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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Clinical efficacy of polyspecific intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with streptococcal toxic shock syndrome: a comparative observational study.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2014
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Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) and necrotizing fasciitis are the 2 most severe invasive manifestations caused by group A Streptococcus (GAS). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy has been suggested as adjunctive treatment with a beneficial effect on mortality. However the clinical evidence is limited. Here we aim to further document the clinical efficacy of administered IVIG therapy in a comparative observational study of well-defined patients with STSS.
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Induction of gliotoxin secretion in Aspergillus fumigatus by bacteria-associated molecules.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Aspergillus fumigatus is the most common causative agent of mold diseases in humans, giving rise to life-threatening infections in immunocompromised individuals. One of its secreted metabolites is gliotoxin, a toxic antimicrobial agent. The aim of this study was to determine whether the presence of pathogen-associated molecular patterns in broth cultures of A. fumigatus could induce gliotoxin production. Gliotoxin levels were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The presence of a bacteria-derived lipopolysaccharide, peptidoglycan, or lipoteichoic acid in the growth media at a concentration of 5 ?g/ml increased the gliotoxin concentration in the media by 37%, 65%, and 35%, respectively. The findings reveal a correlation between the concentrations of pathogen-associated molecular patterns and gliotoxin secretion. This shows that there is a yet uncharacterized detection system for such compounds within fungi. Inducing secondary metabolite production by such means in fungi is potentially relevant for drug discovery research. Our results also give a possible explanation for the increased virulence of A. fumigatus during bacterial co-infection, one that is important for the transition from colonization to invasiveness in this pulmonary disease.
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Beneficial antimicrobial effect of the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ?-lactam antibiotic in an E. coli porcine intensive care severe sepsis model.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study aimed to determine whether the addition of an aminoglycoside to a ß-lactam antibiotic increases the antimicrobial effect during the early phase of Gram-negative severe sepsis/septic shock. A porcine model was selected that considered each animal's individual blood bactericidal capacity. Escherichia coli, susceptible to both antibiotics, was given to healthy pigs intravenously during 3 h. At 2 h, the animals were randomized to a 20-min infusion with either cefuroxime alone (n = 9), a combination of cefuroxime+tobramycin (n = 9), or saline (control, n = 9). Blood samples were collected hourly for cultures and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Bacterial growth in the organs after 6 h was chosen as the primary endpoint. A blood sample was obtained at baseline before start of bacterial infusion for ex vivo investigation of the blood bactericidal capacity. At 1 h after the administration of the antibiotics, a second blood sample was taken for ex vivo investigation of the antibiotic-induced blood killing activity. All animals developed severe sepsis/septic shock. Blood cultures and PCR rapidly became negative after completed bacterial infusion. Antibiotic-induced blood killing activity was significantly greater in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.001). Growth of bacteria in the spleen was reduced in the two antibiotic groups compared with the controls (p<0.01); no difference was noted between the two antibiotic groups. Bacterial growth in the liver was significantly less in the combination group than in the cefuroxime group (p<0.05). High blood bactericidal capacity at baseline was associated with decreased growth in the blood and spleen (p<0.05). The addition of tobramycin to cefuroxime results in increased antibiotic-induced blood killing activity and less bacteria in the liver than cefuroxime alone. Individual blood bactericidal capacity may have a significant effect on antimicrobial outcome.
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Early lumbar puncture in adult bacterial meningitis--rationale for revised guidelines.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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Current international guidelines recommend cerebral computerized tomography (CT) before lumbar puncture (LP) in many adults with suspected acute bacterial meningitis (ABM), due to concern about LP-induced cerebral herniation. Despite guideline emphasis on early treatment based on symptoms, performing CT prior to LP implies a risk of delayed ABM treatment, which may be associated with a fatal outcome. Firm evidence for LP-induced herniation in adult ABM is absent and brain CT cannot discard herniation. Thus, the recommendation to perform CT before LP may contribute to an avoidable delay of LP and ABM treatment. The inappropriate use of the diagnostic treatment sequence of brain CT scan, followed by LP, followed by antibiotics and corticosteroids should be avoided in adults with suspected ABM by omitting needless contraindications for LP, thus eliminating an unnecessary fear of immediate LP. Revised Swedish guidelines regarding early LP are presented, and the background documentation and reasons for omitting impaired consciousness, new onset seizures, and immunocompromised state as contraindications to LP are discussed.
