Adipose tissue is an active endocrine organ that responds to changes in energy balance and influences whole-body physiology. Adipose tissue dysfunction with obesity is associated with metabolic disease, neurodegeneration, inflammation, and cancer, whereas calorie restriction (CR) decreases both adiposity and disease risk. Although resveratrol does not affect obesity, it mimics long-term CR by increasing both life span in model organisms and health span in rodents. Because resveratrols benefits in experimental animals are reminiscent of improved adipose tissue function under CR, this review synthesizes existing data to assess if resveratrols effects may be mediated by mimicking CR in adipose tissue. In metabolically unhealthy humans, resveratrol consumption recapitulates the health benefits of CR, whereas short-term resveratrol in otherwise healthy humans mimics CR at the transcriptional, but not physiological, level. This latter observation (neutral effect of short-term resveratrol) may be protective against future disease risk; however, long-term studies in healthy humans will be needed to support this hypothesis.
The essential trace mineral selenium is an important determinant of oxidative stress susceptibility, with several studies showing an inverse relationship between selenium intake and cancer. Because different chemical forms of selenium have been reported to have varying bioactivity, there is a need for nutrigenomic studies that can comprehensively assess whether there are divergent effects at the molecular level. We examined the gene expression profiles associated with selenomethionine (SM), sodium selenite (SS), and yeast-derived selenium (YS) in the intestine, gastrocnemius, cerebral cortex, and liver of mice. Weanling mice were fed either a selenium-deficient (SD) diet (<0.01 mg/kg diet) or a diet supplemented with one of three selenium sources (1 mg/kg diet, as either SM, SS or YS) for 100 days. All forms of selenium were equally effective in activating standard measures of selenium status, including tissue selenium levels, expression of genes encoding selenoproteins (Gpx1 and Txnrd2), and increasing GPX1 enzyme activity. However, gene expression profiling revealed that SS and YS were similar (and distinct from SM) in both the expression pattern of individual genes and gene functional categories. Furthermore, only YS significantly reduced the expression of Gadd45b in all four tissues and also reduced GADD45B protein levels in liver. Taken together, these results show that gene expression profiling is a powerful technique capable of elucidating differences in the bioactivity of different forms of selenium.
Dietary supplementation with ?-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?-3 PUFAs), specifically the fatty acids docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6 ?-3) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA; 20:5 ?-3), is known to have beneficial health effects including improvements in glucose and lipid homeostasis and modulation of inflammation. To evaluate the efficacy of two different sources of ?-3 PUFAs, we performed gene expression profiling in the liver of mice fed diets supplemented with either fish oil (FO) or krill oil (KO). We found that ?-3 PUFA supplements derived from a phospholipid krill fraction (KO) downregulated the activity of pathways involved in hepatic glucose production as well as lipid and cholesterol synthesis. The data also suggested that KO-supplementation increases the activity of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Surprisingly, an equimolar dose of EPA and DHA derived from FO modulated fewer pathways than a KO-supplemented diet and did not modulate key metabolic pathways regulated by KO, including glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism and the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Moreover, FO upregulated the cholesterol synthesis pathway, which was the opposite effect of krill-supplementation. Neither diet elicited changes in plasma levels of lipids, glucose, or insulin, probably because the mice used in this study were young and were fed a low-fat diet. Further studies of KO-supplementation using animal models of metabolic disorders and/or diets with a higher level of fat may be required to observe these effects.
Selenium is a trace element that, although toxic in higher concentrations, is essential for human and animal health. In this study, we looked at microarray-based gene expression patterns from liver and gastrocnemius tissues in mice fed either a selenium-deficient diet or diets containing sodium selenite, selenomethionine, or a yeast-derived selenium supplement. A p value cutoff of 0.01 was used to identify a select set of selenium-responsive genes that were consistently differentially expressed across three age groups of mice with both ANOVA and t test analyses. A total of 19 gene transcripts were found to be differentially expressed across the three age groups with at least one selenium-deficient/selenium-supplemented diet comparison. Of those 19 genes, 12 had been previously identified as selenoprotein-encoding genes, and four of the genes, Gpx1, Selh, Sep15, and Sepw1, were differentially expressed in both tissues, all three mouse age groups, and all three diet comparisons. Activities associated with non-selenoproteins encoded by selenium-responsive genes included transport and stress response. The selenophosphate synthetase 2 gene Sephs2 in gastrocnemius tissue and the solute carrier gene Slc48a1 in liver tissue, both up-regulated with selenium-deficient diets compared to all three selenium-supplemented diets, are previously overlooked candidates for dietary selenium marker genes.
Aging results in a progressive loss of skeletal muscle, a condition known as sarcopenia. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations accumulate with aging in skeletal muscle and correlate with muscle loss, although no causal relationship has been established.
The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.