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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
An animal-to-human scaling law for blast-induced traumatic brain injury risk assessment.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Despite recent efforts to understand blast effects on the human brain, there are still no widely accepted injury criteria for humans. Recent animal studies have resulted in important advances in the understanding of brain injury due to intense dynamic loads. However, the applicability of animal brain injury results to humans remains uncertain. Here, we use advanced computational models to derive a scaling law relating blast wave intensity to the mechanical response of brain tissue across species. Detailed simulations of blast effects on the brain are conducted for different mammals using image-based biofidelic models. The intensity of the stress waves computed for different external blast conditions is compared across species. It is found that mass scaling, which successfully estimates blast tolerance of the thorax, fails to capture the brain mechanical response to blast across mammals. Instead, we show that an appropriate scaling variable must account for the mass of protective tissues relative to the brain, as well as their acoustic impedance. Peak stresses transmitted to the brain tissue by the blast are then shown to be a power function of the scaling parameter for a range of blast conditions relevant to TBI. In particular, it is found that human brain vulnerability to blast is higher than for any other mammalian species, which is in distinct contrast to previously proposed scaling laws based on body or brain mass. An application of the scaling law to recent experiments on rabbits furnishes the first physics-based injury estimate for blast-induced TBI in humans.
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Utilization rates of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death: a 2012 calculation for a midwestern health referral region.
Heart Rhythm
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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Utilization rates (URs) for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (PPSCD) are lacking in the community.
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A critical role for STIM1 in filopodial calcium entry and axon guidance.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2013
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Stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), a Ca2+ sensor in the endoplasmic reticulum, regulates store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) that is essential for Ca2+ homeostasis in many types of cells. However, if and how STIM1 and SOCE function in nerve growth cones during axon guidance remains to be elucidated.
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Activity-dependent regulation of dendritic growth and maintenance by glycogen synthase kinase 3?.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Activity-dependent dendritic development represents a crucial step in brain development, but its underlying mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we report that glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) regulates dendritic development in an activity-dependent manner. We find that GSK3? in somatodendritic compartments of hippocampal neurons becomes highly phosphorylated at serine-9 upon synaptogenesis. This phosphorylation-dependent GSK3? inhibition is mediated by neurotrophin signalling and is required for dendritic growth and arbourization. Elevation of GSK3? activity leads to marked shrinkage of dendrites, whereas its inhibition enhances dendritic growth. We further show that these effects are mediated by GSK3? regulation of surface GABAA receptor levels via the scaffold protein gephyrin. GSK3? activation leads to gephyrin phosphorylation to reduce surface GABAA receptor clusters, resulting in neuronal hyperexcitability that causes dendrite shrinkage. These findings thus identify GSK3? as a key player in activity-dependent regulation of dendritic development by targeting the excitatory-inhibitory balance of the neuron.
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Instantaneous inactivation of cofilin reveals its function of F-actin disassembly in lamellipodia.
Mol. Biol. Cell
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Cofilin is a key regulator of the actin cytoskeleton. It can sever actin filaments, accelerate filament disassembly, act as a nucleation factor, recruit or antagonize other actin regulators, and control the pool of polymerization-competent actin monomers. In cells these actions have complex functional outputs. The timing and localization of cofilin activity are carefully regulated, and thus global, long-term perturbations may not be sufficient to probe its precise function. To better understand cofilins spatiotemporal action in cells, we implemented chromophore-assisted laser inactivation (CALI) to instantly and specifically inactivate it. In addition to globally inhibiting actin turnover, CALI of cofilin generated several profound effects on the lamellipodia, including an increase of F-actin, a rearward expansion of the actin network, and a reduction in retrograde flow speed. These results support the hypothesis that the principal role of cofilin in lamellipodia at steady state is to break down F-actin, control filament turnover, and regulate the rate of retrograde flow.
