difficult to achieve with first generation vector technology. To address this translational need, we evaluated rod and cone photoreceptor targeting of 4 novel AAV capsids (AAV7, AAV9, rh.64R1 and rh.8R) versus AAV2 and AAV8 in a foveated retina. Eyes of 20 nonhuman primates were injected subretinally in the proximity of the fovea. While numerous vectors efficiently transduced rods, only AAV9 targeted cones both centrally and peripherally efficiently at low doses, likely due to the abundance of galactosylated glycans, the primary receptor for AAV9, on cone photoreceptors. We conclude AAV9 is an ideal candidate for strategies that require restoration of cone photoreceptor function.
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Gene therapy for mucopolysaccharidosis type VI is effective in cats without pre-existing immunity to AAV8.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2013
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Liver gene transfer with adeno-associated viral (AAV) 2/8 vectors is being considered for therapy of systemic diseases like mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), a lysosomal storage disease due to deficiency of arylsulfatase B (ARSB). We have previously reported that liver gene transfer with AAV2/8 results in sustained yet variable expression of ARSB. We hypothesized that the variability we observed could be due to pre-existing immunity to wild-type AAV8. To test this, we compared the levels of AAV2/8-mediated transduction in MPS VI cats with and without pre-existing immunity to AAV8. In addition, since levels of lysosomal enzymes as low as 5% of normal are expected to be therapeutic, we evaluated the impact of pre-existing immunity on MPS VI phenotypic rescue. AAV2/8 administration to MPS VI cats without pre-existing neutralizing antibodies to AAV8 resulted in consistent and dose-dependent expression of ARSB, urinary glycosaminoglycan (GAG) reduction, and femur length amelioration. Conversely, animals with pre-existing immunity to AAV8 showed low levels of ARSB expression and limited phenotypic improvement. Our data support the use of AAV2/8-mediated gene transfer for MPS VI and other systemic diseases, and highlight that pre-existing immunity to AAV8 should be considered in determining subject eligibility for therapy.
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Diffuse ST depression with ST elevation in aVR: Is this pattern specific for global ischemia due to left main coronary artery disease?
J Electrocardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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We assess whether the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of ST depression in >7 body surface leads combined with ST elevation in aVR and V1 is predictive of left main coronary artery (LMCA) stenosis or left main equivalent (LMEQ) disease.
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An inherently bifunctional subset of Foxp3+ T helper cells is controlled by the transcription factor eos.
Immunity
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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At sites of inflammation, certain regulatory T cells (Treg cells) can undergo rapid reprogramming into helper-like cells without loss of the transcription factor Foxp3. We show that reprogramming is controlled by downregulation of the transcription factor Eos (Ikzf4), an obligate corepressor for Foxp3. Reprogramming was restricted to a specific subset of "Eos-labile" Treg cells that was present in the thymus and identifiable by characteristic surface markers and DNA methylation. Mice made deficient in this subset became impaired in their ability to provide help for presentation of new antigens to naive T cells. Downregulation of Eos required the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6), and mice lacking IL-6 had impaired development and function of the Eos-labile subset. Conversely, the immunoregulatory enzyme IDO blocked loss of Eos and prevented the Eos-labile Treg cells from reprogramming. Thus, the Foxp3(+) lineage contains a committed subset of Treg cells capable of rapid conversion into biologically important helper cells.
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Humoral Immune Response to AAV.
Front Immunol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a member of the family Parvoviridae that has been widely used as a vector for gene therapy because of its safety profile, its ability to transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, and its low immunogenicity. AAV has been detected in many different tissues of several animal species but has not been associated with any disease. As a result of natural infections, antibodies to AAV can be found in many animals including humans. It has been shown that pre-existing AAV antibodies can modulate the safety and efficacy of AAV vector-mediated gene therapy by blocking vector transduction or by redirecting distribution of AAV vectors to tissues other than the target organ. This review will summarize antibody responses against natural AAV infections, as well as AAV gene therapy vectors and their impact in the clinical development of AAV vectors for gene therapy. We will also review and discuss the various methods used for AAV antibody detection and strategies to overcome neutralizing antibodies in AAV-mediated gene therapy.
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Best practices and joint calling of the HumanExome BeadChip: the CHARGE Consortium.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Genotyping arrays are a cost effective approach when typing previously-identified genetic polymorphisms in large numbers of samples. One limitation of genotyping arrays with rare variants (e.g., minor allele frequency [MAF] <0.01) is the difficulty that automated clustering algorithms have to accurately detect and assign genotype calls. Combining intensity data from large numbers of samples may increase the ability to accurately call the genotypes of rare variants. Approximately 62,000 ethnically diverse samples from eleven Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) Consortium cohorts were genotyped with the Illumina HumanExome BeadChip across seven genotyping centers. The raw data files for the samples were assembled into a single project for joint calling. To assess the quality of the joint calling, concordance of genotypes in a subset of individuals having both exome chip and exome sequence data was analyzed. After exclusion of low performing SNPs on the exome chip and non-overlap of SNPs derived from sequence data, genotypes of 185,119 variants (11,356 were monomorphic) were compared in 530 individuals that had whole exome sequence data. A total of 98,113,070 pairs of genotypes were tested and 99.77% were concordant, 0.14% had missing data, and 0.09% were discordant. We report that joint calling allows the ability to accurately genotype rare variation using array technology when large sample sizes are available and best practices are followed. The cluster file from this experiment is available at www.chargeconsortium.com/main/exomechip.
