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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Biomarkers to assess the efficiency of treatment with platinum-based drugs: what can metallomics add?
Metallomics
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Since the approval of cisplatin as an antineoplastic drug, the medical and the scientific communities have been concerned about the side effects of platinum-based drugs, and this has been the dose-limiting factor that leads to reduced treatment efficiency. Another important issue is the intrinsic or acquired resistance of some patients to treatment. Identifying proper biomarkers is crucial in evaluating the efficiency of a treatment, assisting physicians in determining, at early stages, whether or not the patient presents resistance to the drug, minimizing severe side effects, and allowing them to redirect the established course of chemotherapy. A great effort is being made to identify biomarkers that can be used to predict the outcome of the treatment of cancer patients with platinum-based drugs. In this context, the metallomic approach has not yet been used to its full potential. Since the basis of these drugs is platinum, the monitoring of biomarkers containing this metal should be the natural approach to evaluate treatment progress. This review intends to show where the research in this field stands and points out some gaps that can be filled by metallomics.
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Type IV Secretion System Is Not Involved in Infection Process in Citrus.
Int J Microbiol
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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The type IV secretion system (T4SS) is used by Gram-negative bacteria to translocate protein and DNA substrates across the cell envelope and into target cells. Xanthomonas citri subsp. citri contains two copies of the T4SS, one in the chromosome and the other is plasmid-encoded. To understand the conditions that induce expression of the T4SS in Xcc, we analyzed, in vitro and in planta, the expression of 18 ORFs from the T4SS and 7 hypothetical flanking genes by RT-qPCR. As a positive control, we also evaluated the expression of 29 ORFs from the type III secretion system (T3SS), since these genes are known to be expressed during plant infection condition, but not necessarily in standard culture medium. From the 29 T3SS genes analyzed by qPCR, only hrpA was downregulated at 72?h after inoculation. All genes associated with the T4SS were downregulated on Citrus leaves 72?h after inoculation. Our results showed that unlike the T3SS, the T4SS is not induced during the infection process.
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[Study of retinopathy of prematurity in a university hospital].
Arq Bras Oftalmol
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2011
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To evaluate the prevalence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in newborns, classify the cases, describe the risk factors for disease and treatment.
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Effects of oleanolic acid on pulmonary morphofunctional and biochemical variables in experimental acute lung injury.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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We analysed the effects of oleanolic acid (OA) on lung mechanics and histology and its possible mechanisms of action in experimental acute lung injury (ALI). BALB/c mice were randomly divided into Control (saline, ip) and ALI (paraquat, 25 mg/kg, ip) groups. At 1 h, both groups were treated with saline (SAL, 50 ?l ip), OA (10 mg/kg ip), or dexamethasone (DEXA, 1 mg/kg ip). At 24 h, lung static elastance, viscoelastic pressure, and alveolar collapse reduced more after OA compared to DEXA administration. Tumour necrosis factor-?, macrophage migration inhibitory factor, interleukin-6, interferon-?, and transforming growth factor-? mRNA expressions in lung tissue diminished similarly after OA or DEXA. Conversely, only OA avoided reactive oxygen species generation and yielded a significant decrease in nitrite concentration. OA and DEXA restored the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio and catalase activity while increasing glutathione peroxidase induced by paraquat. In conclusion, OA improved lung morphofunction by modulating the release of inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress.
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Imbalanced circulating matrix metalloproteinases in polycystic ovary syndrome.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Altered levels of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may reflect relevant pathogenetic mechanisms of disease conditions. The objective of this study was to compare the plasma levels of MMPs and tissue inhibitors of MMPs (TIMPs) in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) patients with those found in healthy ovulatory controls and to examine whether the levels of these biomarkers are associated with clinical and biochemical features of this syndrome. Sixty-five healthy ovulatory subjects (controls) and 80 patients with PCOS were include in this study. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 concentrations were measured in plasma samples by gelatin zymography or enzyme-linked immunoassays. MMP-2, MMP-8, MMP-9, and TIMP-1 levels were similar in PCOS patients and in healthy controls (P > 0.05). PCOS patients had lower plasma TIMP-2 levels than healthy controls (P < 0.05). We found higher MMP-2/TIMP-2 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in PCOS patients than in healthy controls (all P < 0.05). Testosterone levels correlated positively with the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio and negatively with TIMP-2 levels (r = 0.26, P < 0.01 and r = -0.21, P = 0.02, respectively). In addition, only testosterone was an independent predictor of TIMP-2 levels (estimate = -0.35, P = 0.04) and the MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio (estimate = 0.01, P = 0.04). We found evidence indicating that the balance between MMPs and TIMPs in women with PCOS is altered, probably due to androgen excess found in these women.
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Oleanolic acid initiates apoptosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell lines and reduces metastasis of a B16F10 melanoma model in vivo.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Drug resistance, a process mediated by multiple mechanisms, is a critical determinant for treating lung cancer. The aim of this study is to determine if oleanolic acid (OA), a pentacyclic triterpene present in several plants, is able to circumvent the mechanisms of drug resistance present in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines and to induce their death.
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[Sepsis, severe sepsis and septic shock: clinical, epidemiological and prognostic characteristics of patients in an intensive care unit in a university hospital].