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Dynamic localization of G-actin during membrane protrusion in neuronal motility.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Actin-based cell motility is fundamental for development, function, and malignant events in eukaryotic organisms. During neural development, axonal growth cones depend on rapid assembly and disassembly of actin filaments (F-actin) for their guided extension to specific targets for wiring. Monomeric globular actin (G-actin) is the building block for F-actin but is not considered to play a direct role in spatiotemporal control of actin dynamics in cell motility.
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Regulation of chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones by microRNA.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2011
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The small non-coding microRNAs play an important role in development by regulating protein translation, but their involvement in axon guidance is unknown. Here, we investigated the role of microRNA-134 (miR-134) in chemotropic guidance of nerve growth cones.
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Actin capping protein is required for dendritic spine development and synapse formation.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Dendritic spines serve as the postsynaptic platform for most excitatory synapses in the mammalian brain, and their shape and size are tightly correlated with synaptic strength. The actin cytoskeleton plays a crucial role in the spine structure and its modifications during synapse development and plasticity, but the underlying regulatory mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we report that actin capping protein (CP), a regulator of actin filament growth, plays an essential role for spine development and synapse formation. We found that CP expression in rat hippocampus is elevated at and after the stage of substantial synapse formation. CP knockdown in hippocampal cultures resulted in a marked decline in spine density accompanied by increased filopodia-like protrusions. Moreover, the spines of CP knockdown neurons exhibited an altered morphology, highlighted by multiple thin filopodia-like protrusions emerging from the spine head. Finally, the number of functional synapses was reduced by CP knockdown as evidenced by a reduction in the density of paired presynaptic and postsynaptic markers and in the frequency of miniature EPSCs. These findings indicate that capping of actin filaments by CP represents an essential step for the remodeling of the actin architecture underlying spine morphogenesis and synaptic formation during development.
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PSD-95 alters microtubule dynamics via an association with EB3.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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Little is known about how the neuronal cytoskeleton is regulated when a dendrite decides whether to branch or not. Previously, we reported that postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95) acts as a stop signal for dendrite branching. It is yet to be elucidated how PSD-95 affects the cytoskeleton and how this regulation relates to the dendritic arbor. Here, we show that the SH3 (src homology 3) domain of PSD-95 interacts with a proline-rich region within the microtubule end-binding protein EB3. Overexpression of PSD-95 or mutant EB3 results in a decreased lifetime of EB3 comets in dendrites. In line with these data, transfected rat neurons show that overexpression of PSD-95 results in less organized microtubules at dendritic branch points and decreased dendritogensis. The interaction between PSD-95 and EB3 elucidates a function for a novel region of EB3 and provides a new and important mechanism for the regulation of microtubules in determining dendritic morphology.
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Distinct 3UTRs differentially regulate activity-dependent translation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF).
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is under tight regulation to accommodate its intricate roles in controlling brain function. Transcription of BDNF initiates from multiple promoters in response to distinct stimulation cues. However, regardless which promoter is used, all BDNF transcripts are processed at two alternative polyadenylation sites, generating two pools of mRNAs that carry either a long or a short 3UTR, both encoding the same BDNF protein. Whether and how the two distinct 3UTRs may differentially regulate BDNF translation in response to neuronal activity changes is an intriguing and challenging question. We report here that the long BDNF 3UTR is a bona fide cis-acting translation suppressor at rest whereas the short 3UTR mediates active translation to maintain basal levels of BDNF protein production. Upon neuronal activation, the long BDNF 3UTR, but not the short 3UTR, imparts rapid and robust activation of translation from a reporter. Importantly, the endogenous long 3UTR BDNF mRNA specifically undergoes markedly enhanced polyribosome association in the hippocampus in response to pilocarpine induced-seizure before transcriptional up-regulation of BDNF. Furthermore, BDNF protein level is quickly increased in the hippocampus upon seizure-induced neuronal activation, accompanied by a robust activation of the tropomyosin-related receptor tyrosine kinase B. These observations reveal a mechanism for activity-dependent control of BDNF translation and tropomyosin-related receptor tyrosine kinase B signaling in brain neurons.