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Heritability of serum sodium concentration: evidence for sex- and ethnic-specific effects.
Physiol. Genomics
PUBLISHED: 12-20-2011
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Serum sodium concentration is the clinical index of systemic water balance. Although disordered water balance is common and morbid, little is known about genetic effects on serum sodium concentration at the population level. Prior studies addressed only participants of European descent and either failed to demonstrate significant heritability or showed only modest effect. We investigated heritability of serum sodium concentration in large cohorts reflecting a range of races/ethnicities, including the Framingham Heart Study (FHS, non-Hispanic Caucasian), the Heredity and Phenotype Intervention Heart Study (HAPI, Amish Caucasian), the Jackson Heart Study (JHS, African American), the Strong Heart Family Study (SHFS, American Indian), and the Genetics of Kidney Disease in Zuni Indians Study (GKDZI, American Indian). Serum sodium was transformed for the osmotic effect of glucose, and participants with markedly elevated glucose or reduced estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) were excluded. Using a standard variance components method, incorporating covariates of age, glucose, and eGFR, we found heritability to be high in African American and American Indian populations and much more modest in non-Hispanic Caucasian populations. Estimates among females increased after stratification on sex and were suggestive among female participants in FHS (0.18 ± 0.12, P = 0.057) and male participants in JHS (0.24 ± 0.16, P = 0.067) and statistically significant among female participants in JHS (0.44 ± 0.09, P = 1 × 10 ??), SHFS (0.59 ± 0.05, P = 9.4 × 10???), and GKDZI (0.46 ± 0.15, P = 1.7 × 10??), and male participants in HAPI (0.18 ± 0.12, P = 0.03) and SHFS (0.67 ± 0.07, P = 5.4 × 10?²?). Exclusion of diuretic users increased heritability among females and was significant in all cohorts where data were available. In aggregate, these data strongly support the heritability of systemic water balance and underscore sex and ethnicity-specific effects.
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Long-term restoration of cardiac dystrophin expression in golden retriever muscular dystrophy following rAAV6-mediated exon skipping.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Although restoration of dystrophin expression via exon skipping in both cardiac and skeletal muscle has been successfully demonstrated in the mdx mouse, restoration of cardiac dystrophin expression in large animal models of Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) has proven to be a challenge. In large animals, investigators have focused on using intravenous injection of antisense oligonucleotides (AO) to mediate exon skipping. In this study, we sought to optimize restoration of cardiac dystrophin expression in the golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) model using percutaneous transendocardial delivery of recombinant AAV6 (rAAV6) to deliver a modified U7 small nuclear RNA (snRNA) carrying antisense sequence to target the exon splicing enhancers of exons 6 and 8 and correct the disrupted reading frame. We demonstrate restoration of cardiac dystrophin expression at 13 months confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and immunoblot as well as membrane localization by immunohistochemistry. This was accompanied by improved cardiac function as assessed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Percutaneous transendocardial delivery of rAAV6 expressing a modified U7 exon skipping construct is a safe, effective method for restoration of dystrophin expression and improvement of cardiac function in the GRMD canine and may be easily translatable to human DMD patients.
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Hepatocellular carcinoma in a research subject with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2011
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A 66 year old woman who is a manifesting heterozygote for ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) presented with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fourteen years prior to this presentation she participated in a phase I gene therapy study which used an adenoviral vector, thought to be non-oncogenic, to deliver a normal OTC gene to hepatocytes [1]. A recent review of data collected through a national longitudinal study of individuals with urea cycle defects [2,3] suggests that early urea cycle disorders (UCDs) are associated with hepatocellular damage and liver dysfunction in many cases. This may predispose an affected individual to a substantially increased risk of developing HCC, as has been observed in certain other inborn errors of metabolism. We speculate that the underlying urea cycle defect may be the cause of HCC in this individual.
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Preclinical evaluation of a clinical candidate AAV8 vector for ornithine transcarbamylase (OTC) deficiency reveals functional enzyme from each persisting vector genome.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD), the most common and severe urea cycle disorder, is an excellent model for developing liver-directed gene therapy. No curative therapy exists except for liver transplantation which is limited by available donors and carries significant risk of mortality and morbidity. Adeno-associated virus 8 (AAV8) has been shown to be the most efficient vector for liver-directed gene transfer and is currently being evaluated in a clinical trial for treating hemophilia B. In this study, we generated a clinical candidate vector for a proposed OTC gene therapy trial in humans based on a self-complementary AAV8 vector expressing codon-optimized human OTC (hOTCco) under the control of a liver-specific promoter. Codon-optimization dramatically improved the efficacy of OTC gene therapy. Supraphysiological expression levels and activity of hOTC were achieved in adult spf(ash) mice following a single intravenous injection of hOTCco vector. Vector doses as low as 1×10(10) genome copies (GC) achieved robust and sustained correction of the OTCD biomarker orotic aciduria and clinical protection against an ammonia challenge. Functional expression of hOTC in 40% of liver areas was found in mice treated with a low vector dose of 1×10(9) GC. We suggest that the clinical candidate vector we have developed has the potential to achieve therapeutic effects in OTCD patients.