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Endotoxin tolerance variation over 24 h during porcine endotoxemia: association with changes in circulation and organ dysfunction.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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Endotoxin tolerance (ET), defined as reduced inflammatory responsiveness to endotoxin challenge following a first encounter with endotoxin, is an extensively studied phenomenon. Although reduced mortality and morbidity in the presence of ET has been demonstrated in animal studies, little is known about the temporal development of ET. Further, in acute respiratory distress syndrome ET correlates to the severity of the disease, suggesting a complicated relation between ET and organ dysfunction. Eighteen pigs were subjected to intensive care and a continuous endotoxin infusion for 24 h with the aim to study the time course of early ET and to relate ET to outcome in organ dysfunction. Three animals served as non-endotoxemic controls. Blood samples for cytokine analyses were taken and physiological variables registered every third hour. Production of TNF-?, IL-6, and IL-10 before and after endotoxin stimulation ex vivo was measured. The difference between cytokine values after and before ex vivo LPS stimulation (?-values) was calculated for all time points. ?TNF-? was employed as the principal marker of ET and lower ?TNF-? values were interpreted as higher levels of ET. During endotoxin infusion, there was suppression of ex vivo productions of TNF-? and IL-6 but not of IL-10 in comparison with that at 0 h. The ex vivo TNF-? values followed another time concentration curve than those in vivo. ?TNF-? was at the lowest already at 6 h, followed by an increase during the ensuing hours. ?TNF-? at 6 h correlated positively to blood pressure and systemic vascular resistance and negatively to cardiac index at 24 h. In this study a temporal variation of ET was demonstrated that did not follow changes in plasma TNF-? concentrations. Maximal ET occurred early in the course and the higher the ET, the more hyperdynamic the circulation 18 h later.
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Lung protective ventilation induces immunotolerance and nitric oxide metabolites in porcine experimental postoperative sepsis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Low tidal volume ventilation is beneficial in patients with severe pulmonary dysfunction and would, in theory, reduce postoperative complications if implemented during routine surgery. The study aimed to investigate whether low tidal volume ventilation and high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in a large animal model of postoperative sepsis would attenuate the systemic inflammatory response and organ dysfunction. Thirty healthy pigs were randomized to three groups: Group Prot-7h, i.e. protective ventilation for 7 h, was ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 mL x kg(-1) for 7 h; group Prot-5h, i.e. protective ventilation for 5 h, was ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 mL x kg(-1) for 2 h, after which the group was ventilated with a tidal volume of 6 mL x kg(-1); and a control group that was ventilated with a tidal volume of 10 mL x kg(-1) for 7 h. In groups Prot-7h and Prot-5h PEEP was 5 cmH2O for 2 h and 10 cmH2O for 5 h. In the control group PEEP was 5 cmH2O for the entire experiment. After surgery for 2 h, postoperative sepsis was simulated with an endotoxin infusion for 5 h. Low tidal volume ventilation combined with higher PEEP led to lower levels of interleukin 6 and 10 in plasma, higher PaO2/FiO2, better preserved functional residual capacity and lower plasma troponin I as compared with animals ventilated with a medium high tidal volume and lower PEEP. The beneficial effects of protective ventilation were seen despite greater reductions in cardiac index and oxygen delivery index. In the immediate postoperative phase low VT ventilation with higher PEEP was associated with reduced ex vivo plasma capacity to produce TNF-? upon endotoxin stimulation and higher nitrite levels in urine. These findings might represent mechanistic explanations for the attenuation of systemic inflammation and inflammatory-induced organ dysfunction.
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Neurosurgical gram-negative bacillary ventriculitis and meningitis: a retrospective study evaluating the efficacy of intraventricular gentamicin therapy in 31 consecutive cases.
Clin. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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Gram-negative bacillary (GNB) ventriculitis and meningitis are rare but serious complications after neurosurgery. Prospective studies on antibiotic treatment for these infections are lacking, and retrospective reports are sparse. At our hospital in Uppsala, Sweden, meropenem has been recommended as empirical therapy since 1996, with the addition of intraventricular gentamicin in cases that do not respond satisfactorily to treatment. In this study, we retrospectively compare the efficacy of combination treatment with intraventricular gentamicin to that of systemic antibiotics alone. In addition, we report our experience of meropenem for the treatment of GNB ventriculomeningitis.