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2010
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Sepsis is considered to be a severe disease with high mortality. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence and evolution of sepsis among critically ill patients.
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[Obesity and altered arterial structure in young women with micropolycystic ovary syndrome].
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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to compare echographical cardiovascular risk factors between obese and non-obese patients with micropolycystic ovarian syndrome (MPOS).
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Topological polar surface area defines substrate transport by multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1).
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2009
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Multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1) is a very promiscuous transporter. Herein we used topological polar surface area (TPSA), a descriptor defined as the sum of surfaces of polar atoms in a molecule, to analyze drug transport by MRP1. We suggested that compounds with high TPSA are transported while those with low TPSA are not. The conjugation to GSH increases TPSA values favoring transport. A strong correlation between TPSA and transport properties (K(m)) was also found.
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Maximization of beta-galactosidase production: a simultaneous investigation of agitation and aeration effects.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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In this work, the agitation and aeration effects in the maximization of the beta-galactosidase production from Kluyveromyces marxianus CCT 7082 were investigated simultaneously, in relation to the volumetric enzyme activity and the productivity, as well as the analysis of the lactose consumption and production of glucose, and galactose of this process. Agitation and aeration effects were studied in a 2 L batch stirred reactor. A central composite design (2(2) trials plus three central points) was carried out. Agitation speed varied from 200 to 500 rpm and aeration rate from 0.5 to 1.5 vvm. It has been shown in this study that the volumetric enzyme production was strongly influenced by mixing conditions, while aeration was shown to be less significant. Linear models for activity and productivity due to agitation and aeration were obtained. The favorable condition was 500 rpm and 1.5 vvm, which lead to the best production of 17 U mL(-1) for enzymatic activity, 1.2 U mL(-1) h(-1) for productivity in 14 h of process, a cellular concentration of 11 mg mL(-1), and a 167.2 h(-1) volumetric oxygen transfer coefficient.
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The effects of 2 mg chlormadinone acetate/30 mcg ethinylestradiol, alone or combined with spironolactone, on cardiovascular risk markers in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.
Contraception
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Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disorder associated with metabolic dysfunction and changes in cardiovascular risk markers, and using oral contraceptives (OCs) may exert a further negative effect on these alterations in patients with PCOS. Thus, the primary objective of this study was to assess the effects on arterial function and structure of an OC containing chlormadinone acetate (2 mg) and ethinylestradiol (30 mcg), alone or combined with spironolactone (OC+SPL), in patients with PCOS.
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Evaluation of the composition of culture medium for yeast biomass production using raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis.
Braz. J. Microbiol.
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The work herewith investigated the production of yeast biomass as a source of protein, using Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 and raw glycerol from biodiesel synthesis as the main carbon source. A significant influence of glycerol concentration, initial pH and yeast extract concentration on biomass and protein content was observed according to the 2v (5-1) fractional design. These factors were further evaluated using a central composite design and response surface methodology, and an empirical model for protein content was established and validated. The biomass of Yarrowia lipolytica NRRL YB-423 reached 19.5 ± 1.0 g/L in shaken flasks cultivation, with a protein content of 20.1 ± 0.6% (w/w).
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Tumor malignancy is engaged to prokaryotic homolog toolbox.
Med. Hypotheses
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Cancer cells display high proliferation rates and survival provided by high glycolysis, chemoresistance and radioresistance, metabolic features that appear to be activated with malignancy, and seemed to have arisen as early in evolution as in unicellular/prokaryotic organisms. Based on these assumptions, we hypothesize that aggressive phenotypes found in malignant cells may be related to acquired unicellular behavior, launched within a tumor when viral and prokaryotic homologs are overexpressed performing likely robust functions. The ensemble of these expressed viral and prokaryotic close homologs in the proteome of a tumor tissue gives them advantage over normal cells. To assess the hypothesis validity, sequences of human proteins involved in apoptosis, energetic metabolism, cell mobility and adhesion, chemo- and radio-resistance were aligned to homologs present in other life forms, excluding all eukaryotes, using PSI-BLAST, with further corroboration from data available in the literature. The analysis revealed that selected sequences of proteins involved in apoptosis and tumor suppression (as p53 and pRB) scored non-significant (E-value>0.001) with prokaryotic homologs; on the other hand, human proteins involved in cellular chemo- and radio-resistance scored highly significant with prokaryotic and viral homologs (as catalase, E-value=zero). We inferred that such upregulated and/or functionally activated proteins in aggressive malignant cells represent a toolbox of modern human homologs evolved from a similar key set that have granted survival of ancient prokaryotes against extremely harsh environments. According to what has been discussed along this analysis, high mutation rates usually hit hotspots in important conserved protein domains, allowing uncontrolled expansion of more resistant, death-evading malignant clones. That is the case of point mutations in key viral proteins affording viruses escape to chemotherapy, and human homologs of such retroviral proteins (as Ras, Akt and EGFR) can elicit the same phenotype. Furthermore, a corollary to this hypothesis presumes that target-directed anti-cancer therapy should target human protein domains of low similarity to prokaryotic homologs for a well-succeeded anti-cancer therapy.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.