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Phase 2 clinical trial of a recombinant adeno-associated viral vector expressing ?1-antitrypsin: interim results.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2011
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Recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) vectors offer promise for the gene therapy of ?(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. In our prior trial, an rAAV vector expressing human AAT (rAAV1-CB-hAAT) provided sustained, vector-derived AAT expression for >1 year. In the current phase 2 clinical trial, this same vector, produced by a herpes simplex virus complementation method, was administered to nine AAT-deficient individuals by intramuscular injection at doses of 6.0×10(11), 1.9×10(12), and 6.0×10(12) vector genomes/kg (n=3 subjects/dose). Vector-derived expression of normal (M-type) AAT in serum was dose dependent, peaked on day 30, and persisted for at least 90 days. Vector administration was well tolerated, with only mild injection site reactions and no serious adverse events. Serum creatine kinase was transiently elevated on day 30 in five of six subjects in the two higher dose groups and normalized by day 45. As expected, all subjects developed anti-AAV antibodies and interferon-? enzyme-linked immunospot responses to AAV peptides, and no subjects developed antibodies to AAT. One subject in the mid-dose group developed T cell responses to a single AAT peptide unassociated with any clinical effects. Muscle biopsies obtained on day 90 showed strong immunostaining for AAT and moderate to marked inflammatory cell infiltrates composed primarily of CD3-reactive T lymphocytes that were primarily of the CD8(+) subtype. These results support the feasibility and safety of AAV gene therapy for AAT deficiency, and indicate that serum levels of vector-derived normal human AAT >20??g/ml can be achieved. However, further improvements in the design or delivery of rAAV-AAT vectors will be required to achieve therapeutic target serum AAT concentrations.
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AAV8-mediated hepatic gene transfer in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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Many genetic metabolic diseases manifest in infancy, therefore, it is important to develop effective treatments that could be implemented at this time. Adeno-associated virus serotype 8 (AAV8) gene transfer has been studied in neonatal mouse, cat, and dog models and shown some efficacy with a single hepatic injection at birth. AAV8-mediated liver gene transfer has also generated sustained therapeutic effects in feline and canine models of lysosomal storage disorders. In these models, delaying the age of vector treatment increased gene transfer stability. The growth rate of infant nonhuman primates is more similar to the growth trajectory of humans, thus infant monkeys provide an excellent model to study AAV gene transfer efficiency, stability, and safety. In this study, we report for the first time that AAV8-mediated hepatic gene transfer in infant monkeys is safe and efficient but less stable when compared to adolescent animals. Infant monkeys administered AAV8 intravenously at 1 week postnatal age achieved up to 98% transduction of hepatocytes within 7 days of injection; however, there was significant dilution of genomes and loss of transgene expression 35 days postadministration. Delaying the injection to 1 month postnatal age did not improve stability of transduction but decreased the antibody response to AAV8 capsid.
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Genome-wide association of copy-number variation reveals an association between short stature and the presence of low-frequency genomic deletions.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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Height is a model polygenic trait that is highly heritable. Genome-wide association studies have identified hundreds of single-nucleotide polymorphisms associated with stature, but the role of structural variation in determining height is largely unknown. We performed a genome-wide association study of copy-number variation and stature in a clinical cohort of children who had undergone comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis for clinical indications. We found that subjects with short stature had a greater global burden of copy-number variants (CNVs) and a greater average CNV length than did controls (p < 0.002). These associations were present for lower-frequency (<5%) and rare (<1%) deletions, but there were no significant associations seen for duplications. Known gene-deletion syndromes did not account for our findings, and we saw no significant associations with tall stature. We then extended our findings into a population-based cohort and found that, in agreement with the clinical cohort study, an increased burden of lower-frequency deletions was associated with shorter stature (p = 0.015). Our results suggest that in individuals undergoing copy-number analysis for clinical indications, short stature increases the odds that a low-frequency deletion will be found. Additionally, copy-number variation might contribute to genetic variation in stature in the general population.
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Adeno-associated virus antibody profiles in newborns, children, and adolescents.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Neutralizing antibodies (NAb) to an adeno-associated virus (AAV) vector due to previous natural infection with wild-type AAV can significantly limit gene transfer. NAb titers to AAV serotype 2 (AAV2) and AAV8 in human subjects (0 to 18 years) were studied. NAb prevalence is moderate at birth, decreases markedly from 7 to 11 months, and then progressively increases through childhood and adolescence.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.