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Posaconazole in human serum: a greater pharmacodynamic effect than predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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It is generally accepted that only the unbound fraction of a drug is pharmacologically active. Posaconazole is an antifungal agent with a protein binding of 98 to 99%. Taking into account the degree of protein binding, plasma levels in patients, and MIC levels of susceptible strains, it can be assumed that the free concentration of posaconazole sometimes will be too low to exert the expected antifungal effect. The aim was therefore to test the activity of posaconazole in serum in comparison with that of the calculated unbound concentrations in protein-free media. Significant differences (P < 0.05) from the serum control were found at serum concentrations of posaconazole of 1.0 and 0.10 mg/liter, with calculated free concentrations corresponding to 1× MIC and 0.1× MIC, respectively, against one Candida lusitaniae strain selected for proof of principle. In RPMI 1640, the corresponding calculated unbound concentration of 0.015 mg/liter resulted in a significant effect, whereas that of 0.0015 mg/liter did not. Also, against seven additional Candida strains tested, there was an effect of the low posaconazole concentration in serum, in contrast to the results in RPMI 1640. Fluconazole, a low-grade-protein-bound antifungal, was used for comparison at corresponding concentrations in serum and RPMI 1640. No effect was observed at the serum concentration, resulting in a calculated unbound concentration of 0.1× MIC. In summary, there was a substantially greater pharmacodynamic effect of posaconazole in human serum than could be predicted by the non-protein-bound serum concentration. A flux from serum protein-bound to fungal lanosterol 14?-demethylase-bound posaconazole is suggested.
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Economic evaluation of caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia in Sweden.
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of caspofungin versus liposomal amphotericin B (L-AmB) for empirical antifungal therapy in patients with persistent fever and neutropenia in Sweden.
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Voriconazole-induced inhibition of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B in Candida strains with reduced susceptibility to voriconazole: an effect not predicted by the MIC value alone.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2011
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An antagonistic effect of voriconazole on the fungicidal activity of sequential doses of amphotericin B has previously been demonstrated in Candida albicans strains susceptible to voriconazole. Because treatment failure and the need to switch to other antifungals are expected to occur more often in infections that are caused by resistant strains, it was of interest to study whether the antagonistic effect was still seen in Candida strains with reduced susceptibility to voriconazole. With the hypothesis that antagonism will not occur in voriconazole-resistant strains, C. albicans strains with characterized mechanisms of resistance against voriconazole, as well as Candida glabrata and Candida krusei strains with differences in their degrees of susceptibility to voriconazole were exposed to voriconazole or amphotericin B alone, to both drugs simultaneously, or to voriconazole followed by amphotericin B in an in vitro kinetic model. Amphotericin B administered alone or simultaneously with voriconazole resulted in fungicidal activity. When amphotericin B was administered after voriconazole, its activity was reduced (median reduction, 61%; range, 9 to 94%). Levels of voriconazole-dependent inhibition of amphotericin B activity differed significantly among the strains but were not correlated with the MIC values (correlation coefficient, -0.19; P = 0.65). Inhibition was found in C. albicans strains with increases in CDR1 and CDR2 expression but not in the strain with an increase in MDR1 expression. In summary, decreased susceptibility to voriconazole does not abolish voriconazole-dependent inhibition of the fungicidal activity of amphotericin B in voriconazole-resistant Candida strains. The degree of interaction could not be predicted by the MIC value alone.
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The brain is a source of S100B increase during endotoxemia in the pig.
Anesth. Analg.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2009
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Cerebral dysfunction frequently complicates septic shock. A marker of cerebral dysfunction could be of significant value in managing sedated septic patients. Plasma S100 (S100B) proteins increase in sepsis. S100B is present not only in the brain but also in other tissues. The source of this protein has not been investigated in sepsis. Our aim in this study was to determine whether the brain is an important source of S100B in an experimental sepsis model.
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Effect of a single dose of tobramycin on systemic inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury in a 6-hour porcine model.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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To evaluate whether the addition of tobramycin further compromises renal function in inflammatory response-induced acute kidney injury. Effective antibiotic treatment in septic shock is crucial for the outcome. The combination of aminoglycosides with different beta-lactam antibiotics offers a broad antimicrobial coverage, rapid bacterial killing, synergistic effects, and low antibiotic-induced endotoxin release. However, aminoglycosides have nephrotoxic effects that may aggravate sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.
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Inflammatory and circulatory effects of the reduction of endotoxin concentration in established porcine endotoxemic shock--a model of endotoxin elimination.
Crit. Care Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2009
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To study whether a reduction of the endotoxin load, once a generalized inflammatory state has been established, reduces the inflammatory response and endotoxin-induced effects on circulation, hypoperfusion, and organ dysfunction.