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Phosphorylation of zipcode binding protein 1 is required for brain-derived neurotrophic factor signaling of local beta-actin synthesis and growth cone turning.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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The localization of specific mRNAs and their local translation in growth cones of developing axons has been shown to play an important mechanism to regulate growth cone turning responses to attractive or repulsive cues. However, the mechanism whereby local translation and growth cone turning may be controlled by specific mRNA-binding proteins is unknown. Here we demonstrate that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signals the Src-dependent phosphorylation of the beta-actin mRNA zipcode binding protein 1 (ZBP1), which is necessary for beta-actin synthesis and growth cone turning. We raised a phospho-specific ZBP1 antibody to Tyr396, which is a Src phosphorylation site, and immunofluorescence revealed BDNF-induced phosphorylation of ZBP1 within growth cones. The BDNF-induced increase in fluorescent signal of a green fluorescent protein translation reporter with the 3 untranslated region of beta-actin was attenuated with the Src family kinase-specific inhibitor PP2 [4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-d]pyrimidine]. Furthermore, a nonphosphorylatable mutant, ZBP1 Y396F, suppressed the BDNF-induced and protein synthesis-dependent increase in beta-actin localization in growth cones. Last, the ZBP1 Y396F mutant blocked BDNF-induced attractive growth cone turning. These results indicate that phosphorylation of ZBP1 at Tyr396 within growth cones has a critical role to regulate local protein synthesis and growth cone turning. Our findings provide new insight into how the regulated phosphorylation of mRNA-binding proteins influences local translation underlying growth cone motility and axon guidance.
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ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AMPA receptor trafficking during synaptic plasticity.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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Dendritic spines undergo actin-based growth and shrinkage during synaptic plasticity, in which the actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin family of actin-associated proteins are important. Elevated ADF/cofilin activities often lead to reduced spine size and immature spine morphology but can also enhance synaptic potentiation in some cases. Thus, ADF/cofilin may have distinct effects on postsynaptic structure and function. We found that ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulated AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking during synaptic potentiation, which was distinct from actins structural role in spine morphology. Specifically, elevated ADF/cofilin activity markedly enhanced surface addition of AMPARs after chemically induced long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas inhibition of ADF/cofilin abolished AMPAR addition. We found that chemically induced LTP elicited a temporal sequence of ADF/cofilin dephosphorylation and phosphorylation that underlies AMPAR trafficking and spine enlargement. These findings suggest that temporally regulated ADF/cofilin activities function in postsynaptic modifications of receptor number and spine size during synaptic plasticity.
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Inhibition of AMPA receptor trafficking at hippocampal synapses by beta-amyloid oligomers: the mitochondrial contribution.
Mol Brain
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2010
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Synaptic defects represent a major mechanism underlying altered brain functions of patients suffering Alzheimers disease (AD) 123. An increasing body of work indicates that the oligomeric forms of beta-amyloid (Abeta) molecules exert profound inhibition on synaptic functions and can cause a significant loss of neurotransmitter receptors from the postsynaptic surface, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In this study, we investigated a potential contribution of mitochondria to Abeta inhibition of AMPA receptor (AMPAR) trafficking.
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Trace elements in recent groundwater of an artesian flow system and comparison with snow: enrichments, depletions, and chemical evolution of the water.