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Bacterial phenotype variants in group B streptococcal toxic shock syndrome.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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We conducted genetic and functional analyses of isolates from a patient with group B streptococcal (GBS) necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. Tissue cultures simultaneously showed colonies with high hemolysis (HH) and low hemolysis (LH). Conversely, the HH and LH variants exhibited low capsule (LC) and high capsule (HC) expression, respectively. Molecular analysis demonstrated that the 2 GBS variants were of the same clonal origin. Genetic analysis found a 3-bp deletion in the covR gene of the HH/LC variant. Functionally, this isolate was associated with an increased growth rate in vitro and with higher interleukin-8 induction. However, in whole blood, opsonophagocytic and intracellular killing assays, the LH/HC phenotype demonstrated higher resistance to host phagocytic killing. In a murine model, LH/HC resulted in higher levels of bacteremia and increased host mortality rate. These findings demonstrate differences in GBS isolates of the same clonal origin but varying phenotypes.
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Rational use of aminoglycosides--review and recommendations by the Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA).
Scand. J. Infect. Dis.
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The Swedish Reference Group for Antibiotics (SRGA) has carried out a risk-benefit analysis of aminoglycoside treatment based on clinical efficacy, antibacterial spectrum, and synergistic effect with beta-lactam antibiotics, endotoxin release, toxicity, and side effects. In addition, SRGA has considered optimal dosage schedules and advice on serum concentration monitoring, with respect to variability in volume of drug distribution and renal clearance. SRGA recommends that aminoglycoside therapy should be considered in the following situations: (1) progressive severe sepsis and septic shock, in combination with broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics, (2) sepsis without shock, in combination with broad-spectrum beta-lactam antibiotics if the infection is suspected to be caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative pathogens, (3) pyelonephritis, in combination with a beta-lactam or quinolone until culture and susceptibility results are obtained, or as monotherapy if a serious allergy to beta-lactam or quinolone antibiotics exists, (4) serious infections caused by multi-resistant Gram-negative bacteria when other alternatives are lacking, and (5) endocarditis caused by difficult-to-treat pathogens when monotherapy with beta-lactam antibiotics is not sufficient. Amikacin is generally more active against extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing and quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli than other aminoglycosides, making it a better option in cases of suspected infection caused by multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae. Based on their resistance data, local drug committees should decide on the choice of first-line aminoglycoside. Unfortunately, aminoglycoside use is rarely followed up with audiometry, and in Sweden we currently have no systematic surveillance of adverse events after aminoglycoside treatment. We recommend routine assessment of adverse effects, including hearing loss and impairment of renal function, if possible at the start and after treatment with aminoglycosides, and that these data should be included in hospital patient safety surveillance and national quality registries.
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Counteraction of early circulatory derangement by administration of low dose steroid treatment at the onset of established endotoxemic shock is not directly mediated by TNF-? and IL-6.
Steroids
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Once a septic condition is progressing, administration of steroids in the pro-inflammatory phase of septic shock ought to yield maximal effect on the subsequent, devastating inflammatory response. Recently, a retrospective study showed that early initiation of corticosteroid therapy improved survival in septic shock. We aimed to prospectively evaluate effects of early administrated hydrocortisone therapy on physiologic variables in a porcine model of septic shock.
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Differences in organ dysfunction in endotoxin-tolerant pigs under intensive care exposed to a second hit of endotoxin.
Shock
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Endotoxin tolerance is a well-studied phenomenon associated with a reduced inflammatory response. In the switch from an inflammatory to an anti-inflammatory response in clinical sepsis, the concept of endotoxin tolerance is of obvious interest. However, only limited data exist regarding the effect of endotoxin tolerance on organ dysfunction, and therefore, this was investigated in a porcine intensive care sepsis model. Twenty-seven healthy pigs, including nine control animals, were included in the study. Twelve pigs pre-exposed to 24 h of intravenous endotoxin infusion and intensive care and six unexposed pigs were given either a high- or low-dose endotoxin challenge for 6 h. Inflammatory, circulatory, hypoperfusion, and organ dysfunction parameters were followed. The inflammatory responses as well as parameters representing circulation, hypoperfusion, and cardiac and renal function were all markedly attenuated in animals pre-exposed to endotoxin and intensive care as compared with animals not pre-exposed. In animals pre-exposed to endotoxin and given the high-dose of endotoxin challenge, deterioration in pulmonary function was equal to or even worse than in animals not pre-exposed. In contrast to the overall protective effect of endotoxin tolerance observed in other organ systems, the lungs of endotoxin-tolerant animals demonstrated an increased responsiveness to high-dose endotoxin challenge.
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