J Environ Monit
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2009
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Snow samples collected from hand-dug pits at two sites in Simcoe County, Ontario, Canada were analysed for major and trace elements using the clean lab methods established for polar ice. Potentially toxic, chalcophile elements are highly enriched in snow, relative to their natural abundance in crustal rocks, with enrichment factor (EF) values (calculated using Sc) in the range 107 to 1081 for Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, Mo, Pb, Sb, Te, and Zn. Relative to M/Sc ratios in snow, water samples collected at two artesian flows in this area are significantly depleted in Ag, Al, Be, Bi, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, Tl, V, and Zn at both sites, and in Co, Th and Tl at one of the sites. The removal from the waters of these elements is presumably due to such processes as physical retention (filtration) of metal-bearing atmospheric aerosols by organic and mineral soil components as well as adsorption and surface complexation of ionic species onto organic, metal oxyhydroxide and clay mineral surfaces. In the case of Pb, the removal processes are so effective that apparently "natural" ratios of Pb to Sc are found in the groundwaters. Tritium measurements show that the groundwater at one of the sites is modern (ie not more than 30 years old) meaning that the inputs of Pb and other trace elements to the groundwaters may originally have been much higher than they are today; the M/Sc ratios measured in the groundwaters today, therefore, represent a conservative estimate of the extent of metal removal along the flow path.Lithogenic elements significantly enriched in the groundwaters at both sites include Ba, Ca, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, S, Si, Sr, and Ti. The abundance of these elements can largely be explained in terms of weathering of the dominant silicate (plagioclase, potassium feldspar, amphibole and biotite) and carbonate minerals (calcite, dolomite and ankerite) in the soils and sediments of the watershed. Arsenic, Mo, Te, and especially U are also highly enriched in the groundwaters, due to chemical weathering: these could easily be explained if there are small amounts of sulfides (As, Mo, Te) and apatite (U) in the soils of the source area. Elements neither significantly enriched nor depleted at both sites include Fe, Ga, Ge, and P.
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Microtubules in Dendritic Spine Development and Plasticity.
Open Neurosci J
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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Recent studies indicate that microtubules (MTs) may play an important role in spine development and dynamics. Several imaging studies have now documented the exploration of dendritic spines by dynamic MTs in an activity-dependent manner. Furthermore, it was found that alterations of MT dynamics by pharmacological and molecular approaches exert profound influence on the development and plasticity of spines associated with neuronal activity. It is reasonable to speculate that dynamic MTs may be responsible for targeted delivery of specific cargos to a selected number of spines and/or for interacting with the actin cytoskeleton to generate the structural changes of spines associated with synaptic modifications.
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Regulation of acetylcholine receptor clustering by ADF/cofilin-directed vesicular trafficking.
Nat. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2009
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Postsynaptic receptor localization is crucial for synapse development and function, but the underlying cytoskeletal mechanisms remain elusive. Using Xenopus neuromuscular junctions as a model, we found that actin depolymerizing factor (ADF)/cofilin regulated actin-dependent vesicular trafficking of acetylcholine receptors (AChRs) to the postsynaptic membrane. Active ADF/cofilin was concentrated in small puncta adjacent to AChR clusters and was spatiotemporally correlated with the formation and maintenance of surface AChR clusters. Notably, increased actin dynamics, vesicular markers and intracellular AChRs were all enriched at the sites of ADF/cofilin localization. Furthermore, a substantial amount of new AChRs was detected at these ADF/cofilin-enriched sites. Manipulation of either ADF/cofilin activity through its serine-3 phosphorylation or ADF/cofilin localization via 14-3-3 proteins markedly attenuated AChR insertion and clustering. These results suggest that spatiotemporally restricted ADF/cofilin-mediated actin dynamics regulate AChR trafficking during the development of neuromuscular synapses.
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Growth cone travel in space and time: the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane.
Neuron
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Growth cones, found at the tip of axonal projections, are the sensory and motile organelles of developing neurons that enable axon pathfinding and target recognition for precise wiring of the neural circuitry. To date, many families of conserved guidance molecules and their corresponding receptors have been identified that work in space and time to ensure billions of axons to reach their targets. Research in the past two decades has also gained significant insight into the ways in which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration. This review aims to examine new progress toward understanding the cellular mechanisms underlying directional motility of the growth cone and to discuss questions that remain to be addressed. Specifically, we will focus on the cellular ensemble of cytoskeleton, adhesion, and membrane and examine how the intricate interplay between these processes orchestrates the directed movement of growth cones.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.